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Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design


The Story of Bathala

(Luzon Creation Myth)

In the beginning of time,/ there were three powerful gods who lived in the universe:/
Bathala was the caretaker of the earth;/ Ulilang Kaluluwa (Orphaned Spirit),/ a huge serpent
who lived in the clouds; /and Galang (Wandering spirit), /the winged god who loves to travel./
These three gods did not know each other./ Bathala often dreamt of creating mortals/ but the
empty earth stops him from doing so./ UlilangKaluluwa /who was equally lonely as Bathala,/
liked to visit places and the earth was his favorite./ One day, the two gods met./ Ulilang
Kaluluwa, seeing another god rivaling him,/ was not pleased.
He challenged Bathala/ to a fight to decide/ who would be the ruler of the universe./
After three days and three nights,/ Ulilang Kaluluwa was slain by Bathala./ Instead of giving
him a proper burial,/ Bathala burned the snake's remains./ A few years later,/ the third god,/
Galang Kaluluwa,/ wandered into Bathala's home./ He welcomed the winged god/ with much
kindness/ and even invited him to live in his kingdom./ They became true friends/ and were
very happy for many years/. Galang Kaluluwa became very ill/.
Before he died./ he instructed Bathala/ to bury him on the spot where Ulilang
Kaluluwa’s body was burned./ Bathala did exactly as he was told./ Out of the grave of the two
dead gods,/ it grew a tall tree with a big round nut,/ which is the coconut tree./ Bathala took
the nut and husked it./ He noticed that the inner skin was hard./ The nut itself/ reminded him
of Galang Kaluluwa’s head/. It had two eyes,/ a flat nose,/ and a round mouth./ Its leaves
looked so much like the wings of his dear winged friend./ But the trunk was hard and ugly,/
like the body of his enemy,/ the snake Ulilang Kaluluwa./ Bathala realized/ that he was ready
to create the creatures/ he wanted with him on earth/. He created the vegetation,/ animals,/
and the first man/ and woman./

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 1

4 Galang Kaluluwa became very ill. the two gods met. before I’ll die. Bathala burned the snake's remains. Situation no.. Bathala: I can help you. B. he instructed Bathala/ to bury him on the spot where Ulilang Kaluluwa’s body was burned./ After three days and three nights. Situation no./ Ulilang Kaluluwa. Before he died. Bathala: If then. Galang Kaluluwa: My friend. Bathala: Yes my friend. I will. 1 One day. Ulilang Kaluluwa was slain by Bathala. wandered into Bathala's home. He challenged Bathala/ to a fight to decide/who would be the ruler of the universe. 2 After three days and three nights. Whoever you are. Pera. the third god. I accept your challenge. Galang kaluluwa: I was lost.. And you are highly welcomed to live in my kingdom. Situation no. 3 A few years later. Bathala did exactly as he was told. seeing another god rivaling him. Out of the grave of the two dead gods. Instead of giving him a proper burial. LPT 2 . it grew a tall tree with a big round nut. Prepared: Angelito T./ They became true friends/ and were very happy for many years/. BSci. Galang Kaluluwa. And I couldn’t find the way back home.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) Conversation of the gods Situation no./ Ulilang Kaluluwa: Are you the most powerful god in the universe? Bathala: If I am? What can you do? Ulilang Kaluluwa: I will not allow you to be the most powerful god in the universe. which is the coconut tree.Ed./ was not pleased. I need you to bury me on the spot where Ulilang Kaluluwa’s body was burned. I challenged you to a fight to decide who would be the ruler of the Universe. Galang kaluluwa: I am very pleased that you welcomed me./ He welcomed the winged god/ with much kindness/ and even invited him to live in his kingdom.

I am contented. 5 Bathala took the nut and husked it.Ed. The leaves are like the wings of my dear winged friend. a flat nose. animals. There are two eyes. The nut itself reminded him of Galang Kaluluwa’s head. Ulilang kaluluwa. like the body of his enemy. Let the vegetation. He noticed that the inner skin was hard. Prepared: Angelito T. BSci. Situation no. But the trunk was hard and ugly. But why is the trunk so hard and ugly? It’s like the body of my enemy. LPT 3 .. animals. it reminds me of my friend Galang kaluluwa. and the first man and woman. And now. It had two eyes. Bathala: I am very glad that I have a friend like you. a flat nose. Bathala: Why is this so hard? Oh. and a round mouth.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) Galang Kaluluwa: Thank you for welcoming me. He created the vegetation. (Stand in front) From now on.. B. and even a round mouth. the snake. the snake Ulilang Kaluluwa. Bathala realized that he was ready to create the creatures he wanted with him on earth. reproduce. I am ready to create creatures and I want them to be with me. Its leaves looked so much like the wings of his dear winged friend. first man and woman. For being kind and a true friend. Pera.

