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AN OVERVIEW ON THE

CRITICAL IMPACT OF
GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT
AND EFFECTS ON METRO CEBU
Q
COASTAL AQUIFERS AND
ECOSYSTEMS
Dr. SEVILLO D. DAVID Jr.
and
LUTGARDO S. LARAÑO
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Mines and Geosciences Bureau
Manila, Philippines

1. INTRODUCTION

Regional
eg o Dynamic
y c Setting
Se g
• Western Pacific Domain
Pacific Plate
Eurasian Plate
do ust a a Plates
Indo-Australian ates

• Southeast Asian Tectonic Region


Philippine Sea Plate
Southeast Asian Margin

SOURCE: DENR-MGB
1. INTRODUCTION (cont’d)

GEOTECTONIC FRAMEWORK
• Surrounded by opposing subduction zones
• Characterized by several volcanic arc chains LUZON PHILIPPINE SEA
• Igneous rock-related ore deposits

Manila
• Volcanism and p plutonism since Pre- STUDY AREA
CEBU ISLAND

M
Tertiary (> 60 Ma)
• Philippine Fault and related structures WEST
control localization of many important PHILIPPINE
SEA
d
deposits
it
VISAYAS
• The Manila and Negros trenches on the eastern
boundary of the belt were created from the

nch
collision
lli i off the
th Palawan
P l microcontinental
i ti t l block
bl k

Tren
with the Philippine Mobile Belt

• The western border of the Philippine plate is a SULU SEA MINDANAO


convergent boundary; however it is an ocean-
continent convergent plate boundary where the
Philippine plate is subducting beneath northern
Asia on the Eurasian Plate.
CELEBES SEA

SOURCE: DENR-MGB

1. INTRODUCTION (cont’d)

PHILIPPINE SEA
SIMPLIFIED GEOLOGY
STUDY AREA
Limestone CEBU ISLAND

WEST
PHILIPPINE
Volcanic rocks SEA

I t i rocks
Intrusive k

Ultramafic rocks

SULU SEA

CELEBES SEA

SOURCE: DENR-MGB
1. INTRODUCTION (cont’d)

CASE STUDY:
METRO CEBU,
CEBU
PHILIPPINES

SOURCE: NWRB-JICA, 1998

1. INTRODUCTION (cont’d)

Social and Economics


STUDY AREA

2nd largest
g Urban Center
3 Cities and 5 Municipalities
Premier Island Vessel Operation – 80%
70% industrial output in Central Visayas
(B i e Processing
(Business P e i Industry
I d t
Export Industry / Mining / Tourism)
60% country’s export products
Strongest
g Economic Gainer (2010-2011)
( )
Highly Urbanized
Population – 4.17M (2010) 6.01M (2015)
Ave. GR – 2.5%
Cebu City -1.42M
1 42M
Total Land Area – 4,932km²
GW Resources Development and Management
78% GW
22% SW (Dams)
Cuurent Total Demand – 506,755 cumd (2005)
Future Demand – 577,173
, cumd ((2015))
2. Physical Background
Regional Geology
BASEMENT ROCK
Lutopan Diorite – Paleocene
Pandan Formation/Cansi Volcanics –
Cretaceous
Tunlob Schist – Jurassic

TERTIARY ROCKS
Carcar Formation – Pliocene
Maingit Formation – Late Miocene
Serpentinized Peridotite – Late Miocene
ToledoFormation - Middle Miocene
Bulacao Formation - Middle Miocene
Uling Formation - Middle Miocene
Talamban Diorite - Middle Miocene
Malubog Formation – Early Miocene
Cebu Orbitoidal Lst Formation – Late
Oligocene
Lutak Hill Formation – Early Oligocene

QUATERNARY ROCKS
Quaternary Alluvium - Recent
SOURCE: MGB--JICA, 1984

2. Physical Background (cont’d)


GEOMORPHOLOGY

1180000

Cebu Island Morphology


Mountainous and Hillslopes – 75%
Coastal Area – 15%

Max Ground Elevation – 600masl


1160000

Karstic Topography exist under


most Limestone/Carbonated rock
Types

Matamorphic and Tertiary Rock


tends to be more resistant 1140000

developing Rugged terrain and


slopes

Box pattern river drainage forms


on old limestone areas, while
younger imestone outcrop and 1120000

older basement rocks shows


dentritic and Irregular pattern. TOPOGRAPHIC MAP
OF METRO CEBU
SOURCE: NWRB-CEST Consultant, 2004 580000 600000
2. Physical Background (cont’d)
GEOMORPHOLOGY

