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A

REPORT ON SUMMER TRAINING


IN
OIL AND NATURAL GAS CORPORATION LIMITED
AHEMDABAD

Training Period: 26th APRIL 2018 - 25th MAY 2018


AT
SAIJ MAIN FIRE STATION (KALOL)
PROJECT: FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR

ON SHORE DRILLING& WORKOVER RIGS


And
OIL/GAS PRODUCTION INSTALLATIONS

SUBMITTED BY
 Swetabh Sahay
 Dhiraj Kumar
 Shashwat Kaushik
 Deepak Kumar Sahu
 Aman Singh

Department :-Safety and Fire Engineering


Cochin University of Science And Technology
ACKNOWLEDMENT
Fi rstl y, we woul d l i ke t hanks Mr. Ramesh Gahi re si r f or hi s great
eff ort s in arrangi ng our training at Ahmedabad asset under Saij Main Fire
Station (Kalol).
We would like to express our sincere thanks to installation m
a n a g e r s o f G G S m o t e r a KALOL,C.T.F, G.C.S,G.C.P, KALOL G.G.S , E.T.P,
C.W.I.P, Nawagam C.T.F, Desalter plant & security dept. O.N.G.C
AHMEDABAD. We express our deepest thanks to Mr. S.Bhatacharya sir
(Chief manager Fire dept.) for providing us the moral support and
encouragement, without which it would have been difficult to complete this
training
Preface

Th eo ry of an y subject is i mp ortan t bu t with ou t its p ractical


kn owledg e it beco mes useless, particularly for technical students. A
technical student cannot become a perfect engineer or technologist without
practical understanding of their branch, hence training provides a golden
opportunity for all technical students to interact with the working environment. The
principal necessity of in-plant training is to get details about unit operation and unit
process which are carried out in chemical industries and to know more
about the equipment used in these industries .The in-plant training program
is very advantageous for the technical students who have a vivid idea about
the industries .Th is train ing h elp s to und erstand the b asic co ncep t of
the indu stry. Du ring this p eriod the students becomes aware of the
problems faced in the plant and are also aware of the industrial atmosphere
and also with the industrial people.
ONGC Fire Services
Due to Industrialization, the need of Industrial Fire Brigades with specific
equipments and manpower was realized by industries in the mid sixties. ONGC
commenced its commercial production of oil in 1957 after the drilling of the first oil
well, Jawalamukhi Well No 1. A few firemen with a Fire Pump were deputed to
oversee the drilling operations at Jawalamukhi. The team was ably led by the first
Fire Officer who was incidentally on deputation from Delhi Fire Services. Later in the
same year, ONGC finally started its Fire Services operation under the Assam Asset
with the first Fire Station set up at Rudrasagar Oil & Gas field with a few fireman
and the first regular Fire Officer, of ONGC. Since then, the ONGC Fire Services has
never looked back. In fact, the unique growth story of ONGC since early seventies,
particularly with the discovery of Mumbai High oil field in Western Offshore
envisioned new roles & responsibilities for this department.

The discovery of large oil fields both in offshore and onshore, technological up
gradation in its E&P activities, and the need for compliance to guidelines issued by
the regulatory authorities, viz. Director General of Mines Safety Directorate
(DGMS)- under the Ministry of Labour & the Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD)
under the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, forced the ONGC management to
expand and upgrade the Fire Services by inducting qualified Fire Engineers from
National Fire Service College, Nagpur, the only Govt College under the Ministry of
Home Affairs (MHA). Since then, the ONGC Fire Services has travelled a long way.
With 11 Main and 17 Sub - Fire Stations in onshore areas and 12 offshore Process
Complexes equipped with sophisticated, modern and state of art fire Fighting
Equipment, the ONGC Fire Services has grown into a professional industrial Fire
Service. The unsung heroes of the ONGC Fire Services have provided yeomen
service for building a safe environment at various levels so that the E & P
operations of the company are conducted without any hindrance.
Overview of Hazards in ONGC

A Hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to Life, Health, Property or


Environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of
harm; however, once a hazard becomes "active", it can create an emergency
situation. Hazard and possibility interact together to create risk.

Oil & Gas continues to be the major source of energy and dependency has grown
too high since majority of energy needs are met by this sector. This has
necessitated the adoption of new technologies in exploration, refining & storage of
the hydrocarbon in Oil & Gas Industry.

Thus a lot of technological improvements have taken place both in upstream &
downstream sectors of Oil & Gas to enhance oil recoveries in upstream and make
environment friendly products in downstream.

