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A Review paper on Supercapacitor, Ultracapacitor

Shayaan Ahmed, Rizwn Hanif, Bilal Idrees, Jamshed Ibrahim, Asad ur Rehman, Saqib Haroon

Department of Electrical Engineering, Bahria University Islamabad


University of Engineering and technology Taxila
10beerhanif@seecs.edu.pk

Abstract :-Worldwide researchers are looking for making new energy storing devices and also looking for improving
devices which are in use now a days, in their performance. Capacitor’s demerit is the low energy density and battery is
the low power density, these difficulties can be overcome by super capacitor which is latest in energy storing devices. This
paper gives us the highlights on hybrid energy with fuel cell, Li ion battery and different control techniques used for
optimization of hybrid energy storage systems in electrical vehicles. The advantage of super-capacitor are described in
detail when its comes to be in hybrid mode with some other storage device. The performance of the different system is
also dealt in detail with respect to energy density, power density, specific capacitance, self -discharge and cycle life.

Index Terms—Super Capacitor (SC), Ultra capacitor (UC), Electrical double layer capacitor (ELDC), equivalent
series resistance (ESR)

faradic reaction that occurs in the electrode as compared


I. INTRODUCTION to capacitors and super-capacitors.

S uper capacitors also known as ultra-capacitors are In Batteries energy is stored in electrode by using redox
reaction which is also called faradic reaction which
the newest addition to the energy storage devices. These losses or gain the electron to produce new chemical
type of systems have adequate energy density with product on electrode like electrode composition,
longer cycle life and enormous power, It is between however, charging and discharging is different. A
battery and normal capacitor. These type of systems energy storage consisting of faradic redox reaction it
have many applications in the domestic electronics consists of thermodynamic limitation and made up of
consumer items, field of electronics, hybrid electric some irreversible reactions. Due to redox reaction,
vehicles.
charging time is high.
Major component of super capacitor storage device are
There are many unanswered questions and scope for
electrolyte, separator, electrode, and collector. The
optimization till now, extensive research is been carried
understanding of the properties of components are the
out in the field of super-capacitors. Super Capacitors
most important to reader.
has many parts, which jointly or separately take part in
its working that’s why optimization for each part is
necessary. But separate part optimization may not verify II. SUPER CAPACITOR COMPONENTS
the optimization of the system then studying the
optimization for all parts jointly. Experiments and Electrode is the major component of the super-capacitor
observations done by researchers are related with rules system and is a site for energy storage. In the electrode-
and laws of energy science and complete conclusions electrolyte interface the ions will interact with the
and logic is made for each method and data is presented. electrode material and are stored at the active sites of
the electrode.
Main parameters which tells the working of an energy
storage system are power density, energy density, self- The major parameters of a super-capacitor electrode are
discharge and cycle life. All of these parameters are porosity, area and conductivity. Such electrode
different for capacitors, super capacitors and batteries. parameters have large influence over the energy density.
Optimization of such parameters will lead to high
Cycle life is known as a number of charging and functioning super-capacitor and can lead to the
discharging cycles for which super capacitor is capable application in existing electronics devices such as
to work without any notable degradation. Capacitor laptops and mobile phones.
consists of highest cycle life followed by super Electrolyte is a liquid gel or solid that generates ions
capacitor with life cycle of 100000 – 500000 cycles. and allows their movement between the electrodes
Batteries having low cycle life (1000 cycles), having under the application of electric potential. Electrolyte
being the major component of super-capacitor
influences its performance, energy density and power From the above equation the amount of energy that can
density. Depending upon the application and be stored per gram of electrode is directly proportion to
characteristics required for a super-capacitor proper square of operating voltage and specific capacitance but
selection of electrolyte is paramount importance for its operating voltage is limited by type of electrolyte.
better performance and efficiency. Power density of super-capacitor depends on equivalent
Separator is sandwiched layer between the two series resistance (ESR) which in turn depends on the
electrodes to avoid the direct electric contact between electrode resistance, type of electrolyte and resistance of
them and acts as permeable layer for ion transportation separator.
.There a need for appropriate selection of separator for
the proper functioning of the super capacitor such that 2
V
adequate energy density, power density, self-discharge P = ....... (4)
4𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑟
and maximum cycle life can be attained. Desirable
characteristics like permeability to the ionic flow, Pseudo capacitor works in the principle of fast faradic
appropriate resistance, optimum thickness and porosity, reaction between the electrolyte and electro active
proper interfacial contact, low cost , chemical stability species of electrode (functional groups and many more).
and electrolyte retain ability should be exhibited by a In normal EDLC super-capacitors also in a small extent
good separator. pseudo capacitance might be present due to impurities
in electrode and electrolyte. The pseudo capacitance is
Collector plate provides a connecting link for the measured in terms of amount of charge stored for an
electron to flow from active electrode material to the applied potential.
external circuit. Collector plates must exhibit desirable
properties like high conductivity for the pathway of 𝑑𝑞
𝐶 = ..….. (5)
electron, adhesive contact with the electrode material, 𝑑𝑣
adequate stability during Charging/discharging process
and high corrosion resistance behavior for a high
performance super capacitor system IV. LITERATURE REVIEW

III. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

The main goal of super capacitor is to get the optimal


theme of operation for any system.

A. Objective Function

The equivalent capacitance (C) is given by

1 1 1
𝑐
= 𝑐1 + 𝑐2 ……. (1)
Fig. [1].Number of Publication on supercapacitor over a last decade
For an EDLC super-capacitor Capacitance depends on
electrode surface area and distance between the positive Eiji Hiraki, Koji Yamamoto et el. in 2006 presented a
and negative electrode paper in which push pull bidirectional converter circuit
is made which is DC-DC its different control methods
𝐴
𝐶= 𝑑
......... (2) are proposed. The current and voltage losses are
reduced with high efficient noise control Snubber circuit
Energy density for EDLC super-capacitor is same as and in the rectification side also the losses are
that for capacitor, it depends on capacitance and square decrease.[1]
of voltage and is given by
In 2006 paper presented which says the lead acid
1 batteries are more economical then the NiMH batteries
E = c v2 ........ (3) but there is sulfation problem in hybrid electric vehicle
2
which can be reduced by the use of ultra-capacitor
circuit. If prices of super capacitor reduce in the market
then system give more cheaper energy. The battery and power of super capacitor. The super capacitor value
capacitor make the longer boot pulse which starts the 1500F, 2.7V checked and verified.[9]
engine of the vehicle quickly.[2]
Author told about the control of fuel cell electric vehicle In this paper the author discussed the hybrid system
which has slow response to make it faster, there is need which is applied on electric vehicle the 4 batteries
of ultra capacitor and battery as a source that associated with it and super capacitor the energy
performance of the system improves but control is an regenerative model is established the system based on
issue which is solved by fuzzy logic. The three fuzzy SMC there is comparison between the fuzzy SMC
controllers are introduced for controlling the converters, and PID controller the ultra-capacitor batteries
batteries and ultra capacitors the new simulation tool is efficiency is more with fuzzy logic 42.1% and with PID
used i.e. PLECS for better results.[3] controller 36.8%.[10]

