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Theory to Practice

Linglong Dai （戴凌龙）

Department of Electronic Engineering

Tsinghua University

Dec. 2015

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 1

Content

4 Future Research

5 Summary

How to realize 5G?

Key requirement of 5G: 1000-fold capacity

How to realize this goal from Shannon capacity?

Three technical directions for 5G No. of APs Bandwidth

C = D * W * M * log (1+SINR)

What is massive MIMO?

Use hundreds of BS antennas to simultaneously serve

multiple users

Conventional MIMO Massive MIMO

M:2~8, K:1~4 (LTE-A) M: ~100~1000, K: 16~64

T. L. Marzetta, “Non-cooperative Cellular Wireless with Unlimited Numbers of Base Station Antennas,” IEEE

Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 3590-3599, Nov. 2010. (2013 IEEE Marconi prize)

Content

4 Future Research

5 Summary

Why Massive MIMO ?

Spatial multiplexing

‒ Rate: min , log 1 SNR

Reliability

‒ ∼ SNR

Array gain (beamforming)

‒ Several antennas can be used to transmit signals

1, 1 (SISO) ∼ SNR log 1 SNR

1, 1 (SIMO) ∼ SNR log 1 SNR

1, 1 (MIMO) ∼ SNR min , log 1 SNR

: Diversity Gain min , : Multplexing Gain

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 6

Theoretical Capacity Analysis

MIMO link, channel ∈ with

SNR

log 1 , SNR

If ∼ 1, then we have ∑ , so

‒ Rank-1 channel (LoS): , ⋯ 0

Theoretical Capacity Analysis

In massive MIMO, the channel matrix is decomposed

into two parts

‒ Small-scale fading: of size , elements are i.i.d.

/

‒ Large-scale fading: a diagonal matrix

⋯ 0

⋮ ⋱ ⋮

0 ⋯

Asymptotical orthogonality

⋯ 0

⋮ ⋱ ⋮ , ≫

0 ⋯

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 8

Ideal Channels

Massive MIMO has much larger ordered singular values

than conventional MIMO

F. Rusek, D. Persson, B. Lau, E. Larsson, T. Marzetta, O. Edfors, and F. Tufvesson, “Scaling up MIMO: Opportunities

and challenges with very large arrays,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 40-60, Jan 2013.

Ideal Detection

Optimal (coherent) uplink detector has complexity ~exp

min ∥ ∥

With favorable propagation in massive MIMO ( ≫ )

1

we can have

1

min ∥ ∥ ⇔ min

In massive MIMO, we can use simple (linear) detectors like

MF, ZF with good enough performance and low complexity

∼

Similarly, simple (linear) precoders can be also used

Recent Advances of Massive MIMO

Feb. 2012, Rice university & Sep. 2013, Rice university & July 2013, Linköping &

Bell labs, Argos, 64 antennas, Bell labs, ArgosV2, 96 Lund University, 128

15 users, 85 bit/s/Hz, 1/64 antennas, 32 users antennas, 36 users

power consumption

World’s First Massive MIMO Prototype

Samsung, 2014

Opportunities and challenges

Advantages

‒ Improve the spectrum efficiency by orders of magnitude

‒ Improve the energy efficiency by orders of magnitude

Vision

‒ Considered as a promising key technology for 5G

Challenges

‒ Theoretical analysis with practical constraints

‒ Reduce the power consumption of RF chains

‒ Pilot contamination in the uplink

‒ Efficient pilot design and channel estimation algorithm

‒ Efficient channel feedback mechanism

‒ Low-complexity near-optimal signal detection algorithm

Content

1 5G in The World

4 Future Research

5 Summary

Practical Solutions for Massive MIMO

Work 2: Pilot Decontamination Based on Graph Coloring

Work 3: Efficient Pilot Design and Channel Estimation Based on Compressive Sensing

Work 4: Low-Complexity Multi-User Detection for Uplink Massive SM-MIMO

Work 5: Energy-Efficient SIC-Based Hybrid Precoding for Massive MIMO

Work 6: Beamspace Massive MIMO

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 15

Practical Solutions: Work 1

with Practical Constraints

Jiayi Zhang, Linglong Dai, Xinlin Zhang, Emil Björnson, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Ergodic Capacity of Massive MIMO Systems with

Transceiver Hardware Impairments over Rician Fading Channels,” to appear in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.

Motivation

The performance of massive MIMO systems is usually

limited by practical constraints

‒ Hardware impairments

• Phase noise

• I/Q imbalance

• Amplifier non-linearities

• Quantization errors

‒ Space constrained

‒ Low-resolution ADC

‒ Channel aging

‒ Imperfect CSI

‒ Inter-carrier interference

‒ Co-channel interference

‒ …

Motivation

Huge spatial degrees-of-freedom of massive MIMO

systems are achieved by coherent processing over these

massive arrays, which provide

‒ strong signal gains

‒ resilience to imperfect channel knowledge

‒ and low interference

consumption scale linearly/exponentially with the number

of BS antennas, and practical constraints cannot be

removed completely

to practical constraints?

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 18

Hardware Impairments

The system model can be written as [1]

y = H x + ηt + ηr + n

The additive distortion noise terms can be analytically

approximated by the central limit theorem as

ηt CN 0, t2 diag q1 , , qNt

ηr CN 0, r2 tr Q I N r

In LTE, the error vector magnitude (EVM) are in the

range

t 0.08, 0.175

[1] T. Schenk, RF Imperfections in High-Rate Wireless Systems: Impact and Digital Compensation. Springer,

2008.

Hardware Impairments

Normalized noise variance

t2 H

H H r 1 I Nt , N t N r

2

Nt

Φ 2

t HH H 2 1 I , N N

N t r Nr t r

The ergodic achievable rate R can be expressed as

H 1

E log 2 det I Nt H HΦ , N t N r

Nt

R

1

E log 2 det I Nr N HH Φ , N t N r

H

t

Hardware Impairments

Proposition 1: The exact achievable rate of MIMO

systems with residual hardware impairments over Rician

fading channels can be expressed as

qG q q

p q m k nk

R

ln 2 n1 m1

Dn,m

k 0 k 1 p q k 1

p q m k

K 1 / a K 1 K 1 /b K 1

e E pqmk t 1 e E pqmk t 1

t 1 a b

q min( Nt , Nr ), p max( Nt , Nr )

1 i1 i

q

2 2 e

a ,b ,G

t t

Nt 1 Nt 1 p q ! i

2 2 q

t t j

1i j q

Hardware Impairments

For → ∞, the achievable rate reduces to

RNt N r log 2 1

t

2

r

2

1

For → ∞, the achievable rate reduces to

1

RNr N t log 2 1 2

t

For and → ∞, the achievable rate reduces to

1 t2 t2

R E log 2 det HH H

I Nr log 2 det HH H

I Nr

N t r 1

2

N t r2 1

E log 2 det aHH H I Nr log 2 det bHH H I Nr

J 1/ a, I Nr J 1/ b, I

Nr

Hardware Impairments

A finite rate ceiling

An increase in SNR tends

to increase achievable rate

of both systems t r 0.15, N t N r 2

The relative difference 30

Non-ideal (Analytical)

between the curves gets 25

Non-ideal (Simulations)

