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Data Storages

Data Storages

Contents
1 Oracle Data Base 3
1.1 Oracle Overview 4
1.2 Oracle Architecture 6
1.3 Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) Database Control 23
1.4 Oracle Implementation in NetAct 25
1.5 Partition Management 38
1.6 Admin Tasks 43
1.7 Monitoring the database performance 46
1.8 Database Logging 49
1.9 Collecting Oracle Diagnostic Data with (RDA) 55
1.10 Oracle Documentation 56
2 LDAP 59
2.1 Overview 60
2.2 LDAP Implementation in NetAct 63
2.3 Directory Server Backups 70
2.4 Replication 71
2.5 Logging 73
3 Exercises 75

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Data Storages

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1 Oracle Data Base

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Data Storages

1.1 Oracle Overview


Oracle Database is a relational database with object and Extensible Markup Language (XML)
capabilities. In a relational database, all data is stored in two-dimensional tables that are
composed of rows and columns. Oracle Database enables to store data, update it, and
efficiently retrieve it, with a high degree of performance, reliability, and scalability.
The database contains user data, metadata, and control structures. Metadata, or data about
the data, is the collection of information on disk that permits Oracle software to manage user
data. An example of metadata is the data dictionary. The Control Structures (such as the
control file and online redo log files) ensure the integrity, availability, and recoverability of
user data.

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Data Storages

Oracle database

SQL> select banner from v$version;

BANNER
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit
Production
PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
CORE 11.2.0.3.0 Production
TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production

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Data Storages

1.2 Oracle Architecture


An Oracle database is a collection of data treated as a unit. The purpose of a database is to
store and retrieve related information. A database server reliably manages a large amount of
data in a multiuser environment so that many users can concurrently access the same data.
All this is accomplished while delivering high performance. A databaseserver also prevents
unauthorized access and provides efficient solutions for failure recovery.
The Oracle architecture includes physical components, memory components, processes, and
logical structures.

1.2.1 Main Components


Oracle Server
An Oracle server includes an Oracle Instance and an Oracle database.
An Oracle database includes several different types of files: datafiles, control files, redo log
files and archive redo log files. The Oracle server also accesses parameter files and
password files. This set of files has several purposes:
 Enable system users to process SQL statements.
 Improve system performance.
 Ensure the database can be recovered if there is a software/hardware failure.
 The database server must manage large amounts of data in a multi-user
environment.
 The server must manage concurrent access to the same data.
 The server must deliver high performance. This generally means fast response
times.

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Oracle database
Architecture

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Data Storages

Oracle instance
A database instance is a set of memory structures that manage database files. The instance
manages its associated data and serves the users of the database. Every running Oracle
database is associated with at least one Oracle database instance. Because an instance
exists in memory and a database exists on disk, an instance can exist without a database
and a database can exist without an instance.
In a single-instance, a database instance is associated with only one database at a time.
An Oracle Instance consists of two different sets of components:
The first component set is the set of background processes (PMON, SMON, RECO,
DBW0, LGWR, CKPT, D000 and others).
Each background process is a computer program.
These processes perform input/output and monitor other Oracle processes to provide good
performance and database reliability.
The second component set includes the memory structures that comprise the Oracle
instance. When an instance starts up, a memory structure called the System Global Area
(SGA) is allocated.
At this point the background processes also start.

TIP
The name of the NetAct instance is OSS.

Oracle database
An Oracle database consists of files.
database files (datafiles) that store the database information.
The control files contain information for controlling a single database instance, that is,
information on the structure of the database and the current state of the database. Control
files and their locations are listed in the initoss.ora file
The redo log files are used to recover the database in the event of application program
failures, instance failures and other minor failures.
The archived redo log files are used to recover the database if a disk fails.
The required parameter file that is used to specify parameters for configuring an Oracle
instance when it starts up.
The optional password file authenticates special users of the database – these are termed
privileged users and include database administrators.
Alert and Trace Log Files – these files store information about errors and actions taken that
affect the configuration of the database.

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Data Storages

1.2.2 Instance structure


When an instance is started, Oracle Database allocates a memory area called the system
global area (SGA) and starts one or more background processes. The SGA serves various
purposes, including the following:
 Maintaining internal data structures that are accessed by many processes and
threads concurrently.
 Caching data blocks read from disk.
 Buffering redo data before writing it to the online redo log files.
 Storing SQL execution plans.

The SGA is shared by the Oracle processes, which include server processes and
background processes, running on a single computer. The way in which Oracle processes
are associated with the SGA varies according to operating system.
A database instance includes background processes. Server processes, and the process
memory allocated in these processes, also exist in the instance. The instance continues to
function when server processes terminate.

1.2.2.1 System Global Area


The SGA is a read/write memory area that, along with the Oracle background processes,
makes up a database instance. All server processes that execute on behalf of users can read
information in the instance SGA. Several processes write to the SGA during database
operation.
The server and background processes do not reside within the SGA, but exist in a separate
memory space.
SGA consists of several memory components, which are pools of memory used to satisfy a
particular class of memory allocation requests. All SGA components except the redo log
buffer allocate and deallocate space in units of contiguous memory called granules. Granule
size is platform-specific and is determined by total SGA size.

TIP
You can query the V$SGASTAT view for information about SGA components.
The most important SGA components are the following:

Database Buffer Cache


The database buffer cache, also called the buffer cache, is the memory area that stores
copies of data blocks read from data files. A buffer is a main memory address in which the
buffer manager temporarily caches a currently or recently used data block. All users
concurrently connected to a database instance share access to the buffer cache.

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Oracle in NetAct
Architecture: Database Instance

System Global Area (SGA)

Shared pool Large Pool DB Buffer Cache


Library Cache

Shared SQL Area Response Request


Select * from FM.FM_Alarms Queue Queue

Fixed SGA Java Pool Streams Pool


Redo Log
Buffer

PMON SMON DBWn LGWR CKPT Others

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Oracle Processes

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Data Storages

Redo Log Buffer


The redo log buffer is a circular buffer in the SGA that stores redo entries describing changes
made to the database. Redo entries contain the information necessary to reconstruct, or
redo, changes made to the database. Database recovery applies redo entries to data files to
reconstruct lost changes.
Oracle Database processes copy redo entries from the user memory space to the redo log
buffer in the SGA. The redo entries take up continuous, sequential space in the buffer. The
background process log writer (LGWR) writes the redo log buffer to the active online redo log
group on disk.

Shared Pool
The shared pool caches various types of program data. For example, the shared pool stores
parsed SQL, PL/SQL code, system parameters, and data dictionary information. The shared
pool is involved in almost every operation that occurs in the database. For example, if a user
executes a SQL statement, then Oracle Database accesses the shared pool.

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Data Storages

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Data Storages

Oracle Data Base


Architecture: Shared Pool

Library Cache Private SQL Area


Shared SQL Area
• Parsed SQL Statements (shared server only)
• SQL Execution Plans
• Parsed and Compidel SQL program units

Data Dictionary Server Result Other Reserved Pool


Cache Cache

SQL Query Result


Dictionary Data Cache
stored in Rows

SQL Funtion Result


Cache

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

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Data Storages

Large Pool
The large pool is an optional memory area intended for memory allocations that are larger
than is appropriate for the shared pool. The large pool can provide large memory allocations
for the following:
UGA for the shared server and the Oracle XA interface (used where transactions interact
with multiple databases)
Message buffers used in the parallel execution of statements
Buffers for Recovery Manager (RMAN) I/O slaves

By allocating session memory from the large pool for shared SQL, the database avoids
performance overhead caused by shrinking the shared SQL cache. By allocating memory in
large buffers for RMAN operations, I/O server processes, and parallel buffers, the large pool
can satisfy large memory requests better than the shared pool.

Java Pool
The Java pool is an area of memory that stores all session-specific Java code and data
within the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This memory includes Java objects that are migrated
to the Java session space at end-of-call.

Streams Pool
The Streams pool stores buffered queue messages and provide memory for Oracle Streams
capture processes and apply processes. The Streams pool is used exclusively by Oracle
Streams.