Agueda got mad and was about to walk away. One May Night Don Badoy Monitiya walks home not even caring to remember what happened years ago. Then she told her child that yes she saw the devil. At the very moment Don Badoy realized. Forcefully Agueda refuses and then the two got into a talk fight. she must stop her habbit of always looking at the mirror. BSci. After a while Agueda piteously cried and Badoy felt sorry for it and ask forgiveness. Later he realize. Filled with pain. He walks to the hall and as he glanced at the mirror. perished. it was smiling at her. Don Badoy went up to the window and with tears. that she were at last at peace and that her body was free from the brutal pranks of the earth from the trap of a May Night.. Don Badoy led his grandson into a seat. That she must go to a mirror close her eyes and say. Feeling the pain consciousness came that he must take revenge. but Badoy stop her and told her that she cannot go upstairs until she will dance with him. B. For during the ball Agueda has not dance the polka with him. One girl is very eager and much interested on Anastasia’s story and want Anastasia to tell her everything. If he will call his mother to let know what happened or he himself will go upstairs to the girls room and drag Agueda out of the house. and those who cared might peer in a mirror and would there behold the face of whoever it was they were fated to marry. Then she heard her little child talk that she almost forgets was in her lap. Then it came to his mind that he is madly deeply in love with her. from a snare of summer. The girls have not able to stop her and in their facing the mirror. A familiar sense. then he called the ghostly figure in front the mirror then saw that it was his grandson. that was so long ago.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) MAY DAY EVE Nick Joaquin The ball had ended. then he told his grandson that the witch he saw was a hell so very beautiful lad and how that witch ate his heart and drank his blood. reminisce that old love. night of lovers. Agueda told her child that if she does not want to see a devil. the girls were sent upstairs to sleep. Prepared: Angelito T. Now she was dead. then Anastasia continued that if all goes right then her lover will appear above her left shoulder and if it does not go right she will see the devil. Then it came to him how Agueda looks. He told him about the witch he saw when he was about his age and was so vain that he wants to see himself dieing because of drunkenness. he suddenly felt something. so Anastasia for tell to the girls what to do. he want to see. but instead of forgiving Badoy. about the story of his grandma who as well is eager to see her lover but then saw the devil. The child asks if what did she saw. she has a company. that of the devil is so black and elegant. One girl told Anastasia to stop and get out of the room and told her that she is a witch. touch and hear her harsh voice. Agueda walked to the hall down to the sala bravely. The devil has a scar in its face like what his father has but the difference is that of the devil is a mark of sin while that of his father is a sign of honor. Voltaire told his grandpa what the boys in school told him of how he could see his future wife. she whispered the incantation.Ed. At the girls room Anastasia was telling the girls that witches were abroad for it was a night of divination. those curves and that pretty face. “mirror mirror show to me him whose woman I will be”. Badoy did not know what to do. “Charms Like Yours have no need for a candle. yet he must let her pay. faire one” Badoy Monitiya told Agueda then mockingly told her how vain she is that even in the middle of the night she is looking at her face. if she saw the devil. Pera.. Voltaire ask how awful the witch look like. while the guest from Europe who were feeling bad for they want to party some more went out to finish their drink and have some more fun in that tropical country. she bit his knucklesand fled upstairs. but another girl said that Anastasia is a maga and was born on Christmas Eve. Agueda continued that the devil has mustache too but unlike to that of his husband that smells of tobacco and is gray. He told Agueda that he would let her go upstairs if she will forgive him. and then they talked. LPT 4 . Voltaire told his grandpa what his mother told him. Agueda felt different and after a while.

Dona Agueda really believed in her sister. V. Conflict “Man vs.Is a genre of fiction that occurs when elements of the magical world start to blend or mix with the real world.Believe in superstitious belief and was like his grandmother who at an early age want to know who will he marry. young woman who is so curious. VII. Title : “MAY DAY EVE” II.A great lover. Character/s : Anastasia.A vain curious girl.. Pera. Supernatural” VI. Like believing in superstitions. who is so obedient to her mistress. brave and very much willing to know her future husband. Because of the fact that they don't love each other and nothing special happened to them. and Resentful Dona Agueda’s Daughter. hardheaded. emotional and full of sentiment old man. accused for being a witch and believes in superstitious beliefs. As soon as Don Badoy appeared in the mirror. emotional .Old woman. BSci. “The theme centers on intense remorse caused by wrong decisions.” Prepared: Angelito T. B. When they got their married life began to be miserable.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) “May Day Eve” By: Nick Joaquin I. Summary The story started with a flashback. who is persistent to know about the past of her mother. Theme “Magical Relism”. Agueda.Ed. full of sentiments. who repents for what he has done to Agueda. her future lover would appear in the mirror. Don Badoy Montiya. Dona Agueda was facing the mirror on Monday eve because her sister told her to do so.Old lady who has gray hair.. they decide to marry each other because they believed in Anastasia. Setting : “In a room with a mirror during May Day Eve” IV. Voltaire. Author : Nick Joaquin III.Pretty. Dona Agueda. LPT 5 . That's when she faced the mirror.