Ideal capacity

steadily larger

20

15

achievable rate

Ceiling

10

increases 5

0

-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

SNR [dB]

Hardware Impairments

The ceiling disappears for

large numbers of transmit

and receive antennas

Larger values of K will t r 0.15, N t N r , 10

decrease the rank of

180

correlation matrix and the Non-ideal (Analytical)

160 Non-ideal (Simulations)

system’s achievable rate 140

Ideal Achievable Rate

K=0

80

when operating over strong K=10

60

LoS environment 40

K=100

20

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Number of Transmit/Receive Antennas (N t =Nr)

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 24

Space Constrained

A critical issue pertaining to practical massive MIMO

systems is the dense deployment for a large number of

antennas in a limited physical space

The channel vectors for different UEs will be

asymptotically non-orthogonal

Therefore, a space-constrained massive MIMO

architecture will suffer from increased spatial correlation,

whose impact needs to be rigorously quantified and

analyzed

Space Constrained

The received vector y at the BS is given by

y pu Gx n

Channel matrix /

, where is the transmit

steering matrix and is given by

A a 1 , a 2 , , a P

2 d 2 d T

1 j sin i j M 1 sin i

a i 1, e

, , e

P

With receiver matrix T, the achievable uplink rate is

2

pu t kH g k

Rk E log 2 1

2

K

u k l

2

p t H

g tk

l k

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 26

Space Constrained

Proposition 1: For space-constrained massive MIMO

systems with MRC receivers, the approximated sum

achievable rate is given by

2 P 2

pu M i k

R MRC log 2 1 i 1

K P

u l i M k

2

p

l k i 1

where is the ith eigenvalue of A, and denotes the lth element of

Space Constrained

denotes the normalized d 0 dM , P 12, K 6

total antenna array space 10

an increasing number of BS

9

antennas

MRC suffers a substantial

8.5

Monte-Carlo simulation

Analytical approximation

increases, which implies

that the effect of

becomes less pronounced

Space Constrained

Proposition 2: For space-constrained massive MIMO

systems with ZF receivers, the sum achievable rate is

lower bounded by

P

K K Y Yn

RLZF log 2 1 pu k exp n K P K 1 n n P K 2

k 1

nk

P

i j

j i

P

i j

j i

pq 1 , q n

Yk p ,q q 1

p ln p , q n

Space Constrained

Proposition 3: For space-constrained massive MIMO

systems with ZF receivers, the sum achievable rate is

upper bounded by

Δ2 Δ1

R ZF

K log 2 pu

U

K 1 K i K 1 i 1 K i 1 i j j i

K K

i 1 i j j i

P

K K 1 n Y

n n P K 2

ln 2 n 1

P

i j

j i

Δ1 Ξ1Φ1 , Δ 2 Ξ2Φ 2 Ξ2 p,q pq 1 , q 1, , P K 1

Ξ1 p,q pq 1 , q 1, , P K Φ2 p,q pq q P K , q P K 2, , P

Φ1 p,q pq q P K 1 , q P K 1, , P

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 30

Space Constrained

The lower bounds can explicitly predict the exact sum rate

Large antennas can improves the sum rate of the massive

MIMO ZF by suppressing thermal noise, even in the space

constrained scenario

d 0 4, P 12

18

16

14

12

10

6 ZF Lower Bound

ZF Upper Bound

Monte-Carlo Simulation

4

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Conclusions

The massive MIMO systems is more prone to practical

constraints in strong LoS fading channel

For space-constrained massive MIMO systems, we derive

‒ approximated sum rate expression of MRC receivers

‒ new lower and upper bounds on the sum rate of ZF

receivers

The performance of ZF receivers is superior to the one of

MRC receivers for space-constrained massive MIMO

systems

Practical Solutions: Work 2

Decontamination for Massive MIMO

Xudong Zhu, Linglong Dai, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Graph Coloring Based Pilot Allocation to Mitigate Pilot Contamination for

Multi-Cell Massive MIMO Systems,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1842-1845, Oct. 2015.

Massive MIMO in Mobile Network

A mobile cellular network with cells, each of singe-

antenna users and ( ≫ ) antennas BS

– The system works in TDD protocol

– Channel of -th user in -th BS to -th BS: , , , , , ,

– Large-scale fading coefficient: , , 0 (channel strength).

– Small-scale fading vector: , , ∈ ,

What is Pilot Contamination (PC)?

Channel estimation in uplink transmission

– User 〈 , 〉 utilizes pilot sequence ∈ for channel estimation

⋯ ∈ ,

– The channel estimation for user 〈 , 〉 will be contaminated by users in

other cells with the same pilot

, , , , , , , , .

– By adopting MF detector, uplink SINR of user 〈 , 〉 is limited by PC

, , , , → , ,

SINR ,

∑ | , , , , | , ∑ , ,

Example of PC

Pilot reuse in adjacent cells

– Due to limited pilot resource, pilot reuse is unavoidable

– PC to users in cell center is usually light

– PC to users in cell edge is usually severe

– User 〈3,1〉 suffers from slight PC

– User 1,1 and 2,1 are

contaminated to each other

Existing Technology

Frame structure design

– Using time-shifted pilots for asynchronous transmission among

adjacent cells is able to mitigate pilot contamination

– AoA (angle-of-arrival) based methods

– Subspace partitioning based blind methods

– Coordinated multi-cell precoding

– ……

Motivation

Potential PC among users in different cells

– Potential PC , ,〈 , 〉 is utilized to measure PC severity between two

users when they are assigned with the same pilot

, , , ,

, ,〈 , 〉 .

, , , ,

,〈 , 〉

the effective channel strength

– Larger , ,〈 , 〉 indicates more severe PC will be introduced between

user 〈 , 〉 and 〈 , 〉 when they are assigned with the same pilot

– Key idea: Assign different pilots to users with a large

PC Graph Construction

Potential PC threshold

– Based on a potential PC threshold , a binary potential PC matrix

, , , can be generated as

1, , ,

, ,〈 , 〉 1, , , , , ,

0, otherwise.

– A PC graph can be constructed based on

, , , , , , , 1

connected users should

be avoided.

Conventional Graph Coloring (GC)

Minimizing the total number of colors

– Conventional GC algorithms aim to minimize the total number of colors

to assign different colors to connected vertices

– To find the minimal number of colors for a certain is a NP problem

– The total number of required colors is defined as

– For various , is different and uncertain

GC based Pilot Allocation (GC-PA)

Under limited pilot resource

– For users within each cell, usually only pilots are available

– Users are sorted according to their degrees in , and assign pilots to

these users in a sequential way

– Assign different pilots to connected users as much as possible

– For various , only pilots are utilized for pilot assignment

Analysis of Threshold

How to obtain

– The potential PC graph is constructed based on

– The initial interval of can be easily obtained as

∈ ,

– min , ,〈 , 〉 and max , ,〈 , 〉

– By setting , only users within one cell are connected

– By setting , all users are connected to each other

– To obtain a near-optimal threshold , an iterative grid search (IGS)

algorithm is adopted

, , , .

