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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

The Social Studies curriculum over the past one decade has changed drastically both

in content and methodology. The recognition of culture, differences of various ethnic

groups has directly influenced the content and approaches to Social Studies. The

nature of Social Studies is that it is a study where the nature of man is its major

central focus of attention. Social Studies therefore organizes its content around

relevant knowledge, values and skills that constitute the wide sphere of man. The

subject has also been seen as a prime discipline adopted to socialize our young and

function as a means of promoting progress towards the major social education goals

that have been identified for emphasis - civic duties or development of citizen

participation skills, acquisition of desirable attitudes and values, disciplined life etc.

The scope of Social Studies therefore varies depending on the level one wants to

cover. Its scope involves the" determination of what aspects of the various constituent

contents would be most valuable for the realization of the objectives of Social

Studies. It is therefore obvious that Social Studies is by its very nature a dynamic

discipline which is wide and cannot be expected to have distinct boundaries. The

scope certainly covers both immediate and distant environment in content and

Methodology. The exquisite and transfer of knowledge require some instructional

strategies. The Social Studies teacher needs to acquire competence in his approaches

to the teaching of Social Studies. These competences include content competence;

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competence in transmitting the content to the learner and competence in the use of

variety of instructional strategies, and competence in evaluating instruction. The

teaching and learning processes involve some methods and means of enhancing

meaningful learning through the use of instructional resources.

The significance of the family in our lives cannot be overemphasized. It is in this light

that society continues to survive by means of procreation. It is through the family that

people obtain their needs and comfort.

According to Ayitey (2002), the following are the importance of the family:

a. Procreation: the family is a social ground where children are born.

b. Physical care: the older generation of the family has the responsibility to provide

children with food, clothing and shelter.

Just as the family is useful in our lives so is the extended family system. The

extended family according to Ayitey (2002) refers to the collection of several nuclear

families put together. According to Foli and Asante (2005), with the extended family

system, grand parents can help in the upbringing of children. Children can have

several relations from which they can learn good moral behaviours from; they feel

secured due to the presence of these extended family members.

Also, due to the large family sizes children learn to, live happily together and

cooperate with each other as family, notwithstanding the importance of the family

and for that matter the extended family system. Pupils of Binjai Presby Junior High

School do not understand the composition of the extender family system.

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Binjai Presby Junior High School is situated at Binjai, a community in the west Gonja

District of the northern region in Ghana.. The inhabitants are basically traders and

other government workers from different region of the country. People from the

community are predominantly Gonjas and almost all the religions practiced in Ghana

are practiced over here but it must be put to record that most people are Muslims.

Members of the community are so busy to the extent that hardly do parents and

sibling visit other relatives such as grandparents, uncles, aunts, nieces and nephews

among other. Pupils are unable to stay with their relatives to understand the

composition of the extended family system.

Perceived Problem

During one of my social studies lessons in Binjai Presby Junior High School form

one; I observed that pupils could not state the composition of the extended family

system.

This problem came to light when the pupils were not able to mention or describe the

composition of the extended family system in one of my social studies lessons. These

pupils could not even make up or identify the people who constitute the extended

family system. Upon further investigations, through class exercises, brainstorming,

and discussions in class, I noticed that the students were finding it difficult to

understand the concept of the extended family. This therefore prompted me to carry

out the study and in order to come out with strategies that will enable us address the

problem of the pupils.

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Problem diagnosis

The researcher identified that students found it difficult to understand the concept of

the extended family system. The study is therefore designed to disclose some of the

causes of their inability to understand the topic.

The researcher seeks to use the observation, interview and the tests instrument to able

to achieve the sole objective of improving students understanding of the concept of

extended family system.

Evidence of the problem

The researcher conducted on simple test after delivery a lesson on the concept of

extended family system and the results obtained by the pupils were very

dissatisfactory. About 87% of the students were not able to answer any of the

questions. This prompted the researcher to take a critical review of the methods used

in the lesson delivery.

Causes of the Problem

The main cause of the students’ inability to understand the concept of the extended

family system was attributed to the use of the wrong method of lesson delivery.

Also the researcher observed that pupils do not use books to help them study at home

to complement the efforts made in the classroom.

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Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to improve understanding of pupils in the concept

of the composition of the extended family system. The findings of the study would be

considered as being success if in the end the suggestions if well implemented would

promote the understanding of pupils in the topic and other related concepts in the

field of social studies.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study includes is to identify the reasons why pupils of Binjai

Presby Junior High School One cannot outline the composition of the extended

family system. Also, it is to help in identifying practical activities, play and

dramatization to enable pupils understand the topic.

