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1              Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation

Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t) = 20 mm
Width of Lug (W) = 200 mm
Radius of Circular Section (R) = 100 mm
Diameter of Hole ( Dh) = 60 mm
Diameter of Pin ( Dp) = 57 mm
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)= 100 mm
Area of Cross Section = 20 x 200 = 4000
Length of Crack ( a ) = 4.5 mm
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (Dh / 2 + a) =
Temperature (T) = 15 oC
Fracture Toughness ( k1c) = (60 + 0.2 T) Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150
K1c = 63 oC

Check For Geometry


We =R- Dh/2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm
We =R- Dh/2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm
We =R- Dh/2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate = 345 MPa
Effective width of plate = 200 - 60- 2 x4.5 = 131
Tensile Load capacity = 0.9 x 345 x 131 x 20/1000 =

By Fracture Theory
K1c = Fd . s. Sqrt( p. a)
Fd = 0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d)3 ]
Where, d= a / (Dh / 2 + a)
d= 4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5) = 0.13

Fd = 0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]


= 2.61

s= Load (P) = P / 4000 = 0.0003


Area

K1c = Fd . s . Sqrt( p . a)
63 = 2.61 x 0.00025P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)
Load ( P) = 812 kN

Temp = 30 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory

Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 30 66 0.032 3.157 1492
1.5 31.5 30 66 0.048 3.059 1257
2 32 30 66 0.063 2.97 1121
2.5 32.5 30 66 0.077 2.89 1031
3 33 30 66 0.091 2.812 967
3.5 33.5 30 66 0.104 2.743 918
4 34 30 66 0.118 2.67 882
5 35 30 66 0.143 2.546 827
5.8 35.8 30 66 0.162 2.457 796
7 37 30 66 0.189 2.337 762
8 38 30 66 0.211 2.246 741
9 39 30 66 0.231 2.167 725
10 40 30 66 0.25 2.096 711

Temp = 15 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory

Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 15 63 0.032 3.157 1424
1.5 31.5 15 63 0.048 3.059 1200
2 32 15 63 0.063 2.97 1070
2.5 32.5 15 63 0.077 2.89 984
3 33 15 63 0.091 2.812 923
3.5 33.5 15 63 0.104 2.743 876
4 34 15 63 0.118 2.67 842
4.5 34.5 15 63 0.13 2.61 812
6 36 15 63 0.167 2.434 754
7 37 15 63 0.189 2.337 727
8 38 15 63 0.211 2.246 708
9 39 15 63 0.231 2.167 692
10 40 15 63 0.25 2.096 678
Temp = Zero Degree Celcius Fracture Theory
Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 0 60 0.032 3.157 1356
1.5 31.5 0 60 0.048 3.059 1143
2 32 0 60 0.063 2.97 1019
2.5 32.5 0 60 0.077 2.89 937
3 33 0 60 0.091 2.812 879
3.5 33.5 0 60 0.104 2.743 834
3.7 33.7 0 60 0.11 2.711 821
5 35 0 60 0.143 2.546 752
6 36 0 60 0.167 2.434 718
7 37 0 60 0.189 2.337 693
8 38 0 60 0.211 2.246 674
9 39 0 60 0.231 2.167 659
10 40 0 60 0.25 2.096 646

Temp = -15 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory

Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -15 57 0.032 3.157 1289
1.5 31.5 -15 57 0.048 3.059 1086
2 32 -15 57 0.063 2.97 968
2.5 32.5 -15 57 0.077 2.89 890
3 33 -15 57 0.091 2.812 835
3.1 33.1 -15 57 0.094 2.796 826
4 34 -15 57 0.118 2.67 762
5 35 -15 57 0.143 2.546 715
6 36 -15 57 0.167 2.434 682
7 37 -15 57 0.189 2.337 658
8 38 -15 57 0.211 2.246 640
9 39 -15 57 0.231 2.167 626
10 40 -15 57 0.25 2.096 614

Temp = -30 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -30 54 0.032 3.157 1221
1.5 31.5 -30 54 0.048 3.059 1029
2 32 -30 54 0.063 2.97 918
2.5 32.5 -30 54 0.077 2.89 843
2.6 32.6 -30 54 0.08 2.873 832
3.5 33.5 -30 54 0.104 2.743 751
4 34 -30 54 0.118 2.67 722
5 35 -30 54 0.143 2.546 677
6 36 -30 54 0.167 2.434 646
7 37 -30 54 0.189 2.337 623
8 38 -30 54 0.211 2.246 607
9 39 -30 54 0.231 2.167 593
10 40 -30 54 0.25 2.096 581

