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Group standard VW 91102

Issue 2018-01
Class. No.: 97000, 97410

Descriptors: environmental standard, vehicle, recycling, recycling requirements, use of recycled material,
recyclability

Environmental Standard for Vehicles


Recycling Requirements, Use of Recycled Material, Recyclability Type
Approval

Preface
The purpose of the Environmental Standard for Vehicles is to provide instructions with regard to
environmental impact of vehicles in order to:
– Attain a recyclability system approval as part of the type approval process
– Fulfill the recoverability rates required by law
– Reduce the amount of waste to be disposed of and the pollutant load to the minimum levels
required by law
– Conserve energy and material resources.
The requirements of Directive 2000/53/EC [1], Directive 2005/64/EC [2], and Regulation
UN ECE R133 [3] are limited to vehicle classes M1 and N1.
This description of the scope of application does not exempt the user of this standard from the obli‐
gation to inform themselves of additional laws outside the EU and the national implementations of
the EU Directives specified in this standard, nor from the obligation to implement them as required
for the target markets for the relevant vehicles and components.
Standards do not limit the applicability of legal regulations in any way whatsoever. Before stand‐
ards are applied, all applicable legal regulations must be checked and their currently valid versions
applied.

Previous issues
VW 91102: 1994-02, 1996-03, 2002-09, 2007-02, 2012-03, 2017-02

Changes
The following changes have been made to VW 91102: 2017-02:

Always use the latest version of this standard.


This electronically generated standard is authentic and valid without signature. Page 1 of 7
The English translation is believed to be accurate. In case of discrepancies, the German version is alone authoritative and controlling.

Technical responsibility The Standards department


K-ILI/5 Carl Eckhard Hagelberg K-ILI
ETB/3 Dr. Anja Pieper Tel.: +49 5361 9 36248 Tel.: +49 5361 9 23945 Uwe Wiesner

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be provided to third parties or reproduced without the prior consent of one of the Volkswagen Group’s Standards departments.
© Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft VWNORM-2016-12
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VW 91102: 2018-01

– Technical responsibility changed


– Section 3.8 and Section 3.9 "K-release" replaced with "B-release"

Contents
Page
1 Scope ......................................................................................................................... 2
2 Definitions .................................................................................................................. 2
3 Requirements ............................................................................................................. 3
3.1 Recyclability and material documentation .................................................................. 4
3.2 Materials restrictions .................................................................................................. 4
3.3 Removal requirements ............................................................................................... 4
3.4 Recovery strategies ................................................................................................... 5
3.5 Marking of materials ................................................................................................... 5
3.6 Use of recycled material ............................................................................................. 5
3.7 Components considered not reusable when manufacturing new vehicles ................ 6
3.8 Reporting obligations for electronic components ....................................................... 6
3.9 Reporting obligations for portable batteries and rechargeable portable batteries ...... 6
4 Applicable documents ................................................................................................ 7
5 Bibliography ............................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope
The specifications in Volkswagen standard VW 91102 apply to:
– Having a vehicle design that is suitable for recovery purposes so as to comply with Directive
2000/53/EC [1]
– The reusability, recyclability, and recoverability of motor vehicles within the scope of type ap‐
provals as per Directive 2005/64/EC [2] and Directive 2009/1/EC [4], as well as per
UN ECE R133 [3]
– All materials and substances used in the vehicle, in vehicle parts, and powertrains
– Fuels, coolants, fluids, and lubricants used during the use, repair, and maintenance of the ve‐
hicle
– The ban on the use of used parts in new vehicles
– The registration, marking, reporting, return acceptance, and recycling obligations as a distribu‐
tor of electrical and/or electronic equipment that result from Directive 2012/19/EU [5] and its
national implementations
– The registration, marking, reporting, return acceptance, and recycling obligations as a distribu‐
tor of batteries that result from Directive 2006/66/EC [6] and Directive 2013/56/EU [7], as well
as their national implementations.