Research Questions

The question below will help unveil why pupils in Binjai Presby Junior High School

One do not understand the structure and composition of the extended family system.

1. What are the causes of pupils in Binjai Presby Junior High School One inability to

outline the composition of the extended family system?

2. What concrete and practical teaching methods can be adopted to help pupils

understand the concept and composition of the extended family system?

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Relevance of the Study

The study will be very significant to the pupils of Binjai Presby Junior High School

One as it will help them understand the concept and composition of the extended

family system.

Furthermore, social studies teachers will find the study useful in handling similar

topics relevant to the composition of the extended family.

The causes of the inability of pupils to understand this area of concern will also be ear

marked so that solutions can be identified and systems put in place to help these

pupils.

Delimitation

The study was delimited to Binjai Presby Junior High School Form One only due to

the large enrolment in the school and time available could not permit the researcher

complete then entire study on time for the pupils were more than one class.

Organization of the Study

The research work is organized in to five chapters. Chapter One contains the

following: background to the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, research

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questions, benefits of the study, limitations and delimitations and organization of the

study.

Chapter two looks at the review of relevant and related literature. Chapter three deals

with the description of the methodology used in the study captured under the

following headings the research design population and sample size, research tools,

intervention process, monitoring techniques and methods of data collection.

Chapter four entails the analysis of all data collected whilst chapter five summaries

the entire research work and makes suitable recommendations for future improvement

of the study.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

This chapter deals with relevant literature of the study. This review is organized under

the following topics: composition of the extended family, causes of pupils’ inability

to understand the extended family system and the strategies to be used to curb the

problem.

Composition of the Extended Family

According to Foli and Asante (2005) an extended family consists of father, mother,

children, uncles, aunties, cousins, nieces, nephews, grandparents and grandchildren.

Gyekye K (1996) also stated that the extended family composes of a large number of

blood relations who trace their descent from a common ancestor and who are held

together by a sense of obligation to one another.

According to Ayitey (2002), an extended family refers to the collection of several

nuclease families put together.

Stanton (1995) defined an extended family as “an ongoing body with geographical

base and it transcends the lifetime of its members.”

Bernard (2000), Maria and Susan Spreecher (2004) noted that an extended family to

include a third (e.g. grandparent) or even fourth generation.

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Colleen (1998), observed that extended family occurs in various voluntary and

malleable contexts making voluntary membership changeable and to some extent

ambiguous. It consists of three interlocking nuclear families: families of origin,

family of procreation and family of affinal relations (e.g. in-laws).

Riley (1993) stated that the family of procreation is a group created when adults

adhere to a socially organized bond, such as marriages and raising children.

Judith (1990) stated that the extended families played a big part in helping new

parents. Grandparents were often present to help with the new baby and Extended

family members often lived under one roof or just down the road. Children saw their

relatives often enough to know who was who.

Judith (1990) observed that while it is true that today’s extended family members

may be walking even driving before they meet some of the extended family members

most families still have some extended family nearby.

Causes of Pupils inability to Understand the concept of Extended Family System

Awuni (2006) in his research came out that, most pupils do not comprehend the

family system composition because socialization of children is done exclusively by

their biological parents thus children do not benefit from the rich experiences of some

members of the family.

Foli and Asante (2005), children may not even know their kinsmen well because of

limited visits and interactions.

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Colleen (1998), identified that people do not understand the composition of the

extended family system because most families now live separately and privately than

they once did hence pupils do not understand the constitution or composition of the

extended family.

Students often consider social studies to be dull and boring (Chiodo & Byford, 2006).

Not only do students perceive social studies to be dull, but they also fail to see the

relevance of social studies to their everyday lives (Schug, Todd & Beery, 1982;

Shaughnessy & Haladyna, 1985).

Shaughnessy & Haladyna (1985) concluded that “It is the teacher who is key to what

social studies will be for the student. Instruction tends to be dominated by the lecture,

textbook or worksheets and social studies does not inspire students to learn”

Siler (1998) explained that teachers tend to use only one teaching style day after day,

which denies students the opportunity of a variety of teaching techniques. Ellis,

Fouts, and Glenn (1992), stated that teachers often rely solely on text, lecturing,

worksheets and traditional tests as methods of learning. However, research concludes

that students have more interest in a topic when a variety of teaching methods are

implemented (Bonwell & Eisen, 1991; Chiodo & Byford, 2006; Byford & Russell,

2006; Mills & Durden, 1992; Slavin, 1994).

