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CHAPTER ONE

INRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

In today’s society, people are becoming more and more reliable on technology

especially when communicating with others. Smartphones have been one of the

trends since the early of 21 century. The emerging of different operating system in

smartphone has made smartphone one of the necessities of life where it can act as

communication device and even can act as a computer. In mobile phone industry,

Smartphone is a one of the highly technology device that allowed users to connect

with each other and transfer information to around the globe. Smartphone has

brought a lot of benefits to the society, the beneficial aspects includes, it allows

users to call and talk straightway, send short message service (SMS), assist business

person to make schedule of working and meetings, work as navigation system

(GPS), access to the internet, entertainment, downloading application, store data

and even help in legal matters such as track criminal via tracking system.

Smart phone usage is still at the introductory stage in Africa with just 2% market

size in comparison to china with 27% Europe with 17%, emerging Asia with 14%

and North America and Latin America with13% and 14% respectively, (okoye,

2013). Jawaheer, et.A.,l (2014), states that the larger the portion of smartphone

users is technocentric young consumers which university students are part of it.
Nowadays, consumers tend to shift their preferences from basic cell phones to

smart phones and this is the major reason why mobile phone manufacturers move

their production towards smart phones (chow et. al., 2012). In the case of Nigeria,

smart phones are predominantly used to run social media applications and the

larger percent of the user are young consumers. Also, Nigeria has one of the fastest

smart phone markets penetrations in Africa after South Africa (Osuagwu, 2014).

From the fore going it is expedient for every potential and actual smart phone

manufacturer and marketers in Nigeria to acknowledge and understand the critical

importance of consumer’s perception in all their activities. Kotler, (2017) asserts

that it is not enough to be product driven or technology driven without bringing the

power of consumers in to the centre of the business. Consumer perceptions are the

different ways that individuals sense external information, select particular sources

of information and how they interpret this information (Belch G. & Belch M.,

2009, p1180. This implies that people perceive the same situations differently

because they interpret and organize information. In the smart phone market,

perceptions are more important than the reality as it affects consumer’s actual

behavior.

The crave for smart phones especially among young consumers is at an increasing

rate (okoye, 2013). This has called for the need to determine the factors that
influence university student’s perceptions while in the cause of purchasing a

smartphone.

This study therefore centers on understanding the effect of consumers

perceptions towards the purchase of smart phones with reference to the students of

NnamdiAzikiwe University Awka Anambra state.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

As a number of mobile phone manufacturers and marketers have entered the smart

phone market, the competition in the smart phone market becomes more and more

fierce. Some of the major international companies are Samsung, Apple, Sony,

Nokia, a smart phone manufacturer, used to dominate the smart phone market, but

recently it appears to be loosing a ground in the smart phone (Liao, et.al,.2012)

Why is it happening? The reality is that people are now living in the highly

developed and technologically advanced society and have a great deal of choices

and options to decide on.

In this ‘technology savvy’ era, it is very difficult to study, analyse and interpret

consumer perception. Smart phone companies and marketers are even willing to

financially invest in order to study their respective potential consumer’s

perceptions toward smartphone. Therefore this research is intended in the quest to

study consumer perception towards smart phones. Although many researches and
studies have been preliminarily carried out on the consumer perception and

hypothesis are formed, however, there is still room for improvement.

Moreover, although there have been many researches carried out previously on

consumer perception towards smart phones, these studies are alien to the Nigerian

environment and were carried out in different cultural settings.There has not been a

research carried out on this subject matter in Nigeria especially in the south-east

Nigeria with special reference to university students. In order to fill this existing

gap in knowledge the study choose to investigate on the determinants of consumers

perception among the students of NnamdiAzikiwe University Awka because this

group of consumers have the highest smartphone rate. This age group is the

‘active’ group among smartphone consumers.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to empirically investigate the factors that determine

consumer's perceptions towards the purchase of smartphones.