– denotes the number of grids in each search step

– denotes the number of iterations

Iterative Grid Search (IGS) of

IGS Algorithm

– The interval , is uniformly sampled by points in the first

iteration

:1 , ,

Δ , Δ .

1

– By denoting as one out of that can achieve the best

performance, a sub interval can be obtained after the first iteration, i.e.,

Δ Δ

,

2 2

– The sub interval will be further sampled, and this procedure is carried

out in an iterative way for times

– Finally, a near-optimal threshold can be obtained

Simulation result (1)

IGS Algorithm

– System parameters: (1) 7; (2) 8; (3) 128

– IGS parameters: (1) 20; (2) 2

Average uplink SINR (dB)

18

First iteration of the IGS

16

14

The sub-interval for the next

iteration of the IGS process

12

10

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

(th-min)/ max

Average uplink SINR (dB)

17.15

17.1

max

17.05

Second iteration of the IGS

17

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

(th-(1) + (1)/2)/((1)

max

+ (1)/2)

max

Simulation result (2)

CDF curve of users’ uplink achievable rate

– System parameters: (1) 4; (2) 4; (3) 128

– The optimal solution is obtained by exhaustive search

1

Classical scheme [1]

0.9 Conventional GCAs [5]

Proposed GC-PA scheme

0.8

Optimal PA

0.7

The performance of the users

0.6 suffering from severe PC has

been significantly improved

CDF

0.5

0.4

The proposed GC-PA scheme

0.3 can approach the optimal pilot

allocation

0.2

0.1

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

User UL achievalable rate (bps/Hz)

Simulation result (3)

Average uplink achievable rate against antenna number

– System parameters: (1) 7; (2) 84; (3) 10 10000

5

Classical scheme [1]

Conventional GCAs [5]

4.5

Proposed GC-PA scheme

Average UL capacity per user (bps/Hz)

resource.

2.5

Gain of the significantly reduced The performance of the

PC by conventional GCA and the classical random scheme

proposed GC-PA scheme is limited by PC

2

1.5

1 2 3 4

10 10 10 10

Number of BS antennas M

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 46

Conclusions

A graph coloring based pilot allocation (GC-PA) scheme is

proposed to mitigate pilot contamination for massive

MIMO

Basic ideas

– Construct potential PC graph for multi-cell multi-user network

– GC-PA: Assign different pilots to connected users in PC graph to

mitigate severe PC as much as possible

– An iterative grid search (IGS) algorithm is proposed to obtain a near-

optimal threshold for PC graph construction

Simulation result (2) has verified the near-optimal (0.1

bps/Hz) performance of our method compared with

optimal solution through exhaustive search

Practical Solutions: Work 3

Pilot Design and Channel Estimation

Zhen Gao, Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, Sheng Chen, “Spatially common sparsity based adaptive channel estimation and

feedback for FDD massive MIMO,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 63, no. 23, pp. 6169-6183, Dec. 2015.

Motivation

Orthogonal pilots for LTE/LTE-A

Angle-Domain Massive MIMO Channels

a DFT matrix for ULA with d / 2

yn xTn h n wn xTn A B h n wn

Angle-domain channel

10 10 1.406 8

n supp h n Sa M

spread is small (e.g., 10o) at the BS with limited scatters

X. Rao and V. K. N. Lau, “Distributed compressive CSIT estimation and feedback for FDD multi-user massive MIMO

systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 3261–3271, Jun. 2014.

Spatially Common Sparsity

K M

K M

K M

of the channels within the system bandwidth are almost unchanged

X. Rao and V. K. N. Lau, “Distributed compressive CSIT estimation and feedback for FDD multi-user massive MIMO

systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 3261–3271, Jun. 2014.

Background of Compressive Sensing

Compressive Sensing (CS)

‒ (1949) Shannon-Nyquist sampling theory: sufficient condition for

perfect reconstruction of a bandwidth limited signals

f s 2B

Shannon

‒ (2006) Compressive sensing: Acquire and reconstruct a sparse signal

by a sampling rate much lower than the Nyquist rate

M N

Donoho

D. L. Donoho, “Compressed sensing”, IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1289–1306, Apr. 2006. (cited by 14106 times)

Background of Compressive Sensing

Key idea of CS

‒ Conventional way: sampling the signal at a high rate first, and then compress the signal

to remove the redundancy

‒ CS: directly sampling the inherent information of signals, and then reconstruct the high-

dimensional signal from low-dimensional measurement via optimization

‒ Three steps of CS: 1) Spare representation; 2) Compression; 3) Recovery

‒ Applications of CS: Image/Vedio processing, MRI, Radar, Wireless communications …

great potential impacts in many applied fields including wireless communications

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 53

Proposed Non-Orthogonal Pilots

Conventional orthogonal pilot proposed non-orthogonal

pilots

CS-Based Channel Estimation

Non-orthogonal pilots based channel estimation by

exploiting CS theory

rs

rie

ar

bc

su

N

M BS antennas

K M

K M

K M

A

* T (q) (q)

r [ q ,G ]

p S [ q ,G ]

p B h p v [ q ,G ]

p Φ [ q ,G ]

p h p v[pq ,G ]

in G time slots:

Spatially common sparsity: supp h 1 supp h 2 supp h N

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 55

Proposed Distributed Sparsity Adapative

Matching Pursuit (DSAMP) Algorithm

Joint

Processing

Performance Analysis

Problem 1 L

min fl 0 . s.t. dl Φl fl ,supp fl , l

2

fl ,l

l 1

D

ri Si hi Si Ah i Θi h i

1 t G ,1 m M

p t ,m

Simulation Results

0

Simulation parameters: 10

J-OMP, Fixed Time Overhead, T=18

1. Carrier frequency 2 GHz

DSAMP, Fixed Time Overhead, T=18

2. System bandwidth 10 MHz CRLB of Conventional Linear Algorithms

10

4. BS 128 Tx

MSE

5. 15°angle spread

-2

10

-3

10

10 15 20 25 30

SNR (dB)

Conclusions

This paper focuses on the downlink pilot design and

channel estimation for massive MIMO systems

At the transmitter, compared with standardized

orthogonal pilots (pilot overhead ∝ No. of Tx), we

proposed the non-orthogonal pilots design based on

structured CS can effectively solve this issue (pilot

overhead ∝ small angle spread)

At the receiver, the proposed DSAMP algorithm can

exploit the spatially common sparsity of massive MIMO

channels for reliable channel estimation

Moreover, the proposed scheme can be applied in the

uplink to solve the issue of pilot contamination

Practical Solutions: Work 4

for Uplink Massive SM-MIMO

Zhen Gao, Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, Sheng Chen, and Lajos Hanzo, “Compressive Sensing Based Multi-User

Detector for Large-Scale SM-MIMO Uplink,” to appear in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.

