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ASCE 7-05 Seismic

Provisions

A Beginner’s Guide to ASCE 7-05

Dr. T. Bart Quimby, P.E.


Quimby & Associates
www.bgstructuralengineering.com

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 1


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Earthquake Protective Design
Philosophical Issues
 High probability “In dealing with earthquakes we must
of “Failure” contend with appreciable probabilities
 “Failure” that failure will occur in the near
redefined to future. Otherwise, all the wealth of
permit behavior the world would prove insufficient…
(yielding) that We must also face uncertainty on a
would be large scale… In a way, earthquake
considered engineering is a cartoon…
failure under Earthquakes systematically bring out
other loads. the mistakes made in design and
 High Uncertainty construction, even the minutest
 Importance of
mistakes.” Newmark & Rosenblueth
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 2
Details Guide to ASCE 7-05
Performance Levels Hazard Levels

 Occasional
 Incipient Collapse  50% in 50 years
 Life Safety  Rare
 Immediate  10% in 50 years
Reoccupancy  Very Rare
 Fully Operational  5% in 50 years
 Max Considered
 2% in 50 years

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 3


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Design Objective Defined
 A specific performance level given a specific
earthquake hazard level

 Stated basis of current codes:


 Life safety (+some damage control) at 10% in
50 year event (nominally)

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 4


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Purpose of the Provisions
FEMA 302 Section 1.1
“The design earthquake ground motion levels specified herein
could result in both structural and nonstructural damage.
For most structures designed and constructed according to
these Provisions, structural damage from the design earthquake
ground motion would be repairable although perhaps not
economically so. For essential facilities, it is expected that the
damage from the design earthquake ground motion would not
be so severe as to preclude continued occupancy and function
of the facility.”
“For ground motions larger than the design levels, the intent of
these Provisions is that there be a low likelihood of
structural collapse.”

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 5


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Compare Wind and Seismic Design of Simple Building

Building Properties:
Moment Resisting Frames
density ρ = 8 pcf
Period T = 1.0 sec
62.5’ Damping ξ = 5%

90’
120’

Wind: Earthquake:
100 MPH Exposure C Assume 0.4g NEHRP
4.3

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 6


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Wind:
100 mph Fastest mile
Exposure C 62.5’

Velocity pressure qs = 25.6 psf 90’


Gust/Exposure factor C e = 1.25 120’
Pressure coefficient Cq = 1.3
Load Factor for Wind = 1.3

Total wind force on 120’ face:


VW120= 62.5*120*25.6*1.25*1.3*1.3/1000 = 406 kips

Total wind force on 90’ face:


VW90 = 62.5*90*25.6*1.25*1.3*1.3/1000 = 304 kips
4.4
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 7
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Earthquake:

Building Weight W= 62.5’


120*90*62.5*8/1000 = 5400 kips
90’
120’
VEQ = CSW

. AV S 12
12 . × 0.4 × 10
.
CS = 2/3
= 2/3
= 0.480
T .
10

Total ELASTIC earthquake force (in each direction):


VEQ = 0.480*5400 = 2592 kips

This example uses an old version of both the NEHRP and the ASCE 7
Wind Load Criteria. It is used for illustrative purposes only.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 8


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Comparison: Earthquake vs. Wind

VEQ 2952 VEQ 2952


= = 7.3 = = 9.7
VW120 406 VW 90 304

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 9


Guide to ASCE 7-05
How to Deal with Huge Earthquake Force?

• Isolate structure from ground (Base Isolation)


• Increase Damping (Passive Energy Dissipation)
• Allow Inelastic Response

Historically, Building Codes use Inelastic Response Procedure.


Inelastic response occurs though structural damage (yielding).
We must control the damage for the method to be successful.

4.7

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 10


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Interim Conclusion (The Good News)

The frame, designed for a wind force which is 15% of the


ELASTIC earthquake force, can survive the earthquake if:

It has the capability to undergo numerous cycles of


INELASIC deformation

It has the capability to deform at least 5 to 6 times


the yield deformation

It suffers no appreciable loss of strength

REQUIRES ADEQUATE DETAILING


4.12

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 11


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Interim Conclusion (The Bad News)

As a result of the large displacements associated with the


inelastic deformations, the structure will suffer considerable
structural and nonstructural damage.