2 Definitions
End-of-life vehicle Vehicles that are considered waste as per article 3, paragraph 1 of Direc‐
tive 2008/98/EC [8].
B-release Procurement release in the Product Development Process (PDP)
Battery or rechargea‐ A source of electric power that consists of one or more (non-rechargeable)
ble battery primary cells or one or more (rechargeable) secondary cells, where the
electric power is generated from the direct conversion of chemical energy.
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Electrical and elec‐ Equipment that depends on electric currents or electromagnetic fields in or‐
tronic equipment der to work correctly and equipment that is designed to generate, transmit,
and measure such currents and fields and is designed for operation with a
maximum voltage of 1 000 VAC or 1 500 VDC
Energy recovery Use of materials for direct energy recovery, excluding thermal treatment
with the main objective of disposal of pollutants
Vehicle batteries or Batteries for a vehicle's starter, lighting, or ignition system
rechargeable vehicle
batteries
Portable batteries and Batteries, button cells, battery sets that a) are encapsulated, b) can be held
rechargeable portable in the hands, and c) are not industrial batteries, rechargeable industrial bat‐
batteries teries, vehicle batteries, or rechargeable vehicle batteries
IMDS International Material Data System (Internet-based system used to enter
material data)
Industrial batteries Batteries intended exclusively for electric vehicles of any type (e.g., high-
and rechargeable in‐ voltage battery packs)
dustrial batteries
Class M1 Vehicles for transporting passengers that have a maximum of eight seats
aside from the driver seat
Class N1 Vehicles for transporting goods that have a maximum weight of up to
3.5 metric tons
MISS Material Information Sheet System; Volkswagen intranet-based system for
entering and evaluating material data
Recyclability Recycling rate for new vehicles calculated as per ISO 22628:2002
Recycling rate Recycling mass (1)
Rcyc =
Total mass
Recycled material Material made from waste or manufacturing remains.
Pollutant elimination Removal of components that contain pollutants
Material recovery/re‐ The reprocessing of waste materials in a production process for their origi‐
cycling nal purpose or for other purposes (utilizing the material’s properties, raw
material recovery). This does not include energy recovery.
Recoverability Recoverability rate for new vehicles calculated as per ISO 22628:2002
Recoverability rate The recoverability rate (Rcov) is the sum of the recycling rate and the ener‐
gy recovery rate.

Recycled and energetically recovered mass (2)


Rcov =
Total mass
Reuse Reuse of components for their original purpose with or without reprocess‐
ing.

3 Requirements
The brands’ environmental goals and specifications apply.
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3.1 Recyclability and material documentation


As per Directive 2005/64/EC [2] and UN ECE R133 [3], a recyclability of at least 85% and a recov‐
erability of at least 95% must be demonstrated during the type approval process (calculation meth‐
od as per ISO 22628:2002).
In order to be able to determine these rates, masses and material specifications for all components
must be entered into the systems up to the B-release (see Volkswagen standard VW 99000, sec‐
tion "Materials requirements").
NOTE 1: For Porsche, the materials to be used and their percentages must also be documented
on the drawing as per Volkswagen standard VW 96019 (Porsche standard PN 150) [9].

3.2 Materials restrictions


As per Directive 2000/53/EC (article 4, paragraph 2) [1], vehicle materials and components must
not contain any lead, mercury, cadmium, or hexavalent chromium, except for the cases specified in
Annex II of the Directive.
Specific components must be marked as per this Annex II and removed during the vehicle recov‐
ery process. These components must be easy to remove.
Annex II of Directive 2000/53/EC [1] is revised on a regular basis so as to conform to scientific and
technical advances, which is why the latest version is the one that must be observed.
Information on additional banned or declarable substances can be found in Volkswagen standard
VW 91101 and the "Global Automotive Declarable Substance List"(GADSL).

