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Index

0.2-1 bar, 170 Balanced vane pump, 41


2C valve, 92 Ball valve, 180
2/2 valve, 75 Bar, 2
3-15 psi, 170 Barbed connector, 164
4-20 mA, 19, 130 Barrel, 121
4C valve, 92 Base cap, 120
4/2 valve, 75 Bearing cap, 120
4/3 valve, 75 Bellows, 122
95/5 micro-emulsion, 158 Bellows actuator, 146
Bent axis pump, 44
A Bimetallic strip, 26
Biodegradable fluid, 161
A port, 75
Absolute pressure, 12 Bleed-off speed control, 137
Absolute zero, 26 Blowers, 59
Absorbtion dryer, 66 Bourdon gauge, 19
Accumulator, 87, 151 Boyle’s law, 28
Accumulator sizing, 153 British thermal unit, 14
ACOP, 206 BSP, 162
Actuators Btu, 14
linear, 117 Bumpless transfer, 179
rotary, 130 Buna-N Seal, 130
valve, 182 Bursting pressure, 165
Adjustable displacement pump, butterfly, 180
41, 44 Butterfly valve, 180
Adsorption dryers, 67
Aeration, 47 C
Aftercooler, 52 Cartridge filter, 64
Air amplifier, 173 Cartridge valve, 114
Air classification, 68 Cavitation, 23, 46
Air compressors, 5 Centi-stokes, 159
Air dryers, 65 Centipoise, 159
Air filter, 64 Centrifugal blower, 59
Air leaks, 164 Centrifugal pump, 32
Air lubricator, 67 CETOP valves, 112
Air receiver, 60 Cgs units, 7
Air relay, 174 Check valve, 87, 143
Air treatment, 5, 62 Check valve pilot operated, 89
stages, 64 Circulation pump, 49
Amplifier air, 173 Clean air compressor, 56
AND gate, 193 Cleanliness, 211
Annulus, 118 Closed loop control, 169
ANSI schedule piping, 165 Coanda effect, 194
Anti-extrusion ring, 129 Codes of practice, 206
Anti-siphonage plug, 150 Combination pump, 45
Approved code of practice, 206 Compensation, deadband, 103
Atmospheric pressure, 12 Composite seal, 129
Axial Blower, 59 Compression fittings, 162
Axial piston pump, 42 Compression relief, 144
Compressor:
control of, 60
B diaphragm, 56
B port, 75 double acting, 55
Backup ring, 129 dynamic, 58
Baffle plate, 150 liquid ring, 58
Balanced valve, 36, 181 lobe, 58 233
234  Index

Multistage, 55
piston, 54
F
Fail down actuator, 183
Roots blower, 58 Fail up actuator, 182
rotary, 57 Fast exhaust valve, 92
screw, 57 Fault finding, 212, 214
vane, 57 Feedback, 109, 169
Computer simulation, 226 Filter:
construction, 121 air, 64
Controller (pneumatic), 175 edge type, 49
Converters (I-P/P-I), 187 full flow, 48
Cooler (hydraulic), 154 hydraulic, 47
Counterbalance, 142 position, 47
Counterflow cooler, 156 proportional, 48
Cracking pressure, 36, 88 Fire resistant fluid, 158
Creep, 129 Flapper jet servo, 109
Cup seal, 128 Flapper nozzle, 171
Cushioning, 122 Flexible hose, 166
Cylinders, Flip-flop, 194
Flow control valve, 137, 179
D Flow divider valve, 140
Damping block, 145 Flow:
Danger, 207 laminar, 22
Dead time, 127 mass, 21
Deadband, 103 measurement, 23
Deadband compensation, 103 streamline, 22
Decompression circuit, 145, 146 turbulent, 22
Deliquescent dryer, 66 velocity, 21
Devicenet, 203 volumetric, 21
Dew point, 63 Fluid (hydraulic), 156
Diaphragm compressor, 56 FMEA, 207
Differential pressure, 12 Force balance, 19, 174
Displacement, 33 Force balance positioner, 185
Distributed systems, 203 Force, definition of, 9
Dither, 102 Forces on a valve, 181
Double acting actuator, 184 Fps units, 7
Double acting compressor, 55 Function Blocks, 202
Double acting cylinder, 118 Fuse, 166
Double check valve, 92
Double rod cylinder, 119
Drain line, 132
G
Gas filled accumulator, 153
Droop, 72 Gas laws, 27
Dry screw compressor, 57 Gauge pressure, 12
Dryer, 65 Gear motor, 133
Dust seal, 121 Gear pump, 37
Duty of care, 205 Gerotor pump, 38
Dynamic braking, 142 Globe valve, 180
Dynamic compressors, 58 Glycol based fluids, 158
Dynamic seal, 128 Group selector valve, 197
dynamics, 125
Dynamics (cylinder), 125
H
HASWA, 205
E Hazard, 207
Edge type filter, 49 HAZOP, 207
Electronic cards, 103 Head pressure, 11
Electropneumatic converters, 187 Health & safety commission, 206
Enable input, 103 Health & safety executive, 207
End seal, 121 Health and Safety at Work Act, 205
Energy definition of, 13 Heat exchanger (hydraulic), 154
Error, 169 HFA, HFB, HFC, HFD Fluids, 158
Extrusion, 129 High water content fluids, 158
Index  235

