This paper focuses on a study of the sequential action execution module for a collision
avoidance system in ocean navigation. The overall decision-action process of collision avoidance consists
on a Fuzzy logic based parallel decision making module and those decisions are formulated into collision
avoidance actions by a Bayesian network based sequential action execution module. The presented
collision avoidance system is capable of making multiple sequential actions to avoid complicated collision
situations involving multiple vessels in ocean navigation while still respecting the COLREGs rules and regulations.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

118 vues

This paper focuses on a study of the sequential action execution module for a collision
avoidance system in ocean navigation. The overall decision-action process of collision avoidance consists
on a Fuzzy logic based parallel decision making module and those decisions are formulated into collision
avoidance actions by a Bayesian network based sequential action execution module. The presented
collision avoidance system is capable of making multiple sequential actions to avoid complicated collision
situations involving multiple vessels in ocean navigation while still respecting the COLREGs rules and regulations.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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pp. 301-306.

Ocean Navigational System

L. P. Perera* J. P. Carvalho** C. Guedes Soares***

*Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Tecnico,

Portugal (email:prasad.perera@mar.ist.utl.pt).

**INESC-ID, Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Portugal (email: joao.carvalho@inesc-id.pt).

*** Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Tecnico,

Portugal (Tel: +351 21 841 7468; email: guedess@mar.ist.utl.pt).

Abstract: This paper focuses on a study of the sequential action execution module for a collision

avoidance system in ocean navigation. The overall decision-action process of collision avoidance consists

on a Fuzzy logic based parallel decision making module and those decisions are formulated into collision

avoidance actions by a Bayesian network based sequential action execution module. The presented

collision avoidance system is capable of making multiple sequential actions to avoid complicated collision

situations involving multiple vessels in ocean navigation while still respecting the COLREGs rules and

regulations.

Keywords: Ocean navigation, Collisions avoidance, Fuzzy logic, Bayesian Network, Decisions support

system, Decisions making, Parallel decisions, Sequential actions, COLREGs.

1. INTRODUCTION

by Zeng et al. (2001), repulsive force based optimization

An intelligent decision-action making capability is an algorithm by Xue et al. (2009), virtual force field by Lee et

important facility in navigation and it has been one of the al. (2004) have been presented in the literature.

major challenges in autonomous navigational systems. A

The problem of collision avoidance in ocean navigation has

robust intelligent decision-action making process is what

been previously approached by several authors using several

ultimately influences the success of the autonomous

alternative techniques: Case Based Reasoning (CBR) by Liu

navigational systems in collision situations. Several

and Liu (2006); Self learning neuro-fuzzy network by Zhuo

intelligent collision avoidance facilities have been developed

and Hearn (2008); Anti-collision algorithm by Yang et al.

and implemented in land and air navigational systems, but the

(2007); Interval programming by Benjamin et al. (2006); If-

facilities for ocean navigational systems are still

Then logic by Smeaton and Coenen (1990) and Fuzzy logic

underdeveloped and far away from facilitating collision

by Hasegawa, (1987). The collision avoidance analysis has

avoidance capabilities even though 75-96% of marine

also been approached for several particular cases: in two

accidents and causalities are caused by some types of human

vessel collision situations by Kwik (1989); in narrow zig-zag

errors (Rothblum et al. 2002; Antão et al. 2008a,b). The

channel by Yavin et al. (1995); strategies in interaction

implementation of intelligent decision-action making

situations in ocean navigation by Chauvin and Lardjane

capabilities in navigation could reduce maritime accidents

(2008).