Ying Wu, and Hongwei Gao et el. in 2006 presented Yanqing Qu, lianguo Zhu, liefeng presented a paper, raise
paper in which the researchers tries to minimize the the important problem i.e. voltage of ultracapacitor with
cost of the supercapacitor and fuel cell used in the this effect the super capacitor voltage vary with time
electric vehicles. But design should be optimal that it which decrease its capacity.in this paper the voltage
gives better results. The constraints are obtained balance solution are presented. Which include
simulation and analytical analysis. The balance circuit is
combined with the cost function for getting the number
studied using MOSFET exclusive of resistive
of fuel cell and supercapacitors unit with price.[4]
component heat generation circuit uses without switches
In this paper the author put analysis of the vehicle with voltage equalizer. The method is efficient if problems
the super capacitors and without it the storage and are solved like numerous rectifier heavy circuits.[11]
power are main issue in the development of Vehicle. In 2007 In this paper three system are proposed for
Multi energy system is introduced model of battery, power management of fuel cell super capacitor of
capacitor and vehicle made in MATLAB. Comparison electric vehicle i.e. Vehicle speed, charge of capacitor
between the supercapacitor vehicle and without it the voltage variation. In high speed changing the
introduced, the supercapacitor improves the working of voltage control give good result with current control
battery, acceleration of vehicle and average energy method.[12]
consumption.[5]
Yonghua Cheng, Van Mierlo Joeri et al. presented
In 2007 ,this paper the author designed new energy paper hybrid electric vehicle are tested on power supply
system for UC and HEV the propose design required a system. Ultracapacitor energy storage traction system
DC-DC converter for ultracapacitor the motor drive and simulation. Speed cycle topology is used test
performance is not affected by UC two new schemes are platform can be used for optimization propulsion system
introduced i.e. UC rating and energy flow control both management for hybrid E.V.[13]
schemes have high efficiency.[6]
In this paper supporting AES is designed for the electric
A new technique is introduced in which UC used vehicle which is based on capacitor bank, buck boost
directly for full speed of power and vehicle. Two UC converter which is derived by battery lead acid and
are used for charging, simulation verify the result of the brushless D.C motor. Two control method one is
proposed methodology. Charging methods are used heuristics and other is optimization model using neural
when vehicle is Idle; charge through the load require network. The lead acid batteries are replaced by fuel
very less power of converter.[7] cell. There is cost reduction observed in AES
configuration and in using super capacitor. The cost is
Yuchen Lu, Herbert L. Hess Dean B. Edwards et el. in reduced quickly.AES is the best combination in
2007 this paper, UESS system is studied the main task comparison with the other two methods.[14]
to control the o/p voltage from the fluctuation a hybrid
technique name gain schedule is used with fuzzy logical Hosein Farzanehfard, Dawood Shekari Beyragh, Ehsan
achieve damping for a short time adjust the changes for Adib et el. in 2008 In this paper the author discussed
LQR.[8] ultracapacitor how increase the power in hybrid electric
vehicle. There are bidirectional converters are required
In this paper, super capacitor energy storage system is which is highly efficient and can up or down the voltage
studied and tested for peak power. Different cycle test is and limit the current for that purpose soft switch is
applied which is verified in term of voltage variation, required i.e. ZVS in laboratory 150 prototype is
maximum power and current. Propulsion system is tested.[15]
introduced. Speed cycle method used to calculate the
In this paper the author talks about the electric scooter works best improve dynamic response the system is
and combination of two power sources i.e. fuel cell and tested in Simulink for changes in load current.[21]
super capacitor. Both sources power balancing the load Author talks about the driving schedule of Europe and
requirement in continuous and peak. The controller is standardize them with the hybrid electric vehicle. The
designed for that purpose distribute power between fuel mathematical modeling is produced using super
cell, super capacitor did not pollute the environment due capacitor as storage element the result are made on FEE.
to that this clean system play a vital role in our The SCADA system is used for getting real time values.
environment. Now a days it is costly but if demand The efficiency of vehicle improve with it.[22]
increases its price decreases.[16] This paper is about the STATCOM and improving its
performance with super capacitor. Distributed
V.V. Haerri, Udaya. Madawala et al. presented paper STATCOM is combined with the super capacitor
the movement of micro scooter is controlled by energy storage system the voltage of the system increase power
harvesting which is generated by a rider. The super and improve reliability the charge and discharge of
capacitor is used for a maximum storage energy which capacitor control the potential performance. The
boost the overall circuitry and speed of micro scooter. simulation results power based on different arc furnac
There is sensor which control the movement of the load the power is supplied with D-STATCOM ultra
motor and power. The experimental result of micro capacitor system.[23]
scooter 100w motor verified on proposed algorithm. [17] In 2008 this paper the system of hybrid fuel cell EV
discussed .Performance of the batteries analyze and
In 2008 the paper presented , the super capacitor is used their volume too the deep discharge of the batteries
with digital converter to improve performance of reduced with the ultra capacitor the rating of capacitor
electric vehicle and decrease the gas emission for that and batteries are discussed . If both rating is sufficient
purpose. When vehicle accelerated the boost DC-DC to the required level the system volume, efficiency mass
converter transfer energy from super capacitor to motor. improve. The graphical representation of over sizing of
When vehicle decelerated Buck converter transfer battery and ultracapacitors is provided.[24]
energy from capacitor to motor. DC bus medium is used
for energy transmission. Experimental results verified Wu fengjiang1,Sun lizhi1,Zhang yuanbo et el paper
the system which improve efficiency and decrease in presented ,the voltage balance circuit is introduced for
pollution emission.[18] charging electric vehicles. In the peak, load transfer the
supercapacitor voltage maintain its level. Voltage
Lisheng Shi and M. L. Crow et el. paper, different balancing technique equalize the all capacitor voltage.
model of ultracapacitor for electric vehicle discussed Efficient soft switching is used based on zero current
three models based on RC network are selected. Their switching the parameter affecting the same time are
analyze for design of circuit. Simulation are presented
comparison is given based on inductance and leakage
which verified the result. Balance circuit is useful for
current effect. This paper translates the parameter of one
electric car, compensation of generator and different
model to other so that the best model can be selected for application of energy storage system the circuit helpful
the required need era to get the best arrangement of for some renewable energy sources.[25]
every populace look.[19]