Specifically, this study seeks;

i. To determine the effect price has towards purchase of smartphones.

ii. To know the effect brand name has towards purchase of smartphones.

iii. To determine the effect product features has towards purchase of smartphones.
1.4 Research Questions

The research will aim to answer the following research questions:

i. What effect does price has towards purchase of smartphones?

ii. What effect does brand name have towards purchase of smartphones?

iii. Does product features affect the purchase of smartphones?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

For the purpose of this study, the following null hypothesis would be tested.

HI: Price has significant effect towards purchase of smartphones.

H2: Brand name has significant effect towards purchase of smartphones.

H3: Product features have significant effect towards purchase of smartphones.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study is restricted to measuring and exploring the consumers' perception towards

purchase of smartphones. The topic chosen for study is on evaluating the consumers'

perception and determining the comparators consumers will use in their evaluative

effort towards purchase of smartphones.


The study focuses on consumers who patronizes smart phones in NnamdiAzikiwe

University Students, Awka,, and on factors that influence consumer's perception

towards the purchase of smart phones.

1.7 Significance of the Study

As it has being noted throughout this chapter, understanding the consumer

perception is one of the important success factors now a day. The importance and

attention given to a smartphone is rapidly increasing every day. The complexity and

sophistication involved in the highly advanced smartphones is making the purchase

process of a smartphone getting more intense. Companies needs invest a lot of money

and time to understand the customers and their perception about the product. It is

very essential to have significant information about the customers and their

choice, so that effective marketing strategies can be made to influence those

customers. Hence, this research will provide a more information for smartphones

industry, a better understanding on factors that influence the consumer perception

towards purchase of smartphones which might be helpful in making future marketing

strategy. Similarly, the research can be a foundation for those who are willing to

conduct the same kind of survey in the future.


CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Conceptual Review

2.1 .1 Concept of Consumer Perception

Understanding the consumer perception is one of the important success factors now

a day. Companies need to invest a lot of money and time to understand the

customers and their perception about the product. Consumers make decisions on a

daily basis by means of consumer decision making process. It is documented in

literature (Schiffman, Kanuk& Hansen, 2008) that the consumer decision-making

process comprises of stages, namely need recognition, search for information,

evaluation of alternative options that could meet the consumers expressed need,

purchase and post-purchase evaluation. The decision- making process as a whole,

as well as each stage in the process, is influenced by a number of external

influences (such as family, culture and reference group) as well as internal

influences (such as perception, motivation and personality).

Consumer perception can be referred to as the many different ways that an individual

can sense external information, select particular sources of information and how

they intemperate this information (Belch G. & Belch M., 2009, p118). This means

that the people who have the same motivation and are in the same situation may not

act the same because they perceive the situation differently. Perception is the process
by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form the image of

certain things. People perceive the same situation differently because they interpret

and organize information uniquely. Hawkins and Mothersbaugh (2010) explain that

perception begins with consumers’ exposure and attention to marketing stimuli and

ends with their interpretation of the stimuli. Consumers’ perception is not only

determined by the characteristics of the consumer him- or herself. It is therefore

essential that marketers obtain a thorough understanding of their target markets as

well as how consumers will perceive various marketing- related stimuli. In

smartphone market, perceptions are more important than the reality, as it affect

consumer's actual behavior. There are four processes that explain why people from

different perceptions with the same object.

1. Selective Attention

Selective attention is the process that people screen most stimuli out as the capacity

to process stimuli is limited. For instance, average Nigerian may be exposed to

over 1,500 ads, which indicate that marketers have to try their best to attract

consumers' attention. People are more likely to notice stimuli that relate to a

current need, that they anticipate, and whose deviations are large in relationship to

the normal size of the stimuli.


2.Selective Distortion
Selective distortion presents the tendency for people to interpret information that

match to the presumptions. Consumers often distort information to support their

existing belief and expectations. Selective distortion can be helpful with strong

brands when consumers interpret neutral or ambiguous brands information and make

it more positive.

3. Selective Retention
Selective retention implies the tendency that people forget much of the information

that they are exposed, but they still retain information that matches their attitudes and

beliefs. It explains why repletion is necessary to avoid information to be neglected.