Fixed SGA
The fixed SGA is an internal housekeeping area. For example, the fixed SGA contains:
General information about the state of the database and the instance, which the background
processes need to access
Information communicated between processes, such as information about locks

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Data Storages

Oracle Data Base


Architecture: Large Pool

Large Pool

UGA
I/O Buffer Area
Request Queue Free Memory

Response Queue

UGA: This is memory that is associated with a user session, it can be found in the
PGA or SGA depending on whether you are connected to the database via shared
server or dedicated server.
Shared Server - the UGA will be in the SGA
Dedicated Server - the UGA will be in the PGA
1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

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Data Storages

1.2.3 Oracle Listener


The Oracle Net Listener, also called the listener, is a server-side process that listens for
incoming client connection requests and manages traffic to the database. When a database
instance starts, and at various times during its life, the instance contacts a listener and
establishes a communication pathway to this instance.
The default listener configuration file is called listener.ora, and it is located in the
/d/db/oradata/oss_conf/network/admin/listener.ora

The file contains a protocol address that identifies the database. This address defines the
protocol the listener is listening on and any other protocol-specific information. For example,
the listener could be configured to listen at the following protocol address:
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=mbdb) (PORT=1521)))

This example shows a TCP/IP protocol address that specifies the host computer of the
listener and a port number. The listener can listen for connection requests on network
interfaces with either IP version 4 (IPv4) or IP version 6 (IPv6) addresses.
The listener.ora file is automatically configured during installation, but you can reconfigure it
with Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
Because the configuration parameters have default values, you can start and use a listener
without configuring it. This default listener is named LISTENER, supports no service names
on startup, and listens on the TCP/IP protocol address.
An Oracle database registers with the listener within a minute or so of starting up. The
service names, or the databases that they represent, to which the listener forwards client
requests, can be configured in the listener.ora file. This information can also be dynamically
registered with the listener. Dynamic registration of services and databases with the listener
is called service registration.
Service registration is performed by the process monitor (PMON) process—an instance
background process—of each database instance. Dynamic service registration does not
require modification of the listener.ora file.

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Data Storages

Oracle Data Base


Architecture: Listener

VM
VM hosting the DB WebSphere
Application Server
2
OSS Initializes path Connects FM ACCESS /
connection pool
1
Listener
DB
Creates Connects 3
Server User
User
process process
process
VM
GEP
Connects

DB Poller

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 7
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Data Storages

1.2.3.1 Managing listener


To start or stop the listener at the command line:
Enter either of the following commands, depending on whether you want to start or stop the
listener:
[oracle@mbds2 ~]$ /opt/oracle/product/11gR2/bin/lsnrctl
lsnrctl start
lsnrctl stop

1.2.3.2 Oracle listener configuration


The listener is the “ear” of the database. SQL*Net is Oracle's client/server middleware
product that offers transparent connection from client tools to the database, or from one
database to another.
To check the status of the listener process you may type (as root):
#lsnrctl status
The listener based sqlnet connection to the database can be tested with:
#tnsping oss
To find out directory for logs, you can query that from lsnrct.
LSNRCTL> SHOW LOG_DIRECTORY
Connecting to
(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=mbdb)(PORT=1521)))
LISTENER parameter "log_directory" set to
/opt/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/mbds2/listener/alert
To turn listener logging on or off:
LSNRCTL> SET LOG_STATUS {on | off}

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Data Storages

Oracle database
Architecture: listener configuration

The listener is the “ear” of the database. SQL*Net is the Oracle’s client / server
product that offers transparent connection from client tools to the database or
from one database to another.

Configuration File:
/opt/oracle/product/11gR2/network/admin/listener.ora

To check the status of the listener:


[oracle@VM4 ~]$ lsnrctl status

The listener based sqlnet connection


to the database can be tested with:
#tnsping oss

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 8

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Data Storages

Oracle database
Architecture: listener configuration

[oracle@vm4 ~]$ cd
/opt/oracle/product/11gR2ps3/network/admin
[oracle@vm4 admin]$ more listener.ora listener.ora is used to configure Oracle
#
# LISTENER.ORA
Database Listeners (required to accept
LISTENER = remote connection requests).
(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
(DESCRIPTION = Listener configuration, consists of the
(ADDRESS_LIST = following elements:
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = db)(PORT =
1521)) • Name of the listener
) • Protocol addresses that the listener is
(ADDRESS_LIST = accepting connection requests on
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC))
) • Database services
)
)
SID_LIST_LISTENER =
(SID_LIST =
The tnsnames.ora file defines databases
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc) addresses for establishing connections to
(ORACLE_HOME = /opt/oracle/product/11gR2ps3) them
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 9

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Data Storages

1.2.4 Managing Archived Redo Logs


Oracle Database lets you save filled groups of redo log files to one or more offline
destinations, known collectively as the archived redo log. The process of turning redo log
files into archived redo log files is called archiving.
When the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode, the archiving of the redo log is enabled. The
database control file indicates that a group of filled redo log files cannot be reused by LGWR
until the group is archived. A filled group becomes available for archiving immediately after a
redo log switch occurs.
The archiving of filled groups has these advantages:
A database backup, together with online and archived redo log files, guarantees that you can
recover all committed transactions in the event of an operating system or disk failure.
If you keep an archived log, you can use a backup taken while the database is open and in
normal system use.
You can keep a standby database current with its original database by continuously applying
the original archived redo logs to the standby.

1.2.4.1 Oracle Database archive mode


In order to be able to make use of online backup and corresponding recovery features it is
necessary run the database in archive mode. To check the current mode you may perform
these steps:
# su - oracle
$ sqlplus /nolog
SQL> connect / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> SELECT LOG_MODE FROM SYS.V$DATABASE;

LOG_MODE
------------
ARCHIVELOG

OS90522EN15GLA0
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Data Storages

Oracle Data Base


Architecture: Archived Log Files

0001

0001 0002
Archieved
Redo Log 0001 0002 0003
Files

ARCO ARCO ARCO

LGWR LGWR LGWR LGWR

Online
Redo Log 0001 0002 0003 0004
Files

time
1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 10

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Data Storages

1.3 Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) Database


Control
Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) Database Control is a Web-based application for
managing a heterogeneous database environment. It combines a graphical console, Oracle
Management servers, Oracle Intelligent Agents, common services, and administrative tools.
The OEM Database Control can be used for maintaining the NetAct database with a
supported Web browser. It must be manually started on the NetAct VM running the data
base.

To locate Oracle Enterprise Manager, run in the VM containinig the database the following
command:
# service oraem status
This will show e.g. release version and URL to manager web page, like:
https://machine.netact.operator.net:1158/em/console/aboutApplication
If service is not running, you can start it normally using service command.
# service oraem start
Please use rdr/rdr access to Oracle OEM.

[root@n83-vm04 etc]# service oraem status


Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Database Control Release 11.2.0.4.0
Copyright (c) 1996, 2013 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
https://n83-vm04.n83.obs.wa-slab.nsn-
rdnet.net:1158/em/console/aboutApplication
Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g is not running.

[root@n83-vm04 etc]#
[root@n83-vm04 etc]# service oraem start
Unlocking Oracle Enterprise Manager accounts: [ OK ]
Starting Oracle Enterprise Manager (dbconsole): [ OK ]
[root@n83-vm04 etc]#

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Data Storages

Oracle Data Base


Oracle Enterprise Manager
# service oraem status

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 11

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Data Storages

1.4 Oracle Implementation in NetAct


1.4.1 Virtualization and High Availability
The high availability for the Oracle database is provided by the virtual infrastructure, given
that database is a service running in one virtual machine. The Oracle Database and Oracle
processes are running on VM4 by default. The Oracle file systems are only mounted on the
virtual machine running the Oracle database.
[root@n83-vm04 init.d]# smanager.pl status
Status of NetAct
DomainNode Service Status VirtualIP
Site: Local
All
n83-vm03
netfs-n83-vm03 started standAlone
cpfnx2s-n83-vm03 started standAlone
OMAgentAF-n83-vm03 started standAlone
ssh-n83-vm03 started (u) standAlone
ntp-n83-vm03 started (u) standAlone
DNS-Master started (u) standAlone
dirsrv started (u) standAlone
tomcat_vcentplg started standAlone
n83-vm04
netfs-n83-vm04 started standAlone
cpfnx2s-n83-vm04 started standAlone
OMAgentAF-n83-vm04 started standAlone
ssh-n83-vm04 started (u) standAlone
ntp-n83-vm04 started (u) standAlone
db started standAlone
….

1.4.2 Instance startup


During the startup of the NetAct database, its memory pools are scaled according to the
available memory. The amount of memory allocated for the Database System Global Area
(SGA) is defined by the database initialization parameters in the initoss.ora file located
in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/ directory.
In NetAct, the SGA and PGA of the OSS instance normally use 60-80% of the total RAM size
of the virtual machine. The rest is reserved for the Oracle Data Server and other processes.