In this paper the author talks about the EAF which need In 2008 Qi Changjun Chen et el paper presented, some
storage system for its better performance because it issues are discussed regarding electric vehicle storage
induces more power to quality pollution which reduces system. The storage system discharge quickly. This is
the production of steel mill. For that purpose, improved with the ultracapacitor and replace the NIMH
ultracapacitor energy storage system is design with field resource. Combustion engine control strategy
data study of EAF the experimental result are verified introduced during energy flow simulation result shows
and helpful in improving the efficiency of EAF.[20] that the performance of the battery improves the number
of batteries decrease for the required power which
increase the life of batteries after investigation improve
A.S. Samosir and A. H. M. Yatim et el presented paper
hybrid energy system introduced.[26]
the author talks about the electric vehicle dynamic
response which is slower in comparison with the
In this paper the author talks about the software which is
combustion engine vehicles. There is need of second
used for controlling the system of hybrid E.V the
power source which boost its efficiency the ultra
software used in the car in real environment the
capacitor is used with FCEV DC-DC converter and
software give better control after testing the software
ultra-capacitor boost the fuel cell voltage. The system
with different method like in starting, power flow
optimization feedback idle control of speed.[27]
The author talk about two control strategies in electric Toshiyuki Uchida and Yoichi Hori et el. in 2009 In
vehicle one improve the vehicle efficiency and other this paper, the electric vehicle is made without the
improve the battery life by reducing its peak current. converter ultracapacitor in this the ultra-capacitor is
The efficiency improves up to 7.6% the battery current directly connected with the inverter for energy
decreases up to 72% the battery life improves with it efficiency. Wide speed operation is maintained with
2.4% both control strategies depend on the drive cycle DQ- Axis vector control, the software is also used for
with more peak current improved. Higher peak power
experimental result verification.[34]
has more efficiency then the lower one, the result
simulations are verified using cobra software.[28] Author address the problem of deep discharge of the
battery the rating of battery and capacitors are
Mutsuo Nakaoka et el. in 2009 In this paper the discussed. Two energy management technique is also
bidirectional converter with super capacitor discussed. introduced some suggestion included for design of
DC-DC converter involves full bridge and push pull battery and the ultracapacitor. The over rating is also
circuit with transformer, synchronous rectification is discussed it is advantage that oversize the battery not
used for reduction of losses. Voltage regulation improve the ultra-capacitor but this will increase the system
with the phase shifting PWM, the DC-DC converter mass.[35]
simulation demonstrated. The soft switching method is
used in push pull circuit.[29] Jian-Bo Cao and Bing-Gang Cao et el. In 2009, Paper
presented , focused on the three-main problem short
DC-DC bidirectional converter with ZVS method for driving, less battery life and start up problem of EV.
super capacitor in elecgtric vehicle reduces the current New system is designed which is based on ultra-
over large range of voltage the ZVS is achieved for capacitor, 4-lead acid battery and DC-DC converter for
switches the diode are protected from the reverse improving its stability NNSMC software designed
recovery. This will improve the power density the over which has the following section i.e. neural network
current stress problem of the devices reduces all is the propagation, Radial basis network and SMC. the gain of
new topology all analysis is provided build for 9 to SMC adjusted by the BPNN. The experimental result
21V/66V prototype.[30] shows that it is better than PID. The overall efficiency
of the system increase battery life up to 40% increase
In this paper the new energy management design for and driving range increase of EV.[36]
parallel HEV, optimal values of different sources
obtained. The simulation in mat lab by using this
algorithm the battery life increases with supercapacitor.
s. Rael and B. Davat et el.paper presented, is about
PEM cell for electric vehicle, there is other power
ICE supplies the peak power. In urban drive cycle the
sources required i.e. super capacitor or battery bank
transient load demand supplied by the ultracapacitor.
there is two hybrid system presented fuel cell/battery
The battery only utilizes the average power.[31]
and fuel cell/ super capacitor there is need of reliable
fast power source which is reduced in volume and
Omer Onar, and Alireza Khaligh et el paper presented
weight.[37]
the multiple I/P DC-DC converter design and control
with different O/P the voltage regulate, the converter
The neural network is designed for electric vehicle. It
operation is bidirectional which optimize the power the
has two dimension first with training obtained
fixed frequency is used for operation modes. The
optimization values and second work as controlling the
inductor used is one I/P which reduces the cost of the
system. The controller which is developed response
system, during braking the energy abruptly captured.
quickly against changing in the drive cycle. Stochastic
This topology may be extended with other more than
model is obtained, graphical presentation of different
one sources application.[32]
cycle shows comparison of performance.[38]
Fu-Sheng Pai, Member, IEEE, and Bo-Ge Huanget el.
Ultracapacitor and battery improve the overall
efficiency of the vehicle. Both sources distribute power in 2010 presented paperThe matching design proposed
in electric bus power flow control with the DC-DC in this system ultra-capacitor and lithium battery use,
converter, parameter of converter define with the switching frequency deliver power to a cell and
vehicle simulation. The operation modes of converter is capacitor save energy simulation result shows
DCM and is based on soft switching converter is a buck improvement in design.[39]
boost which decrease the inductor size and increase
efficiency.[33] There is discussion about the combustion engine, its bad
effect on environment and low efficiency convert the
researcher to work on electric vehicle and make it more In this research, combination of fuel cells, batteries and
efficient there is test bench is used for experimental ultra-capacitor is used. Fuel cell is consider as a energy
results.[40] source and batteries and ultra-capacitor as power
sources. Using these in combinations have some
This study is based on analysis and comparison of the
benefits. Like, longer life of ultra-capacitors reduce the
HESS system that, in future, the electric vehicles will
cost of batteries. Due to direct combination of battery to
have instant charging same like electrical trains. Due to
the DC bus, overall system give good efficiency.
large recharging time of batteries, super capacitors are
Moreover, methods for charging and discharging of
used for instant charging, as they have long working life
both ultra-capacitors and batteries are presented in this
and good current density. Moreover “wireless power
paper.[46]
transfer” based magnetic resonance is used to improve
working of electric vehicles. At the end of experiment
Researcher presented a solution for rapid charging of
efficiency of power transferred id increase to 50 % at a
electric vehicle is presented; by using bank of super
distance of 50cm.[41]
capacitors. To avoid cell over voltage and to improve
The writer in this paper discussed series combination of efficiency of storage, the super capacitors are connected
battery and super capacitors are used for electric power in series. By using simulation, three methods are
train. The battery used is known as ZEBRA battery. By described for cell voltage balancing of electric vehicles.
limiting the battery current, efficiency in the case of All the three schemes are appear as a good option for
range energy used and by varying the terminal voltage, better results.[47]
the control scheme has been tested, that gave excellent
result.[42] Brake system in electric hoist and a PSIM hoist
simulation” model is presented in this study. By
Researcher in this research worked about on board regulating the duty cycles of S pulse with modulation,
energy storage system. Efficiency of Electric vehicles the signals of DC/DC converter and charging and
depends upon this system. If we increase the all-electric discharging process of ultra-capacitor is controlled. As a
range the cost of on board energy storage system also result it is showed that in electric hoist, ultra-capacitors
increases. In this paper energy storage topologies for can be used them self as a energy storage system.[48]
electric vehicles, Battery and ultra-capacitors are
described. Moreover, more research is required for This research presents the work on hybrid energy
decreasing the cost and improving the efficiency of systems for plug in electric vehicles by combining
electric vehicles.[43] batteries and ultra-capacitors. In future there would be
more electric vehicles connected with grid. The load is
This is a study of hybrid electric vehicle system is maintained by using “high power quality grid interface”.
discussed by improving the energy storage system and By using this scheme, the minimal current harmonic
reducing the fuel consumption. Simulation results reveal distortions, high power factor and less noise is obtained.
that Ultra capacitors are proved to be a good and instant Coupled inductors give less weight, volume and cost
source of energy. A good control strategy is discussed. that’s why the life time and performance of battery can
As a result, fuel consumption is 15 % reduced with be enhanced[49]
great performance of engine.[44]
The researcher described the performance of double
This paper presents the analysis of using battery and layer capacitor made up of high surface area carbon
ultra-capacitors in hybrid electric vehicles. Model black and carbon nanotube electrodes and a new ionic
Predictive controller MPC is designed. Simulation work liquid 1-ethyl-2, 3 dimethylimidazolium methyl
is performed to show good results. Closed loop carbonate with fifty percent solution n water as
simulation describes that the controller is able to
manage energy and results shows that combination of electrolyte is analyzed. Fabrication of electrode is
battery with ultra-capacitor, the peak power of battery is performed with reveal good performance of
reduced. This increase the working and battery life of capacitance. It is also noted that, for capacitance the
battery.[45] ionic liquid electrolyte is a good option. The super
capacitor is becoming a useful option in future.[50]
In 2011Serge Pierfederici and Bernard Davat presented charging and discharging. Combination of lithium-ion
paper Energy management solutions for electrical battery with super capacitor is performed though
hybrid power source are presented in this study. This designing a best logarithm for it. This method tells us
about the levels of hybridization and reveal better
system is composed of a fuel cell system as a main
methods for hybridization. Results are compared with
source of energy and 2 energy storage devices. old studies [56]
Combination of Fuzzy logic control and flatness control
technique is used, with a bank of super-capacitors and It is a Chinese paper which is about “ultra-capacitor
batteries is used to obtain constant output voltage. This serial hybrid-electric solution for Shanghai City of
scheme is applicable for solar systems and wind China”. According to simulation results it is noticed that
turbines etc.[51] efficiency of fuel is obtained nineteen percent more as
compared to old solutions.[57]
This paper is about the battery backup range of electric