Motivation and Background

Key requirements of 5G

Spectrum Efficiency (SE)

Energy Efficiency (EE)

Key techniques

Massive MIMO improves SE at cost of low EE

Motivation and Background

Key requirements of 5G

Spectrum Efficiency (SE)

Energy Efficiency (EE)

Key techniques

Massive MIMO improves SE at cost of low EE

Spatial modulation (SM) MIMO improves EE at cost of low SE

System Model

Spatial Modulation (SM) MIMO

No. of RF chains << No. of antennas

System Model

Spatial Modulation (SM) MIMO

No. of RF chains << No. of antennas

3-D constellation set

Spatial and signal constellation symbols

System Model

Massive SM-MIMO

High SE

Large No. of antennas

Low cost antennas

High EE

Small number of RF chains

Low hardware cost

Low power consumption

System Model

Challenges of Massive SM-MIMO

Support multi-user transmission in the uplink

Only consider single-user scenario

Optimal for multi-user detection

Large No. of users

Large No. of antennas

Optimal maximum like-hood (ML): High complexity

Sphere decoding: High complexity

Low complexity signal detector

LMMSE-based detector [Renzo’14]: poor performance

CS-based detector [Liu’14]: poor performance

[Renzo’14] M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges,

opportunities and implementation,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 56-103, Jan. 2014.

[Liu’14] W. Liu, N. Wang, M. Jin, and H. Xu, “Denoising detection for the generalized spatial modulation system using sparse

property,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 22-25, Jan. 2014.

Proposed Solutions

How to support multi-user transmission in uplink?

Proposed Solutions

How to reduce the complexity of signal detector?

x1

x2

xK

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 68

Proposed Solutions

Sparsity of SM signals can be exploited!

x k e k sk

supp e k Q, e k 0

1, e k 2

1.

Proposed Solutions

Sparsity of SM signals can be exploited!

The kth user's SM signal

K K

y y k w H k xk w AWGN

k 1 k 1

x1 channel matrix

x2

x

xK

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 70

Proposed Solutions

Sparsity of SM signals can be exploited!

K K

y y k w H k xk w

k 1 k 1

x1 y Hx w

x2

x Compressive sensing problem !

xK

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 71

Background of Compressive Sensing

Compressive Sensing (CS)

‒ (1949) Shannon-Nyquist sampling theory: sufficient condition for

perfect reconstruction of a bandwidth limited signals

f s 2B

Shannon

‒ (2006) Compressive sensing: Acquire and reconstruct a sparse signal

by a sampling rate much lower than the Nyquist rate

M N

Donoho

D. L. Donoho, “Compressed sensing”, IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1289–1306, Apr. 2006. (cited by 14106 times)

Background of Compressive Sensing

Key idea of CS

‒ Conventional way: sampling the signal at a high rate first, and then compress the signal

to remove the redundancy

‒ CS: directly sampling the inherent information of signals, and then reconstruct the high-

dimensional signal from low-dimensional measurement via optimization

‒ Three steps of CS: 1) Spare representation; 2) Compression; 3) Recovery

‒ Applications of CS: Image/Video processing, MRI, Radar, Wireless communications …

great potential impacts in many applied fields including wireless communications

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 73

Proposed Solutions

Sparsity of SM signals can be exploited!

y Hx w

Standard compressive sensing x1

Uniquely sparsity x2

x

Block sparsity

xK

Proposed Solutions

How to enhance the reliability of signal detector?

Introduce the structured sparsity J 3

supp xk supp xk supp xk

1

2

J x1

x2

x

y H x w ,1 j J .

j j j j

xK

2

J ( j) 2 J K

y H ( j ) x y H (k j ) x

( j)

minJ ( j)

minJ ( j)

k

x

( j)

j 1

j 1 2

x

( j)

j 1

j 1 k 1 2

2

x (k j ) 1 2 J

s.t. 1,1 j J ,1 k K . supp x k supp x k supp x k

0

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 75

Proposed Solutions

How to enhance the reliablity of signal detector?

Introduce the channel diversity by interleaving

y H x w ,1 j J .

j j j j

Interleaving

of channels

H 1 H 2 H J H 1 H 2 H J

performance

Example for Interleaving (J=2)

Proposed Group SP (GSP) algorithm

Proposed Solutions

Complexity comparison

GSP

Complexity O ( Lnt ) K O(M RF (nt K ) 2 (nt K )3 ) O 2M RF K K O(2 M RF K 2 K 3 )

2 3

‒ MMSE and CS detectors have low complexity but poor performance

‒ Proposed GSP algorithm enjoys low complexity with good performance

Simulations

Obvious performance gain from interleaving!

Point-to-point SM-MIMO:

1. No. Tx 64

2. No. Rx 16

3. Correlation coff 0.4 for Tx/Rx

4. One Tx RF chain

5. 6 bit spatial constel. syb.

6. 8-PSKsignal constel. syb.

7. J=2

[Renzo’14] M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges,

opportunities and implementation,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 56-103, Jan. 2014.

[Liu’14] W. Liu, N. Wang, M. Jin, and H. Xu, “Denoising detection for the generalized spatial modulation system using sparse

property,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 22-25, Jan. 2014.

Simulations

Higher throughput than massive MIMO !

Near-optimal signal detection performance !

Multi-user SM-MIMO uplink:

1. BS 64 Tx but 18 receive RF chains

2. 8 Users each 4 Tx and 1 transmit RF

chain

3. Correlation coff 0.5 for Tx/Rx

[Renzo’14] M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized MIMO: Challenges,

opportunities and implementation,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 56-103, Jan. 2014.

[Liu’14] W. Liu, N. Wang, M. Jin, and H. Xu, “Denoising detection for the generalized spatial modulation system using sparse

property,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 22-25, Jan. 2014.

Conclusions

This paper focuses on the multi-user detection for uplink

massive SM-MIMO

A reliable and low-complexity multi-user signal detector

is proposed

Proposed signal detector can fully exploit the block

sparsity of equivalent SM signal for the reduced

complexity

By introducing the SM signal interleaving, the signal

detection performance can be further improved

Simulation results have demonstrated the good

performance of the proposed scheme

Practical Solutions: Work 5

Precoding for Massive MIMO

Xinyu Gao, Linglong Dai, Shuangfeng Han, Chih-Lin I, and Robert Heath, “Energy-Efficient Hybrid Analog and Digital Precoding for

mmWave MIMO Systems with Large Antenna Arrays”, to appear in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications.

MmWave massive MIMO

Why mmWave?

mmWave

– Short wavelength enables large antenna array in massive MIMO

– Massive MIMO provides sufficient gains to compensate the serious

path-loss by using precoding

Challenges of mmWave massive MIMO

Challenges

– Traditional MIMO: one dedicated RF chain for one antenna

Enormous number of RF chains due to large antenna array

High complexity in signal processing

Unaffordable energy consumption (250 mW per RF chain)

64 antennas → 64 RF chains → 16 W !

number of RF chains?