VanSledright (2004) explained “the common preoccupation with having students

commit one fact after another to memory based on history textbook recitations and

lectures does little to build capacity to think historically.

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In addition, Hoagland (2000) observed that teachers need to connect the content to the

individual interests of the students, thus increasing student interest in the content and

actively engaging students in the learning process.

Strategies to teach the concept of extended family system

The methods of teaching social studies in junior high schools are as follows: role-

plays, dramatization and demonstration.

Creswell (2005), defined role-play as an effective learning strategy in which students

act the part of another character, thereby gaining an appreciation for others’ points of

view as well an understanding of the complexity of resolving issues and problems in

the real world. In the context of social studies, this strategy may be used to learn

about issues and decisions of the past (and how things might have been different) or

about current issues in the local community or in a broader setting. Aside from

knowledge acquisition, preparing and conducting a role-play activity strengthens

students’ knowledge acquisition skills, their creativity, their value clarification skills,

and a variety of interpersonal skills identified in the curriculum outcomes.

According to Paris, (1997), Role-playing is an activity presented during a lesson to

show a specific issues or situation for study and discussion. In role-playing, there is

usually no prepared script to be memorized, it does not involve elaborate preparation

and there may be no rehearsals.

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According to Tanwam (2005), demonstration is the presentation of the pre-arranged

series of events or activities to a group of students for their observation. It is primarily

an activity which combines talking, acting in front of an audience.

According to Logem and Remington (1969), dramatization is a form of an organized

play in which some of the participants represent individuals in history or

contemporary society and exhibits or shows the behaviour in the form of improvised

action.

Some examples of engaging instructional methods include cooperative learning, role

playing, and technology (Driscoll, 2005). Stahl (1994) explains that using cooperative

learning requires students to become active learners. Furthermore, Stahl (1994)

believed that, “cooperative learning provides opportunities for students to learn,

practice, and live the attitudes and behaviors that reflect the goals of social studies

education” (p. 4-5).

Using various teaching techniques is considered by many a best practice, and

numerous studies conclude positive results with regard to the use of various

instructional methods.

Dow (1979) concluded that direct observation, data gathering, reading, role-playing,

constructing projects, and watching films are all excellent ways to provide students

with new information. Using film to enhance social studies instruction has been found

to be an effective instructional method (Russell,

According to Harwood & Hahn, (1990), the Laboratory Method in Social Studies

involves the employment of source materials, supplementary references, mechanical

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devices, audiovisual aids and many other life-like activities to supplement textbook

instructions and to increase the effectiveness of presentation and mastery. Laboratory

mode of teaching does not refer to a special place or a special class period, but to an

activity. The activity can occur in a regular classroom, outside the classroom or in a

specially designed room.

In conclusion, there is the need to select appropriate methods that will help the

cognitive, effective and psychomotor domains of the learner.

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CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This part of the study captures the methodology of the research design. It deals with

the population and sample selection. It further highlights the research tools and the

motives for using them. It further talks about the data collection and concludes with

the data analysis plan.

Research Design

The design employed is the action research. It is a systematic collection of

information that is designed to bring about immediate solution to local problems such

as classroom teaching and learning.

The action research design has been chosen because it brings immediate solutions to

classroom teaching and learning problems. It will therefore help pupils of Binjai

Presby Junior High School Form One to overcome the problem of their inability to

understand the composition of the extended family system. The action research also

uses scientific methods in solving problems because finding from scientific methods

are always valid and reliable.

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Strength of the Research Design

Action research helps the researcher to work collaboratively with other people to

solve the problem at hand.

Also action research encourages teachers to be aware of their own practice and to be

critical of the practice for change. Also, through action research teachers can

evaluation their teaching effectiveness. The design may encourage parents to provide

educational needs for their wards it may also help the educational policy makers in

decision making.

Weakness of the research Design

The researcher observed that the use of the design was time consuming. Also after the

distribution of the questions to some of the pupils, teachers and parents were not

willing to give some facts needed for the study. Also finding information for the

research was also difficulty to come by.

Population

Population for a study refers to the total numbers of constituents on whom the study

is being conducted. For this research work the population comprises the students of

Binjai Presby Junior High School. The population of the research was made up of

three hundred and twenty pupils. The population comprises one hundred and ninety-

four boys and one hundred and twenty-six girls. The school has nine teachers made

up of seven males and two females.