This damage must be controlled by


adequate detailing and by limiting
structural deformations (drift)

4.13

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 12


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Elastic vs. Inelastic Response
 The red line shows
the force and
displacement that
would be reached if
the structure
responded elastically.
 The green line shows
the actual force vs.
displacement
response of the
structure
 The pink line indicates
the minimum strength
required to hold
everything together
during inelastic
behavior
 The blue line is the
force level that we
design for.
 We rely on the
ductility of the system
to prevent collapse.

From 1997 NEHRP Provisions


ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 13
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Historical Development of Seismic Codes

 1755 - Lisbon: ground shaking waves


 1906 - San Francisco: Fire, lateral force from wind
 1911 - Messina, Italy: Static inertial force (10%), First
recognition of F=ma
 1923 - Tokyo: Prediction by seismic gap
 1925 - Santa Barbara: USCGS instructed to develop
strong motion seismographs.
 1927 - U.B.C.: Inertial forces and soil effects in the
U.S. (7.5% or 10% of D+L)
 1933 - Long Beach: First instrumental records
(flawed): reinforcement required for masonry; quality
assurance; design review & construction inspection.
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 14
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Historical Development of Seismic Codes

 1940 - El Centro: Earthquake ground motion record. Makes possible


the computation of structural response. Became the most used record.
 1943 - City of Los Angles Building Code: Dynamic property of building
used in addition to mass (Number of stories relates to period and to
distribution of force)
 1952 - San Francisco Joint Committee:
 Modal analysis used as a basis for static forces and distribution.
 Difference between design force and computed forces not resolved.
 Distinction for soils types dropped
 Overturning reductions
 Torsion
 1956 - World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
 1957 - Mexico City: Success with design using dynamic analysis.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 15


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Historical Development of Seismic Codes

 1960 - SEAOC blue book


 Design accel. Similar to 1943 LA and 1952 SF
 Factor for performance of structural systems (K)
 Effect of higher modes on vertical distribution
 1961 - “Design of Multi-Story Reinforced Concrete Buildings for
Earthquake Motions”, Blume, Newmark, and Corning
 Inelastic response
 Ductility in concrete
 1964 Alaska Earthquake: Lack of instrumental data.
Observations influenced thinking on torsional response,
anchorage of cladding, and overall load path concepts.
 1964 - Niigata, Japan: Liquefaction
 1967 - Caracas Earthquake: Non structural infill and overturning.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 16


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Historical Development of Seismic Codes

 1974 Applied Technology Council Report ATC 2


Continued to use single design spectrum for buildings
 1976 ATC 3
 Probabilistic ground accelerations
 Realistic response accelerations and explicit factors for inelastic action
 Strength design
 Ground motion attenuation
 Nationwide applicability
 Existing buildings
 1977 National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act: Federal support
and direction
 1979 Building Seismic Safety Council: response to ATC 3 - extensive
review and trial designs
 1985 - BSSC/NEHRP Recommended provisions: Son of ATC 3
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 17
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Historical Development of Seismic Codes

 1985 - Mexico City Earthquake: Extreme site effects


 1988 - New SEAOC (1987) and UBC requirements:
Allowable stress design and a single map.
 1988 Armenia Earthquake: Structural details and site
effects
 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake: A performance test
for buildings & bridges.
 1991 NEHRP Provisions into Model Codes

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 18


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Building Seismic Safety Council
http://www.bssconline.org/

 Private  Members are


 Voluntary
organizations
(ASCE, ACI, AISC,
 National Forum
AIA, ICBO, BOCA,
 Issues: EERI, SEAOC,
 Technical etc…)
 Social  Consensus Process
 Economical

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 19


Guide to ASCE 7-05
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 20


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Seismic Ground Motion Values
See ASCE 7-05 11.4

 Mapped Acceleration Parameters


 Ss = Mapped 5% damped, spectral response
acceleration parameter at short periods
 S1 = Mapped 5% damped spectral response
acceleration parameter at a period of 1 sec.
 Can be found online at
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/
 You need Java to run the downloadable
application.
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 21
Guide to ASCE 7-05
SS
See ASCE 7-05 22

 Use Map to find the


maximum
considered ground
motion for short
periods.
 The contours are
irregularly spaced
 Values are in % of g

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 22


Guide to ASCE 7-05
S1
See ASCE 7-05 22

 Use Map to find the


maximum
considered ground
motion for short
periods.
 The contours are
irregularly spaced
 Values are in % of g

