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Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 1

Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their
Rights in an Indigenous Society

Utilitarianism teaches us that “it is the greatest good to the greatest number of people
which is the measure of right and wrong” (Bentham, 1789). But this logic may be flawed
because the measure of right and wrong cannot simply be quantitative in nature and that in
actuality, it may be the case that “being wrong” is a co-equal term for “being different”- at least
in the case of the Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transexuals. We believe that not because they
are the few, does not mean that they will always and forever get the short end of the stick.
If a new kind of human is created by deviating from the standards initially set by society,
does this new human become a sub-human? If this is in fact the case, is the sub-human a step
behind human evolution or a step closer to a higher evolution? The human is a rational being.
Using the same human capacity for reason, we can say that gays and lesbians are not sub-humans
because it has not been said in any existing study that socially defined gender preference
diminishes, alters or in any way affects the individual’s capacity for reason whether positively or
otherwise. Also, in our experience, we have seen successful gays and lesbians may it be in the
field of business, medicine, public service and the like. It is therefore both irrational and unjust to
rob gays and lesbians of their inherent human rights and obstruct them from advancing rights co-
equal to heterosexuals. Human rights are rights for all, and that gays and lesbians are not wrong
by pursuing these rights because they are the minority of the different- that LGBTQ rights are
human rights as well.
According to Reuters (2013) people around the world face violence and inequality- and
sometimes torture, even execution- because of who they love, how they look, or who they are.
The murder of Fanny Ann Eddy— a famous lesbian known for working in the only gay-rights
group in Sierra Leone was advocating for rights for LGBTs in the United Nations. Since the
country has just finished a civil war, few Sierra Leoneans think that the ‘gay issue’ is not the
most pressing of issues the country need to tackle at that time. Nonetheless, many western
countries have started the movement towards radically transforming the world for our minority
brothers and sisters by giving them the ultimate chance for the pursuit of happiness, by allowing
them marriage rights.
In December 2, 2013, the 15th president of the Philippines openly expressed uncertainty
about the possibilities of a policy change concerning LGBTQ rights (Gutierrez, 2013). Since the
mid-nineties, several bills regarding the LGBTQ issue achieved little support and any attempts to
revive it have only been frustrated. Further still, in 2013, sixty-five percent (65%) of Filipinos
finds homosexuality “morally unacceptable” (Pew Research Center, 2013). E.J. Manalastas
further provides that 1 out of 4 Filipinos do not want to have gays or lesbians as neighbors
(Manalastas, 2005). In the same study, it shows that 28% of Filipinos believe that being a gay or
a lesbian can never be justified. These reports only show an overwhelming lack of understanding
about this global issue, especially in the Philippines.
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 2

Majority of earlier studies here in the Philippines on the LGBTQ question are mostly
concentrated in urban areas where it can be said that the mainstream culture is geared towards
more liberal principles and that more positive evaluations about the LGBTQ may be found in the
NCR (National Capital Region) (Manalastas, 2005). This particular study seeks to extend the
LGBTQ issue far beyond the outskirts of the cities to unchartered territory in the provinces;
although, this is not to say that the provinces have not undergone a certain level of acculturation.
The logic behind this is not only to cover as broad spectrum of the population as possible, but
most importantly to discover any ways and means in which LGBTQ communities advance their
rights in those regions which we may deduce as areas with more conservative beliefs. In light of
these cause, it need be, first established which classifications of discrimination operate within
these areas. Doing this would help identify proper policy measures which could address the
LGBTQ issue at the empirical level. This means that the paper will focus on economic, social,
and political rights of the LGBTQs.
The painful truth about the majority of earlier studies here in the Philippines on the
LGBTQ question are mostly concentrated in urban areas where it can be said that the mainstream
culture is geared towards more liberal principles. However, more positive evaluations about the
LGBTQ may be found in the NCR (National Capital Region) (Manalastas, 2005).
Exactly, how do we define human rights? Why is it significant? United Nations defines
human rights as somewhat as universal, and inalienable, interdependent and indivisible, and
equal and non-discriminatory. Universal and inalienable in a sense those human rights belong to
all and cannot be taken away unless specific situations call for it. Interdependent and indivisible
in a sense that whatever happens to even one right – fulfillment or violation – can directly affect
the others. Finally, equal and non-discriminatory in a sense those human rights protect all people
regardless of race, nationality, gender, religion, and political leaning, among others. They should
be respected without prejudice (Gavilan, 2015).
There have been a lot of cases whereby certain discriminations have been adhered to
these LGBT communities; commonly, these LGBTS are victims of physical abuses, verbal
bullying and other forms of discrimination. It is in this sense that LGBTS are treated differently.
Hence, a lot of complaints and issues arise because of such treatments. Bill of rights may be
defined as “enumeration of person’s rights and privileges which the constitution is designed to
protect against violations by the government or by an individual or groups of individuals” (De
Leon, 2011).
LGBTs often time have difficulties in their work place, this is due to the fact that
discrimination are adhered to the latter. There have been several reports claiming that these
LGBTs are subject to sexual harassment and bullying done by the employers (UNDP, 2011).
Another thing would be the issue when it comes to same sex marriage. Others may find it
immoral and thus, LGBTs of the same sex who consider themselves as a couple may not be as
perceived by the people in the outskirts as somewhat acceptable. According to Speaker Feliciano
Belmonte Jr, “Same-sex marriage is impossible to be legalized in the country”. “From the point
of view of our culture, it’s impossibility for quite some time”.” He said he does not see Congress
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 3

