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POSTEST 4.

BELOW ARE PHRASES / STATEMENTS THAT REFER EITHER TO THE


INTENDED, IMPLEMENTED, OR THE ACHIEVED CURRICULA. IDENTIFY EACH
ONE OF THEM.

1. Children are going to a field trip in a zoo.


2. Determining the level of performance in a 50 item unit test.
3. To construct models that will represent the molecules of sugar
4. Acting out in a role play the responsibilities of barangay officials.
5. Accomplished checklist in judging the project made.
6. To identify the chartered cities in the Philippines
7. The scores in the test show that majority of the students got 80% correct answers.
8. Reading aloud the poem to pronounce correctly the vowel sound
9. To solve word problems that requires the four fundamental operations
10. Collecting sample of rocks for closer identification and classification

POSTEST 4.2

A.

1. What are the criteria for writing effective goals and objectives? Give the guidelines for
each criterion. Cite examples.

Learning objectives should be brief, clear, specific statements of what learners will
be able to perform at the conclusion of instructional activities. Learning objectives stem
from course objectives; course objectives are broad statements reflecting general course
goals and outcomes, while learning objectives are targeted statements about expected
student performance. Generally, learning objectives are competency based as the designate
exactly what students need to do to demonstrate mastery of course material. With this in
mind, learning objectives are always stated in terms of student outcomes.

The criteria should include the following purpose:

1. Facilitate overall course development by encouraging goal-directed planning.


 Syntactic correctness ( ex. Objectives should have all its parts including all
the elements)
2. Inform students of the standards and expectations of the course.
 Compliance with legal requirements (ex. There should be a direct
relationship between annual goals and present educational performance)
3. Provide information for the development of assessments by identifying the types
of evidence that students need to produce to demonstrate understanding.
 Both knowledge and behavior are addressed (ex. The statement of behavior
must be in an objective to provide a measurable indicator of learning)
4. Clarify the intent of instruction and guide the formation of instructional
activities (textbook selection, teaching resources, and instructional methods.
 So-what test (ex. Goals should cover value judgments about the curriculum
and speculation on about the child’s long-term needs.
5. Provide a framework for evaluating student understanding and progress.
 Common sense (ex. Goals should not describe what the teacher will do but
tell what the students will learn.
6. Serve as an implicit contract between instructor and students setting up a basis
for accountability
 Individualization (ex. Goals should be aligned with the student’s educational
performance and student’s goals.
7. Create a framework for evaluating overall effectiveness of an educational
program -Provide evidence of student learning to be utilized for accreditation.

2. Why are goals and objectives formulated?

Goals are the main reasons why teachers teach. Of course, an accountant or even an
engineer set their goals for something being planned. After the plans are being made
evaluation or assessment of whether the goals and objectives are achieved or not becomes
crucial for the next project to be made. Failure to properly formulate objectives is one
reason why some teachers continue to teach a certain topic for a very long period of time
without their students learning the most important things. It often results in frustration
and lack of motivation because no one sees the point in what they're doing. Setting a good
objective can also help the teacher with lesson planning. If you know exactly what you want
to accomplish, it can be easier to figure out how to get to that goal.

The module clearly stated the following purpose why goals are formulated:

1. A focus on curriculum and instruction will guide students what to learn


2. A requirement to assess whether it is formulated in accordance with specified
curriculum and instruction policies and standards.
3. A description of student’s level of performance to provide them quality education
4. A monitoring of student’s progress as goals become the basis
5. Attainment of teacher’s confidence and sense of competence especially when
students were motivated as goals are attained.
3. What should be included when formulating goals and objectives?

Criteria on certain elements should be included for goals and objectives to be


formulated:
a. Content
b. Behavior
c. Criterion
d. Condition

4. When do you say goals and objectives are good?

Goals and objectives are good when all the criteria being discussed are met. It
becomes effective when it represent an important learning outcome for the student, it is
realistic, measurable, complete and drafted and calibrated appropriately. It is neither
lengthy nor brief but enough to be useful for planning and evaluating instructional
programs.

5. What do you mean by instruction?


Instruction is the implementation of the objectives. Simply stated, it describes
how something is to be done. It may also mean the intelligence or information
imparted. It is concerned with the methodologies of the strategies of teaching.