3D VIEW OF STUDY AREA


3D-VIEW

Metro Cebu-North

Metro Cebu-Central

Metro Cebu-South SOURCE: NWRB-CEST Consultant, 2004

2. Physical Background (cont’d)

HYDROLOGIC FEATURES

CLIMATE DATA
Type III-IV Climate Class on the Western
Pacific Monsoon Climate Zone
Dryy season – Nov to April
p
Wet Season – Rest of the Year
Ave. Annual Precipitation - 1,519mm
Monthlyy Temp p - 27°C - 29°C
Annual Evaporation - 900mm
Annual Humidity - 79%

SOURCE: PAGASA
2. Physical Background
Hydrological Features

MEAN ANNUAL ISOHYTAL MAP


FOR METRO CEBU

SOURCE: NWRB, CEST Concultant, 2004

2. Physical Background
Hydrogeology

SOURCE ; DENR-MGB
2. Physical Background (cont’d)
Hydrogeology

SOURCE: NWRB-JICA, 1998

2. Physical Background (cont’d)


HYDROGEOLOGY
AQUIFER TYPES
• MCN, MCC & MCS ((Sub-Area 1))
unconfined aquifers to semi-confined
near the coast (limestone is overlain
by unconsolidated and alternating
sediments)
• Mactan Island (Sub-Area 2)
Unconfined Aquifers

AQUIFER GEOMETRY
Transmissivity – 2,000 to 3,000m²/day
Storage Coefficient – 0.01 to 0.05
S ifi Yield
Specific Yi ld – 3% to 27%
Earth Resistivity – 360 to 640ohm-m
2. Physical Background (cont’d)
HYDROGEOLOGY

GW FLOW THROUGH UNCONFINED AQUIFER

2. Physical Background (cont’d)


Hydrology

Present and Future


Surface Water Source

Metro Cebu South (MCS)


Daanlunsod River
P d Ri
Pandan River
e

Metro Cebu Central (MCC)


Butuanon River
Maghaway River
Mandaue River
Kotkot River

Metro Cebu North (MCN)


Danao River
y g River
Luyang
Naghalin River
Boso River

22% (349lps) SW from the


total1,593lps produced by
MCWD through dam
2. Physical Background Hydrology (cont’d)

SOURCE: NWRB-JICA, 1998

3. Legal and Institutional Framework

SOURCE : Phil Environment Monitor (PEM) on Water Quality, 2003


3. Legal and Institutional Framework (cont’d)

SOURCE : Phil Environment Monitor (PEM) on Water Quality, 2003

3. Legal and Institutional Framework (cont’d)

Functional Chart of Water Related


Agencies in the Philippines

SOURCE : NWRB
4. Problem Descriptions - GW Depletions
1979 Groundwater Level

1979 Groundwater Level

1. Not so Intense and


almost parallel to the
Coastal Line

2. Talisay and Cebu City

3. Level decline measured,


-2mbsl to -8mbsl

SOURCE : Kampsax Kruger, 1979

4. Problem Descriptions - GW Depletions (cont’d)


2004 Groundwater Level

2004 Groundwater
G Level
Two major Cone of Depression recognized
Liloan at -20mbsl
Mandaue -20mbsl
20mbsl

Two Minor Cone of Depression Observed


Cebu City -10mbsl
Mactan Island -10mbsl

SOURCE : NWRB, 2004


4. Problem Descriptions - GW Depletions (cont’d)
1979-2004 Groundwater Level Decline

MCWD abstract 110,000m3/d from 80-100DW


serving
i 70% to 30% volumel sold
ld to HH andd
Industrial, commercial etc (PIDS-DENR,
1998)

20,000-250,000 wells current GW extraction


set at 280,000-340,000ms/d

Aquifer area 180sq km providing


150,000m3/d. while SY estimated at
120,000m3/d.

3.4cm-5.5cm/ year land subsidence due to


overpumping (Lagmay, UP NIGS, 2011)

Greatest GW Decline 1979-2004


Liloan Wellfied - >-16m
y – 8m
Cebu City
Mandaue City – 8m
Consolacion – 8m
SOURCE : NWRB, 2004

4. Problem Descriptions- GW Pollution

GROUNDWATER POLLLUTION
Major Sources of SW and GW Pollution
P i t Sources:
Point S PEM EMB Report
R t Status
St t
Domestic Wastewater 48% 33%
Agricultural Wastewater 37% 29%
Industrial Wastewater 15% 27%
Non-point sources Not included 11%
Note:
Point Source are define as those which emit harmfull substances directly into a particular water body
Non-point source are classified as no identifiable source but scattered with pollutants indirectly.

Rivers and lakes in cebu are considered satisfactory based on DO and BOD
parameters set by DENR WQ Standard while bays and coastal waters are
slightly below.

GW quality is very high in TDS.