approving a bill allowing same sex marriage because it is against the Filipinos’ culture. “The law
lives within the culture and not the other way around,” he said (Jess Diaz, 2015)
In the Philippines alone, Manny Pacquiao a boxing icon and two-term congressman has
made his point of view on same sex unions and that he is not a fan. Pointing to the mating habit
of animals, the boxing champ said it was "common sense" for animals to pair with the opposite
sex. Based on this, he concluded that those in same-sex unions are worse than animals (Rappler,
There are laws passed whereby it seeks to uplift the rights of LGBTs yet, there are
discriminations that still happen and is just not enough. The following are the recommendations
stated by the United Nations Development Programme relating to LGBT human rights.
In terms of political aspects; Identify an agreed-upon political conceptual framework for
the LGBT movement, create a technical working group to advocate a national, as well as a
regional and international human rights agenda, Encourage LGBT Filipinos to view political
representation not only through political parties and urge LGBT Filipinos to run for public office
( UNDP, 2011). In terms of education; Partner with educational institutions, develop awareness-
raising campaigns specifically targeting educational institutions to promote respect for diversity
through popular education tools like documentaries and billboards and Strengthen the LGBT
community in educational establishments by: a. Supporting students to form LGBT groups b.
Researching the experiences of LGBT students in Islamic schools c. Developing SOGI trainings
for LGBT people (UNDP, 2011). In the workplace; Push for new legislation focusing on LGBT
people in the workplace that addresses issues such as nondiscrimination in hiring and job
retention and security, Audit existing employment-related policies in relation to LGBT issues,
and then follow up with relevant agencies (e.g. the Department of Labor and Employment
(DOLE)) on their compliance with LGBT-friendly agreements to which they are signatory or a
part of and strengthen LGBT communities in the workforce by forming a group of LGBT
workers to join labor unions ( UNDP, 2011)
There is this great influence of the Roman Catholic Church when it comes to morality,
but, as a result also leads to some of the discrimination to the LGBT community. In what way?
“God created ADAM and EVE, not ADDY and STEVE”. That sentence alone imposes a direct
verbal discrimination to these LGBTS. The thing is, these LGBTS are also human beings and
thus, have feelings as well. Being ostracized in the society means a lot to them.
Religion plays a major role in the lives of Filipinos with the strong influence of the
Roman Catholic Church. This affects LGBT people, though a survey suggests Filipinos are
generally accepting of LGBT people, even while the church opposes anti-discrimination policies
and sometimes seeks to influence public policy in a negative way (UNDP, 2011)

Review of Related Literature

Presented in this literature review is the synthesis that supports the premise of how the
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) fight for their perceived rights. Included in this
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 4

review of literature is a discussion of the social, economic, and political implications of having
inclusive rights for LGBTs and the method on how they fight for their perceived rights.
An article discusses the death and torture of gay men in Iraq with the assertion that their
death was a vain attempt of bringing honour into their family. The lack of representation for
LGBT in the Iraqi society further aggravated the problem. (MaAllister, 2009) The death of
Jennifer Laude— a transgender who was killed by a US Marine— sparks the need for a lobbying
of LGBT rights specifically an anti-discriminatory legislation in the Philippines (Liljas, 2014)
The historic repealing of the Don’t Ask Don’t Tell ban on the military of the America paved the
question of whether or not a gay in uniform present a threat in military culture. (Allsep Jr., Parco,
& Levy, 2011) All these present only a fraction of ways on the wide brim hat of discrimination
against the LGBTs.
A lot has changed compared to the times where taking a liking to a person of the same
gender was considered a taboo— but even though with that presumption in mind, social equality
still has a long way to go before being a much needed legal equality. Discrimination has long
been a problem for the LGBTs— but on terms of health care it’s a whole lot of different story.
Ilan Meyer emphasized how stigma, prejudice, and how social environment has an adverse
health outcomes for LGBT individuals. (Meyer, 2016) LGBT are denied the highest quality of
health care because of personal views and prejudice when health care is considered as a human
right. A study in the Muslim country of Kyrgyzstan expressed that the LGBT community had
begun to demand protection of their basic civil and human right of being able to be identified as
LGBT. By adopting the identity it represents a more new and pro-active form of stigma
management. (Williamson & Kirrey , 2010) Homophobia and hate for the LGBT people
continue to exist. Since 1992, the number of hate crimes on sexual orientation has increased by
61%. What can we do to mitigate the homophobia? Larry Lance in his paper suggested that
through education or a subject on human sexuality could be of assistance. He also talks about
amending hate crimes legislation to include homophobia; for the presence of punishment and
sanctions second guess the action of a perpetuator. (Lance, 2008) A study in Nicaragua
emphasized how in global and international level there may be improvement but the problem is
the acceptance in terms of culturally and in legislation. (Welsh, 2014) Gender discrimination and
mainstreaming of sexual minorities depletes the chances of development of aspirations in
participation and empowerment. The mind-set of the majority veers to be on the line of ‘if
they’re gay, so they dress gay’. A study about the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on why
they ban gays from donating blood because of AIDS is deemed to be homophobic.
Misconception about collective thinking among gay people— in this case that everyone who’s
gay has AIDS. (Bayer, 2015)
Treating transgender students same as their peers may at times be insensitive to their
needs, but treating them differently may draw attention to them. The solution according to
Martha Winow is decision makers should adopt a catalogue of remedies flexible for a diverse
range of circumstance that could support transgender people. (Curtis, 2016) For some legislator
the rights of LGBTs are set aside in order for them to tackle ‘the bigger picture’— that is
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 5

economic problems or even international conventions on international issues. (Rivkin- Fish &
Hartblay, 2014) The President of the Philippines specifically excluded LGBT individuals from
equal protection in a reproductive health law in 2011. Although the original draft of the
Reproductive Health Bill included sexual orientation as a protected class under section two of the
bill, 9 President Benigno Aquino intentionally removed sexual orientation from that protected
status, singling out LGBT people and depriving them of having equal rights among other sectors
enumerated in that section. (Commission, 2012) Since the bigger problem is the acceptance in
the realm of culture and legislation— according to a study a group of refugees currently residing
in Belgium turn to media to find representations, connections, and information. Majority of the
respondent in the study are LGBT individuals who set aside their national and cultural identity in
favour of the western who is more tolerant and inclusive. (Media, Visibiity, and Sexual Identity
Among Gay Men with a Migration Background, 2016)
A common conception regarding LGBT is— the more historically embedded is religion
in the country, the higher the threat perception in the domestic realms same goes for how much
globalization has influenced a particular culture. A Native American tribe— the Santa Ysabel
Tribe of California, after a long historic experience of prejudice— announced its firm support for
the LGBT community, marriage equality, and an end to governmental discrimination. (Tribe,
2013) A paper on homosexuality and the Sharia Law claims that discrimination against the
homosexual is incompatible not only with human rights law, but also with the Sharia and the
essence of Islamic religion scriptures and that the Quran— contrary to popular belief, recognizes
gender identities and embrace sexual diversity flexibly. (Rehman & Polymenopoulou, 2013)
Some Christian Churches in the United Kingdom and Scotland welcome LGBT in the church.
(Ranscombe, 2014) An article focuses on the experience of some Jewish gays and lesbians in the
U.S. Conservative Judaism, unlike Reform and the smaller Reconstructionist movement, neither
ordains openly gay rabbis nor sanctions marriage. But the governing body, the Rabbinical
Assemble, has long admitted gay and lesbian synagogues in the 1970s, ordain openly gay rabbis,
and even publicly endorsed same sex marriage since 1996. (Flippen, 1997)
With these discourses discussed the method on how LGBTs fight for their rights would
be addressed. LGBTs engage together with the International Human Rights Movement— efforts
to gain entry into existing political and legal international human rights structures have garnered
considerable amount of success. Why have many LGBT activist fail to tap into human rights
more at the domestic levels? The author also discusses some reason; given that domestic politics
are more informed by an assimilation approach which is most compatible with human rights
claims, one would expect that human right framings would play a key role in domestic LGBT
politics in these days and given the discourse identity of the LGBTs is socially constructed and
Employment is the most common source of income in the world of Economics, and one of
the situations where LGBT seem to be discriminated. Everly and Schwartz (2014) regarded
Employment Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender as a persistent
problem endured by the LGBT, while not being addressed by most state equal employment
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 6