vehicles by using hybrid battery and super capacitor In this study two major problems of hybrid electric
storage system. Bank size of super capacitors and range drives are discussed with their overview and
of city car over “ECE” fifteen cycles. At the end hybrid comparison along with analysis. A technique is made in
system using battery and super capacitor has been which a bidirectional three level DC/DC converter is
used along with an energy storage bank. The simulation
created and good output is obtained.[52] and experimental results verify the theoretical analysis
of the scheme. [58]
In this research, estimation of fuel and emission of
greenhouse gases is considered by using driving cycles. Neenu. M and S. Muthukumaran represented, a novel
In this study 2 schemes for size are used increased hybrid electric system of ultra-capacitors and batteries is
discharging power battery is used and battery is used as formed for better efficiency and results. I which a micro
a energy storage bank. As a booster with the battery, less size DC/DC converter is used which is controlled to
super capacitor is used due to high power. Adding more maintain the voltage level. Battery work as a backup in
super capacitors to the electric vehicle decreases the the place of ultra-capacitor. As output, a reliable
battery stresses. Batteries can be used as energetic constant load is provided from the system. Battery is
batteries.[53] separated from frequent charge increasing the life of
battery.[59]
In this study efficiency and braking energy recovery and
a method to improve them is discussed. Through DC- This paper shows the simulation experiment of a little
DC converter, the battery is connected to the drive to electric car connected with hybrid energy sources.
get maximum efficiency and better results. Modeling LiFePO4 cells are used with reduced range Good results
and control of the electric drive using ultra capacitors as are achieved by increasing energy by connecting ultra-
a energy storage bank and instant power device is capacitor to the system. Advantages of this scheme are
discussed, the scheme is proved by simulation and got discussed, maximum battery current is minimized by
good results.[54] using ultra capacitors which results in long life time of
battery with less maintenance issues.[60]
This study reveal the study of algorithm to control
power in between hybrid energy storage systems having In 2012, a small size DC/DC inverter system is used for
combination of ultra-capacitors and lithium-ion battery. hybrid electric energy system which is proved to be a
The results reveal that hybrid electric systems are more good scheme as compared to old techniques. By using
efficient. Also the negative current on DC buses is small size DC/DC converter, a constant power is
optimized. Study shows the estimation of future work, supplied to the system. This hybrid system consists of
which is about characterizing the PPO performance at ultra-capacitor and battery will give a long life time to
various degrees.[55] the system reducing the maintenance issues and costs of
the system. Overall efficiency is also increased. [61]
This is the study to improve the battery life and
efficiency which are disturbed due to different levels of
The system in this study consists of “isolated bi- and decreasing the “peek current in battery pack”. Super
directional DC/DC converter” with 2 capacitors because capacitors are proved to be “impact factors”. They are
it use half bridge circuit. This system reduces the useable for decreasing the “peak battery currents”. Fifty
current stress of the components, because of high power percent more battery life is required for effectiveness of
density this system can be use in maximum demand the system using desired scheme with super capacitors
power systems. In this research, totally a new scheme of and battery.[67]
study and analysis is presented along with “prototype of
12V/50W”. It is studied that this system is useable in In 2012, a unique production of a “control strategy” for
high power density systems and this system reduces the a “hybrid switched capacitor bidirectional DC/DC
current stresses.[62] converter” used in “hybrid electric vehicle energy
storage system”. In experimental scheme, “step up, step
This work presented a “new direct integration scheme” down and bidirectional power flow” are verified. All the
for “hybrid energy storage system” consist of batteries experimental and modeled results are verified at the end
and super capacitors that is “double ended inverter giving better result as compared to old scheme.[68]
system”. That’s why this system is free of power losses,
complexity, and extra weight and not too much costly. 7
A. Florescu, S. Bacha presented a paper in which
working levels are made to use this system for various
“frequency based energy management system” inside an
conditions. Simulation proved the desired efficiency and electric vehicle is discussed. For “routing the low
controlling schemes used in this system.[63] frequency content of power demand in the battery”,
“frequency splitter” is used. At the end of experiment,
In 2012, “a braking energy recovery system” based on this system is found to be a good system in the case of
reliability, efficiency and long life of battery.[69]
“super capacitors” discussed. Super capacitors will store
the “braking energy”. This study performed The life of the battery in a hybrid control electric system
mathematical experiments to verify the desired scheme. can get low due to “peek current and steep variation of
“High power bridge configuration converter” is used for current”. A new scheme is proposed in this paper to
“high power bridge configuration”. Simulation is done overcome this problem. An “optimization framework”
finally to prove the theoretical comparisons.[64] for overcoming the optimal current flow of hybrid
electric storage system is discussed. Overall simulation
This study is about producing a “hybrid electric results shows the desired scheme is valid, because it
vehicular system using ultra capacitor and battery. As give greater efficiency and also reduce the stresses of
we know that battery is a long term available source of current of the battery. [70]
energy while ultra-capacitor is the instant source of
power. The desired system gives good output in the In the same year 2012, electric vehicle producers uses
form of best control strategy and reducing the stresses Lithium ion battery for hybrid electric energy storage
from the system. The control is achieved by controlling systems. But the life time of lithium ion battery is poor.
the output voltage, by keeping the voltage constant.[65] In this study, that’s why a super capacitor is used to
improve the battery life and to fulfill instant energy
Reza Razavian, Nasser L. Azad presented a control of
requirements in the system. In this study, the reducing
electric vehicles according to future requirements is
achieved by controlling the parameters of the system by the size and cost and improving the control techniques
using “feedback controller”. First of all a “mathematical of the hybrid system which is using DC/DC converter is
system of hybrid drivetrain” is built then “Pontryagin’s discussed.[71]
minimum principle” is built. By using this method an
optical feedback control is designed. In conclusion, On a “ship board”, “electric power system” during
future work and its bases are described providing steady state condition, “electric grid disturbances”
baseline for future researchers in this field.[66] appears because of “powerful periodic pulsed loads”. To
overcome these issues, “hybrid energy storage system”
The paper is about, a new technique is developed to is used. This storage system uses super capacitors as a
control the energy in combination of “battery and super instant source of power. In this paper, sizing and
capacitors”. 2 targets are got; high vehicle efficiency simulate technology is discussed. Charging and
discharging of the battery is sequenced by “stepping the system give better results in the form of reducing the
reference DC voltage to minimum or maximum size of system and overall performance of the system. [77]
levels.[72]
This research study concern with the study of improving
“In this study, a new scheme for “ultra-capacitor based
the efficiency and performance of “hybrid electric
regenerative electric drive” with function of smoothing
energy storage system” which is the combination of
the power is discussed. This proposed scheme is proved
“batteries and super capacitors”. The HESS system in
by multiple experiments. All of the results are
this research is simulated in “MATLAB” to study the
satisfactory. Efficiency of the system is based on the
performance of the system. Various stresses of battery
“conversion efficiency of the ultra- capacitor”. At the
are monitored in “MATLAB”. At the end, it is verified
end of the study, better capability, function and control
the stresses in “hybrid vehicle energy storage system are
of the system are achieved.[73]
reduced by using a super capacitor.[78]
In 2012, this paper, improvement for Electric Bicycle
Regenerative Braking System using ultra-capacitor is
In this study, the old batteries in “hybrid electric energy
discussed. A gel-cell lead acid battery pack is used to
storage system” are replaced with “hydrogen fuel cells,
improve the efficiency of the system. The results shows
batteries and super capacitors. This research reduces the
the ten percent greater efficiency. Study shows that in
green house effects, pollution and oil supplied to the
future, price of ultra-capacitor will become low then
system. A comparison is performed to choose a best
there would be a great scope of using this hybrid energy
controlling scheme for high power electric vehicles. 5
system for electric vehicles. [74]
control schemes are described, on the base of 3
operating modes of vehicles. The scheme is applied on
This work is about creating a “hybrid energy storage
urban street railway. At the end better results are
system for light electric vehicles”. The technique used
obtained.[79]
in this system is “tri mode high efficiency non-isolated
half-bridge converter”. 2 kilo watt, hundred volt inter- This article is about developing a better hybrid electric
leaved 2 phase prototype was designed. The results give system for electric motor bikes. Super capacitors are
97.5% maximum and 88% minimum efficiency over the used to remove draw backs and faults by providing the
full load performance. GPS data is also used in this high current needed at the time of start and accelerating.
system for better results. 1.5% cost of overall energy is Results shows better performance.[80]
reduced.[75]
This study is about designing a “electric traction
Researcher M. Kamel, H. Abo-zeid presented a paper in system” of an “electric vehicle”. This system utilize
which, “electrical characteristics and energy capacity” super capacitors as a single source of energy. The main
of the hybrid system energy storage system are purpose of this research is to improve the electric based
discussed. This study present a new design and public transport in Mexico City by making a prototype
technique of “current controlled DC/DC buck converter. about reliability of the system. A little battery is used in
After the experiment work it is noted that super the system for vehicles energy needs. Simulation results
capacitor is 71.4% more efficient and motor used in the verify the design of this “traction system”. [81]
system has an increased speed with a percentage of
56%, and having sharing of current of 25% at maximum This paper published in 2013, about developing a
speed of motor.[76] control technique for “hybrid power source” which is
based on fuel cell “as an energy source” and super
capacitors as a power bank. Initially, three phase
The research paper presents a novel “energy
“parallel boost converters” and three phase “parallel
management technique” for a “hybrid energy storage
bidirectional converters are made with a suitable control