1.4.2.1 Starting up the database


Log in to the VM where the database is running and switch to the root user.
To start up the database and Oracle listener process, enter:
[root]# /opt/cpf/bin/smanager.pl start service db

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Data Storages

1.4.2.2 Shutting down the database


Log in to the VM where the database is running and switch to the root user.
To check the states of the services, enter:
[root]# /opt/cpf/bin/smanager.pl status

The output lists the Service names and their states, the nodes being run are marked
Started.
To shut down the database and Oracle listener process, enter:
[root]# /opt/cpf/bin/smanager.pl stop service db

1.4.3 Checking that the listener is running


Log in to the VM where the database is running and switch to the oracle user.
To check that the Oracle tnslsnr process is running, enter:
[oracle]$ lsnrctl status

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Data Storages

Oracle database
Implementation in NetAct: Virtualization and High Availability

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 12

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Data Storages

1.4.4 Parameter Files


To start a database instance, Oracle Database must read a server parameter file. This file
contains a list of configuration parameters.
Instance parameter files are located: /opt/oracle/admin/oss/pfile/*.
Note that typically it is not recommended to change any init<sid>.ora parameters. All
parameters have been set up in installation time and Oracle instance should use those
default values.
Oracle Database provides many initialization parameters to optimize its operation in diverse
environments. Only a few of these parameters must be explicitly set because the default
values are adequate in most case.
Most initialization parameters belong to one of the following functional groups:
Parameters that name entities such as files or directories
e.g.
control_files=("/d/db/oradata/oss/control01.ctl",
"/d/db/oradata/oss/control02.ctl",
"/d/db/oradata/oss/control03.ctl")
Parameters that set limits for a process, database resource, or the database itself
e.g.
memory_target=29677M
memory_max_target=32974M

Parameters that affect capacity, such as the size of the SGA (these parameters are called
variable parameters)
e.g.
oss.__db_cache_size=10133438464
oss.__java_pool_size=67108864
oss.__large_pool_size=67108864
oss.__pga_aggregate_target=8120172544
oss.__sga_target=12146704384
oss.__shared_io_pool_size=0
oss.__shared_pool_size=1677721600
oss.__streams_pool_size=67108864

The configuration file initoss.ora contains information about the database parameters and
the locations of the control files and archive log files.
Spfiles are used for changing some parameters for the database initiation when the
database is running and there is no need to shut down or restart the database. Spfiles are
automatically created when the configuration file initoss.ora is read during the database
startup. The file spfileoss.ora is located in the directory
/opt/oracle/product/11gR2/dbs

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Data Storages

Oracle database
Implementation in NetAct: parameter file
The initoss.ora configuration file contains the information about the database
parameters and the locations of the control files and archive log files.
#############################################################################
#
# Copyright (c) 1991, 2001, 2002 by Oracle Corporation
#############################################################################
#

###########################################
# Database Identification
###########################################
db_domain=''
db_name='oss'
###########################################
# File Configuration
###########################################
control_files='/d/db/oradata/oss/control01.ctl','/d/db/oradata/oss/control02.ctl','/d/db/oradata/oss/control03.ctl'
local_listener='oss'
db_files=1000
###########################################
# New parameters added by oraini
###########################################
db_cache_size=2317346099
db_keep_cache_size=2317346099
1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
shared_pool_size=2317346099
sec_case_sensitive_logon=FALSE
db_recycle_cache_size=0
###########################################
Fig. 13
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Data Storages

1.4.5 Database file structure


TIP
The environment variable $ORACLE_BASE points to /opt/oracle and the environment
variable $ORACLE_HOME points to /opt/oracle/product/11gR2 for all NetAct users.

The table below lists the contents of the NetAct database directories.

Path Contents

/opt/oracle $ORACLE_BASE

/opt/oracle/product Oracle version-specific files

/opt/oracle/product/11gR2 $ORACLE_HOME

/opt/oracle/admin Administrative files directory

/opt/oracle/admin/<oracle_sid> Administrative files of the OSS database instance

/opt/oracle/product/11gR2/dbs Database initialization files: initoss.ora


configuration file

/opt/oracle/diag/rdbms/oss/oss/alert Background process trace files and alert_oss.log

/opt/oracle/diag/rdbms/oss/oss/cdump Core dump files

/d/db-arc/oss Archived redo log files

/opt/oracle/product/11gR2s/network/log Net Services logs

/d/db/oradata/oss Data files directory and control files control01.ctl,


control02.ctl and control03.ctl

/d/db-redo/oss Redo log files directory

/opt/oracle/diag/rdbms/oss/oss/trace/* Backuground process trace files and


alert_oss.log, which is the main log file for Oracle-
related events, such as Oracle startups, error
situations, and parameter installations

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Data Storages

Oracle Data Base


Implementation in NetAct: File Structure
User oracle:
/opt
$ORACLE_BASE
/oracle

/product $ORACLE_HOME
/11gR2

/dbs

/admin

/oss

/adump
/dpdump
/pfile

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 14

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Data Storages

1.4.6 File system


The Oracle file systems are ext4 (ext4 stands for fourth extended file system). ext4 file
system is an open source journaling file system that supports huge individual file size and
overall file system size with new features that have improved the performance and reliability
of the filesystem when compared to ext3. The mtab (mounted file systems table) lists all
currently mounted file systems along with their initialization options. When checking the
mounting points and /etc/mtab file:
[root@n83-vm04 oss]# df -T
Filesystem Type 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/rootVG-root ext4 31898512 10130452 20147684 34% /
tmpfs tmpfs 37031456 11650024 25381432 32% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1 ext4 148742 57273 83789 41% /boot
/dev/mapper/rootVG-tmp ext4 3031760 70256 2807496 3% /tmp
/dev/mapper/vgdb-lvol1 ext4 1021797836 70146400 951651436 7% /d/db
/dev/mapper/vgredo-lvol1 ext4 61304860 26398580 34906280 44% /d/db-redo
/dev/mapper/vgarc-lvol1 ext4 1579144372 107263680 1471880692 7% /d/db-arc
n83-vm05:/d/oss/global nfs 185778176 6363648 179414528 4% /d/oss/global
n83-vm05:/home nfs 30959616 178688 30780928 1% /home

[root@n83-vm04 etc]# more mtab


/dev/mapper/rootVG-root / ext4 rw 0 0
proc /proc proc rw 0 0
sysfs /sys sysfs rw 0 0
devpts /dev/pts devpts rw,gid=5,mode=620 0 0
tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs rw,size=90% 0 0
/dev/sda1 /boot ext4 rw 0 0
/dev/mapper/rootVG-tmp /tmp ext4 rw 0 0
none /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw 0 0
/dev/mapper/vgdb-lvol1 /d/db ext4 rw 0 0
/dev/mapper/vgredo-lvol1 /d/db-redo ext4 rw 0 0
/dev/mapper/vgarc-lvol1 /d/db-arc ext4 rw 0 0
sunrpc /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs rpc_pipefs rw 0 0
n83-vm05:/d/oss/global /d/oss/global nfs
rw,intr,actimeo=1,nfsvers=3,addr=10.88.2.199 0 0
n83-vm05:/home /home nfs
rw,soft,actimeo=1,nfsvers=3,addr=10.88.2.199 0 0

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Data Storages

Oracle in NetAct
Implementation in NetAct: Oracle Directories
vgredo: /d/db-redo
/d/db-redo

/oss

redo01.dbf
redo02.dbf
redo03.dbf
redo04.dbf
redo05.dbf

vgarc: /d/db/arc
/d/db/arc

/oss

1_14_650542706.dbf
1_15_650542706.dbf
1_16_650542706.dbf
1_17_650542706.dbf
...
1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 15

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Data Storages

1.4.7 Tablespaces and datafiles configuration


At installation time each tablespace typically consists of one datafile. Usually these datafiles
are autoextending, that is, they grow automatically until they reach the disk space limit
reserved for them. The size limit for a datafile is normally set to 32 GB, which is also the
physical size limit for a single datafile in the NetAct database, unless the type of the datafile
is bigfile, which can autoextend up to 32 TB. For example, the datafile type of the
UNDOTBS1 and TEMP_SORT tablespaces is bigfile.
The tablespace strategy in NetAct is for the initial extent to be large enough to keep from
allocating next extents if the volume of data is typical.

Oracle Data Base


Implementation in NetAct: Table Space - Datafile

At installation each tablespace typically consists of one datafile and the datafiles
are autoextending.
1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 16

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Data Storages

The tablespace strategy in NetAct is for the initial extent to be large enough to keep from
allocating next extents if the volume of data is typical.

Notice how the initial extent for the fx_alarm table is 629 megabytes.
The extent management is typically managed by the system. Oracle will choose "optimal"
next extent sizes starting with 64KB. As the segment grows larger extent sizes will increase
to 1MB, 8MB, and eventually to 64MB. Notice how the next extent value is null, as Oracle
will dynamically change the extent size as the segment grows. In the past, the typical max
extents was 255, when the extent management was in the data dictionary. With locally
managed tablespaces, the max extents value is very large.
To keep from running out of space in a segment, the stragegy is for the segment extents to
be managed by the system, and the tablespaces to be locally managed. This means that the
segment may grow as necessary, without reaching max extents, and the tablespaces may
extend their datafiles as necessary. The only real constraint is to run out of disk space in the
db partition.