and recommendations (or not) regarding future developments and programs. duty. the latter who often control the public view or positions. Pera. identify ethics. These techniques have been used extensively as a participatory qualitative technique and to make the familiar strange. LPT 6 . including quantitative data. in order to clarify definitions. it is the study of a phenomenon. or research designs. photo elicitation. An example of applied ethnographic research is the study of a particular culture and their understanding of the role of a particular disease in their cultural framework. 6. government operations. an intellectual analysis of ethical problems. it uses a variety of data sources. It uses visual methods of data collection. 9. who are we now and where are we going? 12. Foundational Research. BSci. rights. including whether or not government should be involved. review of records. Ethical Inquiry. Social Science and Governmental Research to understand social services. 11. 10. Visual Ethnography. Phenomenology describes the "subjective reality" of an event. 8. Ethnographic Research. that qualitative researchers use. 7. voice. Philosophical Research is conducted by field experts within the boundaries of a specific field of study or profession. or make a value judgment concerning an issue in their field of study their lives.. collaging. This is often called the mixed-method approach. based or "grounded" in the observations or data from which it was developed.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) There are several different research approaches. Autoethnography. as perceived by the study population.[31][32] 13. choice etc. the most frequently used qualitative research approaches include the following points: 1. Prepared: Angelito T. Activist Research which aims to raise the views of the underprivileged or "underdogs" to prominence to the elite or master classes. the study of self. It includes the study of ethics as related to obligation. Critical Social Research. B. examines the foundations for a science. analyzes the beliefs. where are we. the best qualified individual in any field of study to use an intellectual analysis. which involves using an eclectic approach taken up to best match the research question at hand. observation and surveys. 2. interviews. Basic/generic/pragmatic qualitative research. and develops ways to specify how a knowledge base should change in light of new information.[30] 5.[27][28] In the academic social sciences.Ed. and mapping. is a method of qualitative research in which the researcher uses their personal experience to address an issue. 3. used by a researcher to understand how people communicate and develop symbolic meanings. Historical research helps us in answering questions such as: Where have we come from.[29] 4. drawing. Grounded Theory is an inductive type of research.. including photo. Historical Research allows one to discuss past and present events in the context of the present condition. right and wrong. and allows one to reflect and provide possible answers to current issues and problems.

by using both types of research. 10. • Researcher has to learn multiple methods and be able to know how to mix each method effectively. • Difficult finding a researcher with experience in both qualitative and quantitative research. LPT 7 . MIXED METHODS DEFINITION • Mixed methods research is a methodology for conducting research that involves collecting. 11. (2008) state that triangulation "gives a more detailed and balanced picture of the situation. Triangulation is the use of several means (methods. • Emphasizes on both equally or unequally 5. interviews) research. BSci. 9. analyzing and integrating quantitative (e.. surveys) and qualitative (e.. 2004) • Time Consuming & Expensive." • Altrichter et al. 8.g. techniques and procedures associated with quantitative or qualitative research. This is a way of assuring the validity of research through the use of a variety of methods which involves different types of samples as well as methods of data collection. • Provides a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the research problem than either quantitative or qualitative approaches alone. 10. or explain more fully. the strengths of each approach can make up for the weaknesses of the other. • Pragmatic researchers therefore give themselves the freedom to use any of the methods. triangulation is a “method of cross-checking data from multiple sources to search for regularities in the research data. qualitative research is seen as deficient because of the potential for biased interpretations made by the researcher and the difficulty in generalizing findings to a large group. For instance. Quantitative research does not have these weaknesses.g. CONCLUSION • Mixed methods researchers need to be versatile and innovative with a lot of research skills that exceed those needed for single mode research. 4. experiments. B. • Triangulation allows one to identify aspects of a phenomenon more accurately by approaching it from different points using different methods and techniques. 4. • It may be difficult to plan and implement one method by drawing on the findings of another. The idea is that one can be more confident with a result if different methods lead to the same result." • According to Erina Audrey (2013) “Triangulation also crosschecks information to produce accurate results for certainty in data collection. Thus. 3.. the richness and complexity of Human Behavior by studying it from more than one standpoint. • The research design can be very complex. • Takes more resources to plan and implement this type of research." • According to O’Donoghue and Punch (2003). 6. WEAKNESSES OF MIXED METHOD DESIGN (ONWUEGBUZIE & JOHNSON. including its strengths and weaknesses. They need to explicitly state their stance before defending their methodological choices and demonstrate a good knowledge base of mixed methods Prepared: Angelito T.. 2. focus groups. TRIANGULATION • One of the most advantageous characteristics of conducting mixed methods research is the possibility of triangulation. data sources and researchers) to collect data on the same topic. 12. SITUATIONS IN WHICH MIXED METHODS APPROACH IS USED… • To compare results from quantitative and qualitative research • To use qualitative research to help explain quantitative findings • To explore using qualitative research and then to generalize findings to a large population using quantitative research 6. A MIXED METHODS RESEARCHER… • Collects both quantitative and qualitative data • Mixes them at the same time or one after the other. • Also. THE PURPOSE OF TRIANGULATION • The purpose of triangulation is to increase the validity of the results.Ed. 3. Successful triangulation requires careful analysis of the type of information provided by each method. 8. • Cohen and Manion (2000) define triangulation as an "attempt to map out. quantitative research is weak in understanding the context or setting in which people behave. something that qualitative research makes up for. • It is used to double (or triple) checking results. 5. ADVANTAGES OF TRIANGULATION • the use of a variety of data sources (data triangulation) • the use of several different researchers (investigator triangulation) • the use of multiple perspectives to interpret the results (theory triangulation) • the use of multiple methods to study a research problem (methodological triangulation) 12. 9. 7. Pera. WHAT IS PRAGMATIC APPROACH? • The pragmatic approach involves using the method which appears best suited to the research problem. This approach to research is used when this combination provides a better understanding of the research problem than either of each alone. PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO RESEARCH BAHROZ HASHIM MAWLOOD 2017 2. ADVANTAGES OF MIXED METHOD RESEARCH • Provides strengths that compensate the weaknesses of both quantitative and qualitative research.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) 1.” 11. 1. WHAT IS THE REASON FOR USING MIXED METHODS? • The insufficient argument – either quantitative or qualitative • Multiple angles argument – quantitative and qualitative approaches provide different “pictures” • The more-evidence-the-better argument – combined quantitative and qualitative provides more evidence • Community of practice argument – mixed methods may be the preferred approach within a scholarly community • Eager-to-learn argument – it is the latest methodology 7. They recognize that every method has its limitations and that the different approaches can be complementary. • It may be unclear how to resolve conflicts that arise in the interpretation of the findings.