system” consists of Battery and Super Capacitor. This
technique. “Energetic Macroscopic representation” is
paper give a new scheme to reduce the size of HESS
used to make a simulation model. The final results
and batteries voltage stresses. After experiments, the
verify the proposed method.[82]
results are compared with old schemes used in HESS
system, the results reveal that the scheme used in this
This paper presented by Huang Xiaoliang and This paper based on a control strategy for tramway,
Toshiyuki Hiramats, Supercapacitor and battery, hybrid Spain, whose propulsion system changed by a hybrid
system for electric vehicle with Energy and power system consists of fuel cell as first energy bank and
batteries and ultra-capacitors as second energy bank. Its
control schemes. The energy controlling scheme and
light dynamic reaction , fuel cell needs other energy
power interface method is depending on frequency sources support while step by step accelerator. This
varying filter that give better results in form of output scheme is consist of operational control which produces
and getting energy from the hybrid energy storage the fuel cell power, and “cascade controls”, which
system. The control technique of converter as interface define the "battery and Ultra Capacitor reference
of super capacitor is presented for the optimized use. To powers” to get enough control of the DC bus voltage
achieve this target, “half control topology” is used. The and states of charge of battery and ultra capacitor. The
simulations are carried out by real drive cycle of the
final result demonstrate that management system is
tramway which is very efficient.[87]
better and our convertor control satisfies the hybrid
energy storage for our electric vehicle.[83] This paper describes the novel features of hybrid source
composed with “battery and super-capacitor” packs. In
In 2013, this paper for the electric vehicles, super this paper, two methods of Li-ion battery are joined with
capacitor and battery are joined to make a new energy super capacitor. The two parameters which decide the
storage system. High energy is achieved with fast use of super capacitor and battery is changing of vehicle
charging high power density . Hybrid energy a three speed and acceleration. .The results shown that hybrid
layer storage system energy management technique with technology is suitable for the certain limit according to
power controlled interface for Super capacitor bank to our need. The power technologies have lower limit
DC power bus for Electric vehicle, is built. The compared to that of the energy technologies.[88]
distribution of power based on converter control and
“variable frequency decoupling method” (which is for This paper was published by Shrikant Misal and
power sharing between two storage bank) is being Bangalore Divakar, deals with the simulation study of
introduced. Test with power train of Generator is being energy storage system of ultra capacitor for Electric
done and results shows the effectiveness of this Vehicle”. A excellent performance analysis was done on
methodology.[84] a configuration, at place the ultra-capacitor is directly
connected to load load and supplied by the battery by a
In this work simulation based on experimental results “dc-dc converter”. The simulation study mainly focuses
ultra-capacitor energy source for an electric car. Energy on working of this configuration going for the
management strategy based on fuzzy logic is introduced discharging and charging cycles and capacitor was
in this paper. Control strategy is designed for hybrid subjected to regenerative braking power during forward
source. Battery storage with a relatively small size torque.[89]
achieve maximum output and high-power source for the
vehicle by this strategy. By the simulation we can see This paper gives work on output of an ultra capacitor
that more information may leads to reducing battery battery based on electric vehicle prototype having a 200
high currents and in future there will be more efficiency km range. Depend on the level of traffic signals and
in this experiment will happen.[85] stop signs. GPS information, reducing the dynamics of
currents on the battery. Simulations show the efficiency
In this research, study of a hybrid electric storage of the GPS based on control scheme. It is seen that by
system by using battery of electrochemical double- data of GPS can minimize peak charge current by 38%
layer capacitors ,a classic proprietary electronic system as comparison to a standard hybrid energy storage
and lead acid battery . It is done for obtaining minimum system.[90]
electro-magnetically disturbances, with uses in
automotive applications. The electronic control model This paper gives us information about optimal control of
gives programming, this control method to the hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicle.
distribution of electricity in this hybrid system. Storage systems here presents special power of ultra-
Experimental results have shown that the super capacitors and high energy of Lithium-Ion batteries.
capacitors used for tests (600F at 12.5V) have increased This predictive based algorithm uses method which
the efficiency of electrical system when as compare to inspired by optimization power systems, termed as a
the Li-ion battery.[86] Markov process of probability-weighted for the
prediction of future load demands. On real time
decisions on power sharing are made. The full hybrid
storage system implemented experimentally with the system where in the Ultracapacitor is directly
mechanical drive train is 500W, 50V system on strong connected to the load a ,interfaced with battery by a
regenerative component with a programmable drive bidirectional dc-dc converter.. The simulation study was
cycle. Ultra-capacitor buffers a large negative current on mainly carried out for various cases in the forward as
the DC Buses .Ultra capacitor is best over here. It is well as regenerative modes of the motor load pertaining
graphically, the hybrid energy storage system which to different capacitances and different hysteresis
gives more efficient and excess regenerative energy, windows. From the obtained values of simulation results
which normally loses itself in mechanical brakes due to it can be seen that the smaller hysteresis window will
the battery’s current capability limited charge.[91] prevent frequent charge-discharge cycles of the
capacitor and does not allow the capacitor to deliver or
This work the applications of supercapacitor energy absorb sudden thrust of power.
storage for regenerative energy saving in the vehicle The larger hysteresis window on the other hand results
braking mode and peak power shaping in the vehicle in charging and discharging of cycles but
acceleration mode are described. The supercapacitor permits discharging of capacitor to meet the sudden
energy storage system practical operation is investigated demand.[95]
on versatile DC motor test bench, which could be used
for researching in various kinds of electric vehicle In 2013, there is just a controller variable window
traction-drives.[92] which do not just adjust the window with different
modes of operation but also the upper and lower limits .
Attempt for this effort is been done for this work to
The is the thesis of Mazhar Moshirvaziri in which he
presented a concept of supercapacitor fuel cell system of understand what will the controller do. Simulation
taught us the study which helps in finding capacitor
hybrid energy which gives the coupling of devices
sizing for a given time.[96]
without need for costly DCDC converters they achieve
the same benefits of hybridization. By experiment
steady state transmission line and fuel cell model based There is an introduction of integration of photovoltaic
supercapacitor , that active hybridization gains allows cell sources storage devices like ultra capacitor and
battery. Ultra-capacitor gives improvement on the
for efficiency of 16% compared to pure fuel cell system.
system efficiency by feeding large amount of power
Under condition of load, the supercapacitors meets the
during acceleration of vehicle and for taking the energy
lower impedance due to their giving ramp up to fuel
while regenerated ,it is de-accelerating. Effort of this
cell time. A analysis of Fast Fourier transform, all the
respective loads the supercapacitors act as low pass affects the battery size and reduce it. Photovoltaic
filter under an automotive drive cycle. From the fuel- source increase the range helps to the vehicle which will
travel. Implementation and development results in more
cell it reduces oscillations of load.[93]
effective control which leads to efficient current and
loops of voltage and it leads to improve the dynamics
This study gives the comparison between the two
of the system.[97]
technologies of supercapacitors. The variation and
characterization of the two technologies (ageing)
according to number of cycles. High powers are asked This paper shows that supercapacitor is able to absorb
for the acceleration to hybrid and electric vehicle, well energy during regenerative braking state. It can be
recovery phases and startup. For that, the chosen storage operating under the extremely high charge current.
system must insure these high powers. The Hybrid supercapacitor with battery can reduce burden of
supercapacitors storage systems which are very battery voltage drop during discharge and which
powerful, which can give about 4,3kW/kg of specific prolong the lifetime of battery. The supercapacitor has
power, and its lifetime is very high as compared to the many advantages over battery such as higher peak
other storage systems. This type of technology has a power delivery, longer life cycle, and etc. Because of
good lifetime which has high specific energy. As low energy density supercapacitor can not used as
comparison to the other ones this technology is cheaper primary energy storage. The supercapacitor can gives
and toxic. For our problem aqueous technology can give the high current during acceleration and absorb energy
us the solution, for very high power of this component during braking. Hybrid supercapacitor and battery is
no-toxicity of the electrolyte. Because of the voltage storage device for e-vehicle battery is for demand
limitation .Technology gave us the low specific moderate energy during driving.[98]
energy.[94]
In 2014, structure and functioning modes of active
B. Wu, V. Yufit presented a paper in which they layers in an electric double layer capacitor with an
optimized performance of a hybrid energy storage aqueous electrolyte are simulated by means of a
computer. A model of active layers prepared from
activated carbon materials is proposed, percolation the extra costs for vehicle modification and battery
estimates are performed and effective ionic replacement.[102]
conductivities are calculated. The polarization of active
layers includes a sequence of two charging processes: In this paper a novel combination of Ultra-Capacitor,
first, galvano static and then potentiostatic. The Battery and Intelligent Controller are presented and its
proposed program of calculations involves mutual application for electric vehicle is highlighted. The
matching and optimization of seven parameters proposed system has significant findings through its
characterizing the active layer and conditions of ability to supply power to load with good saving. By
charging processes. According to using an intelligent controller, gives a burst of power in
calculations, galvanostatic polarization of wide pores in start providing maximum current to the load. In
the EDLC biporous active layer up to the limiting addition, using property of an ultra-capacitor, fast
potential followed by potentiostatic polarization of fine current draining from the battery is rectified which
pores allows the capacity Csp = 246 F/g and the energy makes the battery discharge quickly and improve
W= 107 kJ/kg to be obtained in fractions of second. [99] battery life.[103]