Almost all of the tablespaces in NetAct have autoextensible set to ‘YES’. This allows them to
grow as needed to prevent the segments from running out of space in the tablespace.

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Data Storages

Oracle Data Base


Implementation in NetAct: Tablespaces and Datafiles - Auto-extensibles

SQL> desc dba_data_files;

Name Null Type


--------------- ---- -------------
AUTOEXTENSIBLE VARCHAR2(3) YES

Example:
SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE SQLFM1_1
DATAFILE '/d/db/oradata/oss/nww/nwwcom/sqlfm1_1.dbf' SIZE 791 M
AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5 M MAXSIZE 8000 M
DEFAULT STORAGE (INITIAL 1 M NEXT 1 M MAXEXTENTS 510 PCTINCREASE
1);

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 17

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36
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. .Solutions
. .and.Networks
. . 2015
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Storages

Oracle Database
Implementation in NetAct: Tablespaces and Datafiles - System components

SQL> select file_name, tablespace_name, bytes from


dba_data_files where tablespace_name = 'SQLFM1_1';

/d/db/oradata

/oss

# ls -la /d/db/oradata/oss/ |grep sqlfm


-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 1406148608 Sep 11 22:47 nww_sqlfm1_1.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 739254272 Sep 11 22:47
nww_sqlfm1_index_1.dbf

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 18

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OS90522EN15GLA0
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Storages

1.5 Partition Management


A partition is a division of a logical database or its constituting elements into distinct
independent parts. Database partitioning is normally done for manageability, performance or
availability reasons.
Table partitions are used to speed up the deletion of performance data cleanup. Each day
for these measurement tables are a different table partition. Rather that doing a slow
deletion operation, it is much faster to drop a table partition and index partition.
The Database cleaning feature uses partitioning to changing the data storage period for each
measurement.
Partitioning is used in PM tables and FX_ALARM table.

1.5.1 PM Tables: Partition Manager tool


The implementation of the DB partitioning is used for example in BSS, 2G SGSN, CDS, HLR,
I-HSPA, MGW, MSC, RNC, SRR FlexiNS, LTE and MVI PM tables –(BSSPMA, REPBSS,
REPSGS, NOKIWW, NOKRWW, NOKAGP, NOKLTE and NOKWMX subsystems).
The names of the partitions begin with PM_ following a number sequence that reflects the
date of the data range. For example, partition PM_20140103 is the partition where the data
that was measured for January 03, 2014 is inserted. The partition key is the PERIOD_START_TIME
column. PERIOD_START_TIME is used as a limiting value for the storage (data expiration).
Most of the partitions are day specific: that is, data of one day is stored in one partition. The
Summary tables can have other time specific partitions, for example for weekly data.
pmpmgrmx performs partition management for partitioned PM tables by dropping expired
partitions and creating new ones. It is running in a omc –cronjob on Virtual machine running
the DB jobs. You can check from database, which tables has been partitioned by using the
SQL command:
SQL> select distinct TABLE_NAME from dba_tab_partitions;
To see the actual partition names, you can use the command:
SQL> select TABLE_NAME,PARTITION_NAME from dba_tab_partitions where
table_Name=‘<TABLE NAME>‘;

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Data Storages

Oracle Database
Partition Management: PM Tables and Alarm Table

The implementation of the DB partitioning is used in BSS, 2G SGSN, CDS, HLR, I-


HSPA, MGW, MSC, RNC, SRR , FlexiNS, LTE and MVI PM tables –(BSSPMA, REPBSS,
REPSGS, NOKIWW, NOKRWW, NOKAGP, NOKLTE and NOKWMX subsystems).and
FX_ALARM table.

You can check from database, which tables has been partitioned by
using the SQL command:

SQL> select distinct TABLE_NAME from dba_tab_partitions;

To see the actual partition names, you can use the command:

SQL> select TABLE_NAME,PARTITION_NAME from dba_tab_partitions where


table_Name=‘<TABLE NAME>‘;

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 19

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Data Storages

In the dbCrons virtual machine, the partitioning of the PM tables is configured in the “omc”
user crontab:
[omc@n83-vm26 ~]$ crontab -l
10 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a CGNEPM_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=CGNEPM_PMPMGR
50 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a ICDCMD_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=ICDCMD_PMPMGR
45 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a ICDIPP_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=ICDIPP_PMPMGR
30 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a IMSBNG_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=IMSBNG_PMPMGR
0 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a IMSCSF_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=IMSCSF_PMPMGR
30 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a IMSDRA_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=IMSDRA_PMPMGR
30 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a IMSHSS_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=IMSHSS_PMPMGR
0 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a IMSTIA_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=IMSTIA_PMPMGR
30 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a JMBCOM_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=JMBCOM_PMPMGR
45 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a MADBRS_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=MADBRS_PMPMGR
45 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a MADNHR_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=MADNHR_PMPMGR
45 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a MADNTM_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=MADNTM_PMPMGR
45 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a MADODC_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=MADODC_PMPMGR
5 3 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a MADPKA_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=MADPKA_PMPMGR
24 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a MOVMMS_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=MOVMMS_PMPMGR
0 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKBCU_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKBCU_PMPMGR
30 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKBSC_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKBSC_PMPMGR
35 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKBSR_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKBSR_PMPMGR
20 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKCAM_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKCAM_PMPMGR
45 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKDXA_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKDXA_PMPMGR
10 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKFTO_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKFTO_PMPMGR
15 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKIUM_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKIUM_PMPMGR
10 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKIWW_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKIWW_PMPMGR
10 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKLTE_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKLTE_PMPMGR
20 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKMWW_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKMWW_PMPMGR
20 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKOMW_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKOMW_PMPMGR
0 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKRWW_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKRWW_PMPMGR

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Data Storages

18 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKSAU_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #


HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKSAU_PMPMGR
10 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a NOKTAS_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=NOKTAS_PMPMGR
15 4 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a PCOFNG_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=PCOFNG_PMPMGR
30 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a PCOFNS_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=PCOFNS_PMPMGR
15 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a PCOSGN_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=PCOSGN_PMPMGR
5 4 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a PM_FMI_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=PM_FMI_PMPMGR
30 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a PM_NVA_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=PM_NVA_PMPMGR
20 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a PM_PHV_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=PM_PHV_PMPMGR
30 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a PM_TLA_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=PM_TLA_PMPMGR
12 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a RADCMS_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=RADCMS_PMPMGR
30 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a SDMBIG_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=SDMBIG_PMPMGR
10 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a SDMPCC_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=SDMPCC_PMPMGR
30 0 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a SDMSDM_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=SDMSDM_PMPMGR
18 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a SEMNPC_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=SEMNPC_PMPMGR
10 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a SMAPMA_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=SMAPMA_PMPMGR
05 3 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a TMAQ1A_\% -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=TMAQ1A_PMPMGR
20 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a XMLNSS_AGG -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=XMLNSS_PMPMGR_A
10 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc "pmpmgrmx.pl -a XMLNSS_PMC -f" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=dbpkg ID=XMLNSS_PMPMGR_P
[omc@n83-vm26 ~]$

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Data Storages

1.5.2 Partitioning of Alarms Table


The partitioning of the FX_ALARMS table is configured in the crontab of omc user, in the first
FMPipe, for example in VM18:
[omc@n83-vm18 bin]$ crontab -l
0 0,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22 * * * /bin/bash -lc
/opt/nokia/oss/bin/nww_cron0.sh > /dev/null 2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm18
ID=NWW_CRON0
45 22 * * * /bin/bash -lc /opt/nokia/oss/bin/nww_cron3.sh > /dev/null 2>&1
# HOST=n83-vm18 ID=NWW_CRON3
0 0 * * 6 /bin/bash -lc /opt/nokia/oss/bin/nww_cron4.sh > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=n83-vm18 ID=NWW_CRON5
0 1 * * * /bin/bash -lc /opt/nokia/oss/bin/nww_cron6.sh > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=n83-vm18 ID=NWW_CRON6
15,45 * * * * perl /opt/nokia/oss/bin/alarm_cleanup_script.pl
FX_EVENTS_CLEAN > /dev/null 2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm18 ID=FXEVENTSCRONSCRIPT
0 0 * * * perl /opt/nokia/oss/bin/alarm_cleanup_script.pl AC_CRON >
/dev/null 2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm18 ID=NWW_AC_CRON0
30 2 * * * /bin/bash -lc /opt/nokia/oss/bin/FXAlarmPartition_cron.sh >
/dev/null 2>&1 # HOST=10.88.2.212 ID=FX_ALARM PARTITION MANAGEMENT
[omc@n83-vm18 bin]$

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Data Storages

1.6 Admin Tasks


Tasks performed in NetAct database management:
1. Start / stop the database instance.
2. Check if database is running.
3. Check if listener is running.
4. Check if there are alarms related to the database.
5. Review your database storage structures: tablespaces and data files, online redo log
files, and control files.
Use the OEM Oracle Console for easy review of the storage structures.
6. Create or review the backup strategy for the database and back up the database. For
details on backup, please refer to Backup Chapter of NetAct 15 Administration course or
„NetAct Administration” manual in Operating documentation
7. Monitor database performance and diagnose performance problems.
For details on performance monitoring, please refer to the next section on this chapter.
8. Investigate, gather diagnostic data for, and report to Oracle Support Services any critical
database errors.
For details on Collecting Oracle Diagnostic Data, please refer to section 1.9 of this
chapter.