4. Subliminal Perception

The selective perception mechanism requires consumers; active engagement and

thought. A topic that has fascinated armchair marketer for ages is subliminal

perception. They argue that marketers embed covert, subliminal message in ads or

packaging .consumers are not consciously aware of them, yet they affect behavior.

Although, it's clear that mental process include many subtle subconscious effects , no

evidence support the notion that marketers can systematically control consumers at

that level , especially enough to change moderately important or strongly held beliefs.

Consumer perceived value of the Smartphone tradeoff between benefit and


sacrifices perceiver by consumer, in which benefits are adopted from the

technology of acceptance model.

2.1.2 Smartphone Concept

Telecommunication device helps us to communicate at a distance. The first

telecommunication device called pager. Pager is small telecommunications devices

that can only use to transmit alert signals and send short messages. In the 1973,

hand phone was invented by Motorola researcher Martin Cooper. The traditional

hand phone is design in large and bulky in size and only carry some basic function

such as call and short messaging system (SMS). Hand phone is now further

redefined to small and compact version. From the hand phone that consists of

numerous buttons, phone is now evolving becomes smartphone as it can be control

by touch screen. In general, a smartphone is an extension of the traditional

handheld hand phones. However, it performs a wider range of functions.

Nowadays, smartphone has been deeply accepted by most people around the world

and have become an integral part of everyone around the globe.

It is a mobile phone that integrates a feature phone and a mobile computing platform,

and the models today even combine functions such as digital cameras, media players,

High-speed data access via Wi-Fi, GPS navigation, and other applications with option

to download application through application market. Typically, smartphones also


comprise web browsers and high-resolution touchscreens, which provide people

better viewing and browsing experience.

A study has shown that smartphones has a lot of benefits such as its complexity,

compatibility, availability, easy to operate and other related advantage. According

to Oketola (2013), 25 percent of Nigerians over 105 million mobile telephone

subscribers use Smartphones, with such a large number of smartphone users,

Nigerian market which is growing rapidly is very lucrative market place for the

smartphone manufacturers. Many companies includes Nokia, iPhone, Samsung,

Blackberry, Apple, Techno etc are producing smartphones with different features and

price range.

Although the literature has provided the many potential benefits of Smartphones,

researchers have also suggested that there may also be probable factors which can

affect consumers’ perception towards the purchase of smartphone. Chow, Chen,

Yeow and Wong (2012) and Malviya, Saluja, & Thakur (2013) in Indore City, India

quoted that product features, social influence, price, and brand name are factors

which affect consumers decisions while purchasing smartphone.

2.1.3 Factors Affecting Purchase Decision for Smartphones

Smartphone's demand is increasing gradually nowadays in worldwide and this

demand is affected by a lot of factors which includes price, branding, appearance and
performance, these factors affect and shape consumers perception towards a

particular product or brand. Therefore, in the study price, brand name, and

product features are subsumed into the independent variables.

• Price: Price may be defined as the value of product attributes expressed in monetary

terms which a consumer pays or is expected to pay in exchange and anticipation of

the expected or offered utility (Ramachandra et al. 2010). Besides that, according to

Stanton (1992), price is the amount of money or goods needed to acquire some

combination of other goods and its accompanying services. Price is the element of

the marketing mix that is stable in certain period but at one moment the price might

be increase or decrease and price become as the single element that revenue from

the selling. Although, price is an element of marketing that is stable, however price

is also subject to fluctuation. Price is one of those factors, which affects the

purchase intention of consumers directly. Price makes consumers think should they

get this specific product or a similar product for a cheaper price. It has a positive

impact on behavioral intentions. Price is one tangible cue from which consumers form

expectations. If we look at the Smartphone's market, we find the price of the different

Smartphone varies differently. Some are expensive and some are cheap. There is an

active relation between price and consumers satisfaction. Consumers tend to pay a

higher price for a product if they are satisfied with that. Furthermore, sometimes they

buy high priced Smartphone to demonstrate their social status. The level of price is
found to positively affect behavioral intentions mainly because price establishes image

of the brand in the eyes of the consumers. In a consumer's heuristics, a high price

connotes a high quality and image. For a conceptual convenience, there are two types

of products by price: low priced brands and high- priced brands (Kunal et al., 2010).