58% of groundwater sampled contaminated with coliform bacteria, and needs


treatment. PEM, NWRB, LWUA, Feasibility Studies-1997

Source : PEM, NWRB, LWUA, Feasibility Studies-1997


4. Problem Descriptions- GW Pollution (con’t)

pH Level
<6.5 Acidic Water (WQ
problem on
disinfection corrosion
disinfection,
control, water softening
and higher treatment
cost
6.5-8.5 dominates the
study area.

SOURCE : NWRB, 2004

4. Problem Descriptions- GW Pollution (con’t)

Hardness level
26% - industrial/industrial
(924.86lps out of 3,532lps)
Mandaue City, Cebu
City,Talisay Liloan and
Campostela >300mgl

SOURCE : NWRB, 2004


4. Problem Descriptions- GW Pollution (con’t)

Nitrate level
Organic decomposing
process through bacterial
action – human/animal
waste, plant debris and
fertilizer
>30mgl
30 g – Cebu C City
y ((11
wells, Campostela-4wells,
Liloan – 4wells,
Concepsion-3wells,
M d
Mandaue, T
Talisay,
li Lapu-
L
Lapu-Lapu City -1well
each)
10 l PNSDW Allowable
10mgl All bl
Limit

SOURCE : NWRB, 2004

4. Problem Descriptions- GW Pollution (con’t)

Description of Saltwater Intrusion


Cebu Island
5 kilometers inshore
abandonment of several wells and
economic loss of US30M/yr (Manila
Standard).
Critical to GW extraction.
Escalating water prices
Exceesive GW extraction (82,000 private
wells and Metropolitan
p Cebu Water
District’s 108 wells, Walag 2007). 90%
of the wells are saline in other areas
(RUcore Resources,2010)
water quality
li deterioration
d i i (Walag
(W l 2007).
2007)

SOURCE : NWRB, 2004


4. Problem Descriptions- GW Pollution (con’t)

Regional Pollution Hotspots


No. of Domestic No. of Mfg. Industrial Agriculture Agricultural
Households BOD Establishments BOD Land Area BOD
Region Generation Generation (in km2) Generation
NCR Metro Manila 2,132,989 17.60% 7,774 42.50% 0 0
CAR 263,816 1.70% 88 0.60% 190,235 2.30%
I Ilocos
Il 831 549
831,549 5 20%
5.20% 344 3 30%
3.30% 415 434
415,434 11 50%
11.50%
II Cagayan Valley 554,004 3.50% 146 0.20% 709,964 6.10%
III Central Luzon 1,632,047 9.90% 1,840 9.00% 653,607 9.10%
IV Southern Tagalog 2,410,972 14.60% 3,806 14.10% 1,410,315 13.30%
V Bicol 891,541 5.80% 234 3.10% 1,004,425 5.40%
VI Western Visayas 1,211,547 7.70% 580 5.10% 889,549 8.10%
VII Central Visayas 1,129,317 7.10% 1,432 7.40% 665,446 10.60%
VIII Eastern Visayas 715 025
715,025 4 50%
4.50% 169 1 10%
1.10% 957 329
957,329 2 60%
2.60%
IX Western Mindanao 595,728 3.80% 238 3.30% 763,796 5.20%
X Northern Mindanao 542,075 3.40% 311 2.20% 828,515 9.10%
XI Southern. Mindanao 1,066,199 6.40% 727 6.60% 1,103,297 8.60%
XII Central Mindanao 501,915 3.20% 186 0.50% 706,472 3.90%
ARMM 393,269 3.00% 13 0.00% - 3.00%
CARAGA 393,362 2.60% 144 0.90% - 1.20%

(Source: Philippines Environment Monitor 2003

5. Research Questions and Objectives

A. Research Questions for Groundwater


Depletion, Pollution Over-extraction and
Saltwater Intrusion
A th
Are there still
till practical
ti l solutions
l ti th
thatt we can adapt
d t tto reverse th
the d
deteriorating
t i ti
environmental status in order to balance and sustain nature resources relative
with man’s progress and survival?

B Obj
B. Objective
ti ffor G
Groundwater
d t Coastal
C t l Problems
P bl
To be able to formulate and implement practical measures towards sustainable water
security for economic progress, conservation and water resource management.

To acquire state-of-the-art, knowledge-based products and services that meet the


practical needs on various water domain and improve the water sector’s performance by
promoting effective solution under a given diverse situation.

To establish an effective knowledge partnership for information sharing utilizing available


experiences and expertise that could readily be applied and customized considering
various geographical condition.