1.6.1 Starting and stopping database


Log in to the VM where the database is running and switch to the root user.
To start up the database and Oracle listener process, enter:
[root]# /opt/cpf/bin/smanager.pl start service db

To check the states of the services, enter:


[root]# /opt/cpf/bin/smanager.pl status

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Data Storages

1.6.2 Checking that the database is running


In some situations, it is useful to ensure that all the necessary database processes are
running. This may be necessary, for example, if you receive an internal alarm concerning the
database connection.
Log in to the VM where the database is running as root user using SSH.
To display a list of the Oracle processes currently running, enter:
$ ps -afe | grep ora_
The following processes should be found in the process listing of the default installation:

Process name Description


ora_pmon_oss The Process Monitor (PMON) controls processes by performing
recovery of failed user processes, rollbacking uncommitted
transactions,and freeing the resources being consumed by cleaning up
the buffer cache.

ora_vktm_oss The Virtual Keeper of time controls the wall-clock time and is used as
areference-time counter.

ora_diag_oss The Diagnosability process manages hang detection and deadlock


resolution.

ora_dia0_oss The Diagnosibility process 0 monitors hang situations and deadlocks.

ora_dbrm_oss The Database Resource Manager is responsible for resource manager


related tasks and resource plans.

ora_psp0_oss The Process Spawner generates Oracle processes when needed.


ora_mman_oss The MMAN process is used for internal database tasks.

ora_dbwX_oss The Database Writer process (DBWn) writes buffer contents to


datafiles.

ora_lgwr_oss The Log Writer process (LGWR) writes data from the redo log buffers
to the redo log files on disk.

ora_ckpt_oss The Checkpoint process (CKPT) updates the headers of all data files to
record the details of the checkpoint.

ora_smon_oss The System Monitor process (SMON) recovers instances by cleaning


up temporary segments that are not required and coalescing
contiguous free extents in dictionary managed table spaces.

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Process name Description


ora_reco_oss The Recoverer process (RECO) connects to remote databases and
resolves pending transactions by recovering all in-doubt transactions in
a distributed database setup.

ora_mmon_oss The MMON process performs manageability-related background tasks


such as issuing alerts, taking snapshots, and capturing statistics values
for SQL objects.

ora_mmnl_oss The MMNL process performs light-weight manageability-related tasks


such as capturing session history and metrics computation.

ora_d000_oss The Dispatcher process listens to and receives requests from


connected sessions by placing them in the request queue on the next
available server for further processing. The Dispatcher process also
picks up outgoing responses from a results queue and transmit those
results back to the clients.

ora_s000_oss The Shared Server process picks up requests from a call request
queue, makes the calls to the database to resolve the request, and
then returns the results to a result queue.

ora_w000_oss The Space Management Worker process enforces the instructions


received from SMCO.

ora_smco_oss The Space Management Coordinator process handles the coordination


and execution of space management tasks by spawning wnnn
processes to carry out the task.

ora_fbda_oss The Flashback Data Archiver process archives historical data for
tracked tables into the flashback data archives by storing a pre-image
of the rows into the flashback archive and keeping the metadata for
those rows.

ora_cjq0_oss The Job Queue process batches processing by running user jobs
within a scheduler service. Able to run a large number of concurrent
jobs, the coordinator process (CJQ0) will spawn job queue slaves
(Jnnn) to run the jobs.

ora_qmnc_oss The Queue Monitor Coordinator creates dynamically slaves qXXX


depending on the system load. The slaves do various background
tasks.

ora_qxxx Slave processes created by ora_qmnc.

ora_gen0_oss General Task Execution Process. Performs required tasks including


SQL and DML.

ora_arcX_oss Copies the redo log files to the archival storage when they are full or an
online redo log switch occurs.

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1.6.3 Checking that the listener is running


Log in to the VM where the database is running and switch to the oracle user.
To check that the Oracle tnslsnr process is running, enter:
[oracle]$ lsnrctl status

1.7 Monitoring the database performance


1.7.1 Automatic Workload Repository (AWR)
The database performance is monitored by the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR). AWR
is a database performance diagnosis tool, which collects processes and maintains
performance statistics intended for detection of instance-wide performance problems and
self-tuning purposes. With AWR you can store performance data in permanent Oracle tables
and use it for analysis at any time, capture high-resource SQL statements, as well as use pre
computed ratios for reporting. Running AWR report does not decrease the system
performance.
By default, AWR runs automatically in the system, taking snapshots every hour. Thus, you
can run an AWR report whenever you wish. The AWR report can be generated either by
using the OEM db console or sqlplus.
To run the AWR report from the Oracle Enterprise Manager db console
1. Log into the OEM as system user.
2. In the Server tab of the OEM db console, under the Statistics Management, access the
Automatic Workload Repository.
3. To access the report generation page, click the Run AWR report button.
4. Select/enter either the baseline or begin and end snapshots and click the Generate
Report button.

To run the AWR report from the command line by SQL*Plus


1. Log into the VM running the database as the oracle user.
2. To move into the correct directory, enter:
3. [oracle]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin
4. To start SQL*Plus, enter:
5. [oracle]$ sqlplus system/<password>
6. To create the AWR report, enter:
7. SQL> start awrrpt.sql
8. Follow the instructions provided by the report generator. When prompted for the starting
and ending snapshot IDs, enter the <Snap Ids> for the report to use.
9. When prompted, enter the name of the output file.

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1.7.2 Analyzing the database objects


In the NetAct database, cost-based optimization (CBO) is used to get the best results from
SQL statements in terms of processing and time used. For more information on cost-based
optimization, see Oracle documentation. To use CBO efficiently, statistics must be collected
about database tables and indexes by running the mdbcbo_analyse.sh script. The script is
run automatically by cron, but you can also run it manually, for example, after manipulating a
large amount of data, after creating new tables, or if database performance degrades. During
the analysis operation, the database remains available.
This cost optimization script is scheduled in the crontab of “oracle” user in the VM running the
database:
[oracle@n83-vm04 ~]$ crontab -l
00 03 01,15 * * bash -l /opt/oss/nasdb/bin/crontabs_cleanup.sh > /dev/null
2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=DBSC_001
40 3 * * 0,2,4 bash -l /opt/oss/bin/mdbcbo_analyse.sh osssys > /dev/null
2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=DBSC_002
30 9,21 * * * bash -l /opt/oss/bin/mdbcbo_analyse.sh -CPU 60 > /dev/null
2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=DBSC_004
55 3 * * 6 bash -l /opt/oss/nasdb/bin/rebuild_sys_indexes.sh > /dev/null
2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=DBSC_012
55 4 * * 0 bash -l /opt/oss/nasdb/bin/dbsc_dict_stats.sh > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=n83-vm04 ID=DBSC_021
42 7 4 3,9 * bash -l /opt/oss/nasdb/bin/gather_fixed_objects_stats.sh >
/dev/null 2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=DBSC_033
5 3 * * * bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbcbo_analyse.sh ac 10 1" > /dev/null
2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=AC_CBO
0 3 * * * bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbind.sh ac REBUILD" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=n83-vm04 ID=AC_IND_REBUILD
15 3 * * * bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbcbo_analyse.sh fm 10 1" > /dev/null
2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=FM_CBO
10 3 * * * bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbind.sh fm REBUILD" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=n83-vm04 ID=FM_IND_REBUILD
15 2 * * * bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbcbo_analyse.sh LIC 10 1" > /dev/null
2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=LIC_COMMON_CBO
10 2 * * 7 bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbind.sh LIC REBUILD" > /dev/null 2>&1
# HOST=n83-vm04 ID=LIC_COMMON_REBUILD
0 6 * * * bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbcbo_analyse.sh swm 10 1" > /dev/null
2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=SWM_CBO
5 6 * * * bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbind.sh swm REBUILD" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=n83-vm04 ID=SWM_IND_REBUILD
0 6 * * * bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbcbo_analyse.sh trc 10 1" > /dev/null
2>&1 # HOST=n83-vm04 ID=TRC_CBO
5 6 * * * bash -lc "/opt/oss/bin/mdbind.sh trc REBUILD" > /dev/null 2>&1 #
HOST=n83-vm04 ID=TRC_IND_REBUILD
[oracle@n83-vm04 ~]$