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 23


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Site Classes
See ASCE 7-05 11.4.2, 20
 Site Classes are also labeled A-F
 A is for hard rock, F for very soft soils
 See definitions in ASCE 7-05 20
 Choice of site class is based on soil stiffness which is measured in
different ways for different types of soil.
 See ASCE 7-05 20 for procedure
 If insufficient data is available, assume Site Class D unless there is a
probability of a Site Class F.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 24


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Compute SMS and SM1
See ASCE 7-05 11.4.3

 SMS = FaSS
 Fa from Table
11.4-1
 SM1= FvS1
 Fv from Table
11.4-2

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 25


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Spectral Response Accelerations
SDS and SD1
See ASCE 7-05 11.4.4

SDS = 2*SMS/3 SD1 = 2*SM1/3

 SDS is the design, 5% damped, spectral


response acceleration for short periods.
 SD1 is the design, 5% damped, spectral
response acceleration at a period of 1 sec.
 SDS and SD1 are used in selecting the Seismic
Design Category and in the analysis
methods.
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 26
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Design Response Spectrum
See ASCE 7-05 11.4.5

 Period Limiting Values


 T0 = .2 SD1/SDS
 TS = SD1/SDS
 TL from ASCE 7-05 22

 Sa, design spectral


response acceleration
 Sa is a function of
structure period, T
 Four regions, four
equations.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 27


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Importance Factor, I
See ASCE 7-05 11.5

 See ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1


 Function of Occupancy Category
 Requirement for structures adjacent to
occupancy category IV structures where
access is needed to get to the category IV
structure.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 28


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Seismic Design Categories
See ASCE 7-05 11.6

 To be determined for every structure


 function of:
 Occupancy Category
 Spectral Response Accelerations SDS and SD1.
 Used to determine analysis options, detailed
requirements, height limitations, and other
limits on usage.
 Seismic Design Categories labeled A-F

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 29


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Seismic Design Categories

 The most restrictive


value controls
 SDC E:
 OC I, II, III where
S1 > 0.75
 SDC F:
 OC IV where S1
> 0.75

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 30


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Seismic Design Category A
See ASCE 7-05 11.7

 Very limited seismic exposure and risk


 Lateral forces taken to equal 1% of structure
weight.
 A complete load path must be in place.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 31


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Soil Report Requirements
See ASCE 7-05 11.8

 Limits on where you can place a structure


(SDC E or F)
 SDC C – F:
 specific evaluation of listed hazards.
 SDC D-F:
 Even more evaluation requirements.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 32


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Seismic Load Analysis Procedures
See ASCE 7-05 12.6

 Equivalent Lateral Force (ELF)


 Static approximation.
 May not be used on structures of Seismic Design
Categories E or F with particular irregularities. (ASCE
7-05 Table 12.6-1)
 Modal Analysis
 2D and 3D dynamic analysis
 Required for buildings with particular irregularities

 Site Specific Response Spectrum


 Permitted for all structures
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 33
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Analysis Procedures
 Category A: regular and irregular structures designed
for a minimum lateral force
 Category B & C: regular and irregular structures
using any of the three methods
 Category D, E, & F: Table 12.6-1 with some limits on
SDS and SD1
 ELF for regular and some irregular
 Modal for some irregular
 Site specific required in Site Classes E or F

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 34


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Structure Configuration
(regular or irregular)

 Plan Configuration
 ASCE 7-05 12.3.2.1
 Vertical Configuration
 ASCE 7-05 12.3.2.2

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 35


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Plan Structural Irregularities

 1a - Torsional Irregularity
 1b - Extreme Torsional Irregularity
 2 - Re-entrant Corners
 3 - Diaphragm Discontinuity
 4 - Out-of-plane Offsets
 5 - Nonparallel Systems

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 36


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 1: Torsional Irregularities
 1a - Torsional Irregularity
 larger story drift more than 1.2
times average story drift
 1b - Extreme Torsional Irregularity
 larger story drift more than 1.4
times average story drift
 Not permitted in Design
Categories E & F
 Design forces for lateral force
connections to be increased 25% in
Design Categories D, E, & F.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 37


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 2: Re-entrant Corners
 Both projections
beyond the corner are
more than 15% of the
plan dimension of the
structure in the same
direction