This paper was presented by Yu.G. Chirkova, the In 2014,The storage system which is fuel cell and SC,
development and design of a prototype supercapacitor from all the way it is which is serving as power source.
which empowers electric bicycle (E-bike) .The bicycle It is having a block of power for energy conversion
which is available bicycle was fitted with retro fitting consisting of a boost converter in addition, using
brushed itself with DC motor coming on front wheel, property of an ultra-capacitor, fast current draining from
Super capacitor bank which stores about 74 kJ, and bi- the battery is rectified which makes the battery
directional motor is present, there is a driver for discharge quickly and improve battery life. Power
regenerative braking. Possibility is there for the design convertor requirements are tight dc bus voltage
for commuter of campus. The role is filled by Electrical regulation, asymptotic stability of the closed-loop
bike. Electrical bike is not important a rapid , hence the system and perfect tracking of the SuperCapacitor
benefits of using super-capacitors was demolished.[100] current to its reference. A nonlinear based controller is
being developed, making use of Lyapunov stability
In 2014 paper deals with energy management for design techniques.[104]
electric vehicle using Super Capacitors and battery.
Energetic Macroscopic Representation control
technique inversion based rules of technique is being On the short lifetime and cost and relatively of
used in future, the electric vehicles will have instant the LiFePO4 battery. The modified equipped with a
charging same like electrical trains. Due to large unidirectional dc/dc converter HESS, with diode with
recharging time of batteries, super capacitors are used gives good cost and efficiency. Simulation results is
for instant charging, as they have long working life and verified. The thermal model in addition, and the
good current density. Moreover “wireless power capacity fade model LiFePO4 battery are built using
transfer” based magnetic resonance is used to improve programming of Matlab/Simulink output verified by
working of electric vehicles. At the end of experiment experiments..[105]
efficiency of power transferred id increase to 50 % at a
distance of 50cm.[101] Battery used in the car have to do very less amount of
Electric forklift has been used in commercial way with work as compared to the net power due to regenerative
a hybrid storage system, without any demonstration energy during brakes and the difference is roughly
of the advantages which can be achievable with its around 4000kW.This will cause heating in the battery
configuration. The technical and economical which battery to drain quickly to avoid that super
advantages of this Electric Capacitor theoretically capacitor is added and made a super capacitor-battery
integration and explained experimentally. By using an
system , which reduced the maximum current required
intelligent controller, gives a burst of power in start
providing maximum current to the load. In addition, and increase the battery life by saving energy and
using property of an ultra-capacitor, fast current reducing the heat loss.[106]
draining from the battery is rectified which makes the
battery discharge quickly and improve battery life, like Now a days green transportation concept had been
in case of efficiency increased and battery life which is introduced, electric vehicle is one of them which was
prolonged, operating stress is there due to the reduced driven by the electric energy stored in batteries. In order
battery, and saving an economical which is to provide
to recharge those batteries two types of station can be
introduced one was fixed charging station which is HESS was proposed with three layer control strategy for
connected to grid and other is mobile charging station EV prototype, the output current of SC bank using the
which is off grid. In those EV batteries and proposed three level converters was used to power flow
ultracapacitor was use, Li-ion batteries were used and between SC and battery. By proposed method battery
electric double layer ultracapacitor was used as it was life and acceleration performance is enhanced.[113]
designed for ultra fast charging.[107]
In 2014, Partial power processing concept is introduced
In EV batteries, Ultra capacitor and fuel cells were used by introducing DC/DC converter. This helped in
to provide energy for the propulsion, their design were reducing the losses of converter and allows full storage
made by keeping efficiency, lifetime, cost, weight and of energy in storage units; furthermore it gives stable
size. There were optimized by taking three parameter DC voltage irrespective of the situation. The converter
which were converter’s power, its mass and cost. will only operate when UC needed to be operated while
Different topologies were made but the chosen one was capturing energy during braking via bidirectional
fuel cell-battery-ultra capacitor.[108] converter.[114]