3.3 Removal requirements


Pursuant to Directive 2000/53/EC (Annex I and Annex II) [1] and Directive 2006/66/EC [6], all fuels,
coolants, fluids, and lubricants and certain components/assemblies must be removed during the
vehicle recovery process.
The pertinent components/assemblies must be easy to remove. Moreover, it must be possible to
easily remove portable batteries, as well as all fuels, coolants, fluids, and lubricants, from compo‐
nents. Having to use multiple removal tools for the same component or module must be avoided.
As per Annex I of the aforementioned Directive, the following parts must be removed during the
vehicle recovery process:
– Batteries (applies to all batteries in the vehicle and its components) and LP-gas tanks
– Potentially explosive components (e.g., airbags, seat belt pretensioners); or they must be neu‐
tralized
– Catalytic converters
– Metal components containing copper, aluminum, or magnesium, if these metals are not sepa‐
rated during shredding
– Tires and large plastic components (bumpers, dashboards, fluid containers, etc.) if the respec‐
tive materials are not separated during shredding in such a way that they can be recycled as
raw materials
– Glass, if it is not separated and recycled downstream of shredding
Pursuant Annex I of the aforementioned Directive, the following fluids must be removed during the
vehicle recovery process:
– Fuel, engine oil, power-transmitting fluid, transmission fluid, hydraulic fluid, coolant, antifreeze
agents, brake fluid, air conditioning system fluids, and any other fluids in end-of-life vehicles
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must be removed and separately collected and stored unless the fluids are required in order to
reuse the respective components.
The removal of fuels, coolants, fluids, and lubricants must be considered when designing parts and
components that carry them. In order to minimize remaining fluid volumes and the resources re‐
quired in order to handle fluids, the following measures must be taken:
– As far as possible, draining options (drain plugs, points for puncturing the component, etc.)
must be included at the lowest point of the component. If necessary, multiple points for punc‐
turing the component must be defined.
– Draining options must be accessible with little effort.
– Points for puncturing the component must be marked on the component.
The parts marked in accordance with the latest version of Annex II of the aforementioned Directive
must be removed as per the Annex of the directive on end-of-life vehicles [11].

3.4 Recovery strategies


On request, recovery strategies must be submitted in order to document the recovery characteris‐
tics of components.
This applies in particular to:
– New material and component designs if there is no information regarding potential recovery
processes or if no well-established recovery processes exist
– Components that, during the usage phase, accumulate in the maintenance facilities for recov‐
ery
– Removing fuels, coolants, fluids, and lubricants
– Removing and neutralizing pyrotechnic components
– Components containing heavy metals that must be removed during the vehicle recovery proc‐
ess.
VW 91102 Supplement 3 to this standard contains notes on how to prepare a recovery strategy.

3.5 Marking of materials


Given the fact that components and materials must be marked as per Directive 2003/138/EC [12]
and the Type Approval of Motor Vehicles Directive 2005/64/EC [2], all components made of poly‐
mers or elastomers (including textiles) must have material markings as per VDA 260.
Electronic components that fall within the scope of Directive 2012/19/EC [5] must have the legally
required marking (VW 10500).
Batteries and rechargeable batteries must be marked as per Directive 2006/66/EC [6] and Direc‐
tive 2013/56/EU [7] (VW 10500).

3.6 Use of recycled material


Given the fact that an increased use of recycled material is required pursuant to Directive
2000/53/EC (article 4) [1], recycled material or material containing recycled material percentages
must be preferred over new material.
The following are prerequisites for the use of recycled material:
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– All quality specifications must be met


– It must be available for series production
– If used in decorated components, this must first be agreed upon with Materials Engineering
Only new goods are permissible for safety-relevant components.
NOTE 2: For Porsche, safety-relevant components are defined as per Volkswagen standard
VW 96022 (Porsche standard PN 201) [10].
The use of recycled materials, including type and quantity information, must be documented in
IMDS/MISS under "Ingredients" ("Recycled material" category).