Precoding for mmWave massive MIMO

Traditional precoding

– Preformed in digital domain with optimized performance

– One RF chain is required to support one transmit antenna

– Impractical in energy consumption for mmWave massive MIMO

250mW per RF chain, and 16W for 64 antennas [Amadori’15] !

Hybrid analog and digital precoding

– Actual degree of freedom (i.e., #users) is much smaller than #antennas

– Divide digital precoding with large size into:

Digital precoding with small size

Analog precoding with large size (realized by phase shifter, PS)

– Significantly reduced number of RF chains

– Power-efficient, low complexity, without obvious performance loss

[Amadori’15] P. Amadori and C. Masouros, “Low RF-complexity millimeter-wave beamspace-MIMO systems by beam

selection,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 2212-2222, Jun. 2015.

Existing hybrid precoding architectures

Fully-connected architecture

– RF chain is fully connected to all antennas

Large number of PSs (N2M)

Near-optimal but energy-intensive

– Spatially sparse precoding [Ayach’14]

– Codebook-based hybrid precoding [Roh’14]

Sub-connected architecture

– RF chain is partially connected to a subset

of antennas

Smaller number of PSs (NM)

More energy-efficient

– The optimal solution is unavailable

Challenge: changed constraints

[Ayach’14] O. El Ayach S. Rajagopal, S. Abu-Surra,Z. Pi, and R.W. Heath, “Spatially sparse precoding in millimeter wave MIMO systems,”

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 13, no. 3,pp. 1536-1276, Mar. 2014.

[Roh’14] W. Roh, et al., “Millimeter-wave beamforming as an enabling technology for 5G cellular communications: Theoretical feasibility and

prototype results,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 0163-6804, Feb. 2014.

Problem formulation

System model

y HADs n HPs n,

R log 2 I N HPP H

H H

.

N 2

Target

– Jointly design A and D to maximize the achievable rate

– Structure constraint: P AD diag a1 ,, aN diag d1 ,, d N

– Amplitude constraint: All elements of ai have fixed amplitude 1 / M

– Power constraint: P F N

SIC-based hybrid precoding

Successive interference cancelation (SIC) for multi-user

signal detection

4

y h(i ) x(i )

i1

SIC-based hybrid precoding

Proposition 1: The total rate R can be decomposed as

N

H H 1

R log 2 1 p H Tn 1 Hp n

n 1 N 2 n

p

where n is the nth column of P, Tn I N HP P H

H H

, and T0 I N

N 2

n n

– Total rate sub-rate of sub-antenna array

– Optimize the sub-rate of each sub-antenna array one by one by exploiting the

concept of SIC for multi-user detection

T0 I N T1 TN 1

p1 p2 pN

Solution to the sub-rate optimization problem

Target

– Optimize achievable rate of the nth sub-antenna array

H H 1

p opt arg max log 2 1 p G p ， where G H Tn 1H

N

n n n 1 n n 1

2

p n

H

p nopt arg max log 2 1 p G p ，

N

n n 1 n

2

p n F

We prove that it is equivalent to a simplified problem

Proposition 2. The optimization problem is equivalent to the following problem

p nopt arg min v1 p n 2 ， where v1 is the first right singular vector of Gn1

2

p n

Design of analog and digital precoder

Problem

– As we have p n d n an , v1 p n

2

equals to

2

d n Re v an 1 Re v1H an

2 2

v1 p n

2 H

2 1

Solution

– Analog precoder: an 1 / M e

opt

jangle( v1 )

opt H

–

Hybrid precoder: p n 1/ M v1 1 e

opt jangle( v1 )

–

– Easy to check all the three constraint conditions are satisfied

– SVD of G n1 to obtain v1

– Compute p n 1/ M v1 1 e

opt jangle( v1 )

for the nth sub-antenna array

– Update G n for the (n+1)th sub-antenna array

Complexity analysis

Computation of v1

– Only the first right singular vector of G n1 is required

– Realized by power iteration algorithm with complexity M 2

– The complexity is only M to obtain p n 1/ M v1 1 e

opt jangle( v1 )

Update G n

Proposition 2. The matrix G n can be simplified as

1

2 H

G n G n1 1

2 1

v v , 1 is largest singular value of G n 1

N N 2 1 1 1

– Corresponding complexity is M 2

Total complexity M 2 ( NS K )

– Only 10% of [11] !

Simulation results

Simulation setup

– Antennas: (1) NM K 64 16 (2) NM K 128 32

– RF chains: (1) N 8 (2) N 16

– Channel: Geometric Saleh-Valenzuela model

25 30

Spatially sparse precoding (full-connected) [6] Spatially sparse precoding (fully-connected) [6]

Optimal unconstrained precoding (sub-connected) Optimal unconstrained precoding (sub-connected)

25

Proposed SIC-based precoding (sub-connected) Proposed SIC-based precoding (sub-connected)

20

Conventional analog precoding (sub-connected) [21] Conventional analog precoding (sub-connected) [21]

Achievable rate (bps/Hz)

20

15

15

10

10

87%

5

5

0 0

-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0

Conclusions

We proposed a hybrid precoding scheme with sub-connected

architecture for mmWave massive MIMO systems

Basic ideas

– Decompose the total achievable rate into the sum of sub-rates

– Optimize the sub-rate of each sub-antenna array one by one by

exploiting the concept of SIC for multi-user detection

The computational complexity of our method is M 2 ( NS K ) ,

only 10% of that of conventional scheme

Simulation results have verified the near-optimal (87%)

performance of our method

Practical Solutions: Work 6

Xinyu Gao, Linglong Dai, Shuangfeng Han, Chih-Lin I, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Channel Estimation and Beam Selection in Beamspace for

Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO,” to be submitted to IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Advantages of mmWave massive MIMO

Advantages

– Larger bandwidth: 50MHz → 1GHz

More users and higher capacity

– Larger antenna array: 1~8 → 256~1024

Larger antenna gain to compensate serious path loss

More data streams to improve spectral efficiency

mmWave

Challenges of mmWave massive MIMO

Challenges

– Traditional MIMO: one dedicated RF chain for one antenna

Enormous number of RF chains due to large antenna array

High complexity in signal processing

Unaffordable energy consumption (250 mW per RF chain)

64 antennas → 64 RF chains → 16 W !

number of RF chains?

Category 1: Hybrid beamforming

Basic idea [Ayach’14,Gao’15]

– Decompose fully digital beamformer of large size:

Digital beamformer with small size (realized by RF chains)

Analog beamformer with large size (realized by phase shifters)

Performance

– Reduce RF chains by signal

processing

– Not obvious performance loss

– Require complicated design

– High computational complexity

[Ayach’14] O. El Ayach, et al., “Spatially sparse precoding in millimeter wave MIMO systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., 2014.

[Gao’15] X. Gao, et al., “Energy-efficient hybrid analog and digital precoding for mmwave MIMO systems with large antenna arrays,”

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., 2015.