Low-priced brands tend to be purchased for utilitarian value, with the consumer

relying on the perceived value for price. Consumers would typically look for low

prices of these brands or substitutes to get the best value (Kunal et al., 2010).

Consumers tend to interpret higher prices with higher quality, and low prices are

perceived as an indication of inferior quality.High-priced brands such as iPhone are

brands on the market whose image is seen as the key factor. Consumers of these

brands often purchase them mainly for image and are willing to pay a premium price

for their perceived high quality and status, which make them price-inelastic. On the

hand, there has also been a study that proves high-priced imposed on products leads

to a detrimental effect. The high-priced implies a negative effect on the consumers’

perception to purchase a product. According to Dickson and Sawyer (1990),’what is

clear is that consumers are very heterogeneous in terms of their attention and

reaction to price and promotions. This literally means that products that have a

negative effect when it is high priced. In general, these products mostly compete on

cost-leadership strategy, whereby each company will try to manufacture the goods

with the least cost as possible.


A company must consider consumer perceptions of price when setting prices. The

consumer perceptions of price can affect consumer-buying decisions. In consumer

oriented pricing method a company must try to understand what value consumers

place on the benefits they receive from the product and set a price consistent with this

value to make the price more effective and acceptable. The consumers evaluate the

product price based on the values like status, satisfaction and so on, which are difficult

to measure, but the company must analyze the consumer's value and set price

according to consumer product's value (Ramachandra et al 2010).

• Brand Name: Organizations will always find ways to differentiate themselves

from others especially in smartphone industry that always keep changing the

technology. The organizations have to find new technology that are not available in

the market and meet the demands of the customers. Brand name can be an identity

and exclusivity that represent the organization. The American marketing association

defined brand as any name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or combination of these

that identifies the maker/seller of the product or service and differentiates it from

competitors. According to cornelis(2010), most of organizations emphasize about

brand name that can be as an invaluable assets to their products and services.this can

be a competitive advantage to the organization. Brand name also plays a very

important role in the consumer decision making processes. To purchase a specific

product, consumers always follow a sequence of steps in decision making. They


start realizing a requirement of product, get information, identify and evaluate

attentive product and finally decided to purchase a product from a specific brand.

When costumers purchase particular brand frequently, he or she uses his or her past

experience about that brand product regarding performance, quality and features

aesthetic appeal (Keller, 2008)

Brand is perceived to be a key factor in shaping the purchase behaviour of smartphone

among consumers, when a product is marketed under a well-known brand name,

marketing cost and failure rates are cut down. (Martinez &Pina, 2010) Furthermore,

brand name signified a level of quality and consistency consumers could trust where

this can be seen from a few high technology companies like Intel start to building up

the brand name since year 1991 which can result in short term recognition and long

term profit.

Consumer of smartphone can be really influence by the brand name as when they try

to purchase a smartphone, a strong clear and nice image of brand can increase the

consumer confidence which lead the consumer in purchasing certain brand

smartphone. (Maha& Mac Anthony, 2012)

 Product Feature: Product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention,

acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need (Kotler, Philip,

Armstrong, &Gary, 2007). Smartphone is an electronic product that provides ease of

use with variety of function. feature is an attribute of a product that meet the
satisfaction level of consumers’ needs and wants through the owing of the product,

usage and utilization for a product(Kotler, Armstrong and Gary, 2007). In these

modern days of technology consumers have come to realize that different feature will

bring a diverse level of satisfaction towards smartphone (Chow, Chen, Yeow Wong,

2012).