3.7 Components considered not reusable when manufacturing new vehicles


As per Directive 2005/64/EC [2] and UN ECE R133 (Annex 6) [3], certain components in class M1
and N1 vehicles must not be reused when manufacturing new vehicles in order for a type approval
to be granted.
This applies to the following components:
– All airbags including cushions, pyrotechnic actuators, electronic control units, and sensors;
steering wheels with airbag
– Automatic and non-automatic seat belt systems, including webbing, buckles, seat belt preten‐
sioners, pyrotechnic actuators
– Seats (only in cases where seat belt anchorages and/or airbags are incorporated in the seat)
– Steering lock assemblies acting on the steering column
– Immobilizers, including transponders and electronic control units
– Exhaust gas treatment systems (e.g., catalytic converters, particulate filters)
– Mufflers.

3.8 Reporting obligations for electronic components


Companies that market electronic equipment are obligated, as per Directive 2012/19/EU [5], to re‐
port the quantities of electronic components marketed.
Therefore, it is necessary to check if components fall within the scope of the German Electrical and
Electronic Equipment Act as per VW 91102 Supplement 6. The part owner must declare all compo‐
nents that fall within the scope of the German Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act in the Engi‐
neering Data Management System (KVS), by using the corresponding combo box, by the B-re‐
lease at the latest.

3.9 Reporting obligations for portable batteries and rechargeable portable batteries
Pursuant to Directive 2006/66/EC [6], companies are obligated to report the quantities of portable
batteries marketed.
The part owner must declare all components that contain portable batteries or rechargeable porta‐
ble batteries in the KVS, by using the corresponding combo box, by the B-release at the latest.
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4 Applicable documents
The following documents cited in this standard are necessary to its application.
Some of the cited documents are translations from the German original. The translations of Ger‐
man terms in such documents may differ from those used in this standard, resulting in terminologi‐
cal inconsistency.
Standards whose titles are given in German may be available only in German. Editions in other
languages may be available from the institution issuing the standard.

VW 10500 Company Designation, Marking of Parts; Guidelines for Use


VW 91101 Environmental Standard for Vehicles; Vehicle Parts, Materials, Operat‐
ing Fluids; Avoidance of Hazardous Substances
VW 91102 Environmental Standard for Vehicles; Requirements for Recovery Strat‐
Supplement 3 egies
VW 91102 Environmental Standard for Vehicles; Instructions for Defining and Iden‐
Supplement 6 tifying Electronic Components
VW 99000 Overall Requirements for the Performance of Component Development
Contracts
(GADSL) Global Automotive Declarable Substance List
ISO 22628 Road vehicles - Recyclability and recoverability - Calculation method
VDA 260 Components of motor vehicles - Marking of material

5 Bibliography
[1] Directive 2000/53/EC "End-of Life Vehicles"
[2] Directive 2005/64/EC "Type-Approval of Motor Vehicles with Regard to Their Reusabili‐
ty, Recyclability and Recoverability"
[3] UN ECE R133 "Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Motor Vehicles with Re‐
gard to Their Reusability, Recyclability and Recoverability"
[4] Directive 2009/1/EC "Amending Directive 2005/64/EC"
[5] Directive 2012/19/EU "Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment"
[6] Directive 2006/66/EC "Batteries and Accumulators and Waste Batteries and Accumula‐
tors"
[7] Directive 2013/56/EU "Amending Directive 2006/66/EC"
[8] Directive 2008/98/EC "EU Waste Directive"
[9] VW 96019 "PN 150 – Creation of Drawings"
[10] VW 96022 "PN 201 – Documentation with Special Archiving (Safety Specifications for
Motor Vehicles)"
[11] Directive on End-of-Life Vehicles "Ordinance on the Relinquishment, Acceptance of Re‐
turns, and Environmentally Sound Disposal of End-of-Life Vehicles"
[12] Directive 2003/138/EC "Establishing Component and Material Coding Standards"