When we had to provide large power then the size of the UC were used to stored energy available from
battery increased so as the size of battery, in order to regenerative breaking by doing that driving range of EV
overcome this a hybrid ESS is introduced in which ultra is increased as UC avoid the over stress on
capacitor were used are power buffer to the charging battery.[115]Similarly a bidirectional tri state operation
and discharging peak power as in EV driven in urban DC-DC buck boost converter is implemented and
driving condition have high peak power as well as harsh reduced the losses in HESS.[116]
charging and discharging cycles. This problem is solved
by using a multi objective optimization problem to Unlike passive UC used in HESS, fully active parallel
minimize the size, cost, cycle life. DIRECT algorithm is topology is used based on energy microscopic
used for optimization and 76% cycle life extension had representation. Fuzzy logic controller is used to deduce
been achieved with the help of just 72 ultra control scheme which is based on maximum control
capacitor.[109] structure approach.[117]

Another topology is used in which super capacitor is A smart controller is develop that calculated the demand
used instead of ultra capacitor. Super capacitor output load and then load is then simulated on a electric load
current control is proposed fro the controlling of by using a scaled profile of the demand load by the help
electrical power flow based on the power sharing of a motor installed in EV.[118]
strategy.[110]
Gabriel R. Broday, Claudinor B. Nascimento1presented
In hydrid ESS (HESS) for EV super capacitor is used a simulation model is implemented in MATLAB
along with battery and by using energy microscopic Simulink, involving series motor driven by battery and
representation an inversion based (IBC) control was UC. In the model continuous charging and discharging
deduced and implemented and comparison was done was avoided resulting in decreasing the cost and
between two other control and IBC, results showed that increasing the life time of the battery. In this model
IBC is more effective then others.[111] single pedal scheme was used, regenerative braking is
implemented while pedal was not in use, untimely
HESS containing battery and SC are used to preserves resulting in better control and less wastage of
high energy density and high peak power, which can be energy.[119]
delivered by battery and SC when needed in this way
the driving range of EV is increased for this purpose A multi source based system was implementation EV
various topologies and control strategies had been including fuel cell and SC, fuel cells provide continuous
discussed like Li-ion battery with ultra capacitor and Li- power at specific level for peak SC were used because
ion with super capacitor.[112] of its fast response. Both sources are connected with the
help of Dc converters which is controlled by a PI HESS was used in EV but instead DC series motor, DC
controller and evaluated on urban driving cycle.[120] brushless motor was used which was used as generator
while down the hill and regenerative braking, which
In 2015, the persistent sinusoidal disturbances were was boosted by the converter and energy was stored in
absorbed by the super capacitor and gave high power super capacitor which can be used while traveling up
for short duration of time if required. These persistent the hill or when peak energy required. PI controller was
disturbances came as result of engine torque ripples due used for control of contact torque and for reliable and
peaks in urban driving cycle.[121] smooth distribution artificial neural network was
used.[129]
The ultra capacitor was used to provide high power for
short duration of time but their dynamic response Ahmad Abuaish presented, different kind of topologies
depends upon its impedance and their impedance were used for the interference of battery and SC, two of
characteristics were experimentally investigated through them was used. It gave good results and increased the
EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). This battery lifetime upto 18% for urban, 4.5% for highwasy
mainly examined their operating condition like and 8.7% for urban-highway hybrid. In first topology
temperature and state of charge with the impedance and the battery was directly connected to dc-bus and
results showed that temperature effect is more effective interface SC with converter and in other topology
as compared to state of charge.[122] battery was interface with converter and SC was
connected to dc-bus.[130]
In bidirectional DC-DC converter super capacitor is
used, moreover super-junction MOSEFTS were along HESS was used pallet truck in which three power
with it to minimize the losses and it was achieved with sources were used which was Fuel cell, Li-ion battery
the help of snubber inductor.[123] and super capacitor. Fuel cell was used to drive the
truck and whereas Li-ion and SC were used to give high
In 2015,The power splitter control was used to split the power which was used lift the load. These three
power among SC and battery, the optimization was modules were collectively tested to simulate load
done by multi objective genetic algorithm. The daily condition for that main parameter involving charging
operation cost had minimized and results were given in and discharging rate of SC. The results showed that
pareto front having optimal solution.[124] maximum instantaneous power achieve by the module
EV was divided into two types small size long range car was 3.2 KW for several cycling of lifting. [131]
and city bus. State of charge, current and power were
the constraints which were taken into account. [125] Hybrid source i.e. combination of battery and SC was
used in vehicle used in mining industry. The drive time
In 2015, Fuzzy logic energy management was used to and performance capabilities were tested in the rough
meet the requirement of EV, UC is operated along with domain of mines and its current range varies from 3A to
Li-ion battery and connected with bidirectional DC-DC 100A. When the current is near average i.e. 40A then
converter, UC will be charged or discharged as load the delivery time is around 30 second.[132]
fluctuates.[126]
Environment friendly material was used for the making
A multiport bidirectional converter interfacing battery, of super capacitor that is grapheme, because there will
super capacitor and dc-bus was operated in both step up be purpose of Hybrid EV if we used harmful material.
and step down i.e. boost/buck converter with The efficiency of the SC remains same it didn’t effect
bidirectional. Two power mode defined as; one is low by the use of different material.[133]
voltage i.e. boost mode and other is high voltage i.e.
energy regenerative buck mode.[127] Similar kind of a oussef Slamani, Jalal Sabor presented this paper,
DC-DC bidirectional buck boost converter used, same Capacitors had certain life with the passage of time the
interface of battery and SC was used.[128] its life will keep on decreasing causing aging problem
and state of health is also n important constraint which
effect with the aging and ultimately effect the failure.
This aging problem was checked online by impedance
[2]
spectroscopy method. [134] 2. An ultracapacitor circuit for reducing sulfation in
lead acid batteries for Mild Hybrid Electric
Vehicles by Adam W. Stienecker, Thomas Stuart
The super capacitor based retrofit kit was installed in
and Cyrus Ashtiani et el. in 2006
EV to store regenerative braking system with changing
the control of the vehicle, for this purpose energy 3. [3]
Fuzzy Control of a Hybrid Power Source for
optimization is very important which is done by the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle using Regenerative
regulation of energy stored in SC by a PI controller. [135] Braking Ultracapacitor by Mahshid Amirabadi,
Shahrokh Farhangi, in 2006
In 2016, the control of energy distribution between
[4]
battery and SC was done by FLC which have different 4. Optimization of Fuel Cell and Supercapacitorfor
advantages like flexibility and robustness. Prior results Fuel-Cell ElectricVehicles Ying Wu, and Hongwei
showed that fuzzy logic control was difficult to Gao, Senior Member, IEEE in 2006
achieved optimized distribution between battery and
[5]
SC, to overcome this problem gold ratio rule was 5. Simulation and Analysis of Performance of a
introduced to achieved better results. It was simple and Pure Electric Vehicle with a Super-capacitor by
effective method and results were promising.[136] Jinrui N, Zhifu W, Qinglian et el. in 2006
[6]
6. A New Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage
System Design and Its Motor Drive Integrationfor
Hybrid Electric Vehicles
V. CONCLUSION by Shuai Lu,Keith A. Corzine and Mehdi et el. in
2007
High performance super capacitor depends largely on
material selected for its components mainly electrode, [7]
7. A New Method of Utilizing Ultra-Capacitor
electrolyte, separator and collector plate. Energy
Energy
density, power density and specific capacitance are
Sources in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Over a Wide
interrelated and mainly depend on electrode material
Speed Range by Shuai Lu, Keith Corzine and
.Active carbon including CNT and graphene are good
Mehdi Ferdowsi et el. in 2007
choices for positive and negative electrode .Aqueous
electrolyte works well with these electrode materials [8]
8. Adaptive Control of an Ultracapacitor Energy
however operating voltage is limited. Solid electrolyte is
Storage System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles By
the better option but their performance in terms of
Yuchen Lu, Herbert L. Hess Dean B. Edwards et el.
power density and cycle life is a matter of concern.
in 2007
[9]
9. Configuration and verification of the super
capacitor based energy storage as peak power unit
ACKNOWLEDGMENT in hybrid electricvehicles by Yonghua Cheng1, Van
To write this paper the main motivation was Mierlo Joeri2, Philippe Lataire3
our kind teacher Mr. Saqib Haroon, who led us to Michael Lieb4, Erik Verhaeven5 and Rainer
understand and to write this article which is the most Knorr6 et el. in 2007
emphasized issue in the ED problem. We thank to him
[10]
for his generosity and his kind efforts in this regard. 10. Energy-Regenerative Fuzzy Sliding Mode
Controller Design for Ultracapacitor-Battery
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and M. L. Crow, Senior Member, IEEE in 2008 Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Ultra-capacitor
Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles
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20. Design of an Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage by Shenghui Cui1, Dawei He Zhuoyu Chen1,
System (UESS) for Power Quality Improvement of Thomas G.Habetler et el. in 2009
Electric Arc Furnaces by Chong Han, Alex Q.
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DC-DC Converter for Interfacing Ultracapacitor
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Energy Storage to Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle 32. Design and Control of a Multiple Input DC/DC
System by A.S. Samosir and A. H. M. Yatim in Converter for Battery/Ultra-capacitor Based
2008 Electric Vehicle Power System by Zhihao Li, Omer
Onar, and Alireza Khaligh in 2009
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22. European Driving Schedule of Hybrid Electric
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Vehicle with Electric Power Splitter and 33. Design of Battery and Ultracapacitor Multiple
supercapacitor as Electric Storage Unit by Dobri Energy Storage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Cundev, Pavel Mindl in 2008 by Xiaofei Liu, Qianfan Zhang, Chunbo Zhu in
2009
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23. Integration of Supercapacitor with STATCOM
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for Electric Arc Furnace Flicker Mitigation By 34. Development of a Novel Ultracapacitor Electric
Vehicle and Methods to Cope with Voltage
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Variation by Kiyotaka Kawashima, Toshiyuki 45. Model Predictive Control of a Power-split
Uchida and Yoichi Hori in 2009 Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Combined Battery
and Ultra capacitor Energy Storage by H. Ali
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35. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy- Borhan and Ardalan Vahidi in 2010
Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell
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Hybrid Electric Vehicle Erik Schaltz, Member, 46. Modeling, Design and Control of a Fuel
IEEE, Alireza Khaligh, and Peter Omand Cell/Battery/Ultra-capacitor Electric Vehicle
Rasmussen, Member, IEEE in 2009 Energy Storage System by Seyoung Kim and
Sheldon S. Williamson in 2010
[36]
36. Neural Network Sliding Mode Control Based on
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On-Line Identification for Electric Vehicle with 47. Overview of Super capacitor Voltage
Ultracapacitor-Battery Hybrid Power by Jian-Bo Equalization Circuits for an Electric Vehicle
Cao and Bing-Gang Cao in 2009 Charging Application by Simon Lambert, Volker
Pickert, John Holden, Wuhua Li and Xiangning He
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37. Performance Investigation of Fuel Cell/Battery in 2010
and Fuel Cell/Supercapacitor Hybrid Sources for 48. [48] Regenerative brake system in Electric hoist with
Electric Vehicle Applications by P. Thounthong, P. ultra-capacitor by Yongming Bian, Lijing Zhu and
Sethakul, s. Rael and B. Davat in 2009. Ximming Xu in 2010
38. [38] Recurrent Neural Network Training for Energy
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Management of a Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle 49. A multi-level Grid Interactive Bi-Directional
with an Ultra-Capacitor by Lee Feldkamp, AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid
Mahmoud Abou-Nasr, Member, IEEE and Ilya V. Battery/Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage System
Kolmanovsky, Fellow, IEEE in 2009 with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid
Electric Vehicles by Omer Onar, Jonathan
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39. A Matching Design for Ultra-Capacitor and Li- Kobayashi and Alireza Khaligh in 2011
Ion Battery Cooperation in Electric Wheel Motors
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by Shyh-Jier Huang, Senior Member, IEEE, Fu- 50. Application of double layer Super Capacitor
Sheng Pai, Member, IEEE, and Bo-Ge Huang in with an Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-2, 3
2010 Dimethylimidazolium Methyl Carbonates, LiPF6
AS Electrolytes and Carbon Black along with
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40. An Experimental Comparison of Different Carbon Nano Tubes as Electrodes by Upadhyay
Topologies for Fuel-cell, Battery and Ultra- Deep Chandra, Thakur A.K in 2011
capacitor in Electric Vehicle by Bülent Vural,
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Mehmet Uzuno, Serkan Düúmez1,Enes, Bünyamin 51. Energy Management of a Fuel Cell/Super
Yacıtekin in 2010 capacitor/Battery Power Source for Electric