The results of the analysis can be found in the following files:


/var/opt/oss/log/db/<schema>.analyze.log
/var/opt/oss/log/db/<schema>.<table>.analyze.log
/var/opt/oss/log/db/<schema>.<table>.<partition>.analyze.log
/var/opt/oss/log/db/<schema>.partition.analyze.log

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TIP
The script is located in:
/opt/oss/bin/mdbcbo_analyse.sh

1.7.3 Checking and rebuilding the indexes


Database indexes should be checked periodically for fragmentation. By default, the check is
automatically run by cron, and rebuilds are done automatically, if necessary. When needed,
indexes can be rebuilt directly without checking. You can check the results of index checks
in:
/var/opt/oss/log/db/<schema>.index_rebuild.log
/var/opt/oss/log/db/<schema>.<objectName>.<partition>.index_rebuild.
log

You can also manually check and rebuild indexes using the mdbind.sh script. It may be
necessary for you to check indexes in between cron executions, for example, if database
performance becomes slow or if index sizes increase significantly for no apparent reason.
During the rebuild operation, the existing index is temporarily locked, but the database
remains available.
TIP
The script is located in:
/opt/oss/NSN-dbsc_omdb/bin/mdbind.sh

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1.8 Database Logging


Oracle database writes into the following log files:

File or directory Description

/opt/oracle/admin/oss/adump/*.aud Security auditing files.

/opt/oracle/diag/rdbms/oss/oss/trace/* Background process trace files and


alert_oss.log, which is the main log file for
Oracle-related events, such as Oracle
startups, error situations, and parameter
installations.
/opt/oracle/diag/rdbms/oss/oss/trace/alert_ The Oracle database log file
oss.log

/opt/oracle/diag/rdbms/oss/oss/cdump/* Core dump and user SQL trace files.

/opt/oracle/product/11gR2/rdbms/ audit/* The default location for the security audit files,
if the AUDIT_FILE_DEST parameter is not
specified.

/opt/oracle/product/11gR2/rdbms/ log/* The default location for database log files.

/opt/oracle/product/11gR2/network/ log/* The Oracle client log file directory.


/opt/oracle/product/11gR2/network/trace/* The network listener trace file directory.

/opt/oracle/product/11gR2/sysman/ log/* Management agent related log files.

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1.8.1 Checking the database log


The Oracle RDBMS stores information about the database in the
/opt/oracle/diag/rdbms/oss/oss/trace/alert_oss.log file. You should check this log file
periodically for error messages.
The most critical Oracle errors are indicated by the error code ORA-00600. If the
alert_oss.log file contains these errors, there may be a very serious problem with the
database. However, the ORA-00600 error code may also indicate non-critical errors. An
ORA-00600 error is a sign that the database has failed to complete a task. The error may be
due to a disk fault, for example.
Log in to the VM where the database is running as the oracle dba user using SSH.
To scan the error log file for critical errors, enter:
$ grep ORA- /opt/oracle/diag/rdbms/oss/oss/trace/alert_oss.log
WARNING
If any critical errors are displayed, contact Nokia Solutions and Networks
Technical Support immediately, so that the problem can be investigated.

1.8.1.1 Viewing log files


The Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) is a directory structure that is stored outside of
the database. It is therefore available for problem diagnosis when the database is down.
The ADR root directory is known as ADR base. Its location is set by the DIAGNOSTIC_DEST
initialization parameter. If this parameter is omitted or left null, the database sets
DIAGNOSTIC_DEST upon startup as follows:
In the following instructions the ADR Command Interpreter tool (adrci) has been used for
viewing the log files but you can use the most convenient way available to you.
Log in to the VM where the database service is running as the oracle user.
To start the ADR Command Interpreter tool, enter:
[oracle]$ adrci
To view the log and trace file names, enter:
[oracle]$ adrci> show tracefile
The following file names are visible:
diag/tnslsnr/<server>/listener/trace/listener.log
diag/tnslsnr/<server>/listener/trace/ora_<*>.trc
To select the file you want to view, enter:
[oracle]$ adrci> show trace listener.log
OR:
[oracle]$ adrci> show trace ora_<*>.trc
To quit adrci, use VI commands.

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1.8.2 Automatic Diagnostic Repository


The Fault Diagnosability Infrastructure assists in preventing, detecting, diagnosing, and
resolving database related problems. The Automatic Diagnostic Repository - ADR is a
structure that contains all files associated with the Fault Diagnosability Infrastructure.
The ADR is a physical location for file storage, which has a pre-defined and standard
directory structure. Within the ADR, different Oracle components (such as individual
database instances) store data in their own ADR home. The ADR provides for
standardization of the location for files that Oracle is required to support. This standardized
file structure also makes it easy for Oracle to package these files so that they can be sent to
Oracle as a part of a Service Request.
Associated with the ADR is the new diagnostic_dest parameter. This parameter defines the
root of the ADR. The diagnostic_dest parameter deprecates the user_dump_dest,
core_dump_dest, and background_dump_dest parameters. Any Oracle 11g database will
ignore these parameters and will use the diagnostic_dest parameter.
The diagnostic_dest parameter defaults to a setting of $ORACLE_BASE. Should
$ORACLE_BASE not be set, then diagnostic_dest will default to the value of
$ORACLE_HOME. The root directory of the ADR directory structure builds from
$ORACLE_BASE with a directory called diag. Under the diag directory is a subdirectory that
references the product type, such as rdbms. Specific to the database, under rdbms is a
directory for each database, and then a directory for each individual instance. Oracle will
create all of these directories for you, except the $ORACLE_BASE directory.
Within ADR base, there can be multiple ADR homes, where each ADR home is the root
directory for all diagnostic data—traces, dumps, the alert log, and so on—for a particular
instance of a particular Oracle product or component. For example, in an Oracle Real
Application Clusters environment with Oracle ASM, each database instance, Oracle ASM
instance, and listener has an ADR home.
Within each ADR home directory are subdirectories that contain the diagnostic data. Table
lists some of these subdirectories and their contents.

Subdirectory Name Contents

alert The XML-formatted alert log

cdump Core files

iIncident Multiple subdirectories, where each subdirectory is named for a


particular incident, and where each contains dumps pertaining
only to that incident

trace Background and server process trace files, SQL trace files, and
the text-formatted alert log

(others) Other subdirectories of ADR home, which store incident


packages, health monitor reports, and other information

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1.8.2.1 About Incidents and Problems


To facilitate diagnosis and resolution of critical errors, the fault diagnosability infrastructure
introduces two concepts for Oracle Database: problems and incidents.
A problem is a critical error in the database. Critical errors manifest as internal errors, such
as ORA-00600, or other severe errors, such as ORA-07445 (operating system exception) or
ORA-04031 (out of memory in the shared pool). Problems are tracked in the ADR. Each
problem has a problem key, which is a text string that describes the problem. It includes an
error code (such as ORA 600) and in some cases, one or more error parameters.
An incident is a single occurrence of a problem. When a problem (critical error) occurs
multiple times, an incident is created for each occurrence. Incidents are timestamped and
tracked in the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR). Each incident is identified by a
numeric incident ID, which is unique within the ADR. When an incident occurs, the database:
Makes an entry in the alert log.
Sends an incident alert to Oracle Enterprise Manager (Enterprise Manager).
Gathers first-failure diagnostic data about the incident in the form of dump files (incident
dumps).
Tags the incident dumps with the incident ID.
Stores the incident dumps in an ADR subdirectory created for that incident.
Diagnosis and resolution of a critical error usually starts with an incident alert. The incident
alert is displayed on the Enterprise Manager Database Home page. You can then view the
problem and its associated incidents with Enterprise Manager or with the ADRCI command-
line utility.
1.8.2.2 Components of ADR
Alert Log
The alert log is an XML file that is a chronological log of database messages and errors. It is
stored in the ADR and includes messages about the following:
Critical errors (incidents)
Administrative operations, such as starting up or shutting down the database, recovering the
database, creating or dropping a tablespace, and others.
Errors during automatic refresh of a materialized view
Other database events
You can view the alert log in text format (with the XML tags stripped) with Enterprise
Manager and with the ADRCI utility. There is also a text-formatted version of the alert log
stored in the ADR for backward compatibility. However, Oracle recommends that any parsing
of the alert log contents be done with the XML-formatted version, because the text format is
unstructured and may change from release to release

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Trace Files
Each server and background process can write to an associated trace file. Trace files are
updated periodically over the life of the process and can contain information on the process
environment, status, activities, and errors. In addition, when a process detects a critical error,
it writes information about the error to its trace file. The SQL trace facility also creates trace
files, which provide performance information on individual SQL statements. You can enable
SQL tracing for a session or an instance.
Trace file names are platform-dependent. Typically, database background process trace file
names contain the Oracle SID, the background process name, and the operating system
process number, while server process trace file names contain the Oracle SID, the string
"ora", and the operating system process number. The file extension is .trc. An example of a
server process trace file name is orcl_ora_344.trc. Trace files are sometimes accompanied
by corresponding trace map (.trm) files, which contain structural information about trace files
and are used for searching and navigation.