wikipedia. Types of Ethnographic Designs<br />D. It seeks to understand<br />the relationship between culture and behavior. and <br />gathering documents about the group in order to<br />understand their culture-sharing behaviors. Key Characteristics of an Ethnographic Design<br /> 16. The ethnographer <br />explores and tests hypotheses. The ethnographer undertakes the study without any priori <br />hypotheses to avoid predetermining what is observed or what<br />information is elicited from informants.researchgate. after looking at the data. The researcher needs<br /> to have questions in mind that will guide what he or she<br /> sees and hears and the collection of data. 2002)<br /> 20. 2. analyzing. As in any studies.goingeast. artifacts. research diaries. you move on<br Prepared: Angelito T.org/mixed-methods-research_185. actors. BSci. A social situation always<br /> has three components: a place. This step generally<br /> begins with an overview comprising broad descriptive<br /> observations. 5.html • http://rjh.. It is <br />not the data collection techniques that determine whether the <br />study is ethnography but rather the “socio-cultural interpretation<br />that sets apart from other forms of qualitative inquiry.org/Research/Understanding-dementia- research/Types-of-research/The-four-main-approaches • http://www. using primarily extended observation and <br />occasionally in-depth interviewing to gain clarification and more <br />detailed information.research/ • http://www.co. 2.html • https://en. from studying a whole complex<br /> society to a single social situation or institution. <br />participant observations. and attitudes of a specific group <br />of people. • They need to demonstrate proficiency and competence in both the quantitative and qualitative methods chosen as well as proficiency and competency in applying the rules of integration to methods and data analysis. 13. and activities.tribune. B.dental. 9.foodrisc. 13. and (4) openness.wikipedia. Spradley (1980) identified the sequence of steps making up<br />the methodology of ethnographic research:<br />Selecting an Ethnographic Project. Spindler and Hammond (2000) describe some of the <br />characteristics of good ethnography: (1) extended participant<br />observation. the ethnographer typically spends<br />considerable time in the field interviewing.<br /> 17. audio.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) research designs and methodological considerations. The <br /> beginner would be wise to restrict the scope of his or her<br /> project to a single social situation so that it can be <br /> completed in a reasonable time. MEANING OF ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH<br /> Ethnography is the in-depth study of naturally occurring <br />behavior within a culture or social group.html • https://www. 6. The researcher does <br /> fieldwork to find out the activities of the people. Common means of <br />collecting data include interviewing. and they study sites rather than individuals. the <br /> physical characteristics of the situation.<br />Collecting Ethnographic Data. 7. 3.<br /> 21. and what it<br /> feels like to be part of the situation. Ethnography <br />is not defined by how data are collected. (3) collection of large<br />volumes of materials such as notes. a variety of data collection techniques may<br />be used as part of the ethnographic study. 4. and <br />videotapes.org/wiki/Triangulation_(social_science) 14.Asking Ethnographic Questions. and interpreting a culture-sharing <br />group’s shared patterns of behavior. values. but the hypotheses evolve out<br />of the fieldwork itself.org/wiki/Multimethodology • https://lon03.com/articles/specialities/orthodontics/11251_what_is_pragmatic_re search. beliefs.alzheimer-europe.ca/2011/11/05/pragmatism-and-mixed-methods. with culture <br />referring to the beliefs.net/post/What_are_the_advantages_and_disadv antages_of_mix_method_research • https://en. but by the lens through <br />which the data are interpreted (Merriam & Associated. beliefs. <br /> 22. BIBLIOGRAPHY • http://www.<br /> 18. Meaning of Ethnographic Research<br />B. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH<br /> 15.design/ • http://resourcecentre.<br /> The ethnographic research method was developed by <br />anthropologists as a way of studying and describing human <br />cultures.com/2012/03/07/disadvantages-of- mixed-method. document analysis. To understand the patterns of a <br />culture-sharing group. LPT 8 . Methodology of Ethnographic Research<br />C. Then.psychsoma. . Ethnographic Designs are qualitative research procedures <br />for describing. The scope of these <br /> projects can vary greatly. A. Ethnographer refer to the people from <br />whom they gather information as informants rather than <br />participants. Pera.Ed.za/qualitative_inquiry_growt/2010/09/pragmatic -approach-in-mixed- methodology.. (2) long time at the site. Anthropologists immerse themselves in the lives of the <br />people they study. which means having no specific<br />hypotheses or even highly specific categories of observation at<br />the start of the study<br /> 19. and<br />language. and language <br />that develop over time. observing. The<br />term ethnography is used to refer to both the work of <br />studying a culture and also the end product of the research.wordpress. 8. and life stories.