and its respective causalities and represent long-term

economical benefits. Even though the problem of collision avoidance in ocean

navigation is not new, three major weaknesses have been

The vessel domain determination and safe navigational

identified in the previous approaches: the studies are limited

trajectory formation are important aspects of the safe ocean

to two vessel collision situations; the Target vessel speed

navigation. The vessel domain is defined as the area bounded

conditions are neglected; the Convention on the International

for dynamics of ocean vessel navigation. The vessel domain

Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs)

determination methods, based on, neural-classifiers is

rules and regulations IMO (1972) is simply ignored.This

proposed by Lisowski et al. (2000) and fuzzy logic is

study focuses on the formulation of a Bayesian network

proposed by Pietrzykowski and Uriasz (2009) in respective

based sequential action execution process that could be

literature. The safe navigational trajectory formation based on

implemented for ocean navigation to avoid multi-vessel

mathematical models of manoeuvring theory by Sutulo et al.

collision situations. Furthermore, the collision avoidance

(2002), neural networks by Moreira and Guedes Soares

decisions have been associated with a Fuzzy logic based

(2003), evolutionary algorithm by Smierzchalski and

parallel decision making process that follows the COLREGs

Michalewicz (2000), genetic algorithms by Ito et al. (1999),

rules and regulations of collision avoidance (Perera et al.,

analytical geometry and convex set theory by Hong et al.

2010b).

2. COLLISION AVOIDANCE IN OCEAN NAVIGATION will track each vessel separately. Finally, the collected

tracking data will be used to predict each vessel’s trajectory

2.1 Multi-vessel collision situation in the Trajectory Prediction Unit. However, one must note

that constant speed and course conditions are assumed for the

Target vessels in this study.

A multi-vessel collision situation is presented in Figure 1.

The "Own vessel", i.e., the vessel equipped with the collision

avoidance system, is located in point O(k). The "Target

vessels" that should be avoided are located at points P1(k),

P2(k), …, Pn(k) with the navigational trajectories of S1(k),

S2(k), …, Sn(k) at the kth time instant. The Own vessel

trajectory S0(k) intersects the trajectories S1(k), S2(k), …,

Sn(k) at points C1(k), C2(k), …, Cn(k) at instants T1(k), T2(k),

…, Tn(k) respectively. When considering the COLREGs rules

and regulations, the vessel coming from the starboard side

has higher priority for the navigation and is called the "Stand

on" vessel, and the vessel coming from the port side has

lower priority and is called the "Give way" vessel. These

vessel conditions are considered in the formulation of the

collision avoidance system.

Fig. 2. Block diagram for Collision Avoidance System

A block diagram for complete Collision Avoidance System

(CAS) is presented in Figure 2. The complete CAS consists

The main objective of the CRA module is to evaluate the

of four modules: Vessel Tracking & Trajectory Prediction

collision risk of each Target vessel with respect to the Own

(VTTP) Module, Collision Risk Assessment (CRA) Module,

vessel conditions. This is achieved by the Relative Trajectory

Parallel Decision Making (PDM) Module, and Sequential

Formation Unit and Collision Time and Point Estimation

Action Formulation (SAF) Module. The inputs to the VTTP

Unit. The inputs into the CRA module are the position data of

module are the real-time position of the Own vessel (xo(k),

the Own vessel and the Target vessels. The outputs of the

yo (k)) that is measured/estimated by the GPS/Inertial

CRA module are the Range (Ri(k)), Bearing (θi(k)), Relative

navigational systems and the Range (Ri(k)) and Bearing

course (ψi,o(k)) and Relative speed (Vi,o(k)) of ith Target

(θi(k)) values of the ith Target vessel that could be measured

vessel. These outputs of CRA module will input into the

by the Rader/Laser measurement systems on the kth time

PDM module at kth time instant. The Time until collision

instant.