Horsepower, 14 Mks units, 7


Hoses (hydraulic), 166 Modbus, 203
Hoses (pneumatic), 163 Modular valve, 110, 111
HSE, 207 Moisture curve, 63
Humidity, 62 Motion balance positioner, 186
Hydraulic filters, 47 Motor:
Hydraulic fluids, 156 gear, 133
Hydrodynamic pump, 32 piston, 135
Hydrostatic pump, 32 turbine, 135
vane, 133
I mounting, 125
Mounting (cylinder), 125
I-P converter, 187
ID, 128 MPL, 208
IEC 1131, 202
Impact cylinder, 124 N
Improvement notice, 207 Negligence, 205
Indicating filter, 48 Neoprene, 130
Infinite position valve, 78 newton (unit of force), 9
Inlet line filter, 47 Nitrile, 130
Internal gear pump, 38 Non-relieving pressure regulator, 70
Interruptible jet sensor, 192 Normal temperature and pressure, 54
Inverter, 194 NOT gate, 194
ISO-1219, 77 NPT, 162
ISO-5599, 77 NTP, 54
ISO-8753, 68
O
J O ring seal, 128
Jet limit switch, 192 Occupational Health & Safety Act, 206
Jet pipe servo, 108, 109 OD, 128
Joule, 14 Offset zero, 170
Oil (hydraulic), 156
K One-way limit, 191
OR gate, 193
Kelvin, 26
Kilogramme (force), 9 Orifice plate, 23
Kilopascal, 11 OSHA, 206

L P
Laminar flow, 22 P port, 77
Lands, 81 P-I converter, 187
Legislation (safety), 209 Pascal (unit of pressure), 11
Level (in reservoir), 150 Pascal’s law, 15
Limit switches, 189 PC. see Programmable Controller
Linear actuators, 117 Permits to work, 211
Linear variable differential transformer, 99 Petroleum based fluids, 157
Loading valve, 46 Physical normal condition, 53
Lobe pump, 38 PI/PID controller, 177
Logic gates, 193 Pilot operated check valve, 143
Logic valves, 193 Pilot operated regulator, 71
Lubricator (air), 67 Pilot operated valve, 85, 143
LVDT, 99 Piping (hydraulic), 165
Piping (pneumatic), 161
Piston compressor, 54
M Piston motor, 135
Maintenance, 224 Piston Pump, 42
Mass, definition of, 7, 9 Plastic tubing, 163
Maximum possible loss, 208 PLCs. see Programmable Controller (PC)
Mechanical advantage, 17 Plug top indicator, 220
Mesh size, 65 Plug valve, 180
Meter in/out control, 136 Poise, 159
Metric pipe threads, 162 Poppet valve, 79
Micro-emulsion, 158 Port, 75, 77
236  Index