process. 17. Shared patterns of behavior. 1993). Pera. to advocate against<br />inequality and domination (Carspecken & Apple. Case study researchers may focus on a<br />program. themes. The ethnographer <br />searches for the shared patterns that develop as a group<br />examine at the beginning of a study. LPT 9 . case study. 25. Here you use participant<br /> observation. Carspecken & Apple. and language 37. and so on to gather data. The fieldwork is always<br /> followed by data analysis. in-depth interviews. 33. 21. This step includes<br />taking field notes and photographs.<br /> 24. The writing task will also be easier if. 26. The ethnographer also uses standard categories for cultural description (family. TYPES OF ETHNOGRAPHIC DESIGNS<br />Realist Ethnographies<br /> Realist ethnography is a popular approach used by<br />cultural anthropologists. and interpretation 39. Critical <br />ethnographies are a type of ethnographic research in which <br />the author is interested in advocating for the emancipation<br />of groups marginalized in our society (Thomas. Critical Ethnographies<br /> Ethnography now incorporates a “ critical approach” <br />(Carspecken. reporting objectively on the <br />information learned from participants at a field site. or activity involving individuals rather <br />than a group per se (Stake.Writing the Ethnography. Critical researchers seek to connect the meaning of a situation to broader structures of social power and control. the ff. 19. 12. The ethnographer does not offer <br /> personal reflections in the research report and remains in the background as an omniscient reporter of the facts. 1992. social networks. 26. 23. it is not easy to <br />identify characteristics they have in common. 20. 11. <br />Critical researchers are typically politically minded <br />individuals who seek . and judgment.<br />Analyzing Ethnographic Data. 1998)<br /> 27. instead they focus on an in-depth <br />exploration of a bounded system (activity. you<br /> read other well-written ethnographies.<br /> 23. BSci. typically written in the third person<br />point of view. It is an objective account <br />of the situation. Description. 10. and critical approaches. The ethnography should be <br /> written so that the culture or group is brought to life. Fieldwork 38.<br /> 25. 34.. The major components of a critical ethnography are the ff:<br /><ul><li>Critical researchers are usually politically minded people. Critical ethnographers seek to change the society. <br />although it differs from ethnography in several<br /> important ways. Critical ethnographers identify and celebrate their biases in research. 1988)</li></li></ul><li>Case Studies<br /> A case study is an important type of ethnography.<br />6. 22. 24. Critical ethnographers challenge the status quo and ask why it is so.. 14. 1992). belief . However. You can greatly simplify this task by<br /> beginning the writing early as data accumulate instead waiting until<br /> the end. 1995. through research. <ul><li> The realist ethnographer narrates the study in a third-person</li></ul> dispassionate voice and reports on observations of participants and their views. work life. Critical ethnographers speak to an audience on behalf of their participants as a means of empowering participants by giving them more authority. Context or Setting Prepared: Angelito T. and more analysis. 29. 18. 30. The ethnographic report can range in length from several<br /> pages to a volume or two. 31. especially one from<br />anthropology.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) /> to more focused observations. for <br />those learning about ethnographers. event. The ethnographer produces the participants’ view through closely edited quotations and has the final word on the interpretation and presentation of the culture.</li></li></ul><li>KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ETHNOGRAPHIC DESIGN<br />With the diverse approaches to ethnography identified in the <br />realist.<br />or individuals) based on extensive data collection (Creswell. The cycle continues until the project is completed. and status systems). <br /> making readers feel they understand the people and their <br /> way of life. Thomas. event. characteristics <br />typically mark an ethnographic study: <br /><ul><li>Cultural Themes 35. 16.<br /><ul><li>The researcher reports objective data in a measured style uncontained by personal bias. before writing. and field notes. Making an Ethnographic Record. 15. The researcher may provide mundane details of everyday life among the people studied. A Culture-Sharing Group 36. 1995). (Van Maanen.Ed. B. more data collection. 32. political goals.<br /> 28. 1993)<br />to include an advocacy perspective to ethnography. which leads to new questions and new hypotheses. and using any other appropriate means to record the observations. making maps. 13. Critical researchers seek to create a literal dialogue with the participants they are studying. The y recognize that all research is value laden.