opportunity laws. This is a proof how firms and employers ostensibly cope with the idea of
Heteronormativity. Heteronormativity promotes hierarchies of sexual orientation that result to
different labor predicaments, such as job dismissals, wage discrimination and the failure to
promote gay and lesbian individuals to top ranks (Drydakis, 2015). It was concluded in the
research of Drydakis, that with the existence of Heteronormativity, lesbians and gays have lesser
percentage to be invited in an interview by firms compared to Heterosexuals. The discourse of
heteronormativity continues to reproduce and negatively affect the labor market prospects of
gaymen and lesbians (Drydakis, 2015). There are also certain situations where LGBT’s
economic rights are being compromised. A quantitative research conducted by Badgett (1995)
shows how different, in numbers, the wages of homosexuals compared to employees who are
heterosexuals. Gay and bisexual male workers, and lesbian and bisexual women earned from
11% to 27% less than the heterosexuals. These findings create an assumption that not only in job
hunting where LGBT are being discriminated but also in the workplace. LGBT, based on recent
findings, reported to have lower salary expectations, are most likely to possess “altruistic” work
values and to choose a job from a non-profit sector (Lyon, Schweitzer, & Ng, 2012). LGBT tend
to experience or to possess these things because of the discrimination that exist in the workplace
or community. Because of the threat of job discrimination many gay men and lesbians are being
secretive of their sexual orientation, not knowing the benefits of coming out (Day, 1997). Some
LGBT do not know how to be an LGBT that is why they struggle on fighting for their rights.
Aside from Gender Inequality, LGBT also experience sexual insensitivity and Intolerance.
Intolerance or the unwillingness to accept the views and existence of LGBT differs among
people. A study entitled “Inequality and Intolerance: Attitudes toward homosexuality in 35
Democracies” correlates Tolerance to the economic development of an individual, wherein it
was found out that people coming from the working class tend to be more intolerable of the
attitudes possessed by the LGBT; while for the professionals and managers felt otherwise.
Economic prosperity has great relevance in the perspective of people towards LGBT (Anderson
& Fetrer, 2008). The fundamental rights related to employment and other economic rights of
LGBT are apparently in a state of no recognition and thus ignored by institutions and
organizations. The social work profession must understand these realities and seek ways to
address these problems (Anastas, 2001).
Heterosexism and workplace bullying are still predominant concerns for LGBT workers,
causing psychological and physical illness and reduced organizational effectiveness (Mc Calla,
2015). A study conducted by Scott Mc Calla, have obtained that in order to diminish the bullying
and heterosexism in the workplace changes in social policies and inclusion of organizational
programs and policies must be implemented. The policies and programs must include the welfare
of all employees, not just the minorities, in order to promote equality. Organizations share
responsibility for the social good of the communities in which they operate and thus the
organizations must create policies or practices that have social and economic interests that
supports the LGBT workers (King & Cortina, 2010).
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 7

A supportive and gender-friendly workplace can improve the productivity of its employees
and its attractiveness to the world. This is supported by the research conducted by Allan, et al
(2015) where they examined the effects of having a LGB supportive workplace. It was
concluded that having such structure could result to LGB’s attainment of satisfaction in job and
in life. And also, having gay-friendly recruitment could also result to a major contribution in the
attractiveness of the firm (Lambert, 2015). The researches will be used to express the relevance
of having a gay-friendly environment or workplace in the exercise of the subjects’ economic
In December 2, 2013, the 15th president of the Philippines openly expressed uncertainty
about the possibilities of a policy change concerning LGBTQ rights (Gutierrez, 2013). Since the
mid-nineties, several bills regarding the LGBTQ issue achieved little support and any attempts to
revive it have only been frustrated. Further still, in 2013, sixty-five percent (65%) of Filipinos
finds homosexuality “morally unacceptable” according to the Pew Research Center. E.J.
Manalastas further provides that 1 out of 4 Filipinos do not want to have gays or lesbians as
neighbors (Manalastas, 2005). In the same study, it shows that 28% of Filipinos believe that
being a gay or a lesbian can never be justified. These reports only show an overwhelming lack of
understanding about this global issue, especially in the Philippines.
The researchers take a special interest in Bontoc, Mountain Province, Philippines. Bontoc
is a second class municipality with over 24,000 inhabitants. It is the capital of Mountain
Province with more than 39,000 hectares of land area. The Ifontoks are described throughout
history as a war-like community. During the Spanish regime in fact, throughout their occupation
there in the highlands, the Ifontoks have staged numerous insurrections, armed with bolos,
spears, head axes and shields, burning Christian houses and killing foreign authorities (Chaokas,
A book by Florence Kittong Chaokas (2005) provides for detailed accounts of Bontoc but
its more modern depictions do not include any reference to the LGBTQ neither do the parts
during the earlier times, as if they were non-existent in these regions. Hence the real question
here is whether or not there actually are LGBTQs living in this area, and if there are what is their
role in the society? If they do not have roles, then would they consequently not have rights?
These are the initial questions the researchers mean to answer.

Aims and Objectives

As Gays and Lesbians rights are being tackled far more often and more open in these
modern times, more and more researches are being conducted regarding the issue. Still most of
the researches’ settings are focused on more liberal and conventional areas such as universities,
religious communities, the workplace, and such other places. This particular study will break
through this and will explore gays and lesbians in far more unconventional areas where rather
than religion or social status is used as a sorting measure, it is customs and traditions that group
people. This study will bring to light the different rights of Lesbian, Gays, Bisexual and
Transgender (LGBT)/ Gays and Lesbians (G&L) as opposed to the idea that they have lesser
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 8

rights than heterosexuals. This study operates with the idea that they too are humans and
therefore have human rights. In connection to this, the awareness of the Gays and Lesbians of
their rights will also be explored, expanded and promoted. In cases where the community they
live in are not expressly granting them their inherent rights, this paper will also study how they
are advancing such rights.

Due to recent events- specifically, the legalization of gay marriage in the United States-
the world has become more informed of the presence and rights of the LGBT Community, thus
researches on such topics are needed to gather more information about them and to clarify amidst
all the information thrown by the media and the opinions of other people on what is true and
what is considered to be acceptable. Such researches will also help empower the LGBT
communities both in the area where the research will be conducted and perhaps in various other
places having the same situation as the place setting of this research by informing them of their
rights and on different ways to advance them. It can also contribute its findings nationally or
internationally to help improve the implementation of human rights laws, especially for the
LGBT communities.