Temp = -45 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -45 51 0.032 3.157 1153
1.5 31.5 -45 51 0.048 3.059 971
2 32 -45 51 0.063 2.97 867
2.15 32.15 -45 51 0.067 2.947 842
3 33 -45 51 0.091 2.812 747
3.5 33.5 -45 51 0.104 2.743 709
4 34 -45 51 0.118 2.67 682
5 35 -45 51 0.143 2.546 639
6 36 -45 51 0.167 2.434 610
7 37 -45 51 0.189 2.337 589
8 38 -45 51 0.211 2.246 573
9 39 -45 51 0.231 2.167 560
10 40 -45 51 0.25 2.096 549
Kawish Shaikh P.Eng. UofC

> Dh/4 ; Hence OK


LOAD (P)

Crack
Length (a)

mm
100
> 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

mm
100
mm2
Both side of Hole 60 mm
Dia. hole
200
35 mm mm

Mpa. Sqrt(m) (60 for Steel WT Caterary 4)

> Dh/2 ; Hence OK


< 5t ; Hence OK
> 2t ; Hence OK

mm
814 kN

Crack Lenth (a) Vs Tensile Load (P)


Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN)
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s) Crack Le
601 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture 1600
510 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture 1400

Load (kN)
458 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
424 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture 1200
401 134 832 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture 1000
383 133 826 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
371 132 820 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture 800
354 130 807 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture 600
344 128.4 797 345 Net Section will Fracture
336 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture 400
332 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
200
330 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
329 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture 0
0 2

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN)
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s)
573 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
487 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
437 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
405 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
383 134 832 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
366 133 826 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
354 132 820 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
344 131 814 345 Net Section will Fracture
327 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
321 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
317 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
315 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
314 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture
Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory
Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN)
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s)
546 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
463 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
416 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
386 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
364 134 832 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
349 133 826 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
344 132.6 823 345 Net Section will Fracture
321 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
312 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
305 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
302 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
300 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
299 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN)
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s)
519 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
440 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
396 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
366 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
346 134 832 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
343 133.8 831 345 Net Section will Fracture
321 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
305 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
296 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
290 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
287 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
285 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
284 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory
Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN)
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s)
491 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
417 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
375 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
347 135 838 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
343 134.8 837 345 Net Section will Fracture
314 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
304 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
289 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
281 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
275 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
272 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
270 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
269 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory
Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN)
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s)
464 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
394 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
354 136 845 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
345 135.7 843 345 Net Section will Fracture
310 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
296 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
287 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture
273 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
265 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
260 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
257 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture
255 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
254 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 30 oC
1600

1400
Load (kN)

1200

1000 Load (P) (kN) -


Fracture Theory
800 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory
600

400

200

0 a (mm)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 15 oC


1600

1400
Load (kN)

1200
Crac
1000 Load (P) (kN) - 1600
Fracture Theory
Load (kN)

1400
800 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory 1200
600
1000
400
800
200 600
0 a (mm) 400
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
200
0
0 2
0
0 2

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 0 oC


1600

1400
Load (kN)

1200

1000 Load (P) (kN) -


Fracture Theory
800 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory
600

400

200

0 a (mm)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -15 oC


1400

1200
Load (kN)

1000
Load (P) (kN) -
800 Fracture Theory
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
600 Theory

400

200

0 a (mm)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC


1400

1200
(kN)
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC
1400

1200
Load (kN)

1000
Load (P) (kN) -
800 Fracture Theory
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
600 Theory

400

200

0 a (mm)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -45 oC


1400

1200
Load (kN)

1000
Load (P) (kN) -
800 Fracture Theory
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
600 Theory

400

200

0 a (mm)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN)
1600
Load (kN)

1400 Temp = 30 Degree


Celcius
1200
Temp = 15 Degree
1000 Celcius
800 Temp = Zero Degree
Celcius
600
Temp = -15 Degree
400 Celcius

200 Temp = -45 Degree


Celcius
0
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
a (mm) Theory
Celcius
0
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
a (mm) Theory
1              Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation
Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t) = 20 mm
Width of Lug (W) = 200 mm
Radius of Circular Section (R) = 100 mm
Diameter of Hole ( Dh) = 60 mm
Diameter of Pin ( Dp) = 57 mm
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)= 100 mm
Area of Cross Section = 20 x 200 = 4000
Length of Crack ( a ) = 4.5 mm
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (Dh / 2 + a) =
Temperature (T) = 15 oC
Fracture Toughness ( k1c) = (40 + 0.2 T) Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150
K1c = 43 oC

Check For Geometry


We =R- Dh/2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm
We =R- Dh/2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm
We =R- Dh/2 = 100 - 60/ 2 = 70 mm