or environment that surrounds the cultural group<br />Being studied. and<br />Interpretation within the context or setting of the culture-<br />Sharing group. these does not <br />serve to narrow the study. thematic data analysis in <br />ethnography consists of distilling how things work and <br />naming the essential features in themes in the cultural setting. Etic typically refers to second-order concepts. Etic Datais information representing the ethnographers' interpretation of the participants’ perspectives. the researcher must <br />single out some detail to include while excluding others. A cultural <br />theme in ethnography is a general position. B. 35. 31. and language that the culture-sharing <br />group adopts over time. an <br />ethnographer spends considerable time with the group.<br /> Prepared: Angelito T. Fieldwork in ethnography means that the researcher <br />gathers data in the setting where the participants are located<br />and where their shared patterns can be studied. The <br />patterns cannot be easily discerned through questionnaires<br />or brief encounters. such as local language. beliefs.” lives with or frequently visits the people being studied<br />and slowly learns the cultural ways in which the group <br />behaves or thinks. As part of <br />making sense of the information.<br />Instead. Negotiation occurs at different stages in research. the group <br />Shares any one or a combination of behaviors. religion.<br /> 48. or play. and the <br />Environment (Fetterman.Ed. and they look for manifestations of it. LPT 10 . This characteristic has several <br />Elements to it. they are interested in adding to the knowledge about <br />culture and studying specific cultural themes. Language in ethnography is how an individual talks to others in a cultural setting. mutually respecting individuals at the site. Reflexivity in ethnography refers to <br />the researcher being aware of and openly discussing his or<br />her role in the study in a way that honors and respects the <br />site and participants. to refer to the same phenomena mentioned by the participants (Schwandt. consisting <br />Of such factors as history. Shared Patterns of Behavior. 2001) 46. Instead.<br /><ul><li>A behavior in ethnography is an action taken by an individual in a cultural setting. First. The context for ethnography is the setting. This distinguishes ethnography from other forms of<br />qualitative research that focus on individuals rather than<br />groups of people.</li></li></ul><li>Description. locate a group within it (reading <br />group). To do this. beliefs. A Culture-Sharing Group <br /> In the study of a group. This data <br />collection involves the following:<br /><ul><li>Emic Data is information supplied by participants in a study.<br /> After description and analysis comes interpretation. declared or<br />implied. <br />and language. To <br />understand best patterns of a cultural group. it becomes a broad lens<br />that researchers use when they initially enter a field to study<br />a group. As with all qualitative studies. Ethnographers do not venture into <br />the field looking haphazardly for anything they might see. Belief. A belief in ethnography is how an individual thinks about or perceives things in a cultural setting. Themes. and ways of expression used by members in a cultural-sharing group (Schwandt.<br /> 45.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) 40. Negotiation Dataconsists of information that the participant and the researcher agree to use in a study. economy. 36. and developing a plan for giving back or reciprocating with the individuals. 28. and<br />Language. the ethnographer goes to the <br />“field. 1992). A culture-sharing group in ethnography is<br />two or more individuals who have shared behaviors.<br />A shared pattern in ethnography is a common social <br />Interaction that stabilizes as tacit rules and expectations of <br />The group (Spindler & Spindler. 34. BSci.<br /> Theme Analysis moves away from reporting the facts to <br />making an interpretation of people and activities. and Language<br /> Ethnographic researchers look for shared patterns of <br />Behavior. themes. 1998)<br /> 49. Context or Setting<br /> Ethnographer present the description. the culture-sharing group needs to have<br />Adopted shared patterns that the ethnographer can discern. that is openly approved or promoted in a society<br />or group. and Interpretation<br /> A description in ethnography is a detailed rendering of <br />individuals and scenes in order to depict what is going on<br />in the culture- sharing group. 33. Second. 27. beliefs. Researcher Reflexivity<br /> Ethnographic researchers make interpretations and write <br />their report reflexively. This phase of analysis is the most subjective. instead. and gather data about the group (observe a reading<br />period).. the ethnographer draws inferences and forms conclusions <br />about what was learned. In <br />interpretation. 44. </li></li></ul><li>Fieldwork<br /> Ethnographers collect data through spending time at <br />participants’ sites where they live. Pera. 43. <br /> 42. such as the language used by the social scientist or educator.. 29.<br />Situation. 30. such as agreeing to entry procedures for a research site. 32. 2001)_ 47.<br /> 41. It is multilayered and interrelated. Researcher Reflexivity</li></li></ul><li>Cultural Themes<br /> Ethnographers typically study cultural themes drawn from<br />cultural anthropology. politics. Emic often refers to first-order concepts. concepts. work. ethnographers identify a single site<br />(elementary classroom).