Research Questions
As we unlock our curiosity regarding the rights of Gays and Lesbians, we will also try to
answer the question “How do Lesbian and Gay population in Bontoc pursue their basic rights?”
The question will serve as the main guide in achieving our aims and objectives. In order to come
up with credible answers to the general problem and better understanding of the gathered data we
are going to classify the rights of gays and lesbians into four (4): familial-interpersonal,
economic, socio-cultural and political-legal. To further grasp these various rights, we will first
seek for the stories behind the pursuance of their rights and how they see their selves pursuing
their rights in the future. Together with the stories the subjects provided, we will also ask them to
offer some suggestions with regards to the betterment of their status and their rights. Upon,
completion the researchers seek to provide recommendations of policies that could help in
addressing issues towards the rights of the LGBTs through the subjects themselves.
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 9

Conceptual Framework

The flow of the chart will start from the bottom. Firstly, according to the normative
theory which is primarily concerned on “what ought to be”(Marsh and Stoker 2002), a person is
presumed to be under the influence of their norms, that an individual’s decision is highly
dependent on what was perceived as right and wrong in their own community.Therefore, one
must look at the indigenous norms of the people because such norms will decide whether a
person, in this case a gay or lesbian is accepted or perhaps discriminated.
In cases where the person is discriminated the researchers will seek to advance actions
that will prevent such discrimination and at the same time uplift the individual’s rights. These
actions can be classified according to four categories of rights namely: Socio-cultural, Familial-
interpersonal, Economic and Political-legal. When properly executed, these actions will help
those who have been discriminated into their road to acceptance. In cases where the norms help
create an environment that promotes acceptance of the individual then further actions affirming
such should be done, this will help maintain and perhaps strengthen such acceptance.
After looking at it from a more specific level the researchers shifted their basis of
analysis into more of a “whole-picture” sense. Such norms after all are all constructed. That the
basis on the acceptance of these individuals together with their rights are all just a part of a
constructed reality.
Norms have long been constructed in the society. Be it said, it is through which people
are able to perceive behaviors and give out personal biases and criticisms. Constructivism as a
paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an
information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 10

of objective reality. New information is linked to prior knowledge, thus mental representations
are subjective (Ertmer, P.A and Newb T.J 1993).

We will be interviewing lesbians and gays in all barangays in the municipality of Bontoc,
namely: Alab proper, Alab oriente, Balili, Bay-yo, Bontoc Ili, Caneo, Dalican, Gonogon,
Guinaang, Mainit, Maligcong, Samoki, Talubin, Tocucan, Poblacion, and Caluttit. The period of
data gathering would start in December. This study will employ a qualitative manner using the
grounded theory approach and data gathering method is in-depth interview. The interview shall
utilize a semi-structured questionnaire allotting a period of twenty- to thirty minutes for each
participant. Researchers shall adopt a clustered, purposive snowball sampling method. It aims to
collect pertinent data that are meaningful and culturally salient to the participant and pertinent
data to achieve the researches’ objectives. In terms of the number of respondents however- we
will continue to interview for as long as we have efficient and precise data for purpose of
accuracy and a fruitful research output.
There are several reasons as to why the researchers specifically chose Bontoc, Mountain
Province, Philippines as the venue for this particular study. Firstly, the research needed a town
which is not too urbanized to be a city and not too remote as to a tribe or a village. The rationale
behind this is to find a community diverse enough where the researchers could find two opposing
ideologies- that of conservatism and liberalism. This diversity leads us to the second reason. We
needed a population that is both capable of preserving its original culture but still able to
accommodate a certain level of acculturation. The reason behind this is to find a community
open-minded enough to allow the LGBTQs to pursue their rights with confidence and without
the threat of persecution from both the public and the authorities therein to suppress these
undertakings but at the same time hold conservative beliefs, enough to be biased against them.
Also, Bontoc is often times depicted as a war-like community and are naturally a hostile people.
We interpret this as a disadvantage for the LGBTQs in the area especially for the gays and
transsexuals. The research intends to exploit this phenomenon to prove whether or not it affects
them negatively in the society because they are the minority who do not fit the description of
someone from this area.
The method of analyzing the given data will be utilizing grounded method of research.
The grounded theory method is a fact-finding study that involves adequate and accurate
interpretation of findings. Relatively, the method is appropriate to this study since the aim of this
study is to know the way the lesbian and gays fight or acquire for their rights which differs and is
diverse. The technique that would be used under grounded theory is the thematic approach or the
method of mapping the woods for minute detailed data and results.
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 11

Results and Analyses

Demographic Profile
The initial target of the research is at least thirty (30) participants evenly distributed between
gays and lesbians that is to say fifteen (15) for each. However, in finality, the researchers
amassed only twenty (20) participants- fourteen (14) gays and six (6) lesbians
The first data gathering lasted for three (3) days, from February 10 to February 12, 2017.
The trip lasted for about six (6) hours via bus from Baguio city. The first day was utilized for
baseline data gathering where the researchers met only with two (2) participants. The main
accomplishment for the first day was the scheduling of the interview of other participants.
During such, challenges were already met by the researchers like for example the language
barrier. Though some were skilled in speaking on the native tongue of the place most of the
researchers couldn’t keep up with the language. Since Bontoc is also considered as somewhat
small town, it can be easily seen that the researchers were new to the place. It was also evident
that some of the people that were referred to the researchers refused to be interviewed; several
prospects have reasoned out their busy schedule, others simply don’t want to.
The researchers went for the second data gathering attempt. At the end of the day we
were able to interview ten (10) participants, a little lower than what the researchers originally
anticipated. Perhaps the trouble in pursuing willing interviewees lies in the sensitivity of the
issue at hand. For example, one certain owner of a well-known business in Bontoc expressly told
the researchers that he was offended by the questions which were earlier prepared, not to
mention the intricate study and planning put into making these questions. Another possible
participant intentionally avoided the researchers who visited his residence. In spite of these
mishaps, many of the participants were very enthusiastic during the interview and were delighted
to help us contact the other possible individuals for the interview.
Before the second round of data gathering, there were more than enough prospects and
names given to the researchers by certain sources and reservations were made beforehand.
Unfortunately, these names were unavailable at the time. The residents there told us that the
people whom the researchers were looking for are hard-working individuals who are either out of
town or are in the metropolises. Auspiciously enough, there is a local college in Bontoc,
Mountain Province State Polytechnic College, which could have been a promising venue but it
was a Sunday at the time and student were scarce, and so the researchers asked around for
possible participants who were instructor, but unfortunately, they were unavailable at the time
being. Similar circumstances were met when the researchers visited the Xijen Institute, another
local college. One local parlor, whose owner was very much willing and eager to participate, was
yet another upset for the research team, for they had to literally stand in line because the
costumers were never ending. Many times did they return to the shop but there was never a
chance to interview him, as were the case for the other business establishments they attempted to
get participants from.
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 12