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 38


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 3: Diaphragm
Discontinuities
 Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or variations
in stiffness, including those having cutout or open
areas greater than 50% of the gross enclosed
diaphragm area, or changes in effective diaphragm
stiffness of more than 50% from one story to the next.
 Design forces for lateral force connections to be
increased 25% in Design Categories D, E, & F.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 39


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 4: Out-of-Plane Offsets
 Discontinuities in a lateral
force resistance path, such
as out-of-plane offsets of
the vertical elements.
 Design forces for lateral
force connections to be
increased 25% in Design
Categories D, E, & F.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 40


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 5: Nonparallel Systems

 The vertical lateral force-


resisting elements are not
parallel to or symmetric about
the major orthogonal axes of
the lateral force resisting
system.
 Analyze for forces applied in
the direction that causes the
most critical load effect for
Design Categories C - F.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 41


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Vertical Irregularities

 1a - Stiffness Irregularity -Soft Story


 1b - Stiffness Irregularity - Extreme Soft Story
 2 - Weight (Mass) Irregularity
 3 - Vertical Geometry Irregularity
 4 - In-plane Discontinuity in Vertical Lateral Force
Resisting Elements
 5 - Discontinuity in Capacity - Weak Story

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 42


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 1: Stiffness Irregularities

 1a - Soft Story
 the lateral stiffness is less than
70% of that in the story above
or less than 80% of the average
stiffness of the three stories
above.
 1b - Extreme Soft Story
 the lateral stiffness is less than
60% of that in the story above
or less than 70% of the average
stiffness of the three stories
above.
 Not permitted in Design
Categories E & F
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 43
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 2: Weight (Mass) Irregularity
 Mass irregularity shall
be considered to exist
where the effective
mass of any story is
more than 150% of
the effective mass of
an adjacent story. A
roof that is lighter
than the floor below
need not be
considered.
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 44
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 3: Vertical Geometry
Irregularity
 Vertical geometry
irregularity shall be
considered to exist where
the horizontal dimension of
the lateral force-resisting
system in any story is
more than 130% of that in
an adjacent story.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 45


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 4: In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical
Lateral Force Resisting Elements

 An in-plane offset of the lateral force-resisting elements greater


than the length of those elements or a reduction in stiffness in
the resisting element in the story below.
 Design forces for lateral force connections to be increased 25%
in Design Categories D, E, & F.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 46


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Type 5: Discontinuity in
Capacity - Soft Story
 A weak story is one in which the
story lateral strength is less than
80% of that in the story above. The
story strength is the total strength of
all seismic-resisting elements
sharing the story shear for the
direction under consideration.
 Do not confuse STIFFNESS with
STRENGTH.
 Not permitted in Design Categories
E & F.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 47


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Equivalent Force Method
(ASCE 7-05 12.8)

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 48


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Base Shear Determination
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.1

Base Shear, V = CsW


Where:
Cs = seismic response coefficient
W = the effective seismic weight, including
applicable portions of other storage and snow
loads (See ASCE 7-05 12.7.2)

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 49


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Seismic Weight, W
See ASCE 7-05 12.7.2

 W is to include:
 all dead load (all permanent components of the
building, including permanent equipment)
 25% of any design storage floor live loads except
for floor live load in public garages and open
parking structures.
 If partition loads are considered in floor design, at
least 10 psf is to be included.
 A portion of the snow load (20% pf minimum) in
regions where the flat roof snow load exceeds 30
psf.
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 50
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Seismic Response Coefficient, Cs
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.1.1
Cs = SDS /(R/I)

Cs need not exceed


SD1/(T(R/I)) for T < TL
SD1TL/(T2(R/I)) for T > TL

Cs shall not be taken less than


Max[0.044SDSI, 0.01] for S1 < 0.6g
0.5S1/(R/I) for S1 > 0.6g
See also ASCE 7-05 Supplement No. 2
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 51
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Response Modification
Coefficient, R
See ASCE 7-05 12.2
 The response modification factor, R, accounts for the dynamic
characteristics, lateral force resistance, and energy dissipation capacity
of the structural system.
 Can be different for different directions.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 52


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Fundamental Period, T
 May be computed by analytical means
 May be computed by approximate means, Ta
 Where analysis is used to compute T:

T < Cu Ta

 May also use Ta in place of actual T

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 53


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Approximate Fundamental
Period, Ta
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.2

 An approximate means may be used.