Ti(k) of the ith Target vessel will also input into the SAF

The VTTP module consists of four units: Scan Unit, Data module as shown in Figure 2. The PDM module consists of a

Classification Unit, Clustered Data Tracking Unit and Fuzzy-logic based decision making process that generates

Trajectory Prediction Unit. The Scan Unit uses the parallel collision avoidance decisions Di(k) with respect to

Radar/Laser measurement system to collect the real-time each Target vessel.

position data of each Target vessel. Then the Target vessels’

Finally the ith parallel decision of collision avoidance Di(k)

position data will be used in the Data Classification Unit to

will be forwarded from the PDM module to the SAF module.

identify each vessel and the Clustered Data Tracking Unit

The main objective in the SAF module is to organize the

parallel decision made by the PDM module into sequential 3.3 Bayesian Network

actions, course control Aδψi(k) and speed control Aδvi(k),

actions (see Figure 2), that will be executed on the Own Figure 4 presents the structure of the continuous Bayesian

vessel navigation system. The formulation of the SAF Network proposed for formulation and update of the parallel

module is the main objective in this study. collision avoidance decisions into the sequential action

execution formation. As presented in the Figure, the Bayesian

3. SEQUENTIAL ACTION FORMULATION MODULE network consists of four nodes: Collision Time Estimation,

Collision Risk, Action Delay and Collision Avoidance

3.1 Navigational Decisions Actions. The Collision Decision Di(k) and Time until

Collision Ti(k) that are the inputs to the Bayesian network

that are originated from the PDM and CRA modules (see

The collision avoidance decision space of the ocean

navigation can be categorized into course and speed control Figure 2) respectively.

decisions. Considering the Range (Ri(k)), Bearing (θi(k)),

Relative course (ψi,o(k)) and Relative speed (Vi,o(k)) of the ith

Target vessel, the PDM module makes collision avoidance

decisions Di(k) regarding each Target vessel. Further details

regarding the collision avoidance decisions of the navigation

and PDM module can be found in Perera et al. (2010a) and

Perera et al. (2010b). Since these multiple collision avoidance

decisions are formatted in parallel with respect to each Target

vessel, they cannot be implemented simultaneously by the

Own vessel. Hence, the Sequential Action Formulation

Module (SAF) has been proposed to sequence these parallel Fig. 4. Bayesian Network Structure for Collision Avoidance.

decisions.

3.3.1 Collision Risk Functions

3.2 Sequential Action Formation

The Collision Risk node mainly consists of the Collision Risk

An illustration of a sequential action space, formulated by the Function (CRF). The CRF, ∆i(k), of the Own vessel

decisions of course and speed changes, is presented in Figure navigation due to the ith Target vessel in the kth time instant is

3. defined as a Gaussian distribution ∆i(k) ~ N (µ∆i(k), σ∆i2(k)),

where mean µ∆i(k) is considered as the Time until collision

Ti(k). Hence the CRF mean µ∆i(k) can be written as:

| OA i (k) | (1)

T i (k) = µ ∆i (k) =

V i, o (k)

where |OAi(k)| is the Range and Vi,o(k) is the relative speed

of the ith Target vessel at the kth time instant. However it is

assumed that the CRF, ∆i(k), could be obtained from a noisy

observation of Zi(k),

Z i (k) = ∆ i (k) + ω zi (k ) (2)

2

where ωzi(k) ~ N (0, σz (k)), is a white Gaussian observation

noise. Hence the prior distribution of the CRF due to the ith

Target vessel at kth time instant can be written as a Gaussian

Fig. 3. Course and Speed change action space distribution:

1 (∆ (k) − µ ∆i (k) )

2

The main objective in the SAF module, formulation of the − i

2

1 σ ∆i 2 (k)

parallel collision avoidance decisions into a sequential P(∆ i (k)) = α i e , (3)

actions, can be achieved by collecting the PDM module 1

where αi is the normalization constant. The transition model

multiple collision avoidance decisions Di(k)≡(Dδψi(k), of the CRF is considered as a Gaussian perturbation of

DδVi(k)) from the kth time instant in respect to each Target constant covariance σ∆2 to the current state of the CRF and

vessel, and arranging a sequential formation of actions Ai(k) can be written as:

≡ (Aδψi(k), AδVi(k)) with respect to the action execution Time

1 (∆ (k) − ∆ i (k −1) )