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Research Instruments

The research instruments used are: observations, questionnaires and tests.

Observation

A structured observation guide was used to collect data on pupils’ inability to

understand the concept of extended family system. The researcher opted for a

participation observation. The researcher observed throughout the class to identify the

pupils of the school who performed poorly in the class test on the concept of the

extended family system. The researcher observed their daily activities in the class

room to be able to identify the possible causes of their inability to understand the

concept of extended family system. The guide used for the observation can be seen in

appendix A.

Questionnaires

A structured questionnaire was given to parents, teachers and pupils to gather

information needed under the study.

The questionnaires given to the parents contain ten questions to collect data on

parents’ occupation and general attitudes of parents towards their wards education.

Also the questionnaires which were given to the pupils contain ten questions to

collect data on pupils personally and their observation on their inability to understand

the concept of extended family system.

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The questionnaires given to the teachers were made up ten questions to elicit

information on teachers’ personality and their experience in teaching social studies

topics.

Tests

The researcher also conducted a test during the pre-intervention sate. Another test

was conducted at the post intervention stage to find the pupils performance after the

intervention the researcher had with the pupils.

Sample and Sampling Technique

A sample size of sixty (60) respondents was chosen. This consists of twenty-five girls

and thirty-five boys. Also ten selected parents and two teachers were also involved in

the research.

The simple purposive sampling technique was used. This technique was used because

the researcher noticed that all most all the pupils were having problems in

understanding the concept of extended family system.

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Pre - Intervention

The researcher realised that during the delivery of the lesson on the extended family

system. Pupils found it difficult to respond to the teacher’s questions. She also

observed the attendance of the pupils’ performance in exercises given at the end of

the lesson.

The researcher finally conducted a test on the composition of the extended family

system. Out of these measures the researcher found out that most of the pupils’

performance in the test was below average. Some of the pupils had intermittent

attendance to school in order to work for money to provide their needs.

Intervention

The researcher haven identified these problems put in place the following measures to

address the problem.

Role Play

The researcher used the role play method of presenting the topic “the composition of

the extended family system”. The researcher chose a boy and a girl from, the class to

represent the father and mother respectively. The researcher guided the boy to

perform the roles of a father such as taking care of the family and providing the

family’s needs whilst the girl performed the role of the mother such as performing of

household chores and taking care of the children.

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The researcher also chose five children from then class to act as children of the

parents whose responsibilities were to keep the house clean and assist in household

chores.

He then chose six children to represent the siblings of the children and two other boys

to represent the uncles (i.e. brothers of their parents) who should provide support and

comfort to the children in the absence of their parents and two other girls were

selected to act as aunts.

Other children were also chosen to act as nephews, nieces, cousins, grandparents and

great grandparents and pupils were taught on the roles of all the individuals in the

extended family. After that pupils who did not fall in any of the groups were

described as kinsmen and were women of the family.

Finally, it was described to pupils that when all these group of individuals come to

live together, an extended family is formed.

During the week of intervention, as pupils absented themselves from school, the

teacher told pupils that those who attended school throughout the week were going to

be given special awards. This activity motivated and excited pupils so much that their

attendance to class improved greatly. The headmaster was also contacted and

textbooks which had topics or passages related to the composition of the extended

family system was provided.

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Post Intervention

After all, the interventions undertaken by the researcher, she observed that there was

a remarkable improvement in the performance of pupils. Absenteeism was now a

thing of the past and most of the pupils were provided with their educational needs.

A questionnaire was administered to find out whether the pupils understood the

composition of the extended family and their responses were very positive. The

researcher finally conducted another test on the extended family system and the

performances of pupils were great. About 90% of pupils scored marks above average

in the test.

Limitations

Handful of students had intermittent attendance during the period of study and as a

result might not fully comprehend the composition of the extended family system as

taught during the lessons. However, these absentees form a minute percentage of the

total class and so will not negatively influence the validity and reliability of the study

Data analysis plan

The researcher used frequency and simple percentage to analyse the data gathered.

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CHAPTER FOUR

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

Introduction

This chapter deals with the analysis of findings from the data collected. It contains the

recons why pupils cannot understand the composition of the extended family system

and the post intervention test result analysis.

