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Heston Wilson

James Karr
Sean Burke
Nick Lloyd
Instrument Physics
The trumpet is a wind instrument with a long tube that amplifies the sound. The sound of a
trumpet is created by the vibration of your lips on the mouthpiece.The vibration creates a
longitudinal wave of differing pressures in the trumpet. Since the frequency and wavelength of
the tube are inversely proportional the longer the tube the lower the frequency/sound that is
created will be. To play a certain frequency/note on a wind instrument there are generally holes
at specific locations. To create a sound of a certain frequency, there must be a hole that is
positioned at 1/4th the sounds wavelength away from the mouthpiece.
My trumpet has only 6 notes because I can only stretch my fingers so far.

Note Frequency(hz) Wavelength(cm) Distance from


G3 196 176.02 44.05

A3 220 156.82 39.205

B3 246.94 139.71 34.975

C4 261.3hz 131.87 32.96

D4 293.66 117.48 29.37

E4 329.63 104.66 26.16

Slide Whistle:
The slide whistle that I built is a wind instrument that creates when I
blow into the mouthpiece end by forcing an air mass through a restricted
space. Blowing a given amount of air through the small space allowed by the
mouthpiece creates a high pressure region. This pressurized air is then split
by the opening to the whistleś sharp edge. This creates the vibration that we
hear as a pitch. The pitch we hear depends on how far down the tube the
slide is. The closer to the non-mouthpiece end of the tube the slide is, the
lower the frequency of the note will be. This is because the waves have to
travel farther down the tube and back, causing less waves per second and a
lower sound.

Note Frequency (hz) Wavelength (cm) Length from

Mouthpiece (cm)

E5 659.25 52.33 36.5 Commented [1]: explain why these arent 1/8
F5 698.46 49.39 34.5

G5 783.99 44.01 30.5

A5 880.00 39.20 26

B5 987.77 34.93 23

C6 1046.50 32.97 21.5

D6 1174.66 29.37 19.5

E6 1318.51 26.17 17.5

A chime creates sound based off the natural
frequency of a material. This frequency can be
changed into different notes by changing the
length of the material. Every material has a
natural frequency so one length would be a
different size between a plastic pipe and a
metal one. For my insturentment I used metal
pipes. I cut the metal pipes to different sizes to
achieve different notes. I got the length of the
pipes by finding a “master note” then
multiplying them by the ratio shown below. The “master note in my case was a b4 . To make
sound from the chimes, I hit the chimes with a wood drumstick which then vibrates the pipe.

Note Frequency (hz) Wavelength (cm) Length (cm) Ratio from


a4 440.00 78.41 22.3 1.0

b4 493.88 69.85 21.5 0.9428

c5 523.25 65.93 20.27 0.8944

d5 587.33 58.74 19.23 0.8660

e5 659.25 52.33 18.62 0.8165

f5 698.46 49.39 17.55 0.7746

g5 783.99 44.01 16.65 0.7303

a5 880.00 39.20 15.7 0.7071

String Instrument:
A string instrument plays through the vibration of it´s

strings. The instrument can make different notes by changing

the size and tension of the strings. The string instrument plays

as one standing wave which is half a wavelength. To play

notes the musician presses down on the frets to shorten the

string to play higher notes. It is also possible to change the

tension by adjusting the tuning pegs. Also a hole is cut in the

base of the guitar to make the sound resonate, making the music louder. Our guitar uses

screws as tuning pegs and holds the string tight. The string used is fishing string which gives it a

lower pitch. The neck of the guitar is furnished from two pieces of wood held together by a long,

skinny slab of wood fixed to the bottom with multiple screws. The base of the guitar has a hole

in the middle of it with strings running over it to amplify the sound.

Notes Frequency (hz) Wavelength (cm) Distance from

resonator (cm)

c4 261.63 137.87 68.935

d4 293.66 117.48 58.74

e4 329.63 104.66 52.33

f4 349.23 98.79 49.395

g4 329 88.01 44.005

a4 440 78.41 39.205

b4 493.88 69.85 34.925

c5 523.25 65.93 32.965