2

(Tδψi (k),TδVi(k)). When course change action is “starboard − i

2 2 σ∆2

turn”, then δψo > 0; when is “port turn”, δψo < 0. Similarly, P(∆ i (k) | ∆ i (k − 1)) = α i e , (4)

when the speed change action is “speed increase”, then δVo >

0, and when it is “speed decrease”, δVo < 0 as presented in where 2αi is the normalization constant. The conditional

Figure 3. observation model for collision risk is assumed to be a

Gaussian distribution with a constant covariance σz2 and can V (∆ i (k) | Ω i (k) ) = V (Γ(k) | Ω i (k) ) (11)

be written as: = V (Ω i (k) ) = σ Γ

1 ( Z (k) − ∆ i (k) )

2

− i The conditional CRF with respect to the CAAF can be

3 2 σz2

P(Z i (k) | ∆ i (k)) = α i e , (5) written as:

where 3αi is the normalization constant. The one step 1 (∆ (k) − (µ Ωi (k) + µ Γ ))2

− i

2 σΓ2

predicted distribution of the CRF can be written as: P(∆ i (k) | Ω i (k) ) = β i e 3 , (12)

∞ 3

where βi is the normalization constant. The prior distribution

P(∆ i (k)) = ∫ P(∆

−∞

i (k) | ∆ i (k − 1)) of the CAAF due to the ith Target vessel at kth time instant, as

a Gaussian distribution, can be written as:

P( ∆ i (k − 1))d ∆ i (k − 1)

1 (Ω i (k) − µ Ωi (k) )2

1 (∆ (k) − ∆ i (k −1) )

2 −

∞ − i

1 2 σ Ωi 2 (k)

2 σ∆2 P(Ω i (k) ) = β i e , (13)

∫

2

= α ie

1

−∞ where βi is the normalization constant. The transition model

1 ( ∆ (k −1) − µ ∆i (k −1) )

2

(6)

− i of the CAAF is considered as a Gaussian perturbation with

2 σ ∆i 2 (k −1)

1

αie

d∆ i (k − 1) constant covariance σΩ2 to the current state of the CAAF and

1 2 can be written as:

= αi αi

1 σ

2

(k − 1) ( ∆ i (k) − ∆ i (k −1) )2 + σ ∆ 2 (∆ i (k −1) − µ ∆i (k − 1) )2 1 (Ω i (k) − Ω i (k -1) )2

∞ − ∆i −

2 2 2 σΩ 2

σ∆2 σ ∆i 2 (k −1) (14)

∫e

d∆ i (k − 1) P(Ω i (k) | Ω i (k - 1)) = β i e

2

−∞ where βi is the normalization constant. The one step

1 (∆ (k) − µ ∆i (k − 1) )

2

− i 2 prediction of the CAAF can be written as:

2 σ ∆ + σ ∆i 2 (k −1)

=1 α i 2 α ie ∞

Considering the Bayesian Rule, the CRF update from the P(Ω i (k)) = ∫ P(Ω (k) | Ω i i −1 (k)) P(Ω i −1 (k)) dΩ i (k - 1)

observations can be written as: −∞

1 ( Ω i (k) − Ω i (k -1) )2 1 (Ω i (k -1) − µ Ωi (k -1) )2

∞ − −

P(∆ i (k) | Z i (k)) = P(Z i (k) | ∆ i (k))P( ∆ i (k)) 2 σΩ2 2 2 σ Ωi 2 (k -1)

= ∫ β ie

1

β ie

dΩ i (k - 1) (15)

1 ( Z (k) − ∆ i (k) ) 1 ( ∆ i (k) − µ ∆i (k −1) )

2 2

− i − (7) −∞

2 σz2 1

2 σ ∆ 2 + σ ∆i 2 (k − 1)

= 3 α ie α i 2 α ie ∞ 1 σ 2 (k -1) ( Ω i (k) − Ω i (k -1) )2 + σ Ω 2 ( Ω i (k -1) − µ Ωi (k -1) )2