6. Explain the criteria used in selecting learning experiences and in evaluating learning
achievements?

1. Can the experience bring optimum benefit to the learners?


If students are asked to go outside the classroom make sure that they will benefit
from the activities prepared to be able to recall the learning experiences.
2. Are the learners likely to be interested in the experience?
If the activities are timely and relevant to student’s needs they will be self-
motivated by the learning experience.
3. Does the experience encourage the learners to inquire further?
For example even if the subject may become boring at first if learning
experiences allow the teacher to make use of different visual aids to capture their
interest events may become relevant especially when topics are brought to the
personal level of the learner.
4. Does the experience stimulate the learners to engage in higher levels of thinking
and reasoning?
When students try to think critically, it means that the learning experiences are
stimulating.
5. Does the experience involve the use of different senses and sense perceptions?
6. Does the experience approximate real life situations?
Make sure that the activities are somehow valuable or real life situations.
7. Is the experience in accord with the life patterns of the learners?
8. How contemporary is the experience? Is it timely and relevant?
9. Do the experiences provide for the attainment of a range of instructional
objectives?

7. How do you perceive a good curriculum? Do you think your curriculum is good?
Why or why not?

The ultimate indicators of curriculum success are the quality of the learning achieved
by students and whether and how students use that learning for their personal
development and to bring about positive results.

The module enumerated the marks of a goo curriculum which are as follows:

1. It is planned and evaluated systematically.


2. A reflection of comprehensive aims, mission and vision of the school.
3. The whole organization and all the people concern arrange schedules and programs
to provide balanced learning activities.
4. Provisions are made to promote continuity of experience and smooth transition
from one classroom, grade or school to another.
5. Flexible learning opportunities are prepared for adaptation to particular situations
and individuals.
6. Utilization of the most effective learning experiences and resources available.
7. Optimum development of the learner is the main objective of a good curriculum.
The program provides maximum and wide range opportunities for individuals of
varying abilities, needs and interest.

As to my personal development of curriculum as an aspiring teacher I still


need to adapt these teaching strategies to be able to finally say that my curriculum is
already good. I believe that an effective curriculum do not happen in an instant or
overnight as it evolved from one period to another. I have to personally develop a
skill on how to correlate my curriculum to the needs of the learners and the society
as a whole. It has been identified that curriculum is a complex of details that needs
other resources to achieve the ideal one.

8. What parameters are used when evaluating a curriculum?


The parameters to be use in evaluating a curriculum cover the following questions:
1. Are the objectives being addressed?
2. Are the contents presented in the recommended sequence?
3. Are students being involved in the suggested instructional experiences?
4. Are students reacting to the contents?

9. How do you define evaluation? Explain the views of the different authors. Are there
similarities and differences?
Some authors define evaluation as the process of determining the value of
something or the content to which goals are being achieved. It is the process of
making a decision or reading a conclusion. It involves decision making about
student performance based on obtained information from an assessment process.
Other authors define it as an inference or a reasoning process that is based from
influence. Authors believed that if we evaluate we tend to compare things by noting
differences, summarizing findings and drawing conclusions. And too few define it as
one’s judgment about the student’s learning assessment.
If we examine the above definitions from different authors they are
commonly pointing out one opinion that expounds evaluation to be a process needed
to come up with a better decision or conclusion. They only differ on how they
describe the “process.” Authors call it assessment process, reasoning process, and
process of judgment.
My personal viewpoint on evaluation is an examination of goals and
objectives of curriculum to conclude on the student’s learning assessment.

10. What is the difference between summative and formative evaluation. Cite examples
for each.

Summative evaluation is derived from the word summary. It means that the
evaluation takes place at the end of a lesson or project and instruction wherein it
sums up the learning. Formative evaluation on the other hand takes place during
the lesson or the project and is therefore an ongoing process that yields information
that can be used to modify the program before the end of it.

B.
11. Which of the following statements you believe would best reflect your
understanding of curriculum assessment? Tell why?

I personally choose statement “C.” The quality and process of any evaluation are tied to
the purposes of curriculum.

To be able to reach the maximum potential of curriculum assessment, part of the


evaluation process should entail questions that measure the quality of curriculum as to
purposes. Finally, the curriculum will describe and promote a new role for the teacher’s
approach that will shift from ‘I am here to teach’ to ‘I am here to facilitate good learning’.