41. [41] Application of Electric Motor, Super Capacitor Vehicular Applications by Majid Zandi, ALireza
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42. Battery and Super capacitors combination for 52. Hybrid Battery-Super Capacitor storage system
series hybrid electric Vehicle by A. M. Jarushi and for electricity cars by Giuseppe Buja and Giovanni
N. Schofield et el. in 2010 Pede in 2011
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43. Battery, Ultra capacitor, Fuel Cell, and Hybrid 53. Influence of the drive cycles on the sizing of
Energy Storage Systems for Electric, Hybrid hybrid storage system Battery-Super capacitor
Electric Fuel Cell, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric supplying an electric vehicle by R. Sadoun, N.
Vehicles: State of the Art by Alireza Khaligh, Rizoug, P. Bartholomeus, B. Barbedette, P. Le
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54. Modeling and Control of the Ultra-capacitor
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44. Fuel Efficient Control Strategy, Based on Based Regenerative Controlled Electric Drives
Battery Ultra capacitor Energy Storage System, in Petar J. Grbovic, Philippe Delarue, Philippe Le
Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Amir Hossein Moigne. in 2011
Eghbali, Behzad Asaei and Peyman Nader in 2010
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55. Optimal Power flow for Hybrid Ultra-capacitor Reza Razavian, Nasser L. Azad, John Mcphee in
Systems in Light Electric Vehicles by Omar Laldin, 2012
Mazhar Moshirvaziri, Olivier Trescases in 2011
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67. Optimizing for Efficiency or Battery Life in a
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56. Optimal Sizing of Hybrid Supply for Electric Battery/Super capacitor Electric Vehicle by
Vehicle Using Li-ion Battery and Super-Capacitor Rebecca Carterm Andrew Cruden and Peter J. Hall
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Barbedette, P. Le Moigne in 2011
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68. Prototype Design and Controller
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57. Power train Design of Ultra Capacitor Serial Implementation for a Battery-Ultra-capacitor
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Pengbiao Cao, Zaimin Zhong, Xinbo Chen in 2011 Zahra Amjadi and Sheldon S. Williamson in 2012
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58. The ultra-capacitor Based Controlled Electric 69. Results Concerning Ultra Capacitor based
Drives with Braking and Ride-Through Capability: Energy Management Strategy with in Electric
Overview and Analysis by Petar J. Grbovic, Vehicles by A. Florescu, S. Bacha, I. Munteanu, A.
Philippe Delarue, Philippe Le Moigne in 2011 I. Bratcu and A Rumeau in 2012
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59. A Battery with Ultra Capacitor Hybrid Energy 70. Robust Energy Management of a Battery/Super
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60. A lithium battery and ultra-capacitor hybrid
energy source for an urban electric vehicle by 71. Sizing of Hybrid Supply (Battery – Super
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Marek Michalaczuk, Lech M. Grzesiak, Bartiomiej Capacitor) For Electric Vehicle Taking Into
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61. A New Battery Ultra capacitor Hybrid Energy Bartholumeus, B. Barbedette and P. LeMoigne in
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Hybrid Electric Vehicles byJian Cao and Ali
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62. A Novel Isolated Bi-Directional DC-DC on ship board electric power system by Franck
converter for Ultra-capacitor Application in Hybrid Scuiller in 2012
and Electric vehicles by Dawei He, Pascal Ntsama,
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Jinchi Han and Thomas G. Habetler in 2012 73. The Ultra capacitor Based Regenerative
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63. A Unique Battery/Super Capacitor Direct Capability by Petar J. Grbovic, Phlippe Delarue,
Integration Scheme for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Philippe Le Moigne and Patrick Bartholomeus in
D. M. Vialthgamuwa, S.D.G. Jayasinghe, F.C. Lee 2012
and U.K. Madwala in 2012
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74. Ultra-Capacitor Based Electric Bicycle
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64. Braking Energy Recovery of Electric Traction Regenerative Braking System by Alex C. Bronstein
Based on Super Capacitor and Bi-Directional in 2012
DC/DC Converter by Chen Xiao-li, Liang Da-
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quang, Zhang Wei-dong in 2012 75. Capactior/Battery Hybrid Energy Storage
Systems for Electric Vehicles by Mazhar
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65. Implementation of a Reliable Load Sharing Moshirvaziri in 2012
Strategy between Battery and Ultra capacitor on a 76. [76] Characterization and Effectiveness of an Ultra-
Prototype Electric Vehicle by Enes Ugur, Serkan capacitor Bank to enhance a Battery Electric
Dusmez, Bulent Vural and Mehmet Uzunoglu in Vehicle Energy Storage System Dynamics by Farag
2012 K. Abo-Elypusar, Rashad M. Kamel, H. Abo-zeid,
F. Abd-elbar in 2012
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66. On Real Time Optimal Control of A Series
Hybrid Electric Vehicle with an Ultra Capacitor by
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77. A New Energy Management Strategy of a 90. Optimal Architecture of the Hybrid Source
Battery/Super Capacitor Hybrid Energy Storage (Battery-Supercapacitor) supplying e-vehicle
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Mesbahi, N. Rizoug, P. Bartholomeus, P Le Rizoug
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78. Battery/Super Capacitor Hybrid Energy Storage Shrikant Misal and Bangalore Divakar
System Used in Electric Vehicle Energy Efficient 92. [92] Power-Mix Optimization for a Hybrid Ultra-
Automotive Technologies by Rahul Karangia, capacitor Battery Pack in an Electric Vehicle using
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Chandwani in 2013 ,Christo Malherbe
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Battery and Super Capacitor For Performance SUPERCAPACITOR for energy storage system
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Khanapurkar in 2013 Fuel Cell Supercapacitor Passive Hybrid System
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81. Electric Traction System for a Super Capacitor for Electric Vehicles BY B. Wu, V. Yufit
Based Electric Vehicle by Edgar Peralata-Sanchez, 96. [96] -Using of Aqueous or Organic Supercapacitor
Jaime Jose Rodriguez-Rivas in 2013 Technology in Hybrid and e-vehicles BY Nassim
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82. Energetic Macroscopic Representation EMR Rizoug1, Patrick. Bartholomeüs
based on Internal Model Control (IMC) for Fuel 97. [97] Variable Window Hysteresis Control Strategy
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by A. Badji, H. Djoudi, N. Benyahia, H. Denoun, system in electric vehicles by Shrikant Misal1 and
M. Zaouia, N. Benamrouche in 2013 B.P. Divakar
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83. Energy Management Strategy Based on 98. [98] A High Performance Power Supply for an
FrequencyVarying Filter for the Battery Electric Vehicle with Solar PV,Battery and
Supercapacitor Hybrid system of electric vehicles Ultracapacitor Support for Extended Range and
by Huang Xiaoliang, Toshiyuki Hiramats Enhanced Dynamic Response by Manmesha M.
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84. Energy Management Strategy with Optimized Patankar1, Rupesh G. Wandhare
power interface for battery supercapacitor hybrid 99. [99] Supercapacitor to Energy Storage During
system for e-vehicles by Huang Xiaoliang, Joao regenerative break state in e-vehicle Moungngam.
Marcus Abreu Curti W1, Songprakor
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85. Fuzzy logic control of a hybrid battery- 100. [100] Computer Simulation of Active Layers in the
ultracapacitor energy storage for an urban electric Electric Double Layer supercapacitor optimization
vehicle by Marek Michalczuk, Bartlomiej Ufnalsk of active layer charging modes and structure,
[86]
86. HYBRID SUPERCAPACITOR-BATTERY calculation of overall characteristics.by Yu. G.
ELECTRIC SYSTEM WITH LOW Chirkova, z and V. I. Rostokin
ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS FOR 101. [101] Design and Development of a Prototype
AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION by Bogdan supercapacitor powered electric bicycle by Keagan
MIHĂILESCU1, Paul SVASTA Malan , Michael Coutlakis
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87. Operation mode control of a hybrid power 102. [102] Different control schemes of a battery super
system based on fuel cell battery ultracapacitor for capacitor in electric vehicle by A.Castaings,
an electric tramway BY Pablo García , Luis M. W.Lhomme
Fernández 103. [103] Dynamic Power Demand Prediction for e-
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88. Optimal Architecture of the Hybrid Source vehicle using terrain information by Qiao Zhang,
(Battery-Supercapacitor) supplying e-vehicle Weiwen Deng
according to required autonomy BY R. Sadoun, N. 104. [104] Electric charging discharging characteristics of
Rizoug supercacitor using de-alloying and anodic oxidized
[89]
89. Performance Evaluation of Ultra-Capacitor in Ti-Si-Ni amourphous alloy ribbons by Mikio
Hybrid Energy Storage System for e-vehicles BY Fukuhara1, and Kazuyuki Sugawara
Shrikant Misal and Bangalore Divakar
105. [105] battery-supercapacitor storage for an electric improving the electric vehicle range by Jesús
forklift a life cycle cost assessment by M. Conte • Armenta, Ciro Núnez, Nancy Visairo, Isabel
A. Genovese Lazaro.
106. [106] Integration of Ultra-Capacitor and Battery as
119. [119] A Tri-State Bidirectional Buck-Boost
hybrid energy source with intelligent controller for
efficient electric vehicle applications by Converter for A Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid
Muhammad Anwer Nazir, Noor Ain Kamsani Energy Storage System in Electric Vehicle
107. [107] Modeling and Nonlinear Control of a Fuel cells Applications by Gabriel R. Broday, Claudinor B.
supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system for Nascimento1, Eloi Agostini Jr.1 and Luiz A.C.
electric vehicles by Hassan El Fadil, Fouad Giri Lopes.
108. [108] Multi-objective optimization of a semi-active
batterysupercapacitor energy storage for electric 120. [120] Battery and SuperCapacitor Hybridization for a
vehicles by Ziyou Song , Jianqiu Li Pure Electric Three-Wheel Roadster by João P.
109. [109] Evaluating the Urban Electric Vehicle By Paul Trovão, Maxime R. Dubois and Marc-André Roux
Dille, Matt Duescher, Illah Nourbakhsh, Gregg 121. [121] DEVELOPMENT OF SMART
Podnar and Josh Schapiro CONTROLLER FOR FUEL CELL AND
110. [110] Energy storage system using battery and
SUPERCAPACITOR APPLICATION IN
ultracapacitor on mobile charging station for
electric vehicle by Tinton Dwi Atmajaa, Amin. ELECTRIC VEHICLES by H.J. Rautenbach, R.
111. [111] Optimization of Fuel Cell Stack, Ultra- Gouws, D. Bessarabov, A. Kruger and G. Human.
capacitor, and Battery Banks Based on Cost 122. [122] Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Series
Function Minimization for Fuel-Cell Electric Motor Driven Battery Electric Vehicle Integrated
Vehicles by Behzad Asaei and Seyyed Reza With an Ultra Capacitor by N.E.V.R.Dheeraj
Mousavi Ourimi. Varma, Arvind Mittal.
112. [112] Optimization of Sizing and Battery Cycle Life
123. [123] High efficiency bidirectional 5KW DC-DC
in Battery/Ultracapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage
converter with super-junction MOSFETs for
Systems for Electric Vehicle Applications by Junyi electric vehicle Super capacitor system by Andrew
Shen, Serkan Dusmez and Alireza Khaligh. Hopkins, Neville McNeill, Philip Anthony, Phil
113. [113] Optimized Topology and Converter Control for Mellor
Supercapacitor Based Energy Storage System of 124. [124] Optimal Energy Management of a Hybrid
Electric Vehicles by Huang Xiaoliang, Toshiyuki Electric Bus with a Battery-Supercapacitor Storage
Hiramatsu and Hori Yoichi. System using Genetic Algorithm by Victor Isaac
Herrera and Haritza Camblong
114. [114] Practical control schemes of a 125. [125] Optimal Sizing of Battery/Ultracapacitor-Based
battery/supercapacitor system for electric vehicle Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles by
Ali Castaings, Walter Lhomme, Rochdi Trigui, Amir Ostadi.
Alain Bouscayrol
115. [115] Review of Structures and Control of Battery- 126. [126] Fuzzy energy management control for
Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for battery/ultra-capacitor HEV by WANG Xinguang,
TAO Jili, ZHANG Ridong
Electric Vehicles by Feng Ju, Qiao Zhang, Weiwen 127. [127]A Newly-Designed Multipart Bidirectional
Deng and Jingshan Li Power Converter with Battery/Supercapacitor for
Hybrid Electric/Fuel-Cell Vehicle System by
116. [116] System design and converter control for super Ching-Ming Lajl, Yu-Jen Lin, Ming-Hua Hsiehl,
capacitor and battery hybrid energy system of Jie-Ting Li
compact electric vehicles by Huang Xiaoliang, 128. [128] Integration of Ultra Capacitor with Battery
Hiramatsu Tosiyoki, Hori Yoichi using DC-DC Bidirectional Buck Boost Converter
117. [117] A Partial Power Processing of in an Electric Vehicle by Mohammad Ashar.
Battery/UltraCapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage 129. [129] An Efficient Regenerative Braking System
System for Electric Vehicles by Mohamed Base on Battery/Supercapacitor for Electric, Hybrid
O.Badawy and Yilma Sozer. an Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles with BLDC
118. [118] An advanced energy management system for Motor by Farshid Naseri, Student Member, IEEE,
controlling the ultracapacitor discharge and
Ebrahim Farjah, Member, IEEE, Teymoor
Ghanbari
130. [130] Assessment of Battery Capacity Fading in
Partially-Decoupled Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid
Energy Storage System Topologies for Electric
Vehicles by Ahmad Abuaish.
131. [131] Design and Performance Evaluation of a PEM
Fuel Cell –Lithium Battery–Supercapacitor Hybrid
Power Source for Electric Forklifts by Chuang-Yu
Hsieh, Xuan-Vien Nguyen, Fang-Bor Weng,Tzu-
Wei Kuo, Zhen-Ming Huang, Ay Su.

132. [132] Integration of Battery and Super-Capacitor


banks into a Single-Power System for a Hybrid
Electric Vehicle by W.A. Bisschoff,
O.Dobshanskyi and R.Gouws

133. [133] MDR Report: Mellivora, an electric vehicle


supercapacitor power supply experiment by
Derek Clougherty, Lubin Jian, Nathan Ball and
Derek Wang, CSE.
134. [134] Online Supercapacitor Diagnosis for Electric
Vehicle Applications by Asmae El Mejdoubi,
Student Member, IEEE, Amrane Oukaour, Hicham
Chaoui, Senior Member, IEEE, Youssef Slamani,
Jalal Sabor, and Hamid Gualous, Member, IEEE.
135. [135] Supercapacitor Based Storage System for
Efficiency Improvement of Lead-Acid Powered
Light Electric Vehicle by Kaspars Kroics, Viesturs
Brazis.

136. [136] Optimal Fuzzy Logic Based Energy


Management Strategy of Battery/Supercapacitor
Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric
Vehicles by Chao Gao, Jian Zhao, Jian Wu and
Xiongbo Hao.