The design and appearance of phones on the perceived scale of design features, such as

phone size and weight, color, material, button shape and interface features influence the

choice of users buying decision. Product features is hypothesized to have positive

impact with the quantity demanded where the product features with the difference

function can give the differences satisfaction to the consumers, Product features

which is important element by the reason of consumers purchase the goods for

expected satisfy their need and achieved their satisfaction level. Features like

touchscreen functionality, Wi-Fi, and location-based services remain in demand,

and software application installation, a file management system, full

programmability, multimedia Presentation and capture, high-resolution displays and

numerous operation system continue to play a significant role in fulfill the satisfaction

of the consumer. Apart from operating system (OS), the camera is the feature that

smartphone users focus on (Chow et al., 2012). The commonest operating systems

(OS) for smartphone in Nigeria are Andriod, windows mobile; IOS (Internet operating

system) and RIM Blackberry Thus, functionality for Smartphone will be important
tool to influence the consumer choice. This is due to reason that the consumer will

tend to use attributes (features) to make a comparison between competitive brands

and marketers should take cognizance of product features as it can determine their

choices.

2.2 Theoretical Framework

There are many theories in consumer perception and purchasing decision towards

smartphones. However, some of the theories reviewed by researcher in relation to this

work include:

In the theory developed by chow; chen; yeow; and wong (2012); Factors Affecting

The Demand Of Smartphone Among Young Adult. The model conceptualized

that product features, brandname, price and social influences are the determining

factors of smartphones purchasing behaviour among young adults.

This study adapted this theoretical model because it captures the main objectives of

this study, which is to investigate the determining factors that young adults

consider in the course of purchasing a smart phone and also the model was based

on young consumers (university students), of which the population of this study

falls into the category. The young adults can be classified as university students.

More so, this model was developed in Malaysia, a country that has similar

economic, political and social terrain with Nigeria.


Product Features

Brand Name

Demand of
Price smartphone

Social Influence

Fig 1 Model of Smartphone Purchase Behaviour.

Source: Chow, M.M.; Chen, L.H; Yeow, J.A. & Wong, P.W. (2012)

Product features is an attribute of a product that ought to meet with the

consumers' needs and wants through the owning of the product, usage, and

utilization of a product (Kotler et.al. 2007).

Brand name may be defined as the valuable assets that help correspond quality

and suggest precise knowledge structures which are related to the brand

(Srinivasan &Till, 2002).

Price on the other hand can play a role as a memory value whereby the consumer

to trade it with the service or products that were being sold by the sellers (Nagle
&Holden, 2002). Price will always be the key concern of consumers' before

making any purchasing decision.

Social influences means one person causes in another to make a change on his or her

feelings, attitudes, thoughts and social behavior, intentionally or unintentionally.

In the theory developed by Azira R. et al (2016) to investigate on the factors

influencing purchasing intention of smartphone among universities students in

Malaysia. In this highly technology oriented society, the usage of mobile phones has

increased worldwide especially among young consumers are currently the most

appealing and attractive markets for firms to earn huge amount of investments. They

developed a model which has its variables as brand name, product features, price,

social influence and purchase intention of smartphone. They found out that the

following variables are of very important to understanding of consumers purchasing

decision of youths towards mobile phone. The framework is shown below:

Product Feature

Brand Name

Price Purchase Intention


of smartphone

Social Influence

Source: AziraR.,Safin S.Z., Kheng L.K, Abas N., Ali S.M, 2016, on the factors influencing purchasing
There are two variables being discussed, which are independent variable and

dependent variable. Azira R. et al (2016) has identified four factors affecting

influencing purchasing decision of smart phones among university students. The

purchasing decision of smart phone is the dependent variable in the research. The

four independent variables includes product features, brand name, price and social

influence. According to Azira R. et al. (2016) Price is a measure perceived by

consumers as significant indicator of product quality, whereby high price indicates

advanced technology, design, and improved features.

Brand name is veritable assets that help correspond product quality and suggest exact

knowledge structures which relate to the brand (product).it is the most significant

attribute in the selection parameter amongst the customer which was followed by

price and purpose respectively.