Dumps
A dump is a specific type of trace file. A dump is typically a one-time output of diagnostic data
in response to an event (such as an incident), whereas a trace tends to be continuous output
of diagnostic data. When an incident occurs, the database writes one or more dumps to the
incident directory created for the incident. Incident dumps also contain the incident number in
the file name.

Core Files
A core file contains a memory dump, in an all-binary, port-specific format. Core file names
include the string "core" and the operating system process ID. Core files are useful to Oracle
Support engineers only. Core files are not found on all platforms.

ADRCI Command-Line Utility


The ADR Command Interpreter (ADRCI) is a utility that enables you to investigate problems,
view health check reports, and package and upload first-failure diagnostic data to Oracle
Support, all within a command-line environment. ADRCI also enables you to view the names
of the trace files in the ADR, and to view the alert log with XML tags stripped, with and
without content filtering

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Oracle Database
Database Logging: ADR Directory Structure
User oracle:
/opt
$ORACLE_HOME
/oracle

/product
$DIAGNOSTIC_DEST
/11R2ps3

/log

The V$DIAG_INFO view lists all important ADR locations for the current Oracle
DB instance.
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$DIAG_INFO;

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

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1.9 Collecting Oracle Diagnostic Data with (RDA)


Oracle Remote Diagnostic Agent (RDA) is a tool for collecting diagnostic data of the Oracle
database. This data is used for evaluating the performance of the database and for
troubleshooting purposes.
If there is unexpected slowness or other Oracle database related problems, use RDA for
collecting data of the Oracle database. The collected data helps the NSN or Oracle support
to analyze possible causes for the problems.

1.9.1 4.5.1 Collecting data with RDA


1. Log in to the VM running the database as the oracle user.
2. To change to the directory where the RDA is installed, enter:
[oracle]$ cd $ORACLE_BASE/rda/
3. To start collecting the data, enter:
[oracle]$ ./rda.pl
The tool asks many questions about the system. You need to know the system to be
able to answer them properly. It is recommended to accept the suggested default
answers, except in the following cases:
Do you want RDA to perform the network ping tests (Y/N)? Hit
'Return' to accept the default (N)
Answer: Y.
Is 'system' a SYSDBA user (will connect as SYSDBA) (Y/N)?Hit
'Return' to accept the default (N)
This depends on your database instance configuration. Answer: Y.
Do you want to collect RDBMS memory information (Y/N)? Hit
'Return' to accept the default (N)
Answer: Y.
Do you want RDA to collect backup/recovery information (Y/N)? Hit
'Return' to accept the default (N)
Answer: Y.
Do you want RDA to collect Data Guard information (Y/N)?Hit
'Return' to accept the default (N)
If you have Data Guard in your system, you may want to answer Y.

Expected outcome
The result file of the diagnostics can be found in the $ORACLE_BASE/rda/output
directory.

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1.10 Oracle Documentation


http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html

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Oracle Database
Documentation

http://tahiti.oracle.com

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Data Storages

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Data Storages

2 LDAP

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Data Storages

2.1 Overview
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a set of open protocols used to access
centrally stored information over a network. It is based on the X.500 standard for directory
sharing, but is less complex and resource-intensive. The X.500 standard is a directory that
contains hierarchical and categorized information, which could include information such as
names, addresses, and phone numbers.
Unlike relational databases, such as the NetAct Oracle database, the LDAP directories do
not have tables. They have branches, or containers, for storing objects. Objects are either
containers or end entities, that is, they are representations of schema definitions. Schema is
composed of attributes and object classes. Attributes in turn define components of objects,
whereas object classes define collections of attributes. The attributes, moreover, have
values.
Red Hat Directory Server (Directory Server) is a powerful and scalable distributed directory
server based on the industry-standard Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
A client starts an LDAP session by connecting to an LDAP server, called a Directory System
Agent (DSA), by default on TCP port 389. The client then sends an operation request to the
server, and the server sends responses in return. With some exceptions, the client does not
need to wait for a response before sending the next request, and the server may send the
responses in any order.
In NetAct, the LDAP directory is used for centralizing configuration data which is needed by
processes that are:
 managing authorization data
 performing user authentication to various network resources

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Data Storages

LDAP
Directory Server contents in NetAct

The LDAP directory is a list of information about objects arranged in


some order that gives details about each object.

LDAP directory

e.g.
NetAct configuration
Authentication and
Authorization User data

LDAP software in NetAct is Red Hat Directory


1
Service (RHDS)
© Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014

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Data Storages

Fig. 23

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Data Storages

2.2 LDAP Implementation in NetAct


In NetAct, there are two instances of directory servers that can be identified by the dirsrv
and dirsrv-secondary service names when using the smanager.pl status
command. These instances provide a highly available directory service. When one directory
server goes down, the other server takes on the active role of handling Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol (LDAP) requests. These two directory servers are configured in a multi-
master replication setup so that data (except the directory servers' internal configuration
data) are synchronized between them on a regular basis.
All administration tasks should be done on the virtual machines (VMs) that host the dirsrv
and dirsrv-secondary services.
The virtual infrastructure defines a virtual IP and host for NetAct applications to connect to
LDAP.
The Database schemas are located /etc/dirsrv/schema/
The Directory server configuration file is /etc/dirsrv/slapd-oss/dse.ldif. This
configuration file is local and if changes are required, those need to be done in both DS
nodes.

2.2.1 LDAP Users


The administrative passwords for LDAP users are not stored in NetAct User management.
The LDAP servers have super user account, called replication manager, which is defined at
installation time.
Admin user: cn=Manager should not be used for any operations but is still included, thus the
password should be managed.

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Fig. 24

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Data Storages

LDAP
Users

Anonymous Read access

DS system credentials…. cn=ds


Sysauth users

Manager Admin user

Replication_manager Replication access

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Fig. 25

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Data Storages

2.2.2 Checking the Status of the LDAP Servers


1. Log in to any NetAct virtual machine (VM), and switch to the root user.
2. To check the status, enter:
[root]# smanager.pl status service dirsrv
Expected outcome
An output like the one below appears.
dirsrv:<vm where the service is located>:started
dirsrv-secondary:<vm where the service is located>:started

2.2.3 Stopping the directory server


Stopping the directory server is not at all recommended unless there is a critical configuration
change that requires restarting the service. The dirsrv service is also configured to be
unstoppable in Service Monitoring; hence, the smanager.pl command cannot be used to
stop the directory servers.
If there is a need to stop the dirsrv service, do the following:
Note: Although there are two directory servers, you must keep at least one server running
atany given time so as not to disrupt NetAct operations.
1. Log in to the VM that hosts the dirsrv service, and switch to the root user.
2. To check the status, enter:
[root]# smanager.pl status service <directory service name>
where <directory service name> can either be dirsrv or dirsrv-secondary.
3. Depending on the service status, do one of the following:
a) If the dirsrv status is started, then put the service in maintenance mode by
entering the following command and proceed to step 4.
[root]# smanager.pl maintenance <directory service name> on

Note: When the service is in maintenance mode, Service Monitoring no longer


controls the service.

b) If the dirsrv or dirsrv-secondary status is frozen, then proceed to step 4.


4. To stop the directory server, enter:
[root]# service dirsrv stop

When the dirsrv service is down, the operating system can still access LDAP user
information since there is a cache that is running on the client side. Caching is used to
reduce the network calls from the operating system to LDAP. The nslcd and nscd
processes are the LDAP daemons that perform local LDAP queries and name service
requests, respectively. These processes remain active even when the dirsrv service is
down.
• After changing the configuration or performing maintenance actions, make sure to start the
dirsrv service before setting the maintenance mode to off.