Undoubtedly, with this approach come a new, individualized teacher-student


relationship and a desire in teachers to encourage inquiry and curiosity. Similarly, the
teacher in the role of assessor should use
assessmentnot just to test how well content is learned, but to understand the strengths and
weaknesses of individual learners and to ensure that the purpose of curriculum are
attained.

11. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of curriculum assessment in public schools.
Appropriate assessment is committed to ensuring learner’s success to move
from guided to independent display of knowledge, understanding and skills. It
enables learners to transfer knowledge, understanding and skills successfully in
future situations.
One of the strengths of curriculum assessment are the following:

1. Facilitates the development of learner’s higher order thinking


2. It includes the value of explicit instruction
3. It recognizes the diversity of of learners inside the classroom.
4. Learners become co participants in the assessment
5. Assessment in form is a joint process that involves both teachers and learners
It should be in unity with instruction.
6. Articulate learning competencies in a good sequence in classroom assessment
7. Curriculum guides are well arranged from first quarter to fourth quarter that
summarize profiling student’s performance.
8. It promotes self-reflection and personal accountability among students about
their own learning.
9. Identification of learner’s competencies and how they are progressing in:
Content standards
Performance standards
Learning competencies
10. Learner can identify retrieve recognize duplicate , memorize repeat and
reproduce lessons as there are better connection between content and
performance standards

11. Summative assessment includes:


Written work
Performance task
Quarterly assessment
Collaborative assessment
Though they aren’t necessarily fun for teachers and students, summative
assessments have a lot of weaknesses. They provide motivation for students to study and
pay attention in class, particularly as they get older and grades become a major indicator
of success in college or the working world.

Precisely because summative assessments reflect so closely on teacher performance, many


instructors are accused of “teaching to the test.” In other words, if a state test is known to
heavily favor anagrams or analogies, students may be asked to spend hours drilling those
exercises instead of reading and writing to grow their vocabularies naturally. Conversely,
no assessment is perfect, so even students with excellent knowledge of the material may run
into questions that trip them up, especially if they get nervous under pressure. As a result,
summative assessment is not always the most accurate reflection of learning. And there are
major barriers to wider practice, including perceived tensions between classroom-based
formative assessments, and high visibility summative tests to hold schools accountable for
student achievement, and a lack of connection between systemic, school and classroom
approaches to assessment and evaluation.
The tension between classroom-based formative assessments of student learning,
and high visibility summative tests – that is, large-scale national or regional assessments of
student performance that are intended to hold schools accountable for meeting standards,
and that may hold particular consequences for low or underperforming schools. Too often,
highly visible summative tests used to hold schools accountable for student achievement
drive what happens in classrooms. A lack of connection between systemic, school and
classroom approaches to assessment and evaluation. Too often, information gathered
through national or regional monitoring systems, or even in school-based evaluations, is
seen as irrelevant or unhelpful to the business of teaching. Too often, information gathered
in classrooms is seen as irrelevant to the business of policy making.

12. Cite researches conducted along curriculum assessment.

The authors trace the development of the King's Formative Assessment Programme
from its origins in diagnostic testing in the 1970s, through the graded assessment movement
in the 1980s, to the present day. In doing so, they discuss the practical issues involved in
reviewing research and outline the strategies that were used to try to communicate the
findings to as wide an audience as possible (including policy-makers and practitioners as
well as academics). They describe how they worked with teachers to develop formative
practice in classrooms, and discuss the impact that this work has had on practice and
policy. Finally, they speculate about some of the reasons for this impact, and make
suggestions for how the impact of educational research on policy and practice might be
improved.

The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

` This book for teachers and administrators describes an approach to teaching that
requires students to think, analyze, problem solve, and make meaning of what they have
learned. Designed to be a companion guide to Teaching for Understanding: Linking
Research with Practice, it shows teachers how to use the four critical components of the
teaching for understanding framework: (1) generative topics, (2) understanding goals, (3)
performances of understanding, and (4) ongoing assessment. Using classroom examples
from science, mathematics, language arts, and social studies, and reflecting on the input of
practicing teachers, the book shows how teachers can: choose topics that engage student
interest and connect readily to other subjects; set coherent unit and course goals; create
activities that develop and demonstrate students' understanding; and improve student
performance by providing continual feedback. Brief case studies of teachers using this
approach illustrate the process in action. Simple planning sheets and teaching units are
included to help teachers develop curriculum. Reflection sections at the end of each chapter
suggest related activities, issues, and questions to facilitate further exploration of the
chapter's ideas.