To develop better stewardship and governance in managing coastal groundwater


resources and resource sustainability that could be used as reference in prioritizing uses,
minimizing risk associated with GW problems and identifies areas requiring immediate
support in
i terms off financing,
fi i technology
h l transfer
f andd capacity
i ddevelopment.
l
6. Data Availability
Department of Environment and Natural Programs and projects that help protect, preserves and enhance natural
Resources, DENR resources
Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) Focuses on environmental laws, for various environmental media,
standards and environmental quality status of the country
National Water Resources Board (NWRB) Water resources region and water quality and availability
Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage provides potable water and sewerage services to Metro Manila. It is one
System (MWSS) of the oldest waterworks systems in Asia, as well as one of the oldest
government-owned
t d andd controlled
t ll d corporations
ti in
i the
th Philippines.
Phili i
Local Water Utilities Administration Government Ownrd and Control corporation that provides water supply
(LWUA) and distribution systems for domestic, industrial, municipal and
agricultural uses for water resources development, utilization and
disposal.
disposal
Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB) It is responsible for the conservation, management, development and
proper use of the country’s mineral resources including those in
reservations and lands of public domains.
Metro Cebu Water District MCWD envisions itself to be a progressive and economically viable
utility firm that provides adequate, safe, potable and affordable water and
an effective sewerage system for Metro Cebu.
National Mapping and Resources Provides mapmaking services as well as geographic and resource
I f
Information
ti A Authority
th it (NMABRIA) i f
information.
ti
National Irrigation Administration (NIA) a Government-Owned and Controlled Corporation (GOCC) tasked with
the development and operation of irrigation systems all over the country."
g
None -Government Organization (NGO)
( )

7. Training Needs and Capacity Development

NUMBERS OF EXPERTS, EXPERIENCES AND TRAINING


REQUIRED

20 personnel on-the-job training and upgrading GW data and


assessment (NWRB, Water Resources Assessment for Prioritized Critical
Areas (Ph-I, 2004)
Georesistivity survey and interpretation
Pumping test and data analysis
Watershed and Water Balance aided thru GW modeling for
groundwater assessment and management studies

Instruments for Groundwater Monitoring


Geophysical Survey (Resistivity, GPR, seismic, magnetometer etc.)
Monitoring and Water Quality Devices (Automated data Well loggers
and probes etc.)
Hydrographic and Sedimentation Instruments (current price meter,
meter
water samplers etc.)
7. Training Needs and Capacity Development (cont’d)

SOFTWARES FOR GW MODELING


1. Groundwater Availability Assessment
MODFLOW software
(Developed by McDonald and Harbaugh,
Harbaugh 1988,
1988 USGS
2. Water Balance and Hydrograph Modeling
HEC-1, Flood Hydrograph Package (Ver. 4)
(Developed by :USACE hydrologic Eng’g Center)
DR3M – Disttributed Routing Rainfall-Run-off
Rainfall Run off Model (Ver
(Ver. II-1991)
II 1991)
Developed by USGS
HSPF – Hydrologic Simulation Program – Fortran
Developed by USGS/USEPA
PRMS – precipitation-Run-off Modeling System (!991 Version)
Developed by USGS
3. Watershed Modelling
SWATCH Software Developed by Dr. Morel-Seytour/Alhassoun,
Colorado State University

MITIGATING MEASURES ON GW PROBLEMS


Declaring identified GW areas as “Critical Areas” for exploitation
Conjuctive use of surface and Groundwater
Enforcing Design Standard for New Wells and Submission of Monitored Data
Protection of GW Quality – finance and construction of Sewerage facilites
and mapping of geologically unstable areas
Protection of Watershed Areas and Management
Enhancement of GW Data Collection
Sustainability of GW Modeling Studies

8. Expectations from the Project


How should
H h ld project
j t seminars
i andd workshops
k h be
b organized?
i d?
Workshops, training and seminar must be participated by all stakeholders
consisting of consumers, scientists, medical practitioners, engineers, politician
and educators. Presentation shall provide information on the current state and
f t
future scenario
i and
d what
h t steps
t mustt b
be executet tto preventt region/global
i / l b l wide
id
calamity.

What assistances are required from the project?


Fi
Financial
i l assistance
i t and
d new technological
t h l i l advances
d to
t control
t l or mitigate
iti t
GW problems, assess GW availability through field studies, digital modeling,
geophysical instrumentation and installation of monitoring network system.

Whatt results
Wh lt are expectedt d from
f the
th project?
j t?
At the end of the project, I expect to infuses or integrate in our system the
lesson learn from this project through participating in local conferences, forum
and intra-agency seminars or training.

What do you want to learn from other countries?


Comparative similarities and differences in term of geographical condition,
diverse geological affiliation and solutions adaptation to existing problems.

What experiences do you want to share with other countries?


Our state or conditions of our country’s water resources what we have done so
far.
Thank you!
y
www.mgb.gov.ph
www mgb gov ph
Mines and Geosciences Bureau
North Ave.,
Ave Diliman,
Diliman Quezon City
Tel. 9209120/9288642 Fax. 9201635
E-mail: central@mgb
central@mgb.gov.ph
gov ph