ONGC is committed to the idea that all the incidents (including fire) are preventable;
hence every fire incident can be classified by the place of work of its occurrence. In
ONGC, working areas can be classified as:-

1. Exploration

a) Geophysical drill site on land


b) Seismic vessel at offshore

2. Drilling

a) Drill site on land


b) Work Over Rig on land
c) Jack-up drilling rig at Offshore
d) Drill Ship/Floater at Offshore
e) Workover Rig at Offshore

3. Production

a) Well on land
b) Well Platform at Offshore
c) Well Head Installation (WHI) on land
d) Early Production System (EPS)
e) Group Gathering Station (GGS)
f) Production Platform – Unmanned
g) Production Platform – Manned
h) Gas Collecting Station (GCS) – Onshore
i) Gas Compressor Station
j) Central Tank Farm (CTF) area
k) LPG Plant
l) Process Plant
m) Processing Complex
n) Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
o) Central Processing Facility (CPF)

4. Transportation

a) Oil Pipeline on Land


b) Gas Pipeline on Land
d) Pumping Station of Pipeline on Land
e) Submarine Pipeline
f) Rail and Road Loading Gantries
g) Land Fall Points
h) Offshore Support Vessel (OSV) & Multipurpose Support Vessel (MSV)

5. General Services

i. Workshops
ii. Laboratories
iii. Electrical Substations
iv. Stock Yards
v. Central Stores
vi. Explosive Magazines
vii. Multistoried Office Buildings
viii. Residential Colonies, etc.
The major hazards associated with the oil industry are fire, explosion, sudden
pressure release and toxic release. Of these, fire is the most common, but explosion
is particularly significant in terms of fatality and losses. ONGC has been engaged in
oil and natural gas exploration and production since its inception. Since exploration,
production, refining and marketing of hydrocarbons are the multidisciplinary task
and are spread on land and sea, hence one has to be extremely cautious and safe
in each operation being performed. Therefore, ONGC encounters all types of
common fire hazards known in the industrial operations, besides some special types
of fire hazards specific to oil industry only. Some of the major hazards are listed
below:

 Blow-out (oil and gas)


 Explosion (CVCE, UVCE, BLEVE, Dust)
 Rupture of vessel, pipelines and storage tanks
  Leakage of oil, gas and H2S
 Spillage of Hazardous Chemicals
 Over-pressure, Under-pressure, Over-flow, Over-heating
 Static Electricity
 Radioactive materials release
 Confined Space entry
 Fires (Oil, Gas, Dry Vegetation, Electrical, etc.)
 Explosives
 Collisions (helicopters, vessels, road tankers, rail wagons, etc.)
 Natural Disasters (Cyclone, Floods, Earthquake, Lightning, etc.)

Most of these hazards lead to major fires as fuel in liquid and gaseous form, air and
heat (as a result of various operations) are present abundantly which under
uncontrolled conditions or malfunctioning of operations may lead to fires or
sometimes explosion.
Fire Protection Philosophy
The Fire Protection Philosophy in oil and gas industry is based on Fire safety, Loss
Prevention and Control. It considers that in the hydrocarbon industry, the risk of fire
is omnipresent at all levels of operational activities like exploration, drilling,
production, processing and distribution, critical operations requirement and large
inventories stored at facilities. A fire in one part of these operational areas can
endanger other part/section of the area, if not controlled or extinguished as quickly
as possible to minimize the loss of life and property and prevent further spread of
fire.
Considering the above philosophy, the basic fire protection requirement depends on
various factors like area of operations, size of storage tanks, layout of facilities like
GGS, CTF, Oil & Gas Processing installation, pipeline installation, disposal system
of blow down, drainage from equipment handling petroleum product, pressure &
temperature conditions in the process, terrain, etc. Material of construction for
infrastructure facilities shall conform to various statutory regulations like National
Building Code (NBC), Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD), National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA), American Petroleum Institute (API), etc.

Depending on the nature and size of installation and risks involved, appropriate
fire
protection facilities out of following shall be provided

i) Water Spray System.


ii) Foam System.
iii) Hydrants and Monitors.
iv) Fire Extinguishers.
v) Portable/mobile firefighting equipment
vi) Clean Agent system
Design Criteria for Fire Protection System
AS per OISD 189 the following shall be the design criteria for a fire protection system

 The fire protection facilities shall be designed considering that city fire water
supply is
not available close to the installation.

 The fire protection facilities at drilling rig, workover rig and production installations
like
WHI, QPS and EPS shall be designed to initiate an immediate fire fighting
operation
so as to prevent escalation into a major emergency.

 Water spray system shall be provided for GCS and GCP.

 A single largest fire risk shall be considered for providing fire fighting facilities.

 Installations storing Class A and B petroleum in above ground tanks shall be


provided
with fixed water spray system, for the following conditions :-
Aggregate above ground storage of Class A and B petroleum is more than 1000
KL.
ii) Diameter of floating or fixed roof tanks storing Class A petroleum is more than
9 m.
Further, fixed water spray system shall be provided on all the tanks, where inter
distances between tanks in dyke and/or within dykes are not meeting the
requirements of OISD-STD-118.

 Fixed foam system or Semi-fixed foam system shall be provided for all tanks
(floating
roof or fixed roof) and storing Class A or Class B petroleum.

