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Tethnology Electricity When a pen is rubbed on a piece of cloth and then placed next to small pieces of paper, those little bits of paper will be attracted to the pen. This is because the pen picks up electrical charges from the cloth and attracts the pieces of paper because they are not electrically charged. ‘The manifestation of energy associated with electrical charges, both at rest and in movement, is called electrical energy or simply electricity. Electricity can be obtained from many different sources such as petroleum, wind, the sun or water. It is easy to transport electricity across long distances and it can be transformed into other forms of energy, such as luminous energy, heat energy, etc. These characteristics make electricity the most commonly used form of energy in our society. Electricity is a convenient and common form of eneray in developed so- ieties and can be transformed into other forms of energy, like luminous energy, heat eneray, and mechanical energy, among others. Ewveérinent Jumping dolls We can see the effects of static electricity through a simple ex- Balloon eee * Tissue paper* 1. Trace the doll shown in the figure several times onto tissue * Wool Paper, cut out the dolls and lay them out on a sheet of alu- Scare et minium foil. * Pencil ike 2. Inflate the balloon and tie it closed, ‘encl or marker Scissors ‘3. Rub the balloon on a wool garment to give it an electrical charge. Place the balloon about 10 centimetres over the dolls and watch how they. rise Up and fall down again and again. ‘The reason this happens is that the balloon is charged with static electricity, which attracts the dolis, which are Not charged. When they touch the balloon they received a charge of static electricity, but because the electrical charges have the ‘same sign, they repel one another and the dolls fall and pass their ‘charge to the aluminium foil. The balloon attracts them again and the cycle starts all aver until the balloon loses its charge, tissue paper: papel de seca Wool: na. 2. The electrical circuit “he continual movement of electrical charges through conductive materials yeates an electrical current. ‘An electrical circuit is a set of elements connected to one another so that an electrical current can circulate through them. |, Components of an electrical circuit rhe minimum elements or components needed to assemble an electrical cir suit are: ‘A power source. This is the device from which the circulating electrical current originates. Batteries, accumulators, altermators and dynamos are generators that are used to make different electrical circuits work. A load. This device transforms the electrical energy into another form of ‘energy like mechanical energy in the case of electric motors, heat energy in the case of heaters, sound in the case of doorbells or luminous energy in the case of lamps. + Conductors. These are the cables or wires that connect the power source to the load. There are another two types of components that are used to control and pro- ‘ect circuits: + Control devices. These alow you to turn the circuit on or off as you want. ‘The most common control devices are switches, commutator switches and buttons. » Protective devices. These prevent the components of the circuit from, be- ing damaged. The most common protective devices are fuses. 2. Graphic representation of a circuit Diagrams arc used to represent electrical circuits and each component of the ircuit shown in the diagram is assigned a symbol. You can see some of these symbols in activity 2. Shiw 4. Make a circuit diagram including all of the following components: bet- tery, button, buzzer and conductors. The drawing should show that pressing the button activates the buzzer. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY ( Circuit diagram. Anilyse 2. Copy each of the com- ponents and its symbol shown in the table into your technologies exercise book and indicate whether it is a power source, load, conductor, control device or protective device. Bis. batery 7 | _tigntbulb -~_ & conductor button = TSF conection pont steh ' i Tehnology 3._ Types of circuits ‘Sometimes it is necessary to connect different loads to the same circuit, The way this is done is very important because it affects the circuit's characteristics and its ability to operate correctly. Loads can be connected in different ways they can be connected in series, parallel or combined circuits. 1 Series connections When a circuit has different loads located one after another so that the same electrical current circulates to them sequentially, these loads are connected in series, The operating characteristics of a series load connection are the following: © The same electrical current circulates through each load. «The voltage provided by the battery is divided among the different loads. © Ifa load breaks or is disconnected, the other loads on the circuit stop work- ing. Exerinent Power sources connected in series In most devices that work with batteries, the batteries are connected in se- ries, The series connection of power sources is done by joining the positive pole of one battery to the negative pole of the next. Let's have a look at the type of connection in a (4.5 V) battery pack. Remove the casing around a dead (4.5 V) battery pack and look inside. There are three cylindrical components. Each of them is a 1.6 voit battery with two poles: one positive and one negative. a) How are the three cylindrical components connected to one another? Why? 