There were four (4) lesbians possible participants that were referred to the researchers
whom they visited for more than three (3) times who said that they were busy and couldn’t
entertain them, one is an attorney, a retired principal and the other two (3) were business owners.
Because of the evident crunch of participants the researchers went in for the third attempt
to data gathering on February 12, 2017, were they were able to interview three (3) participants.
All of which are gays. Time was the main foe on the third day, the researchers had to catch the
bus going back to Baguio city and so the day was short-lived yet the data gathered on that day
was very interesting and helpful in the research.
All in the entire total participant that were interviewed by the researchers on the
three (attempts) to gather data were fifteen (15), ten (10) of which are gays and five (5) of which
are lesbians. Because the schedule of the researchers did not match with the availability of the
students all that were interviewed were of older ages and were already established and proved to
themselves and the community which they lived in that they deserve respect and worth. The
researchers were afraid that such can affect the results of the study so they decided to gather
more participants who were younger and not yet that established, which the researchers decided
would be students. The researchers found it hard to match their schedule with the presence of the
students so therefore the researchers did not have any other choice but to leave one of their team
members, who live in Bontoc to do the rest of the work. The researchers gathered five (5) more
participants who are all students in status, four (4) were gays and only one (1) is a lesbian. In
totality, the researchers will be analysing the data gathered from twenty (20) participants,
fourteen (14) were gays and six (6) lesbians. Seven (7) of the participants are residents of Bontoc
Ili, four (4) from Samoki, the other four (4) from Poblacion, three (3) from Caluttit and the last
two (2) from Dalican. Our aim is to cover all the barangays in Bontoc, but because of the
accessibility of other barangays we were not able to go beyond from the central business
locations, and also, for the reason that most of the people recommended by the participants are
only found on those five barangays.

Data Analysis
Prior to the gathering of data, the researchers first consulted an elder from the
Community of Bontoc with regards to the indigenous norms practiced by the locals. It is in our
course of approach that these norms will aid us in coming up with an analysis. Inang Erlinda had
been living in Bontoc for over 68 years. She has witnessed the transition of the place from the
Japanese occupation to the present Oplan Tokhang. According to her accounts, the Bontoc
people pay strict adherence to indigenous culture. Meetings in the ato, which are political and
religious in nature, are directed by a circle of elders who are all men. Their opinions command
the behaviour of the society in most of the communal affairs, especially during deaths, calamities
and other social gatherings. More important of her stories include wedding ceremonies whereby
all members of the community share the am-amomg which is an inclusive event for everyone
regardless of which ato one belongs to or of the social class and the like. Even during intimate
family gatherings, it has become the responsibility of the host family to ensure that visitors,
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 13

whether expected or otherwise, share the table of the house. Though often described as war-like
and patriarchal, the mother’s role in the family is never undermined. In the family, decisions
come both from the parents and that the roles of the mother is equalled to that of the father’s.
After learning the indigenous norms we set out to learn how these norms are applied in
certain contemporary issues such as the LGBT crisis. One of the aims of our study is to uncover
first-hand accounts of Gays and Lesbians in Bontoc. According to the interviewees the following
are the experiences which stood out the most in their family.
Discrimination. There is a clear indication of discrimination in the families of the Bontoc
community against gays and lesbians, at least during the early stages of childhood, not to
mention that most of them come out very early and openly as members of the third sex. The
discrimination comes in both forms, that of expressed and implied.
The discrimination is expressed in a way that the family members, whether from the father,
the mother or the siblings, verbally express their disagreement against the gender minority using
third person accounts of the effects of being a gay or a lesbian not only in the community but
also in the workplace. It is implied in the sense that there is a form of treatment in which the
family member is excluded as a valuable member of the family, which we may refer to as silent
treatment. This different treatment by the family to their gay and/or lesbian family member
causes some form of affliction, which stems up to the present time. In fact, these gays and
lesbians find comfort in pursuing personal accomplishments in life to relieve themselves of those
afflictions. However, it has to be taken into account that these accomplishments are achieved not
because of self-pity but because of a personal inclination, and in some way, to prove themselves
worthy of respect and equal treatment from the family and the society. Over-all, the
discrimination experienced by the gays and lesbians here are not too extreme, it is manageable at
It is the case that the assumption of roles by the gays and lesbians in their families has a
paramount significance in the building of self-affirmation. For example, a participant of the
research recounted that it did not really matter if he was a man or woman to assume roles,
because it is true for all genders. Assuming these roles made him feel better about himself. In
this version of a story, it becomes the case that the gays and lesbians are self-obliged. But the
norms conform that gender roles have equal quality in meaning- that is to say that no role is of
higher importance than another.
Acceptance. The accounts that the researchers amassed show that gays and lesbians in
Bontoc are accepted by their families, at least during the latter part of adulthood. This effect is
largely caused by habituation.
Being a gay or a lesbian is a natural form of self-expression and it is irreversible. Also, with
the passing of time, the gay and/or lesbian member of the family, according to their own words,
showed that they too can be a valuable member of the society and the family by assuming roles
that can be ideally done by a man or a woman. For most of the participants, persuasion was no
longer necessary for their family. During their childhood, their actions reflected who they truly
are and from that their parents have drawn the fact that they are gays or lesbians. Though there
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 14