and spiritual understanding of the world. Contextualization: A qualitative research involves all variables. it resorts to quoting some respondent’s answer. Hence. beliefs. BSci. you find the need to amend or rephrase interview questions and consider varied ways of getting answers. As you go through the research process. through their worldviews. emotional. like shifting from mere speculating to traveling to places for data gathering. e. It adopts a naturalistic approach. Good instrument for positive societal changes. Human understanding and interpretation: Data analysis shows an individual’s mental. 2. 4. 5. and looking at classrooms unchanged or adjusted to people’s intentional observations. 6.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) NATURE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH CHARACTERISTICS 1. factors. you examine the data yielded by the internal traits of the subject individuals (i. and dislikes.. Active. 3. It follows an inductive or specific method of thinking. as well as the presentation of data analysis results. Diversified data in real-life situation: A qualitative researcher prefers collecting data in a natural setting like observing people as they live and work. 7.. 3.Ed. Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative Research ADVANTAGES 1. Abounds with words and visual: Words. spiritual characteristics). is done verbally. B. social. It is endangers respect for people's individuality as it demands the researcher’s careful and attentive stand toward peoples world view. you come to know what kind of human being he or she is. In some cases. Data gathering through interviews or library reading. Your goal here is to understand human behavior. 4. 8. analyzing photographs or videos as they genuinely appear tom people. LPT 11 . mental.. powerful. and forceful: A lot of changes occur continuously in every stage of a qualitative research. Specificity to generalization: Specific ideas in a qualitative research are directed to a general understanding of something. and more words come in big quantity in this kind of research. words. You are free to combine this with qualitative research and use all gathered data and analysis techniques. 2. It is the way of understanding and interpreting social life Prepared: Angelito T. where you start thinking of particular or specific concept that will eventually lead you to more complex ideas such as generalization conclusion. likes. or conditions affecting the study. Internal analysis: Here. Pera. 5. including his or her values. You study people’s perception or views about your topic not the effects of their physical existence on your study. It promotes a full understanding. Multiple research approaches and methods: Qualitative research allows you to approach or plan your study in varied ways.

7. 3. 6. DISADVANTAGES 1. It increases researcher’s interest. descriptive. exact measurements 5. Pera. Discovery and understanding of events 2. It offers multiple ways of acquiring and examining knowledge about something. B. which may result greatly depend on thhe researcher’s view or interpretations.. documents. Measuring the instrument before the actual project starts 4. Difference between Quantitative and Quantitative QUANTITATIVE 1. Variables 3. Numeric data. Validity: statistical test QUALITATIVE 1. Hard to know the validity of reliability of the data. It is open-ended questions yield data overload that requires long time analysis.. 5. Validity: triangulation. charts and tables 7. Results: chart. LPT 12 . and categories 3. Individualized procedures. 5. generalization from available data. repetition are difficult and different. Textual data. Analysis: statistical methods. description 8.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) 6. 4. 7.Ed. precise. Involves several process. Results: stories. considering setting and researchers 4. 2. Standardized procedure. Theme. Analysis: seeking patterns. BSci. motives. Hypothesis testing 2. Time consuming. It involves researcher’s subjectivity in data analysis. narrative. peer review Prepared: Angelito T. repetition 6. tables and facts 8. observation. Measuring instruments develop during the project.

 Personal experience and engagement -. BSci.  Voice. "thick description" [in-depth understanding].cases for study [e. the researcher avoids rigid designs that eliminate responding to opportunities to pursue new paths of discovery as they emerge. begins by exploring. a community.  Emergent -. people. the researcher is mindful of and attentive to system and situational dynamics. in observation.  Context sensitive -. B.the whole phenomenon under study is understood as a complex system that is more than the sum of its parts.. guided by analytical principles rather than rules. Prepared: Angelito T. assumes change is ongoing..Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) Key elements that define a qualitative research study I.  Empathic neutrality -.the qualitative methodologist owns and is reflective about her or his own voice and perspective. Pera. the focus is on complex interdependencies and system dynamics that cannot be reduced in any meaningful way to linear. cause and effect relationships and/or a few discrete variables. III.observations yield a detailed. LPT 13 . respect.places findings in a social. interviews capture direct quotations about people’s personal perspectives and lived experiences. therefore. it means being fully present [mindfulness]. The Design  Naturalistic -.  Holistic perspective -.  Inductive analysis -. and inter-relationships. the researcher’s personal experiences and insights are an important part of the inquiry and critical to understanding the phenomenon. and capturing the details of the individual cases being studied. and reflexivity -. cross-case analysis follows from and depends upon the quality of individual case studies. events.Ed. and temporal context.acceptance of adapting inquiry as understanding deepens and/or situations change.an empathic stance in working with study respondents seeks vicarious understanding without judgment [neutrality] by showing openness. then confirming findings. an organization..  Dynamic systems -. The Analysis  Unique case orientation -.immersion in the details and specifics of the data to discover important patterns.assumes that each case is special and unique. organizations. sensitivity.there is attention to process. or an entire culture. respecting.refers to studying real-world situations as they unfold naturally. perspective. and responsiveness. The Collection of Data  Data -. the researcher is open to whatever emerges [i. nonmanipulative and noncontrolling. II.. whether the focus is on an individual.g. critical incidences] are selected because they are “information rich” and illuminative. a credible voice conveys authenticity and trustworthiness. historical. there is a lack of predetermined constraints on findings]. themes. the first level of analysis is being true to. emphasizes careful comparative case analyses and extrapolating patterns for possible transferability and adaptation in new settings. and phenomenon under investigation. cultures. researcher is careful about [even dubious of] the possibility or meaningfulness of generalizations across time and space. communities.e.researcher has direct contact with and gets close to the people. complete objectivity being impossible and pure subjectivity undermining credibility.  Purposeful -. awareness. often derived from carefully conducted case studies and review of material culture. situation.