Reasons why pupils could not understand the composition of the extended family

The study revealed that the reasons why pupils could not outline the composition of

the extender family were: the use of inappropriate teaching and learning techniques;

lack of textbooks; poor backgrounds of pupils and absenteeism of pupils during

lessons (see table 1).

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Table 1: causes of pupils’ inability to understand the concept of extended family system

Causes Responses Percentage (%)

Duration of stay of teachers in school 5 8.3

Teachers’ attendance to in-service training 7 11.7

Use of inappropriate methodology 15 25.0

Background of pupils 5 8.3

Lack of textbooks 20 33.3

Absenteeism 8 13.3

Total 60 100.0

Table 1 shows that 5 students representing 8.3% of the responses identified the short

duration of teachers in the school as the cause, 7 students representing (11.7%) also

cited the fact that most of the teachers do not attend in service works in order to

upgrade their skills. Whiles 15 (25%) said the use of inappropriate teaching

techniques was the cause. Majority of the responses identified the lack of appropriate

textbooks as the main reason why pupils could not understand the composition of the

extended family. The implication of the analysis is that for one to address the

problem, one must employ appropriate teaching techniques in addition to the

appropriate textbooks and other reference materials. It is also essential for teacher to

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adopt not only the right pedagogical strategies of variables but to use the correct

teaching and learning resources.

Table two: strategies used to teach the concept of extended family system

Strategies Responses Percentage (%)

Role play 32 53.33

Dramatization 18 30.00

Field trips 10 16.67

Total 60 100.00

From table 2, thirty two pupils representing fifty three point three-three percent

agreed that the use of role play would help improve the understanding of the concept

of extended family system. Eighteen pupils representing thirty percent agreed that the

use of dramatization would help improve the pupils understanding on the concept of

extended family system whiles ten pupils representing sixteen point six-seven percent

agreed that the use of field trips would promote the understanding of pupils in the

concept of extended family system.

It can be concluded that the use of the role play is the best way to improve the

understanding of pupils in the concept of extended family system.

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Diagrammatically the responses from the pupils is presented in pie chart

strategies

role play
dramatisation
field trips

The pie chart clearly shows that the commonly accepted way of improving the

understanding of the concept of the extended family system. This is shown by the

large portion of the chart which occupies about one hundred and ninety two degrees

out of the total of three hundred and sixty degrees.

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Table 4 pre intervention test results

Responses No. of pupils Percentage (%)

0–5 10 17

6 – 10 15 25

11 – 15 12 20

16 – 20 8 13

21 – 25 5 8

26 – 30 5 8

31 – 35 4 7

36 – 40 1 2

Total 60 100

Table 4 shows results of pupils in Binjai Presby Junior High School One during a pre

intervention test on the composition of the extended family system. It shows that

majority of the pupils 45 (75%) scored below 20 marks which was very poor indeed.

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Table 5 post intervention test

Score No. of Pupils Percentage

(%)

0–5 1 2

6 – 10 2 3

11 – 15 3 5

16 – 20 4 7

21 – 25 6 10

26 – 30 14 23

31 – 35 10 17

36 – 40 20 33

Total 60 100

After the pre intervention test the researcher realized that pupil’s performance was

very poor in the test. She therefore designs practical activities, teaching techniques

like brainstorming, questionnaire and answer using bring questions.

He also used methodologies such as role plays, dramatization to enable pupils

understand the topic. The research designed a detailed lessons plan which included

the teaching techniques and methodologies. This can be seen in appendix three (3).

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He began by brainstorming for the composition of the extended family and later

moved on by asking pupils to mention the people they stay with at home.

He then used the role play method of presenting the topic. A boy and girl were chosen

from the class to perform the roles of the father and mother respectively. Five

children from the class were selected to act as children of the parents and were

assigned roles as children play. Uncles and aunts were represented by two boys and

two girls respectively.

The researcher continued to use the students to represent all members of the extended

family system and they were all given roles to play. After the practical activities,

pupils became interested in the lesson and the lesson’s objectives were duly achieved.

Pupils performed very well in the post intervention test conducted by the researcher

as clearly depicted by table three which shows then post intervention test results from

pupils of Binjai Presby Junior High School One. The table shows that most of the

pupils 54 (73%) passed the test after the intervention.