Position control of spool, 99


Positioner (valve), 184
R
R port, 77
Positive displacement device, 32 Radial piston pump, 42
Positive seal, 128 Ramped response, 104
Pour point, 160 Reasonably practicable, 206
Power (of a pump), 33 Receiver (air), 51
Power assistance, 110 Reflex proximity sensor, 192
Power, definition of, 13 Refrigerated dryer, 66
Precharge, 151 Regeneration, 141
Prefill, 144 Relative humidity, 62
Pressure Relay (air), 174
differential, 12 Relief valve, 70
gauge, 12 Relieving pressure regulator, 70, 71
head, 11 Reservoir (hydraulic), 149
measurement of, 19 Response time, 127
regulation of (hydraulic), 3, 35 Restriction check valve, 92
regulation of (pneumatic), 69 Return line filter, 47
Units, 15 Reynolds number, 22
Pressure compensated flow control, 138 Ring seal, 121
Pressure control proportional valve, 107 Risk assessment, 207
Pressure controlled sequence, 198 Risk, (definition), 207
Pressure definition of, 10 Rod (piston), 121
Pressure droop, 72 Rodless cylinder, 124
Pressure drop in piping, 162 Rotary actuators, 130
Pressure line filter, 47 Rotary valve, 85
Preventitive maintenance, 224 Rotational speed (rotary actuator), 132
Primary air treatment, 52 RTD sensor, 26
Prime mover, 1 Rung (PC), 201
Process control, 169 Running torque, 131
Process variable, 200
Profibus, 203
Programmable Controller (PC), 200 S
Programmable electronic system and SAE, 160
safety, 210 Safety, 205
Prohibition notice, 207 Safety factor, 165
Proportional controller, 176 Safety legislation, 209
Proportional valve control cards, 103 Safety policy, 206
Proportional valves, 97 Safety procedures, 210
Proximity switches, 192 Safety valve, 60, 70
PT100 sensor, 26 Saturated air, 62
Pulse Timer, 195 Saybolt universal seconds, 159
Pulse Width Modulation, 101 Schedule ANSI, 165
Pump lift, 34 Scraper seal, 122
Pump: Screw compressor, 57
circulation, 49 Seals, 120, 128
combination, 45 Seals material, 129
comparison, 44 Self priming pump, 34
displacement, 33 Separator, 52
gear, 37 Sequence diagram, 189
gerotor, 38 Sequence valve, 95, 199
introduction, 31 Sequencing applications, 189
lobe, 38 Sequential function chart, 202
piston, 42 Service unit, 72
problems, 46 Servo valve, 107
symbol, 31 Setpoint, 169
vane, 40 Shoe plate, 42
PV. see Process Variable Shuttle valve, 92, 93, 190
PWM, 101 SI units, 7
Side loads, 38, 41, 122
Sieve number, 47
Q Silencer, 164
Quick disconnect hosing, 163 Silicon seal, 130
Index  237

Simulation, 226
Single acting cylinder, 119
U
U ring seal, 129
Slippage, 33 UCC System, 20, 214
Snubber restriction, 20 UNF, 162
Solenoid tester, 214 Units, definition of, 6
Solenoid valve, 83, 220 Unloading valve, 37, 46
SP. see Setpoint
Speed control, 135
Speed of a cylinder, 119 V
Spool valve, 81 Valve:
SR flip flop, 194 actuator, 182
Stall torque, 131 balanced, 36, 181
Standard temperature ball, 180
and pressure, 53 bleed-off, 137
Starting torque, 131 cartridge, 114
State transition diagram, 199 CETOP, 112
Statement list, 202 changeover, 3
Static seal, 128 check, 87, 143
STD, 199 check, pilot operated, 89
Stiction, 110 check, restriction, 92
Stokes, 159 cushion, 122
Stop tube, 122 fast exhaust, 92
STP, 53 flow control, 137, 179
Streamline flow, 22 flow divider, 140
Structured text, 202 forces on, 181
SUS, 159 globe, 180
Swash plate, 42 group selector, 197
Synchronisation infinite position, 78
of actuators, 139 jet pipe servo, 108, 109
Synthetic fluids, 159 lands, 81
System 20, 47, 214 loading, 46
modular, 110, 111
pilot operated, 85, 89, 143
T pilot operated
T port, 77 check, 89
Tank air filters, 151 plug, 180
Tank, hydraulic, 149 poppet, 79
Taper threads, 162 positioner, 184
Technical normal condition, 53 process control, 179
Teflon seal, 130 proportional, 97
Telescopic cylinder, 123 relief, 70
Temperature scales, 25 restriction check, 92
Temperature transducers, 26 rotary, 85
Thermistor, 26 safety, 60, 70
Thermocouple, 27 sequence, 95, 199
Threaded connections, 162 servo, 107
Three term controller, 177 shuttle, 92, 93, 190
Time delay valve, 96, 194 solenoid, 83, 220
TON/TOF, 195 spool, 81
Torque symbols, 76
definition of, 15, 130 throttle relief, 92
motor, 107 time delay, 96, 194
rating, 131 transitional state, 83
running, 131 unloading, 37
stall, 131 Vane compressor, 57
Toxicity, 161 Vane motor, 133
Tubing, 163 Vane pump, 40
Turbine flowmeter, 23 Variable area flowmeter, 23
Turbine motor, 135 Venturi, 23
Turbulent flow, 22 Viscosity, 159
Two stage compressor, 55 Viscosity index, 160
Two wire system, 19, 21 Viton seal, 130
238  Index

Volume booster, 173 Wet design, 97


Volumetric flow, 21 Wet screw compressor, 57
wg, 11
W Wiper seal, 122
Work definition of, 13
W number, 160
Water gauge, 11 Working pressure, 36
Water trap, 65
Water/glycol fluid, 158 Z
Water/oil fluid, 158 Zero offset, 170
Welded connections, 162