− Ωi

2 σΩ 2 σ Ωi 2 (k -1)

2

Z i (k) σ ∆i ((k −1) + σ 2∆ . + µ ∆i (k −1)σ 2z

) 2 = βi βi ∫ e

1 2

dΩ i (k - 1)

∆ i (k) −

1 −∞

2

σ ∆i (k − 1) + σ ∆2 + σ 2z

−

2

2

σ ∆i ((k − 1) + σ 2∆ σ 2z )

1 ( Ω i (k) − µ Ωi (k -1) )2

−

2

σ ∆i (k − 1) + σ 2∆ + σ 2z 1 2 2 σ Ω 2 + σ Ωi 2 (k -1)

1 2

= α i α i α ie 3 = β i β ie

Hence the updated mean and covariance for the updated CRF One can reorganize (15) as:

can be written as: 1 ( (Ω i (k) + µ Γ )− (µ Ωi (k -1) + µ Γ ) )2

−

2 σ Ω 2 + σ Ωi 2 (k -1)

µ ∆i (k) =

( 2

Z i (k) σ (k − 1) + σ . + µ ∆i (k − 1)σ

∆i

2

∆ ) 2

z

P(Ω i (k)) = β i β i e 1 2 (16)

2

σ ∆i (k − 1) + σ ∆2 + σ 2z (8) Considering the Bayesian rule, the CAAF update from the

CRF can be written as:

2

σ ∆i (k) =

(σ 2

∆i (k − 1) + σ ∆2 σ 2z )

σ (k − 1) + σ ∆2 + σ 2z

2 P(Ω i (k) | ∆ i (k)) = P(∆ i (k) | Ω i (k))P( Ω i (k))

∆i

1 (∆ (k) − (µ Ωi (k) + µ Γ ))2 1 ((Ω i (k) + µ Γ )− (µ Ωi (k -1) + µ Γ ))2 (17)

− i −

3 2 σΓ2 1

2 2 σ Ω 2 + σ Ωi 2 (k -1)

3.3.2 Collision Avoidance Action Function = β ie β i β ie

( )

2

( Ω i (k) + µ Γ )− ∆ i ( k ) σ Ω i ( k −1) + σ Ω .+ (µ Ω i ( k −1 ) + µ Γ )σ Γ

2 2 2

The Own vessel Collision Avoidance Action Function 1

−

σΩ 2 2 2

i ( k −1 ) + σ Ω + σ Γ

(CAAF) is modelled as a Gaussian distribution, Ωi(k) ~ N 2

(

2

σΩ 2

i ( k −1 ) + σ Ω σ Γ

2

)

2 2 2

σΩ i ( k −1 ) + σ Ω + σ Γ

(µΩi(k), σΩi2(k)). The CAAF function with respect to the CRF =1 β i 2 β i 3 β i e

Hence, the updated mean and covariance for the updated

∆ i (k) = Ω i (k) + Γ i (k) (9) CAAF can be written as:

where Γi(k) ~ N (µΓ, σΓ2), is the time delay function

µ Ωi (k) =

(

∆ i (k) σ 2Ωi (k − 1) + σ Ω2 . + (µ Ωi (k − 1) + µ Γ )σ 2Γ

− µΓ

)

approximated by a Gaussian distribution with constant mean 2

σ Ωi (k − 1) + σ Ω2 + σ 2Γ

µΓ and covariance σΓ2. The conditional mean and covariance

of the CRF with respect to the CAAF can be written as: 2

σ Ωi (k) =

(σ 2

(k − 1) + σ Ω2 σ 2Γ

Ωi )

σ 2Ωi (k − 1) + σ Ω2 + σ 2Γ

E (∆ i (k) | Ω i (k) ) = µ Ωi (k) + E (Γ i (k) | Ω i (k) ) (10) (18)

= µ Ωi (k) + µ Γ

3.3.3 Implementation of CAAF situations. Further, this method is capable of avoiding

multiple vessels under various collision conditions in ocean

The implementation of the accumulated CAAF Ai(k) can be navigation.

divided into two sections of Course Control (Aδψi(k)) and

Speed Control (AδVi(k)) actions, as presented in Figure 3.