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 99

Category 2: Beamspace MIMO

Basic idea [Brady’14]

– Transform spatial channel into beamspace channel (realized by lens)

Limited scatters → beamspace channel is approximately sparse

– Select beams to reduce dimension (realized by switching network)

– Digital beamformer with small size (realized by RF chains)

Performance

– Reduce RF chains by discrete

lens array (DLA)

– Classical beamformers can be

directly employed

– Low computational complexity

[Brady’14] J. Brady, et al., “Beamspace MIMO for millimeterwave communications: System architecture, modeling,

analysis, and measurements,” IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 3814–3827, Jul. 2013.

Principle of beamspace MIMO

System model

– K single-antenna users, BS with N antennas, N RF K RF chains

y H H x n H H Ps n, H h1 , h 2 ,, h K N K

– Saleh-Valenzuela channel model [Ayach’14]

a ,

L

0 0 i i 1 d

hk k a k a e j 2 m , sin

i 1

k k

N m N

LoS path NLoS paths ULA steering vector

– Transform the spatial channel into beamspace

H Ps n, U a , a ,, a H ,

y H H U H Ps n H 1 2 N

where N l N 1 / 2, l 0,1,, N 1 , n n N 1 / 2 / N , n 1, 2,, N

[Ayach’14] O. El Ayach, et al., “Spatially sparse precoding in millimeter wave MIMO systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., 2014.

Beamspace channel

Sparsity

12

60

11

h

10

H 50

9

Beam index

– h

40

7

k 6

elements 30

5

– Approximately sparse

20

3

2

10

1

Beam selection

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

User index

H P s n, H

y H l ,:

H

r r r l

– Only a small number of RF chains

Challenges

1st : Channel estimation

H should be estimated with only N K RF chains

– H RF

H should be fully utilized

– Sparsity of H

– Different users may select the same beam

Severe interference

Number of RF chains is uncertain and unfixed

– Near-optimal performance should be achieved with low complexity

Outline of SD-based channel estimation

Technological process

– Consider TDD system

– All the K users transmit pilots to the BS

– The BS employs analog combining to obtain measurement vectors

– OMP algorithm is utilized to estimate the channel with low overhead

– Channel reciprocity is utilized to obtain the downlink channel matrix

Measurements

Measurements

– All the K users transmit orthogonal pilots over M QK time slots

– During the mth time block

UL UHΨ N HΨ

Y N , m1, 2,, M , Pilot: Ψ m Ψ mH Ψ mH Ψ m I K

m m m m m

UL W HΨ

R m Wm Y N eff

m m m Wm N m Z m R m Ψ mH Wm H m

z1,k W1 n1,effk

z W eff

2, k n 2,k A typical sparse signal

zk 2

hk n ,

Wh

k k

recovery problem !

eff

z

M ,k M W n M ,k

How to realize the combining matrix?

by switching network

be used for combing!

Proposed adaptive phase shifter network

network by adaptive phase shifter

network

precoding and beamspace MIMO

Beam selection via phase shifter network

How to realize beam selection by phase shifter network?

– Based on opt , turn off some phase shifters (i.e., 0) and set some

phase shifters to shift the phase 0 degree (i.e., 1)

e j11 e j12 e j1 N

j21

e e j22 e j2 N Combining matrix (realized

by phase shifter network) for

jK 1 channel estimation

e e jK 2 e jKN

e j 0 0 0

Switching matrix (realized by

0 0 e j0 adaptively reconfiguring the phase

shifter network) for beam selection

0 e j0 0

Channel estimation and beam selection can share the same module

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 108

How to design combining matrix

Observation

n ,

z k Wh k k

– i.i.d. Bernoulli random matrix enjoys satisfying estimate performance

Each element of W belongs to 1 / Q 1, 1 with equal probability

– Realized by phase shifters

Only 1-bit phase shifters is required, low energy consumption

Estimate the channel

– Classical compressed sensing algorithms can be used

– Poor performance when SNR is low

More efficient algorithm is required

[Ayach’14] O. El Ayach, et al., “Spatially sparse precoding in millimeter wave MIMO systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., 2014.

SD-based channel estimation

Problem: poor performance at low SNR

Solution: exploiting asymptotical orthogonality and

structural characteristics of the beamspace channel

as h N/L

L

Proposition 1. Represent the beamspace channel h k k

c ,

i 0 i

where ci Uci is the ith channel component of h in the beamspace. Then, any

k

two channel components ci and c j in the beamspace are asymptotically

orthogonal when the number of antennas N in beamspace mmWave massive

MIMO systems tends to infinity, i.e.,

N

Insight of Proposition 1

– The total channel estimation problem can be decomposed into a series

of independent sub-problems

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 110

SD-based channel estimation

Problem: poor performance at low SNR

Solution: exploiting asymptotical orthogonality and

structural characteristics of the beamspace channel

Proposition 2. Consider the beamspace channel h of the kth user. The ratio

k

between the power PV of V strongest elements of h k and the total power PT of the

channel can be lower-bounded by

PV 2 V /21

2i 1

PT N 2 i 1

.

sin 2

2 N

Once the position n of the strongest element of h is determined, other V-1

k

strongest elements will uniformly locate around it.

CS-based channel estimation

1

k Best case

Worst case

1

N sin

2N

1

3

N sin

2N

1/ N 1/ N 1 / 2N

Insight of Proposition 2

can be well-approximated by a sparse vector

– h k

N 256, V 8, PV / PT 95%

is determined by n

– The support (positions of nonzero elements) of h k

at time according to n

We can directly obtain the support of h k

SD-based channel estimation

Insight

Existing beam selection method

Magnitude maximization (MM) beam selection [Sayeed’14]

with the largest magnitude

– Select V rows (beams) of h k

1 2 V

k 1,2,K

Problem

– Only retain power without considering multi-user interferences

– The number of required RF chains is uncertain and unfixed

Difficult to be realized in

practical system!

[Sayeed’14] A. Sayeed and J. Brady, “Beamspace MIMO for high-dimensional multiuser communication at millimeter-

wave frequencies,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM’13, Dec. 2013, pp. 3679–3684.

Interference-aware (IA) beam selection

Motivation

– Select the best beam for each user without repeat

– The required number of RF chains is fixed as the number of users

– Classify all K users into two user groups, i.e., interference-users (IUs)

and noninterference-users (NIUs), according to their strongest beams.

– Propose an incremental algorithm to search the appropriate beam for

each IU

Stage 1: Identify IUs and NIUs

Inspiration

– The strongest beam bk of each user contains most of the total power

– bk will also lead to unobvious multi-user interferences

– Can we directly choose b1* , b2* ,, bK* ?

0

Lemma 5. Assume that spatial directions k for k 1, 2,, K follow the i.i.d.

uniform distribution within 0.5,0.5 . The probability Pr2 that there exist users

sharing the same strongest beam is

N!

Pr 2 1 .

N N K !