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate = 345 MPa
Effective width of plate = 200 - 60- 2 x4.5 = 131
Tensile Load capacity = 0.9 x 345 x 131 x 20/1000 =

By Fracture Theory
K1c = Fd . s. Sqrt( p. a)
Fd = 0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d)3 ]
Where, d= a / (Dh / 2 + a)
d= 4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5) = 0.13

Fd = 0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]


= 2.61

s= Load (P) = P / 4000 = 0.0003


Area

K1c = Fd . s . Sqrt( p . a)
43 = 2.61 x 0.00025P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)
Load ( P) = 554 kN

Temp = 30 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory

Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 30 46 0.032 3.157 1040
1.5 31.5 30 46 0.048 3.059 876
2 32 30 46 0.063 2.97 782
2.5 32.5 30 46 0.077 2.89 718
3 33 30 46 0.091 2.812 674
3.5 33.5 30 46 0.104 2.743 640
4 34 30 46 0.118 2.67 615
5 35 30 46 0.143 2.546 577
5.8 35.8 30 46 0.162 2.457 555
7 37 30 46 0.189 2.337 531
8 38 30 46 0.211 2.246 517
9 39 30 46 0.231 2.167 505
10 40 30 46 0.25 2.096 495

Temp = 15 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory

Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 15 43 0.032 3.157 972
1.5 31.5 15 43 0.048 3.059 819
2 32 15 43 0.063 2.97 731
2.5 32.5 15 43 0.077 2.89 672
3 33 15 43 0.091 2.812 630
3.5 33.5 15 43 0.104 2.743 598
4 34 15 43 0.118 2.67 575
4.5 34.5 15 43 0.13 2.61 554
6 36 15 43 0.167 2.434 515
7 37 15 43 0.189 2.337 496
8 38 15 43 0.211 2.246 483
9 39 15 43 0.231 2.167 472
10 40 15 43 0.25 2.096 463
Temp = Zero Degree Celcius Fracture Theory
Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 0 40 0.032 3.157 904
1.5 31.5 0 40 0.048 3.059 762
2 32 0 40 0.063 2.97 680
2.5 32.5 0 40 0.077 2.89 625
3 33 0 40 0.091 2.812 586
3.5 33.5 0 40 0.104 2.743 556
3.7 33.7 0 40 0.11 2.711 547
5 35 0 40 0.143 2.546 501
6 36 0 40 0.167 2.434 479
7 37 0 40 0.189 2.337 462
8 38 0 40 0.211 2.246 449
9 39 0 40 0.231 2.167 439
10 40 0 40 0.25 2.096 431

Temp = -15 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory

Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -15 37 0.032 3.157 836
1.5 31.5 -15 37 0.048 3.059 705
2 32 -15 37 0.063 2.97 629
2.5 32.5 -15 37 0.077 2.89 578
3 33 -15 37 0.091 2.812 542
3.1 33.1 -15 37 0.094 2.796 536
4 34 -15 37 0.118 2.67 494
5 35 -15 37 0.143 2.546 464
6 36 -15 37 0.167 2.434 443
7 37 -15 37 0.189 2.337 427
8 38 -15 37 0.211 2.246 416
9 39 -15 37 0.231 2.167 406
10 40 -15 37 0.25 2.096 398

Temp = -30 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -30 34 0.032 3.157 769
1.5 31.5 -30 34 0.048 3.059 648
2 32 -30 34 0.063 2.97 578
2.5 32.5 -30 34 0.077 2.89 531
2.6 32.6 -30 34 0.08 2.873 524
3.5 33.5 -30 34 0.104 2.743 473
4 34 -30 34 0.118 2.67 454
5 35 -30 34 0.143 2.546 426
6 36 -30 34 0.167 2.434 407
7 37 -30 34 0.189 2.337 392
8 38 -30 34 0.211 2.246 382
9 39 -30 34 0.231 2.167 373
10 40 -30 34 0.25 2.096 366

Temp = -45 Degree Celcius Fracture Theory


Load (P)
Length of Fracture (kN) -
Crack ( a ) Temperatu Toughness Fracture
(mm) (Dh / 2 + a) re (T) oC ( k1c) d = a / (Dh / 2 + a) Fd Theory
1 31 -45 31 0.032 3.157 701
1.5 31.5 -45 31 0.048 3.059 591
2 32 -45 31 0.063 2.97 527
2.15 32.15 -45 31 0.067 2.947 512
3 33 -45 31 0.091 2.812 454
3.5 33.5 -45 31 0.104 2.743 431
4 34 -45 31 0.118 2.67 414
5 35 -45 31 0.143 2.546 389
6 36 -45 31 0.167 2.434 371
7 37 -45 31 0.189 2.337 358
8 38 -45 31 0.211 2.246 348
9 39 -45 31 0.231 2.167 340
10 40 -45 31 0.25 2.096 334
Kawish Shaikh P.Eng. UofC