'b) Draw the connection diagram of the three components inside the battery pack. 45V * & In the circuit shown in the fgue the thre lamps are connected in series. if have the same characteristics, each one willhave 1.5 volts and therefore will not provide much ight, Materials and utensils ‘* Dead battery pack* + Scissors or box cutter battery pack: pla de petaca. 2. Parallel connections The different loads on a circuit have a parallel connection when each of them is connected to the positive and negative pole of the battery so that they are powered by the same voltage. ‘The operating characteristics of loads connected in parallel are the following: Each load has the same voltage as the battery. « fa load breaks or is disconnected, the other loads on the circuit continue working The total electrical current of the circuit is the sum of the currents of each oad. The three lamps in the circuit shown to the right are connected in parallel and each of them has a voltage of 4.5 volts, which corresponds to the voltage of the battery. In most electrical installations, the loads are connected in parallel because this allows them to work with the same voltage and, if any one of them breaks, the others continue to operate. 3. Combined connections When the loads are connected in series and in parallel, the assembly is called ‘a. combined connection In the circuit shown in the figure to the right, lamps L, and L, are connected in Parallel and lamp L, is connected to them in series. Assuming that the charac- teristics of the three lamps are the same, L, will ight much more than the other because all of the current in the circuit passes through it, while only half the current passes through the other bulbs. Analyse S. Look at each of the following circuits and respond: 4) Indicate which circuits have loads connected in series, which have loads connected in parallel and which are combined, 'b) Draw the diagram corresponding to each circuit c) What would happen in each of these circuits if the mo- tor bumed out? INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICIT} save 4sy Tehnology 4. The effects of electrical currents Electrical currents can cause different effects as they pass through the com- Ponents of a circuit. This is because electricity can easily transform into other types of energy, which we take advantage of primarily in the forms of light, heat and motion + Light. As an electrical current passes through a lamp it produces light. * Heat. Household appliances like the iron’, toaster, dryer’ or electric heaters use electricity to produce heat. All of these have an element called a resis- tor in them, + Magnetism. When an electrical current circulates through a coil” wrapped ‘around an iron bar, it becomes an electromagnet’. This effect is used in elec trical motors to start movement and in electric bells used as acoustic signals. Anilyse ion: piancha, dryer: secactora. coil: bobina. electromagnet: electroimdn, 4. As you know, loads that provide light are electric lamps. The following table describes the characteristics of the different types of domestic lamps, but the desoriptions are not in order. Put the three columns in order so that the name of the lamp matches with its illustration and description, Mustration [Name | Descripetion ; halogen lamp —_| This is based on the luminous emission of certain gasses such as fluorine when exposed to an electrical current. This type of lamp uses up to 80% less electricity than conventional lamps and lasts between 8 and 10 times longer. incandescent ‘These are made up of several small fluorescent tubes and can lamp or light be installed in conventional bulb holders. Their use is highly bulb recommended. fluorescent tube e ght is produced when an electrical current passes through a metallic flament inside of a glass bulb, These types of lamps use the most electricity and last for the shortest time (about 1,000 hours), but they are the cheapest on the market. These shou!d be replaced by energy-saving bulbs LEDs These are fundamentally the same as incandescent lamps but they last longer, give off a much more intense light and use up to 30% less electricity. energy-saving lamp NIB ek These bulbs are made of a set of light emitting diodes that consume. very little electricity compared to the light they produce. They are up to 85% more energy efficient than conventional bulbs. eee SuilMary Create your own summary of the topic by filing in the blank spaces with key words. is @ convenient and common form ‘of energy in developed societies. It can be obtained from different sources such as , the wind, the sun, water, etc. 2. Electrical energy is easy to across long distances and can be transformed into other forms of like luminous energy, heat energy, me- chanical energy, etc. 3. An 'g a set of elements connected to one another so that an electrical current can cirou- late through them. Its main components are a power source, a and the conductors that join them. +. The power source is the component from which the —____ of the electrical current originates. The loads of the circuit electrical energy into another form of energy. 