was no formal recognition, it was evident and embedded. Because for the Ifontoks, before they
are gays and lesbians, they are first their children.
Although both gays and lesbians are fairly accepted in the family, it takes more time for the
family to accept lesbians than gays. After all, Bontoc is a patriarchal society and gays are still
men and lesbians are still women.
Father issues. Generally, the fathers of Bontoc, a community that is mostly patriarchal, are
mostly just silent towards the issue. There were isolated accounts here and there of certain
physical abuses from fathers to a gay member of the family, but when asked why, the
participants simply answered by saying that the abuse is because of acts that are unfavorable to
the members of the family- pertaining to vices, unwillingness to follow house rules and the like
and not because of their sexual preferences. Unlike the mothers, who are generally more
supportive of their children, the fathers tend to be more passive on the issue. While the mothers
tolerated them, the fathers maintained their type of interaction according to their biological sex.
In the Cordilleras, historically, parents especially the father prefer a male child because of the
idea that male carries the family name.
A participant shared that when he came out, his father did not have violent reaction as a
matter of fact did not have reacted at all. His father treated him passively compared to his other
siblings-giving him silent treatment. According to him it is hard to endure this kind of treatment
for his emotional and mental well beings are affected. There are also cases when the abuse is not
merely emotional or mental, an example would be the participant from Poblacion. According to
him, the treatment given to him by his father is unequal compared to his siblings. There is this
scenario wherein he together with his siblings got into trouble. He was not stricter with him per
se however the quality of punishment given to him, compared to his siblings, is much more
Family encouragement. During the early stages of childhood, gays and lesbians are
encouraged by their siblings to wear whatever type of clothes they desire, especially with
families who are mostly women. There were isolated cases of gays not wanting to cross-dress
due to the biases influenced by their brothers in earlier life, but still they come out as gays only
with the exception of the open expression that comes with being a gay and the act of pursuing
men partners- gays who are born in an all-male families are like this. Some are grossed out by
the idea of male-to-male partnership because of its health effects and also because of some
psychological factors.
The stories of the participants are not limited in their families. They were also able to relate
to us their position in the community and the following are the stand-out answers.
Verbal abuse. The participants expressed that they experience verbal abuse in public places
like name calling (bakla, tomboy). Even though people are now open- minded and is more
veered towards accepting the new normal, there are still people who feel uncomfortable towards
the gays and lesbians of the community. Others love to have fun on their expense and make the
LGBT the subject of jokes and ridicule among people.
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 15

Participants unambiguously said that name calling was just a normal occurrence and does
not really consider it very alarming or put any attention towards it.
Accepted. A factor also could be due to their increasing number and active participation in
the community. Participants express that they do not experience discrimination against them in
the community but they however experience it within their own faction.
Compared to their status in their families, they exist in the community with minimal
problems and issues. This could indicate that problems are evident mostly in their intimate
relationships. The tradition called “Kailyan system” may have played a big part in their level of
acceptance in the community. The system indicates that the community is willing to help you
regardless of your gender and status. Aside from their families and the community, we also
included the stories regarding their status in the workplace for most of the participants are
working. The top stories were summarized into two: “Economically Independent” and “No
discrimination or abuse in the workplace”
Economically Independent. Almost all the lesbians and gays interviewed are economically
independent which means that they can support themselves financially without the help of others.
According to them, they work hard to earn money to sustain their daily needs. Being
economically independent means that they also take care of the needs of their family—e.g.
paying for their brother or sister’s education. Almost all of the participants are professionals who
are paid according to their professions.
Some participants interviewed said that they are dependent mainly because they are still
students. That is why they still depend on their parents for their needs especially on the things
needed in school. This part differ from the others because most of the participants are already
employed and most of them are professionals who work for the government and who has their
own business.
No discrimination or abuse in the workplace. They have not experienced any
discrimination or abuse in their respective workplace. A number of them expressed that being
educated and being a professional is what makes them respectable. According to them, if you do
your part in the society they will not discriminate or abuse you in any ways. Almost all of them
said that if you want to be accepted in your society— you should be educated.
In the words of the gays and lesbians in Bontoc, it is the assuming of certain roles, whether
at home or in the community, that give them the satisfaction of the kind of treatment which one
would expect to be aptly treated. Basically, roles give them the benefit of their rights and proper
and equal treatment.
Gays and lesbians are discriminated not because of their gender preference but of
personality. It all comes down to the self. Treat people wrongly, and one will reap the same.
Gays and lesbians are only subconsciously discriminated against, but never intentionally. Once
people know who you are a person, whatever your gender preference is, you are going to be just
fine. Gays and lesbians in Bontoc hold high offices in government institutions and build they
own businesses to become known in the community. They never allow excluding themselves in
community activities and especially in times of calamities. They help out their neighbors and
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 16

join in festivities. In fact, gays and lesbians are the notorious individuals in Bontoc in a good
sense. They just have to treat people nicely and the people in return treat them with respect and
We have already discussed the gathered stories of the gays and lesbians in Bontoc from
their families to their workplaces. It is now sufficient to proceed to our second specific aim,
which is to analyse the ways on how the gays and lesbians pursue their basic rights: Familial-
Interpersonal, Social, Economic and Political-Legal.

Familial- Interpersonal Rights

Nothing to pursue. For majority of our subjects— with them knowing their sexuality in an
early age— fighting for their rights at home was never a problem because most of them were
accepted by their families. It’s interesting to point out however, the difference on how the
lesbian’s family reacted— with the municipality being patriarchal and lesbians though favoring
the company and love of fellow females are still female biologically. Families had a harder time
accepting the fact that they are homosexual. A lesbian respondent voiced out how her parents
force her to wear dresses in her younger years. Other than that— the challenges on perception on
heterosexuality and ‘male supremacy’, no familial- interpersonal rights of the LGBTs are
violated since their families are generally accepting.
Ignores the discriminations and improper treatments. Respect for elders is a trait that
every citizen of the municipality values with that in mind, a small fraction of them chooses to
ignore the discrimination for they find it pointless to object to their parents. In the instances of
implied negative treatments, the participants just tend to ignore these behaviours and project
what they can to contribute to their families.

Social Rights
Ignores bullies. Discrimination against member of the LGBT based on sexual orientations
and gender identity is an issue that transcends the community in the form of verbal bullying. In
the pursuance of their individual social rights, most of the participants chose to ignore the bullies
or the people who verbally abuse them. Catcalls of “Bakla! Bakla ka!” from the children is what
a certain respondent expressed. Instead of making a big deal out of the shaming and jeering, they
just chose to prove to people that being gay or lesbian will not hinder them from actively
participating in the social activities in their community of Bontoc.
Self-reliance and Contribute to the Community. Some of the participants also agreed that
taking matters into their own hands help them in pursuing their social rights. This would not
mean by physical or even verbal avenge, but by establishing themselves as important
contributors and citizen of their community. Some of the participants, especially those who are
degree holders, claimed that they are part of a local community LGBT organization called
“Minimagkits”. This goes to show that gays and lesbians belong in the community and thus
keeps their social rights respected and upheld.
Economic Rights
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 17

Being capable of doing their respective jobs. Most of the participants pursue their
economic rights in their workplaces by being productive and proving that they are very much
qualified in the jobs they are assigned to or ought to do. A sense of self-worth among the
respondents was evident in the way they believe that amidst sexual orientation they can also be
an asset in their respective fields.
Ignores discrimination. According to some participants, discrimination from what the other
can do and what the other cannot do is something that is seen on their workplace. The
participants put forward the idea that work discrimination don’t only happen to members of the
LGBT community but is embedded in all sex and genders. That is why instead of being passive
about the discrimination situation this encourage them to strive harder in their respective career
and occupation.