> Dh/4 ; Hence OK


LOAD (P)

Crack
Length (a)

mm
100
> 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

mm
100
mm2
Both side of Hole 60 mm
Dia. hole
200
35 mm mm

Mpa. Sqrt(m) (40 for Steel W 350)

> Dh/2 ; Hence OK


< 5t ; Hence OK
> 2t ; Hence OK

mm
814 kN

Crack Lenth (a) Vs Tensile Load (P)


Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN)
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s) Crack Le
419 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture 1200
355 137 851 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Load (kN)
319 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture 1000
296 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture
279 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture 800
267 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
259 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture 600
246 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture
240 128.4 797 345 Net Section will Fracture 400
234 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
232 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture 200
230 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
229 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture 0
0 2

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN)
Crack L
1200
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s)

Load (kN)
391 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture 1000
332 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture
298 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture 800
276 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture
261 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture 600
250 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
242 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture 400
235 131 814 345 Net Section will Fracture
223 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture 200
219 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
216 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture 0
0 2
215 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
214 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture
Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory
Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN)
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild Crack L
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s) 1000
364 138 857 345 Net Section will Yeild before Fracture 900

Load (kN)
309 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture 800
278 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture
700
257 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture
600
243 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
232 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture 500
229 132.6 823 345 Net Section will Fracture 400
214 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture 300
208 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
200
204 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
201 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture 100
200 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture 0
0 2
199 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN) Crack Le
900
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s) 800

Load (kN)
337 138 857 345 Net Section will Fracture
700
286 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture
257 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture 600
238 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture 500
225 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
400
223 133.8 831 345 Net Section will Fracture
208 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture 300
198 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture 200
192 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
100
188 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
186 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture 0
0 2
185 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
184 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory

Crack Le
900

800
(kN)
Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN) Crack Le
900
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s) 800

Load (kN)
309 138 857 345 Net Section will Fracture
700
263 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture
236 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture 600
219 135 838 345 Net Section will Fracture 500
216 134.8 837 345 Net Section will Fracture
400
198 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
191 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture 300
182 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture 200
177 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
100
173 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
171 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture 0
0 2
170 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
169 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Fracture Theory Theory
Load (P)
Stress in Effective (kN) Crack Le
900
the Net width of -Yeild Yeild
Section Plate (mm) Theory Stress (s) 800

Load (kN)
282 138 857 345 Net Section will Fracture
700
239 137 851 345 Net Section will Fracture
215 136 845 345 Net Section will Fracture 600
210 135.7 843 345 Net Section will Fracture 500
188 134 832 345 Net Section will Fracture
400
180 133 826 345 Net Section will Fracture
174 132 820 345 Net Section will Fracture 300
166 130 807 345 Net Section will Fracture 200
161 128 795 345 Net Section will Fracture
100
158 126 782 345 Net Section will Fracture
156 124 770 345 Net Section will Fracture 0
0 2
155 122 758 345 Net Section will Fracture
155 120 745 345 Net Section will Fracture
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 30 oC
1200
Load (kN)

1000

800
Load (P) (kN) -
Fracture Theory
600 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory
400

200

0 a (mm)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 15 oC


1200
Load (kN)

1000

Crac
800 1200
Load (P) (kN) -
Load (kN)

Fracture Theory
600 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild 1000
Theory
400 800

600
200
400
0 a (mm)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
200

0
0 2
0
0 2

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 0 oC


1000
900
Load (kN)

800
700
600 Load (P) (kN) -
Fracture Theory
500 Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
400 Theory

300
200
100
0 a (mm)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -15 oC


900

800
Load (kN)

700

600
Load (P) (kN) -
500 Fracture Theory
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
400 Theory
300

200

100

0
0 2 4 a (mm)
6 8 10 12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC


900

800
(kN)
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC
900

800
Load (kN)

700

600
Load (P) (kN) -
500 Fracture Theory
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
400 Theory
300

200

100

0
0 2 4 a (mm)
6 8 10 12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -45 oC


900

800
Load (kN)

700

600
Load (P) (kN) -
500 Fracture Theory
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
400 Theory
300

200

100

0
0 2 4 a (mm)
6 8 10 12
Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN)
1200
Load (kN)

Temp = 30 Degree
1000 Celcius

800 Temp = 15 Degree


Celcius
600 Temp = Zero Degree
Celcius
400 Temp = -15 Degree
Celcius
200 Temp = -45 Degree
Celcius
0
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Theory
a (mm)
Celcius
0
Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Theory
a (mm)