5. There are another two types of components that are used to and protect circuits: control de- vices and) devices. A —_______is drawn to represent an electrical circuit and includes a set of of its elements. nal etal The website that you will find at htto./mww.editorial- ‘eide.com/?9070 has been created by a group of teachers at IES Alquibla in La Alberca who work on topics related to the application of ICT in education. The website features theoretical content, fun learning activities, projects and links to other websites, among other things, for each 1. Go to the website and click on Actividades. You can do a lot of different activities of different types. and then check to see whether you have done ‘them correctly. 2. If you enter in the Pasatiempos page, you can test your knowledge of electricity with two rebus- @s, a crossword puzzle and a word search. ‘7. Two light bulbs connected one after another form a . while if the input terminals are con- nected at a common point and so are the output ter- minals, the connection is in 8. The of an electrical current through the components of a circuit produces diffe- rent effects, such as light, and mag- netism. Key words transport, circulation, transform, protection, diagram, control, connection in series, passage, electrical circuit, heat, load, energy, electricity, petroleum, symbols, parallel LHab A SamLLTANT seq ivetient auLe thas Gon onl teRv eM BU sat BREAN SES BE RECYCLED! 3. In Autoevaluacién you can answer a series of multiple-choice questions, 4. When you have to review a theoretical concept, you can access the content you need through the Menu on the left of the screen. Final activities : 1. Look at the table below and match each of the illustrations to the corresponding symbol and to the component « the electrical circuit Illustration ‘Symbol Component —="2— | power source load =) | contro! device z + protective device 2. Look at the two following circuits and respond: ae! circuit t ‘rout 2 a) How are the lamps in each of the circuits connected? sensi 3 ae al eu, & bd ) I you close the switch (8) of each circuit, in which of the circuits | Se rd } ad ‘would the lamps provide more light? eo ©) Ifthe switch (8) is closed, what would happen in each of the circuits iftamp L, burned out? '. Look at the circuit in the illustration and answer the questions. a) What is the control device used in the circuit called? b) Can two lamps be lit at the same time? Why? ©) Draw the circuit diagram. 4. Using the components shown to the right: @) For each case, draw the connection needed to make the bulb light up in your technologies exercise book. b) Check it through an experiment. ¢) Draw the circuit diagram for each one. 'S. Design a circuit whose components are a battery, a buzzer, a switch and iS button, It should meet the following requirements: * The buzzer will sound when the button is pushed if the switch is | fs closed, I cat ‘* When the switch is open the buzzer will not sound even if the button is pushed, 6. You have the following components: a lamp, a buzzer, a battery and a button. Draw the circuit diagram to show that when the button is pushed the buzzer will sound and the lamp will light up and that if either of the loads breaks, the other will continue to function. 7. Look at the diagrams for the folowing circuits and answer the | owsani Dagam2 following questions for each one: a @) Which components do they contain? b) If they are powered by a battery, what voltage is applied to the circuit? ©) If they are powered by more than one battery, how are they connected? What voltage is applied to the circuit? d) If they have more than one load, how are they connected? @) Do the loads work when they are connected to the control elements conventionally? If they do not work, explain why. ‘8. Find information on how storms form and the source of light- ning and answer the following questions: a) What kind of electricity oreates the phenomenon of lightning? 'b) What is the device that protects us from lightning called? ©) Who invented this device? d) Where do the devices that protect us from lightning conduct the electricity to? ‘9. Find information on recycling collection and storage points for dead batteries and answer the following questions: a) How many containers for dead batteries are there in your neighbourhood or area? b) Who collects them? * ¢) Are they recycled? If they are recycled, how do they do it? 1@. Analyse the following circuits and answer the questions in Activity 7, adding the following question: 1) Explain how they work. eae a [Diagram 2 pee