Social Influence implies one person's cause in another to make a change on his/her

feelings, attitude, thoughts, and behaviour. Social influence includes the influence of

media, parents, and peers.


Purchase intentions is a significant measure of actual purchase behavior. Purchase intention

can be discussed as predisposition of the customers with regards to their actual purchase

action. It describes individual’s inclination in purchase of product and how they categorize

their preferences to the available options.

Following the theories reviewed so far the researcher decided to adapt from the

models with the variables which include;

i. Price

ii. Brand name and

iii. Product feature.

These three variables were adapted to support the researcher's own study.

This is diagrammatically shown below, hence representing the researchers proposed

model.

Price

Consumers’ perception
Brand Name toward purchase of
smartphones

Product Features

Researcher’s Conceptual Model


2.3 Empirical Review

The empirical framework explains those scholars and researchers that have done

same project topic or one that is related to the topic.

The influence of consumers decisions while purchasing a smartphone in Indore city,

India. This was written by Malviya, Saluja, and Tharkur, 2013 from the department of

marketing, university of Indore, India. The major purpose of the study was to explore

and analyze consumer behaviour towards smartphone in Indian market by finding

the factors which influence consumer of smartphone purchase. A qualitative enquiry

was adopted to investigate the perception of the consumers, attributes and its

subsequent impact on purchase decision. Data was collected with a structured

questionnaire and analyzed using the data analysis using frequency tables, charts and

chi-square analysis. The result in the study revealed that branding, design, product

performance and price have the influence on people's buying decision process.

Azira R., et al; (2016) conducted a study on the factors influencing purchasing

intention of smartphones among university students in Malaysia. The study explored

various factors which influences purchase intention of smartphone among university

students in Malaysia. It examined the relationship between product features, brand

name, social influence, and price and purchase intention of smartphone. Data was
gathered from 367 students from UiM Kedah. Four hypotheses were used to test the

relationship between the independent variable such as product features, brand name,

social influence, price and purchase intention of smart phone and Cronbach Alpha was

applied to test the reliability of the scale. Findings of the research states that while

purchasing smartphone, customers are influenced by different factors which ultimately

affects the purchase intentions, the important factors which influence the customers

during purchase are product features and brand name.

Ayodele, AdeolaAdetola and ChiomaDiliIfeanyichukwu, (2016), conducted an

empirical study on Factors Influencing Smartphone Purchase Behavior among Young

Adults in Nigeria, the study seeks to empirically investigate the determinants of

smartphone purchase behavior among young adults in Anambra State, by finding the

determinants that affect the consumers' behaviour towards purchase smartphone. A

structured questionnaire was tested on 437 respondents, hypothesis was tested

using multiple regression and result shows that features, brand name, price, social

influence and aesthetic value have positive influence on consumers purchasing

behavior towards smartphone among young adults.Liao, et al, 2012 undertook a study

on Consumer Behaviour on Smartphones: A case study of students in the University of

WASEDA, China. The main purpose of the study was to identify the influence of

consumer behaviour and the determinants of smartphone purchase in hina, by

finding the factors which influence consumer of smartphone purchase. A


questionnaire was prepared based on the consumer behavior models done by

Hawkins, Best and Coney (2004), Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of needs and other

related theories. This questionnaire was distributed to 200 respondents in the

university and the result shows that product design, branding, product performance

and price have the influence on people's buying decision process toward purchasing

smartphones in China markets.

ImaIIyani Ibrahim, Khairul Anwar Subari, Kamso Mohammed Kassim,

LitiKhairulBariahMohamood (2013), conducted a study on the antecedent stirring

purchase intention of Smartphone among Adolescent in Perlis, Malaysia. It examined the

relationship between price, Brand compatibility and social influence. Data was gathered

from 379 respondents young Adults aged 19-26 years who live in perils. Four hypotheses

were used to test the relationship between the independent variables and purchase

intention of smartphone using correlation and multiple regressions. The study therefore

reveal that price, brand, compatibility and social influence has positive influence on

purchase intention toward smartphone among adolescents in Perlis.