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25

20

15

10

0
between 0 between 6 between between between between between between
to 5 to 10 11-15 16 to 20 21 to 25 26 to 30 31 to 35 36 to 40

Discussion

The study was conducted to found out why pupils did not comprehend the

composition of the extended family system and how to use concrete activities to

handle the lesson which will enable them to acquire the concept of the extended

family system. The problem was identified when the researcher handled a lesson on

the extended family system and later conducted a class test for them. The test was

poorly performed by the pupils. There researcher also discovered that pupils had no

interest in the lesson. As a result most of them absented themselves during the lesson

on the said topic.

The researcher adopted role play and dramatization in order to make the lesson

interesting and practical students performed various roles as family members and

acted practically the concept of extended family system. After the practical activities,

pupils develop interest in the lesson and the attendance to class increased. Pupils also

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performed very well in the post test conducted by the researcher. From their

performance and active participation in the lesson, it was a clear indication that pupils

understand the concept of the extended family system very well.

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CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Discussion of Results

The definition and composition of the extended family is viewed by different scholars

in different words. In the words of Foli and Asante (2005) an extended family

consists of father, mother, children, uncles, aunties, cousins, nieces, nephews,

grandparents and grandchildren.

The major cause of pupils’ inability to understand the concept of extended family

system was identified as the unavailability of the right teaching and learning materials

for teachers to teach basic social studies topics like the extended family system. In the

words of Siler (1998) explained that teachers tend to use only one teaching style day

after day, which denies students the opportunity of a variety of teaching techniques.

From the study, the researcher identified the use of the role play as a strategy to

improve pupils understanding in the concept of extended family system. This

assertion by the researcher is supported by Paris, (1997), where he stated Role-

playing is an activity presented during a lesson to show a specific issues or situation

for study and discussion. In role-playing, there is usually no prepared script to be

memorized, it does not involve elaborate preparation and there may be no rehearsals

30
Conclusion

One outstanding findings of the research was pupils’ background. The pupils hardly

visited other distant relations of their families. It has come to light that teachers’

lessons were always theoretical rather than practical. The core concept of the problem

was lack of test books. Another finding from the study was that most of the pupils

absented themselves from the social studies lessons as they found lessons boring.

It was also detected that social studies teachers did not benefit from in-service

training since they always leave to various educational institutions for further

development. Finally, most of the teachers have long overstayed in the school and as

result, rather behaves in a way that shows his/ she is independent which in many ways

show signs of monotony and bored.

Recommendations

Recommendations identified and suggested by the researcher are under the following

subtopics: actions to be taken by the parents, actions to be taken by the head master

and actions to be taken by the Ghana Education Service (GES).

Actions to be taken by the parents:

Parents should provide for their wards with the requisite educational materials to

enhance teaching and learning.

During holidays, parents should take children to their respective traditional homes for

them to familiarize with other members from the family

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Parents should show interest in their wards schooling by visiting schools to have

firsthand information of the progress made by their wards.

Actions to be taken by the head teacher

The head teacher should try to frequently organize in service training for teachers in

the school to help them upgrade their skills and improve upon their knowledge.

Teachers should practicalise their methods of teaching in the representation of their

lessons in order to make lesson interesting for pupils.

Strong measures should be instituted to minimized pupils’ absenteeism from school.

The lecture method of teaching should be discouraged at this level of pupils’

education.

Actions to be taken by GES

The District Director of Education should ensure that all teachers who have served for

more than ten years in the school be transferred.

Workshop and in-service training should be organized regularly for teacher to

upgrade their knowledge. Text books on social studies should be supplied to schools

regularly and on time.

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Suggestion for Further Studies

Much has been said by way of suggestions to rectify the situation under study. The

researcher will like to suggest to whoever wishes to take up the challenge of carrying

out a similar study this time from a public school and a private school that the

research work be made to begin alongside with the academic calendar in order to

ensure the effectiveness of the research strategies adopted

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Appendix A

Pre test Questions

1. What is a family?

2. Identify any three members of the family?

3. What is an extended family?

4. Identify any three members of the extended family system

5. Identify any other type of family system in Ghana?

36
Appendix B

Questionnaire for Pupils

Name……………………………………………………… class ………………………….

1. How often do you study social studies?

2. Do you find it difficult to understand the concept of extended family system?

3. What do you think are the causes of your inability to understand the extended family

system?

4. Do you enjoy social studies lessons?

5. What are the ways to improve your understanding in social studies?

37
Appendix C

Pre test Questions

1. What is a family?

2. Identify any three members of the family?

3. What is an extended family?

4. Identify any three members of the extended family system

5. Identify any other type of family system in Ghana?

38