Political- Legal Rights

Vote for Pro-LGBT Candidates. One way to target discrimination both nationally and
locally is by choosing and voting for candidates who are not against the LGBT community. A
help coming from a political personality will give them the ease to lobby their needs and rights in
the big umbrella of Politics.
Civic Activities for Political Recognition. Some also emphasized the importance of
actively participating in various civic activities for political recognition— in this context, being a
member of the Minamagkits. The organization carries and lobbies the rights of the gay and
lesbian community in the Municipality of Bontoc. Another is participating in the community
building of the Municipality by holding an event regarding sexual health since AIDS is
commonly stigmatizes as a gay disease. The participants believe that by participating in their
community the local government will be able to recognize their needs and their rights will be
further upheld.
In general, the gays and lesbians in the Municipality of Bontoc are not experiencing a
hard time pursuing their individual rights. If there are instances of discrimination, they just cling
to the idea that entertaining such boos and catcalls and whatnots will not help them earn respect.
Instead, they just prove to all that amidst of being “different” from what the people use to see,
their roles and rights are vital and should be respected.
In order to comply with the third specific aim of our research, we asked the participants
what policies they want to lobby that could help empower their rights. Having asked the
participants of what policy they want to be implemented the majority of the participant’s
recommendation were same sex marriage, adoption of child, anti-discrimination and equality for
Same sex marriage is one of the recommendations of the participant because it will help
establish a social norm that includes and respects homosexual lifestyles. The individuals in the
LGBT community will seem less different from the straight ones, so straight couples will be
more inclined to accept lesbian and gay couples into their communities. Being in a relationship
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 18

does not involve the sexual orientation of the partners but rather, it is the love reciprocated by
Adopting a child by a gay or lesbians will increase the chances for thousands of foster
children to gain loving parents and families. Parenthood is a benefit of marriage. It implies then
that couples of the same sex do not have the capacity of conceiving a child of their own so they
find ways to achieve such by resorting to different adoption agencies. Good parenting is not
influenced by sexual orientation. It is influenced most by a parent’s ability to create a loving and
nurturing home. This ability has nothing to do with whether the parent is gay or straight.
Anti- discrimination policy is commonly for gays and lesbians who are being bullied by
other people. It is a fact that lesbian and gay people all over the world are facing discrimination
every day. It can happen in school, restaurant and in their workplace, they can be denied of
services also due to their preferred gender. Each and every one should be able to live their lives
without any fear of being discriminated. Through this policy, the “hate” type of racism will
reduced and it will make a country more diversity.
Equality is becoming more important in all aspects of our lives. People around the world
face violence and inequality. Everyone must be treated equally and be given the same set of
opportunities regardless of their race, age, gender, sexuality, disability, culture or any other
standards set by the society. For instance, in a workplace setting, equal opportunities must
prevail rather than judgments base on various stereotypes. On the other hand, the issue of gay
marriage is no different. Denying marriage to individuals who love each other is to deny them a
fundamental freedom.
Most of the policies that the participants want to be implemented cover not only for their
sake but also for the welfare of their fellow Ifontoks and Community. Overall, constitution gives
us many liberties. One of our civil liberties is the pursuit of happiness, which homosexual
people are somehow deprived of. They cannot be married to the person they love and it violates
their freedoms. By legalizing gay marriage, adoption agencies will be forced to grant the same
respect and right to homosexual couples. Legalizing the same sex marriage will show that
homosexuality is accepted and respected in society.
We have already answered the three specific aims of our study; it is now sufficient to direct
these data and analyses to the very aim of our research, which is to identify how the gays and
lesbians pursue their rights and elevate their status in Bontoc.
It is required for this paper, in order to provide the most rational solution, to describe in
detail how the Bontoc people classify and perceive social status. Historically, these peoples have
what they call kadangyan and pusi- the rich and the poor, consecutively. They measure wealth
by the measure of one’s land and the quantity of one’s herd. There are no written records and any
historical accounts of a system that depicts a social stratification based on other human factors,
such as gender, as is the case in other societies. Discourse on gays and lesbians are a modern
concept. Nonetheless, remember that the prevalent culture on sexuality which has existed here,
that perseveres until today in some form, is that which does not restrain an open expression of
one’s sexuality. Hence, it is unexceptional for the Bontocs to accommodate a sexuality that
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 19

deviates from the mainstream culture. According to the data, the question on the ‘elevation of
social status’ among the gays and lesbians seemed odd to them, mainly because in the first place,
gays and lesbians in Bontoc are not regarded as a group of people to have a lower social status
than heterosexuals. However, it cannot be repudiated that there is an undeniable stigma among
them from an earlier life. Many of the participants suggested that it is through the acquisition of
personal life accomplishments that allows them to become more comfortable of themselves.
Subsequently, the community look up to these personalities. In this sense, a formation of identity
using shared knowledge, changes the society’s perception about gays and lesbians.
Legal aspects of the LGBTQ crisis in Bontoc are an extraordinary concern. Hate crimes or
any form of violence against gays and lesbians here are widely debunked by the people. The data
will show that any public place anywhere in Bontoc is a safe and comfortable zone, where
anyone can live they normal day-today life. Henceforth, a question of the advancement of civic
rights for the rainbow community is seen more as a national problem rather than local. Although,
the data will also show that the participants support policies that cater to their community, but
again, this debate is of a more national level.
In Bontoc, a complex intertwining of ideologies may be observed. This community is
conservative in some aspects of life but takes a more liberal standpoint when it comes to
sexuality. Though, it must also be pointed out that there exists an unclear demarcation line that
needed to be observed in order to deem an expression of sexuality to either be proper or
otherwise, as is the case for all genders. The reaction to this uncertainty when it comes to gays
and lesbians in Bontoc is reticent, unlike for inappropriate behavior from men and women where
the elders usually scorn them for it.
It may then be concluded that the same treatment bestowed by the people upon the gays and
lesbians is the same treatment accorded to them in return, in an effort to avert conflict as much as
possible. Therefore, a radical demonstration by the LGBTQ community in Bontoc to uplift social
status and advance civic rights is generally inept in this case. What the research have observed
here is that the change in mindset introduced by a slow progressive creation of a new norm,
socially constructed through identity formation by the gays and lesbians, introduces a neoteric
perception of what it means to be part of the rainbow society.