K

Definitions

– NIUs: one user k is NIU if its strongest beam bk is different from any

other strongest beams, i.e., bk* b1* ,, bk*1 , bk*1 ,, bK*

– IUs: any two users k1 and k2 are IUs if bk*1 bk*2

Stage 2: Search the best unshared beam

Step 2: Search the optimal beam set Iopt of IUs

– Select the beams for NIUs NIU opt

= bk* | k NIU

– Select Card IU beams from 1, 2,, N \ bk* | k NIU as IU

– Combine IU and NIUopt

to form the set

– Based on , select K beams of beamspace channel H

– The dimension-reduced MIMO system

l ,: ,

yH H P s n, H H

r r r l

K

h r ,k p r ,k

H 2

opt

m k r ,k r ,m

2

IU

k 1 h H

p 2

– Form the optimal set of selected beams for all K users opt IUopt NIU

opt

Interference-aware (IA) beam selection

Beam index

Interference-aware (IA) beam selection

Simulation setup

System parameters

– Frequency: 28 GHz

– MIMO configuration: N K 256 16, N RF K 16

– Total time slots: M QK 128 ( Q 8 time slots for per user)

– Select V 3 candidate beams in the first stage of IA beam selection

– Digital beamformer: Zero forcing (ZF)

Channel parameters

– Channel model: Saleh-Valenzuela model

– Antenna array: ULA at BS, with antenna spacing d / 2

– Multiple paths: One LoS component and two NLoS components L 2

– LoS component

0 1 1

Amplitude: k 0,1 Spatial direction: k

0

,

2 2

– NLoS components

1 1

Amplitude: k ~ 0,10 Spatial direction: k , 1 i L

i 2 i

2 2

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 120

NMSE of channel estimation

Observations

– CS-based channel estimation can achieve satisfying accuracy

– The required number of RF chains is only N RF 16 instead of 256

– The overhead can be reduced by 62.5% (96 instead of 256 time slots)

1

10

Proposed SD-based channel estimation

0

10

hˆ h

2

NMSE (dB)

NMSE= k k k

2

h 2

-1

10

k 2

-2

10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Uplink SNR (dB)

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 121

Energy efficiency & sum-rate

Observations

– IA beam selection can achieve much higher energy efficiency

– IA beam selection with SD-based channel estimation is near-optimal

18 100

16 Conventional MM beam selection (2 beams per user) 90 IA beam selction with perfect CSI

Proposed IA beam selection (1 beam per user) SD-based channel estimation (uplink SNR = 0 dB)

14

80 OMP-based channel estimation (uplink SNR = 0 dB)

A c h ie v a b le s u m -ra te (b its /s /H z )

SD-based channel estimation (uplink SNR = 10 dB)

E n e rg y e ffic ie n t (b p s /H z /W )

12

SD-based channel estimation (uplink SNR = 20 dB)

60

OMP-based channel estimation (uplink SNR = 20 dB)

10

50

8

40

6

30

4

20

2 10

0 0

8 10 20 30 40 50 60 64 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Number of users K Downlink SNR (dB)

Conclusions

We solve two challenging problems in beamspace MIMO

The proposed CS-based channel estimation scheme may

be the first work to address the challenging channel

estimation problem

The proposed CS-based channel estimation is realized by

exploiting asymptotical orthogonality and structural

characteristics of the beamspace channel

We design an adaptive selecting network to adaptively

realize channel estimation and beam selection for

beamspace MIMO systems

The proposed IA beam selection requires fixed number of

RF chains, and achieves the performance quite close to the

fully digital system

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 123

Content

1 5G in The World

4 Future Research

5 Summary

Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO

Advantages

– Larger bandwidth: 50MHz → 1GHz

More users and more traffic

– Larger antenna array: 1~8 → 64~256

Larger antenna gain to compensate serious path loss

More data streams to improve spectral efficiency

mmWave

Xinyu Gao, Linglong Dai, Shuangfeng Han, Chih-Lin I, and Robert Heath, “Energy-Efficient Hybrid Analog and Digital Precoding for mmWave MIMO

Systems with Large Antenna Arrays”, to appear in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, available at: http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.04592

Beamspace Massive MIMO

Basic idea [Brady’14]

– Transform (realized by lens) into beamspace channel

Limited scatters → beamspace channel is sparse

– Select beams (realized by switching network) to reduce dimension

– Digital beamformer with small size (realized by RF chains)

Performance

– Reduce RF chains by hardware

architecture

– Classical beamformers can be

directly employed

– Low computational complexity

Xinyu Gao, Linglong Dai, Shuangfeng Han, Chih-Lin I, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Channel Estimation and Beam Selection for

Beamspace Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO Systems,” submitted to IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Massive MIMO with Spatial Modulation

Spatial Modulation (SM)

– Exploit antenna selection pattern to transmit extra data

– Energy efficient but spectrum inefficient

Massive SM-MIMO

– Exploit more antennas to increase the spectrum efficiency

– Key challenges: signal detection and channel estimation

Zhen Gao, Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, Sheng Chen, and Lajos Hanzo, “Compressive Sensing Based Multi-User

Detector for Large-Scale SM-MIMO Uplink,” to appear in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.

Massive MIMO with 1-Bit ADC

Performance analysis

‒ MmWave channel model

‒ Different antenna array (ULA, UPA, UCA)

‒ Hardware impairment

‒ Imperfect CSI

Signal detector

‒ 1-bit detection performance

‒ Design optimization

Jiayi Zhang, Linglong Dai, Shengyang Sun, and Zhaocheng Wang, “On The Spectral Efficiency of Massive MIMO Systems with Low-

Resolution ADCs,” submitted to IEEE Communications Letters.

Extension of Massive MIMO

Massive MIMO for THz

Linglong Dai, Bichai Wang, Yifei Yuan, Shuangfeng Han, Chih-Lin I, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for 5G:

Solutions, Challenges, Opportunities, and Future Research Trends,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 74-81, Sep. 2015.

Content

1 Introduction

5 Summary

Summary

Massive MIMO is very promising technology for 5G wireless

communications

Theoretically, massive MIMO can increase the spectrum and

energy efficiency by orders of magnitude

We have proposed several practical solutions to address

challenging problems to realize massive MIMO

– Performance analysis with practical constraints

– Pilot decontamination based on graph coloring

– Efficient pilot design and channel estimation based on CS

– Low-complexity multi-user detection for uplink massive SM-MIMO

– Energy-efficient SIC-based hybrid precoding

– Beamspace massive MIMO

Future research directions

– mmWave massive MIMO, massive SM-MIMO, beamspace massive

MIMO

– Massive MIMO for NOMA, UDN, THz, energy harvesting, wireless

power transfer…

Massive MIMO for 5G: From Theory to Practice 131

Reference and Recent Publications

1. Xinyu Gao, Linglong Dai, Shuangfeng Han, Chih-Lin I, and Robert Heath, “Energy-Efficient Hybrid Analog and

Digital Precoding for mmWave MIMO Systems with Large Antenna Arrays”, to appear in IEEE Journal on Selected

Areas in Communications, 2015. (IF: 4.138)

2. Zhen Gao, Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, Sheng Chen, and Lajos Hanzo, “Compressive Sensing Based Multi-

User Detector for Uplink Large-Scale SM-MIMO,” to appear in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology,

2015.