and other cultural products and media. Sometimes a researcher approaches the interview with a predetermined list of questions or topics for discussion but allows the conversation to evolve based on how the participant responds. a researcher studies people as they go about their daily lives without participating or interfering. a researcher engages a small group of participants in a conversation designed to generate data relevant to the research question. LPT 14 . film. many are also designed with open-ended questions that allow for the generation and analysis of qualitative data. BSci. art. music. with this method.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)  METHODS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative researchers use their own eyes.. Pera. ears. or community. places.  Ethnographic observation: Ethnographic observation is the most intensive and in-depth observational method..  Direct observation: With direct observation. Originating in anthropology. and typically involves a series of in-depth interviews conducted with one or multiple participants over an extended period of time. and often. Their findings are collected through a variety of methods.  Open-ended surveys: While many surveys are designed to generate quantitative data. and intelligence to collect in-depth perceptions and descriptions of targeted populations. Prepared: Angelito T.Ed.  Oral history: The oral history method is used to create a historical account of an event.  Participant observation: This method is similar to observation. a researcher will use at least two or several of the following while conducting a qualitative study. the researcher also participates in the action or events in order to not only observe others but to gain first-hand experience in the setting. B. however with this one. and events.  Focus group: In a focus group.  Content analysis: This method is used by sociologists to analyze social life by interpreting words and images from documents. a researcher fully immerses herself into the research setting and lives among the participants as one of them for anywhere from months to years. group.  In-depth interviews: Researchers conduct in-depth interviews by speaking with participants in a one-on-one setting.

are supported by the data and is internally coherent and establishes the confirmability. steps are taken to challenge such bias through an active and conscientious search using the following techniques (two bullet points within intellectual integrity): 1. Prolonged engagement: The researcher must spend enough time in the research context to become sufficiently familiar with all aspects of the context and to identify contextual factors that influence the phenomenon of interest. interpretations and conclusions make sense and really reflect the nature of the phenomenon being investigated. The researcher engages in immersion as she returns to the data again and again to see if categories..Ed. Pera. inductively looking for other ways to organize the data and logically thinking about other explanations and then examining whether those possibilities can be supported by the data. interpretations and recommendations. trustworthiness and any reflexive journals. 2.. The review confirms that the results. The audit trail includes the complete set of records and documents that are produced and accumulated during the research process. themes. as well as the purpose for which the data are applicable. results and conclusions of qualitative analysis are context-dependent.  Confirmability: An audit trail along with triangulation and the keeping of a reflexive journal are techniques for establishing confirmability. BSci.  Credibility: In order to establish researcher credibility. constructs. Prepared: Angelito T. findings and conclusions. This may include identifying alternative themes and explanations to findings. In qualitative research. findings. The process guards the researcher from being accused that the findings are simply a result of a single method. it is important to search for negative cases or disconfirming evidence that does not fit the general patterns that have been identified. The researcher also uses follow-up questions based on the need for clarification and greater depth of understanding. namely the data. 2. Therefore. a single source or the single researcher's personal bias. finding. B. guiding ideas and personal thoughts throughout the research process. LPT 15 . all the raw data. Participant checks: In this ongoing process. interpretation and conclusions.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) there are distinct but related aspects of inquiry on which credibility depends and any credible qualitative study needs to address all of the following in order to ensure credibility and rigor of findings:  Context: Keeping things in context is a cardinal principle of qualitative analysis because methods. the qualitative researcher provides the necessary database from which anyone interested in making a transfer to their context of interest can make transferability judgments and decisions. but is not limited to. interpretations and conclusions are reviewed by the participants from whom the data are collected so that they have an opportunity to correct errors of fact and to challenge interpretations that to them seem incorrect. Such information includes the personal connections that the researcher has with the participants. analysis. they must be carefully reported in reference to certain situations.  Transferability: Transferability may be thought of as being somewhat analogous to the external validity or generalizability of traditional quantitative methods. the records of analysis. explanations. the data. While qualitative findings are not generalizable. as well as to establish trust from and rapport with the participants. The job of the researcher is to maintain intellectual rigor as she does her best to make sense of all the information collected. analytic categories or themes. Credibility requires that the researcher engage three activities (the numbered bullet points are within this credibility bullet point): 1. The audit trail is reviewed by an independent researcher or peer de-briefer for feedback on the conceptualization and processes of the research. and conclusions. Persistent observation: Such observation allows the researcher to identify and focus on the most relevant characteristics of the situation or context. It is a strategy for reducing systematic bias in the data and involves checking findings against different sources and perspectives. 3. final reports. the topic and the situation or context. written summaries and analyses. certain people and certain time periods. it is essential that a qualitative report include information about the researcher that could have affected data collection. any notes on methodology. A self-reflexive journal: The researcher adopts an attitude of skepticism and documents her perspective. This includes. Triangulation: Triangulation most commonly refers to the use of multiple and different sources of data.  Dependability may be determined through an audit with the "auditor" or peer reviewer examining the process of the research inquiry and the product.  Intellectual Integrity: To demonstrate intellectual integrity and lend credibility to the findings of a study.

BSci. B.. LPT 16 ..Ed. Pera.Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design) Prepared: Angelito T.