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Data Storages

LDAP
Checking the Status of the directory Servers
[root@n83-vm03 ~]# smanager.pl status Directory Server is
Status of NetAct an unstoppable (u)
DomainNode Service Status VirtualIP
Site: Local service
n83-vm03
netfs-n83-vm03 started standAlone
cpfnx2s-n83-vm03 started standAlone
OMAgentAF-n83-vm03 started standAlone
ssh-n83-vm03 started (u) standAlone
ntp-n83-vm03 started (u) standAlone
DNS-Master started (u) standAlone
dirsrv started (u) standAlone
tomcat_vcentplg started standAlone
n83-vm04
netfs-n83-vm04 started standAlone
cpfnx2s-n83-vm04 started standAlone
OMAgentAF-n83-vm04 started standAlone
ssh-n83-vm04 started (u) standAlone
ntp-n83-vm04 started (u) standAlone
db started standAlone
n83-vm05
cpfnx2s-n83-vm05 started standAlone
OMAgentAF-n83-vm05 started standAlone
ssh-n83-vm05 started (u) standAlone
ntp-n83-vm05 started (u) standAlone
nfs started (u) standAlone
1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
dirsrv-secondary started (u) standAlone

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Data Storages

2.2.4 Accessing LDAP Directory


There are many GUI’s available for LDAP browsing and editing. Some access examples are
shown in the following:

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Data Storages

LDAP
Accessing the Directory with GUI

Configuration root

Admin root

1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

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Data Storages

2.3 Directory Server Backups


2.3.1 Taking manual backup
# ./cpfrhdsconf_create_and_rotate_backup.sh --
dir=/d/oss/global/var/dirsrv/backup/ --keep=5 --instance=example

2.3.2 Restore backup


# ./cpfrhdsconf_restore_from_backup.sh --instance=oss --
manager=cn=Manager --manager_password=<password> --
backup=/d/oss/global/var/dirsrv/backup/latest/oss_bak/

2.3.3 Automatic backups


By default, cron will run daily backup of LDAP database.
Configuration is located at:
# cd /etc/cron.daily/
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 120 May 11 15:48 dirsrv_oss_backup.sh
[root@n83-vm03 cron.daily]# more dirsrv_oss_backup.sh
#!/bin/bash
hostname=n83-vm03
/opt/cpf/bin/cpfrhdsconf_create_and_rotate_backup.sh --
dir=/d/oss/global/var/dirsrv/backup/ --keep=10 --instance=oss > /dev/null
2>&1

Backup directory:
/d/oss/global/var/dirsrv/backup

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2.4 Replication
Replication is the mechanism by which directory data is automatically copied from one
Directory Server to another. Updates of any kind — entry additions, modifications, or even
deletions — are automatically mirrored to other Directory Servers using replication.
The changelog (replication) database is kept in a separate environment than the main
database.
Every server maintains a changelog, a record of all changes that a supplier or hub needs to
send to its consumers. A changelog is a special kind of database that describes the
modifications that have occurred on a replica. The supplier server then replays these
modifications to the replicas stored on consumer servers or to other suppliers, in the case of
multi-master replication.
When an entry is modified, a change record describing the LDAP operation that was
performed is recorded in the changelog.
Directory Servers use replication agreements to define their replication configuration. A
replication agreement describes replication between one supplier and one consumer only.
The agreement is configured on the supplier server and must specify all required replication
information:
 The database to be replicated.
 The consumer server to which the data is pushed.
 The days and times during which replication can occur.
 The DN and credentials that the supplier server must use to bind (the replication
manager entry or supplier bind DN).
 How the connection is secured (SSL, client authentication).
 Any attributes that will not be replicated (fractional replication).

Manually initiating the replication from VM hosting the directory server to VM hosting the
secondary directory server is done by script:
# /opt/cpf/bin/cpfrhdsconf_init_replication.sh --manager=cn=Manager
--manager_password=<password> --basedn=dc=netact,dc=net --
destination=<FQDN VM secondary directory server>

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LDAP
Directory Replication

VM dirsrv VM dirsrv-secondary

dirsrv dirsrv
Replication
manager

Change log Change log

/var/lib/dirsrv/slapd-oss/changelogdb/

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Data Storages

2.5 Logging
All LDAP related logs are stored locally on each DS node at:
/var/log/dirsrv/slapd-oss
The access log contains information about connections, authentications, searches, additions,
modifications, and deletions. It also contains information about replication connections. For
performance reasons, the access log is buffered (written to disk asynchronously), so it may
take a few seconds for an operation to appear in the access log file. Disabling access log
buffering is not recommended, and can severely impact LDAP performance. Access log level
should not be adjusted, or it can severely impact LDAP performance.

2.5.1 Access log disk space usage.


LDAP is installed to the root (/) partition. The log files will rotate at 100MB or once in a month,
and a maximum of 20 log files are kept (excluding the current one).
Only server and operational errors are logged to the error log. Errors of another kind do not
go to the error log. For example, login failures are logged to the access log instead. The error
log also contains certain administrative operations, such as LDAP server startup messages,
index rebuild messages, and database restore messages.

2.5.2 Non-Error Result Codes


These result codes (called "non-error" result codes) do not indicate an error condition:
 success (0),
 compareFalse (5),
 compareTrue (6),
 referral (10), and
 saslBindInProgress (14).

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LDAP
Logging

/var/log/dirsrv/slapd-oss
• Access log
Contains information about
 Connections
 Authentications
 Searches
 Additions
 Modifications
 Deletions
 Replication connections
• Error log
• Audit log
• Rotation info
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Data Storages

3 Exercises

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Exercise 1
Title: Oracle database Architecture

Objectives: Explain the purpose of a database server.


Describe the Oracle Architecture.
Explain the functionality of the main components of the Oracle
Architecture.
Use the Oracle Enterprise Manager to check details on the database
structures.

Pre-requisite: none

Task
Please execute the following tasks and answer the related questions. Use the credentials
provided by your trainer to access the system.

Query
1. What is the purpose of an Oracle Server? What are the components of an Oracle
Server? Check the Oracle version installed on the system and write down the details for
it.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

2. What is an Oracle Instance? Verify if the instance is running. Write the steps for this
task.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

3. Is the database in online mode? How can you verify this information?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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4. Explore the Database with the Web based Oracle Enterprise Manager
a) Click on the Administration link. Which tables belong to SQLFM1_1 tablespace?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
b) How can you find information about the allocation of datafiles to tablespaces? In the
case of the SQLFM1_1 tablespace, what is the size of the file?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
c) Does the DBA have to take any action when the needed space for the tablespace
reaches or exceeds the file size? Explain your answer.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
d) What is the file's current maximum size?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
e) What are the default storage parameters for the tablespace SQLFM1_1?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 2
Title: Oracle Implementation in NetAct

Objectives: Explain the file structure of the Oracle implementation in NetAct.


Explain the high availability implementation of the database.
Execute the procedures for starting / stopping the instance.
Check the main configuration files for the database and the listener.
Check the status of the listener.

Pre-requisite: none

Task
Please execute the following tasks and answer the related questions. Use the credentials
provided by your trainer to access the system.
Query
1. What is the strategy implemented to provide high availability in NetAct for the database?
Check that database is running. What commands you need for this task?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

2. Check the file systems of the database. Log in the corresponding VM and check the
available diskspace for each. Explain the purpose of each file system and where to find
it.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the file /d/db/oradata/oss_conf/network/admin/tnsnames.ora?


______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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4. Run the following SQL script to check the destination folder of archieve of redo log files:
SQL> SELECT dest_name, status, destination FROM v$archive_dest;
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

5. What is partitioning? How is partitioning implemented in NetAct? Verify the partitioning


configuration and list some of the adaptations with partitioning support.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

6. Stop the database and the oracle listener.


______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 3
Title: Oracle Administrative Tasks, Troubleshooting and Logging

Objectives: Verify the correct functioning of database.


Locate and display the logs of database.
Collect diagnostic information of Oracle database.

Pre-requisite: none

Task
Please execute the following tasks and answer the related questions. Use the credentials
provided by your trainer to access the system.

Query
1. Check if there are alarms related to the database in NetAct. How can you do this?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

2. Check that all the necessary database processes are running. How can you do that?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

3. Verify the location of the ADR home directory. Write down the commands required for
this task and the path for this directory.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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4. Verify that listener is running. What would happen if listener is stopped?


______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

5. How many active alerts are there in the database? Use ADR to check this infomation
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

6. Collect diagnostic data for the Oracle database with the RDA tool. Check the output file.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 4
Title: LDAP

Objectives: Explain the purpose of the LDAP database.


Verify the LDAP availability.
Describe the LDAP implementation in NetAct.
Browse the LDAP database using a graphical tool.
Locate the LDAP logs in the system.

Pre-requisite: none

Task
Please execute the following tasks and answer the related questions. Use the credentials
provided by your trainer to access the system.

Query
1. What is the purpose of an LDAP database? What is the software installed in NetAct for
LDAP implementation?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

2. Verify the status of the LDAP in the test system. How can you do this?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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3. Connect to LDAP database using a Graphical LDAP Browser. Connect as anonymous


user with the default port. Browse the database and list below the main branches of this.
What is the content of the database?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

4. Display the monitoring attributes for the Directory Server. List below some of the
statistics shown there.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

5. Where can you find the logs of the LDAP database? Verify from the logs if the replication
has been successful during the last hours.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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