GAP: Severally literatures were reviewed by researchers as shown above; from the

literature the researcher sought to identity several factors that determine consumers'

perception towards purchase of smartphones. The researcher also adapted some of

the variables that can also influence consumers in their purchasing decisions

towards smartphones in Nigeria as their studies were not conducted in Nigeria.


The research seeks to cover the consumers' perception towards purchase of

smartphones in Nigeria, specifically in NnamdiAzikiwe University Students, Awka

Anambra state as no research on the subject matter has been carried out in the district

before.
CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

The major objective of this section is to discuss the methods to be used in

conducting this study. The methods to be used in the collection and analysis of data

in the course of conducting the investigation.

3.1 Research Design

Asika (1991), research design is the structuring of investigation aimed at

identifying variables and their relationship to one another. Research design is the

general framework for conducting research or investigation (Asika 2006). The

design used is the exploratory research design. In this research study, the survey

method which involves collection of data from a group of people known as the

sample that represents a viable part of the population used.

3.2 Population of the Study

The population is the totality of items which the researcher is interested in. It is the

universe of items under study. (Onyeizugbe, 2013). A study population is the

aggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selected. (Ojo, 2005).

For the purpose of this research work, the populations consist of selected

consumers that purchase smartphones in NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka. The


population is however finite as the researcher could not obtain sampling frame of

smartphone users in the area of study.

3.3 Determination of Sampling Size

Sample size determination involves determining the sample size needed, that would

predict the whole population. Whatever data are obtained from the representative

group is usually accepted as true characteristics of the population (Odumuh, 2003).

Since the population of this study is infinite, we adopt the Taro Yamane formula

for the determination of sample size, thus;

n= N

1+N( e)2

Where n = Sample Size

n= the sample size

N= the finite population

E= level of significant (or limit of tolerable error)

1= unity (a constant)

3499
Therefore n=
1+34999(0.052 )

3499
1+87.4975
= 395
3.4 Sampling technique.

This study employed convenience sampling technique. A convenience sampling

techniques is that type of the sample selected according to researcher’s

convenience without necessarily referring to the representatives of the sample to

the population. (Saunders, Lewies&Thornhill, 2009). It is used when the

researcher is familiar with or easier to obtain for your sample,

thereforeNnamdiAzikiwe University students were chosen as one of the groups

or respondent for the research due to the availability and familiarity to the

researcher

3.5 Sources of Data

The data source of this research work is made up of two types: the primary and

secondary data. The primary source used is questionnaire. The use of SPSS will be

used for proper and accurate analysis of data, while linear regression method will

be used to test hypothesis.

3.6 Research Instruments

The major research instruments used in this work was questionnaires. The

questionnaire was constructed to provide precise, concise and accurate answers.

The questionnaires was divided into two parts; part one involves the collection

demographic data of respondents, part two consist of twelve questions that is based
on the variables used in the research. This questionnaire is designed in such a way

that adequate information was gotten in relation to the effect of consumer

perception towards the purchase of smartphones.

3.7 Validity of Research instruments

Validity is described as the degree to which a measuring instrument measures what

it is meant to measure. According to Cooper and Schindler (2003)

Face validity: Face validity depends on the researcher's subjective evaluation of the

validity of a measuring instrument. A face validation of instrument was done to

ensure that it measure what it intends to measure.

3.8 Reliability of research instruments

According to Ojo (2005), reliability is concerned with the stability and

consistency of an instrument. Reliability of an instrument refers to the degree to

which the instrument consistently measures what it intends to measure. Reliability

of an instrument is the extent or degree to which a research instrument produces

similar or consistent results overtime.

The research instrument used in this study will be tested for reliability using the

Cronbach'salpha method to test. Nunnaly (1978) said that the Alpha which is more

than 0.7 indicated a high reliable. Therefore according to the table below the

Cronbach alpha is 0.738 which indicates that the instrument is reliable.


Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha N of Items

.738 20