Ta = C T h n x
Where:
CT = Building period coefficient.
hn = height above the base to the highest level of the
building
 for moment frames not exceeding 12 stories and having a
minimum story height of 10 ft, Ta may be taken as 0.1N, where
N = number of stories.
 For masonry or concrete shear wall buildings use eq 12.8-9
 Ta may be different in each direction.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 54


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Building Period Coefficient, CT
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.2

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 55


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Base Shear Summary
V = CsW
From Design Spectrum W = Building Seismic Weight

Max[0.044SDSI,0.01] or 0.5S1/(R/I) < SDS/(R/I) < SD1/(T(R/I)) or TLSD1/(T2(R/I))

From map Numerical Analysis or Ta


= CThnx or Ta = 0.1N
R from Table 12.2-1 based
on the Basic Seismic-Force-
Resisting System CT = 0.028, 0.016, 0.030, or
0.020
I from Table 11.5-1 based on hn = building height
Occupancy Category N = number of storys
Vertical Distribution of Base Shear
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.3

 For short period buildings the vertical


distribution follows generally follows the
first mode of vibration in which the force
increases linearly with height for evenly
distributed mass.
 For long period buildings the force is
shifted upwards to account for the
whipping action associated with
increased flexibility

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 57


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Story Force, Fx
Fx = CvxV

Where Cvx = Vertical Distribution Factor

k
W x hx
Cvx
n
k
W i hi
i= 1

Wx = Weight at level x
hx = elevation of level x above the base
k = exponent related to structure period
When T < 0.5 s, k =1, When T > 2.5 s, k =2,
Linearly interpolate when 0.5 < T < 2.5 s
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 58
Guide to ASCE 7-05
Story Shear, Vx
 Story shear, Vx, is the shear force at a given story
level
 Vx is the sum of all the forces above that level.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 59


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Horizontal Distribution
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.4

 Being an inertial force, the Story Force, Fx, is


distributed in accordance with the distribution
of the mass at each level.
 The Story Shear, Vx, is distributed to the
vertical lateral force resisting elements based
on the relative lateral stiffnesses of the
vertical resisting elements and the
diaphragm.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 60


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Torsion
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.4.1-3

 The analysis must take into account any torsional effects


resulting from the location of the masses relative to the
centers of resistance.
 In addition to the predicted torsion, accidental torsion must
be applied for structures with rigid diaphragms by assuming
the center of mass at each level is moved from its actual
location a distance equal to 5% the building dimension
perpendicular to the direction of motion.
 Buildings of Seismic Design Categories C, D, E, and F with
torsional irregularities are to have torsional moments
magnified.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 61


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Using the results of the Seismic
Analysis
“The effects on the structure and its
components due to gravity loads and seismic
forces shall be combined in accordance with
the factored load combinations as presented
in ASCE 7 except that the effect of seismic
loads, E, shall be as defined herein.”

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 62


Guide to ASCE 7-05
Overturning
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.5

 The effects of overturning must be considered.


 The overturning moment at any level is the sum of the
moments at that level created by the Story Forces at each
level above it.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's 63


Guide to ASCE 7-05
ASCE 7 Load Combinations which
include Seismic Effects
See ASCE 7-05 2.3 & 2.4

LRFD
5: 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S
7: 0.9D + 1.0E
ASD
5: D + (W or 0.7E)
6: D + 0.75(W or 0.7E) + 0.75L + 0.75(Lr or S or R)
8: 0.6D + 0.7E

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Guide to ASCE 7-05
Definition of E
See ASCE 7-05 12.4

 When Seismic effects and Dead Load effects


are additive:
E = Eh + Ev = DQE + 0.2SDSD
 When Seismic effects and Dead Load effects
counteract:
E = Eh - Ev = DQE - 0.2SDSD
 QE = Effect of horizontal seismic forces
 D = the reliability factor
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Guide to ASCE 7-05
The Reliability Factor, D
See ASCE 7-05 12.3.4

 The reliability factor is intended to account for redundancy in the


structure.
 The factor, D, may be taken as 1.0 for eight cases listed in
ASCE 7-05 12.3.4.1, including Seismic Design Categories A-C.
 For structures of Seismic Design Categories D-F:

D = 1.3

With listed exceptions (ASCE 7-05 12.3.4.2)

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Guide to ASCE 7-05