3. Xinyu Gao, Linglong Dai, Chau Yuen, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Turbo-Like Beamforming Based on Tabu Search

Algorithm for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO Systems,” to appear in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular

Technology, 2015.

4. Wenqian Shen, Linglong Dai, Byonghyo Shim, Shahid Mumtaz, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Joint CSIT Acquisition

Based on Low-Rank Matrix Completion for FDD Massive MIMO Systems,” to appear in IEEE Communications

Letters, 2015.

5. Zhen Gao, Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, and Sheng Chen, “Spatially Common Sparsity Based Adaptive

Channel Estimation and Feedback for FDD Massive MIMO”, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 63,

no. 23, pp. 6169-6183,. Dec. 2015. (IF: 3.198)

6. Linglong Dai, Xinyu Gao, Xin Su, Shuangfeng Han, Chih-Lin I, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Low-Complexity Soft-

Output Signal Detection Based on Gauss-Seidel Method for Uplink Multi-User Large-Scale MIMO Systems,” IEEE

Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 4839-4845, Oct. 2015.

7. Zhen Gao, Linglong Dai, De Mi, Zhaocheng Wang, Muhammad Ali Imran, and Muhammad Zeeshan Shakir,

“MmWave Massive MIMO Based Wireless Backhaul for 5G Ultra-Dense Network,” IEEE Wireless

Communications, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 13-21, Oct. 2015. (IF: 6.524)

Reference and Recent Publications

8. Xudong Zhu, Linglong Dai, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Graph Coloring Based Pilot Allocation to Mitigate Pilot

Contamination for Multi-Cell Massive MIMO Systems,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1842-

1845, Oct. 2015.

9. Wenqian Shen, Linglong Dai, Xudong Zhu, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Compressive Sensing Based Differential

Channel Feedback for Massive MIMO,” Electronics Letters, vol. 51, no. 22, pp. 1824-1826, Oct. 2015.

10. Zhen Gao, Linglong Dai, Chau Yuen, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Asymptotic Orthogonality Analysis of Time-Domain

Sparse Massive MIMO Channels,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1826-1829, Oct. 2015.

11. Linglong Dai, Bichai Wang, Yifei Yuan, Shuangfeng Han, Chih-Lin I, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Non-Orthogonal

Multiple Access for 5G: Solutions, Challenges, Opportunities, and Future Research Trends,” IEEE

Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 74-81, Sep. 2015. . (IF: 4.460)

12. Jiayi Zhang, Linglong Dai, Wolfgang H. Gerstacker, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Effective capacity of communication

systems over κ-µ shadowed fading channels,” Electronics Letters, vol. 51, no. 19, pp. 1540-1542, Sep. 2015.

(1.068)

13. Xinyu Gao, Linglong Dai, Yuting Hu, Yu Zhang, and Zhaocheng Wang, “A Low-Complexity Signal Detection

Algorithm for Large-Scale MIMO in Optical Wireless Communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in

Communications, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1903-1912, Sep. 2015. (IF: 4.138)

14. Jiayi Zhang, Linglong Dai, Yanjun Han, Yu Zhang, and Zhaocheng Wang, “On the Ergodic Capacity of MIMO

Free-Space Optical Systems over Turbulence Channels,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications,

vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1925-1934, Sep. 2015. (IF: 4.138)

Reference and Recent Publications

15. Jiayi Zhang, Linglong Dai, Yu Zhang, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Unified Performance Analysis of Mixed Radio

Frequency/Free-Space Optical Dual-Hop Transmission Systems,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology,

vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2286-2293, June 2015.

16. Wenqian Shen, Linglong Dai, Zhen Gao, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Spatially Correlated Channel Estimation Based on

Block Iterative Support Detection for Massive MIMO,” Electronics Letters, vol. 51, no.7, pp. 587-588, Apr. 2015.

17. Xinyu Gao, Linglong Dai, Yongkui Ma, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Low-Complexity Near-Optimal Signal Detection for

Uplink Large-Scale MIMO Systems,” Electronics Letters, vol. 50, no. 18, pp. 1326-1328, Aug. 2014.

18. Zhen Gao, Linglong Dai, Zhaohua Lu, Chau Yuen, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Super-Resolution Sparse MIMO-OFDM

Channel Estimation Based on Spatial and Temporal Correlations,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 18, no. 7,

pp. 1266-1269, Jul. 2014.

19. Zhen Gao, Linglong Dai, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Structured Compressive Sensing Based Superimposed Pilot

Design in Downlink Large-Scale MIMO Systems,” Electronics Letters, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 896-898, Jun. 2014.

20. Linglong Dai, Zhengyuan Xu, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Flexible Multi-Block OFDM Transmission for High-Speed

Fiber-Wireless Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 788-796,

Dec. 2013. (IF: 4.138)

21. Linglong Dai, Jintao Wang, Zhaocheng Wang, Paschalis Tsiaflakis, and Marc Moonen, “Spectrum- and Energy-

Efficient OFDM Based on Simultaneous Multi-Channel Reconstruction,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing,

vol. 61, no. 23, pp. 6047-6059, Dec. 2013. (IF: 3.198)

22. Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, and Zhixing Yang, “Compressive Sensing Based Time Domain Synchronous

OFDM Transmission for Vehicular Communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.

31, no. 9, pp. no. 460-469, Sep. 2013. (IF: 4.138)

Reference and Recent Publications

23. Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, Jun Wang, and Zhixing Yang, “Joint Time-Frequency Channel Estimation for Time

Domain Synchronous OFDM Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 168-173, Mar. 2013.

24. Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, and Zhixing Yang, “Spectrally Efficient Time-Frequency Training OFDM for Mobile

Large-Scale MIMO Systems,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 251-263,

Feb. 2013. (IF: 4.138)

25. Linglong Dai, Chao Zhang, Zhengyuan Xu, and Zhaocheng Wang, “Spectrum-Efficient Coherent Optical OFDM for

Transport Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 62-74, Jan. 2013.

(IF: 4.138)

26. Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, and Zhixing Yang, “Time-Frequency Training OFDM with High Spectral Efficiency

and Reliable Performance in High Speed Environments,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.

30, no. 4, pp. 695-707, May 2012. (IF: 4.138)

27. Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, and Zhixing Yang, “Next-Generation Digital Television Terrestrial Broadcasting

Systems: Key Technologies and Research Trends,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 150-158,

Jun. 2012. (IF: 4.460)

28. Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, Changyong Pan, and Sheng Chen, “Wireless Positioning Using TDS-OFDM Signals

in Single-Frequency Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 236-246, Jun. 2012.

29. Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, and Jian Song, “TDS-OFDMA: A Novel Multiple Access System Based on TDS-

OFDM,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1528-1534, Nov. 2011.

30. Linglong Dai, Zhaocheng Wang, and Cheng Shen, “A Novel Uplink Multiple Access Scheme Based on TDS-FDMA,”

IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 757-761, Mar. 2011.

MOST (973, 863), NSFC

Xudong Zhu, Wenqian Shen,

Xinyu Gao

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