Contrary to the stereotypical presumptions on how culturally conservative and patriarchal
high lands are, it is fascinating how we were able to acquire data which speaks of gender justice
and respect for social roles as supplementing agents for social, political, familial and economic
mobility in the Municipality of Bontoc. The Human Rights of the Gays and Lesbians in Bontoc
are respected--as what the interviewees have said, Bontoc is their “safe heaven”, as long as they
perform their roles and contribute in the community. Even though there were instances of verbal
defamation; the rainbow community in Bontoc was able to pursue their rights with minimal
hardships along the way, for the indigenous norms in their community would agree that the equal
treatment that the rainbow community lobbies is vital in community building. However, it is also
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 20

in the records that the performance of their social roles and promotion of their social, political &
economic capabilities are bases of how will the people perceive them as an individual but this is
true to all genders in the Municipality of Bontoc. In conclusion, the constructed indigenous
norms have helped them in paving way the protection and pursuance of their human rights.
Therefore, human rights of the LGBT members have been recognized by the indigenous
community and a sense of justice endures.
The existing institution has restricted certain liberties for the rainbow society, such as the
right to matrimony, right to child adoption, among others. Using John Rawls’ Theory of Justice,
where certain liberties are restricted only in order to deliver even greater liberties, those
restrictions aforementioned convey injustice. The right for matrimony between two people of the
same sex procures for them the freedom of expression, such as the right to adopt, secures an
otherwise homeless orphan with a decent, more comfortable life. From the start, the ‘original
position’ where LGBTQs rest is unfortunately disadvantaged. From behind the Veil of
Ignorance, gays and lesbians were clearly given the smallest slice of the cake. They were not
given the most extensive liberties possible even though none of these restrictions demonstrate an
infringement upon the rights of others, rather it expounds it.
The rainbow society is the least advantaged peoples where social mobility for them is
limited. Thus, it is of paramount importance for existing institutions to look upon the LGBTQ
crisis from the viewpoint where they place themselves from behind the Veil of Ignorance, for it
is only through this mind-set that those same institutions will be able to make suitable social
conditions and policies that will make it possible for these minorities to live a wholesome life,
free from denigrator eyes. In this sense, it becomes possible for us to co-exist not as races,
genders, nationalities, or any prevailing social class but as a human society given with equal
opportunities and liberties.
For the future researchers who will take on the world of LGBT Rights and its pursuance
in the indigenous communities such as Cordillera tribes, we recommend you to cover more
genders under the rainbow umbrella: lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transsexuals and etc. And also, to
explore more locations wherein such research is needed for gender policies. It is really an eye-
opening how some societies whom we thought to be less accepting in terms of gender diversity,
is comparatively more accommodating.
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 21
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Williamson, C., & Kirrey , A. (2010). What is in a name? The Personal and Political Meaning of
LGBT for Non- Heterosexual and Transgender Youth in Kyrgyztan. Central Asian
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 25

Monthly Income
No.of children
Educational Attainment
With Partner?
Living with Partner?

a. Kailan mo po napagtanto na bading o tomboy po kayo? (When did you come out of the
b. Ano po yung naging problema niyo po sa pagladlad niyo po? (Did you encounter
challenges when you came out of the closet? Cite some instances.)
c. Ano po yung mga kadahilanan ng inyong pagladlad? (Why did you decide to come out?)
d. Alam pong pamilya niyo? (Does your family know?)
 Noong nalaman po ng pamilya niyo po na bakla o tomboy po kayo,ano po yung
naging aksyon o reaksyon po nila sainyo? (What was their reaction? Were they
accepting or a little hesitant or mad?)
 Paano po pala nila nalaman? (How did they found out?)
e. Nakaranas po ba kayo ng pang aabuso mula sa pamilya niyo po? (Did you experience
abuse from them?)
 Ano pong mga klaseng abuso ang naranasan o nararanasan niyo po?
A.Pisikal (Physical abuse)
B.Berbal (Verbal abuse)
C.Pinansyal (Financial deprivation)
D.Sekswal (Sexual abuse)
f. Ano po yung mga naging epekto sa inyo ng mga pang aabuso? (How did the abuse affect
you in the way you live now?)
g. Ano po yung mga naging aksyon niyo po sa mga pang-aabuso? (Did you do something to
stop or confront the abuse?)
 Social
h. Ngayon pong out na kayo napadali po baa ng pakikisalamuha niyo po sa ibang tao? (Was
it easier to communicate or interact with other people now that you’re out of the closet?)
i. Nagbago po ba yung pakikitungo nila sa inyo? (Was there any changes on how they treat
Breaking the Rainbow Ceiling: How Gays and Lesbians advance their Rights 26

j. Saan pong pampublikong lugar mas nagiging komportable o di komportable kayo? Bakit
niyo po ba nasabi? (Do you have a space or a safe haven where you feel comfortable and
you can just be yourself without fear of hate and discrimination?)
k. Nakaranas po ba kayo ng mga pagmamaltrato sa pampublikong lugar? (Have you
experience being publicly humiliated because if your sexuality?)
l. Anong mga aksyon ang inyo pong ginawa? (Did you do something to stop it?)
m. Meron po bang mga aktibidades na nagaganap patungkol sa inyong sekswalidad? (Is
there any activities in your community open and celebrating your sexuality?)
n. Ano pong ginawa niyo upang mapuksa ang diskrimansyon na nararanasan niyo? (What
actions have you done to stop the discrimination because of your sexuality?)
o. miyembro po ba kayo ng isang organisasyong naglalayong isulong mga karapatan niyo?
(Are you a member of any organizations that has it goals of forwarding the right of LGBT
 Economic
P. Dumedepende ka pa po ba sa pamilya mo po financially? Or bumukod na po kayo? (Are
you financially stable? Or do you still depend on your family in terms of money?)
 If dumedepende-what is the extent of dependency? (If yes, what is the extent of
your dependency?)
q. Napupunan niyo po ba ang sarili niyong pangangailangan? (Are you able to provide the
basic necessities you need for yourself?)
r. Sa inyo pong trabaho may nararanasan po ba kayong di patas na pagtrato mula po sa mga
katrabaho niyo po hanggang sa mga kliyente niyo? (Have you experienced any untoward
behavior in the workplace from your boss, clients, or your co-workers because of your
 Political-Legal
s. Bumoto o bumoboto po ba kayo? (Do you vote regularly?)
t. Ano pong klaseng kandidato ang binoboto niyo? (What kind of candidate do you go for?)
u. Sa tingin niyo po ba protektado ang karapatang pantao niyo? –kung opo- may
matatakbuhan po ba kayolegally? (Are your basic human rights as a member of the LGBT
community protected by the law? If yes, do you have any organizations or paralegal adviser
you could run to for legal advise?)
v. Para sainyo po gaano kaimportante ang karapatan niyo? (How important is your right for
w. Ano ang batas na gusto nyong maipasa tungkol po sa mga karapatan ninyo? (If given the
chance to lobby a law that could benefit the LGBT community- what would the law be?)