However, the CAAF states are generated with respect to the

collision avoidance decision Di(k) from PDM module, of

Course Control (Dδψi(k)) and Speed Control (DδVi(k))

decisions. Hence, the accumulated Course and Speed Control

CAAF can be written as:

n

A δψ (k) = Σ D δψi (k) P (Ω ψi (k) | ∆ ψi (k) )

i =1 (19)

n

A δV (k) = Σ D δVi (k) P (Ω Vi (k) | ∆ Vi (k) )

i =1

simulations and the simulation results are presented in

following section.

4. COMPUTATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION

Fig. 5. Avoidance of the 1st Target Vessel

A computational simulation for 4 vessels collision situation is

used as an example for the analysis of this study. As

presented in Figure 6, the Own vessel starts navigation at the

origin (0 (m), 0 (m)) and the Target vessels 1, 2 and 3 start

from positions (6000 (m), -6000 (m)), (8800 (m), 10000 (m)),

and (-13200 (m), 12000 (m)) respectively. It is assumed that

the Target vessels are moving in constant speed and course

conditions and don’t honour any navigational laws of the sea.

The Bayesian network based CRF is presented in the x =-

12000 (m) axis. The CAAF of course and speed control

actions are presented in x = -9000 (m) and x = -6000 (m) axis

respectively. Furthermore the scaled time axis (Actual Time

× 5 (s)) with respect to the CRF and CAAFs is presented in

the y axis.

The avoidance of the 1st Target vessel is presented in Figure

5. The CRF was detected and appropriate action was taken to

avoid the Target vessel that was not honouring the

COLREGs rules and regulations. The same figure, shows the Fig. 6. Avoidance of the 2nd Target Vessel

Own vessel detecting the 2nd target vessel, and presents the

CRF and course and speed control actions of CAAFs. The

CAAFs are course to the starboard and speed reduction. The

avoidance of the 2nd Target vessel is presented in Figure 6.

Further the Own vessel detected the 3rd Target vessel and

course to port and speed reduction of CAAFs are presented in

the respective axis. Finally the avoidance of the 3rd Target

vessel is presented in Figure 7. After executing the control

actions proposed in the previous section, the Own vessel is

crossing the Target vessel trajectory safely at the back of the

vessel.

5. CONCLUSIONS

This paper introduces a novel method to formulate the

parallel decisions made by the Fuzzy-logic based system into

sequential actions execution using a Bayesian network

approach in a collisions avoidance system in ocean

navigation. As presented in the results, the Bayesian network Fig. 7. Avoidance of the 3rd Target Vessel

based action execution process could be used for complex

navigational conditions as well as complicated collision

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Moreira, L. and Guedes Soares, C. (2003). Dynamic model of

maneuvrability using recursive neural net-works. Ocean

This work has been made within the project ”Methodology Engineering, 30(13), 1669-1697.

for ships maneuverability tests with self-propelled models”, Perera, L.P., Carvalho, J. P., and Guedes Soares, C. (2010a).

which is being funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Smooth transition between fuzzy regions to overcome

Science and Technology (Fundação para a Ciência e failures in fuzzy membership functions of decisions in

Tecnologia) under contract PTDC/TRA/74332/2006. The collision avoidance of ocean navigation, In Proc. 25th

research work of the first author has been supported by a Mini-EURO Conference on Uncertainty and Robustness

Doctoral Fellowship of the Portuguese Foundation for in Planning and Decision Making, Coimbra, Portugal, 1-

Science and Technology (Fundação para a Ciência e 8.

Tecnologia) under contract SFRH/BD/46270/2008. Perera, L.P., Carvalho, J. P., and Guedes Soares, C. (2010b),

Fuzzy-logic based parallel collisions avoidance decision

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