 Water cum foam monitors/foam hose streams shall be considered for fighting
fires in
dyke area and spills.

 In an ETP plant, all the areas susceptible to fire hazards shall be covered by
fixed fire
fighting system with water cum foam monitors and hydrants.

 Fire water system shall be designed for a minimum pressure of 7 kg/cm2 at the
most
hydraulically remotest point of application.

 Hydraulically remotest hydrant or monitor is the one located at farthest distance


from the
pump or located highest on the superstructure or located at the end of a poorly
sized
branch line, and encounters maximum pressure drop, at the designed flow rate at
that
point.
Fire Station
A fire station is the basic operational Centre of ONGC Fire Service in the Asset
/ Plant/Installation. In major Work Centers the main, centrally located fire station
is designated as “Main Fire Station” for coordinating the activities of other fire
stations. Main Fire Station has minimum two authorized manned fire tenders for
initial emergency response. All other fire stations in the Work Centers are called
as “Sub-Fire Station”. In smaller Work Centers sub – Fire Stations can
perform the role of the Main Fire Station of the Work Centre.

Functions of Fire Station


(a) Co-ordinate all activities in connection with fire safety, fire protection and
fire fighting operations within the operational jurisdiction.
(b) To respond to any emergency call.
(c) To organize maintenance of fire fighting equipment available in the field
and also which are available at the Fire Station itself.
(d) Checking and testing of fixed fire fighting equipment.
(e) To perform standby duties during hot jobs , hot oil circulation, well
stimulation, Helicopter landing and takeoff etc.
(f) Conducting onsite training programmes, mock drills etc.
(g) Provide mutual aid assistance to sister industries and assist civil
administration in fire fighting & rescue operations, when so required.

FIRE CONTROL ROOM

AS per OISD 163 “Control Room” is a protective enclosure equipped with


control & communication services and environmental treatment necessary
for proper functioning of the Hydrocarbon Processing and Handling
Installation. The control room could either be blast-resistant or non-blast
resistant as applicable to the type of installation”

 Functions
 To attend and respond all emergency situations calls (like- Gas leakage,
blow out situation ,Fire call ,disaster)
 Keep a record of all the employees attendance.
 Maintain records of Daily activities in situ of fire station
 Maintain a log book and location tracking (GPS) of every fire tender and its
movement
 Conduct Mock drill ,One day training programmers to ONGC as well as
people in the vicinity of installations.

 Communiction
A. Line Communication:-

I. A telephone only with incoming calls facility for receiving fire calls in the
fire station/control room.
II. Another telephone for communication with outside agencies like local
civil/police/fire authorities, mutual support stations, etc.
III. Intercom / hotline connection for intra communication within the
Asset/Installation/Work Centre etc.

B. Wireless Communication:

I. All Main / Sub Fire Stations are equipped with VHF sets of required
capacity as Base Station to communicate among themselves as well as
with the fire appliances of the station.
II. All fire tenders/fire vehicles are fitted with VHF sets of sufficient capacity
as
Mobile Stations to be in constant contact with their respective fire
stations.

III. Each fire vehicles is are equipped with 4 walike – talkie sets of 5 watt
capacity for use by the crew on fire fighting duty away from the tender.
FIRE TENDERS
Specifications for fabricating a fire vehicle commonly used in petroleum industry are
given here

1. FOAM TENDER
The Foam Tender including all accessories should be designed and manufactured
as per relevant Indian Standards and Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC) ’s
requirements wherever applicable and should be as per sound engineering practice.
The specifications mentioned hereunder lays down the minimum requirements
regarding material, design, construction, workmanship and finish, accessories and
acceptance tests of foam tender. All the equipment and accessories should be fixed
on the appliance in a compact and neat manner and should be so placed that each
part is easily and readily accessible for use and maintenance. The centre of gravity
should be kept as low as possible.

1.1 CHASSIS
(i)Foam tender should be fabricated and built on suitable chassis of payload 10
tones or payload 16.8 tones or equivalent to match engine and pump
characteristics.
(ii) The Foam Tender should have power steering.
(iii) Drag hook or eye of adequate strength and design should be provided at
the front and rear of the chassis.
(iv) All wiring should be properly fixed in position and should be protected
against heat, oil and physical damage.Wherever possible wiring should pass
through PVC sleeves.
(v) All important electrical circuits should have separate fuses suitably indicated
and grouped in a common fuse box located in an easily accessible position.
Provision should be made for a minimum four (4) spare fuses in the fuse box.
(vi) Engine : The vehicle engine should be diesel driven preferably with
synchromesh 5 forward and 1 reverse speeds gearbox. Engine should be
equipped with a complete starting system of 24 V type. An alternator and
rectifier capable of delivering a minimum of 50 A at 24 V should be provided.
(vii) Batteries : Ordinary lead acid batteries. Master isolation switch should be
provided in dashboard panel.
(viii) Radio suppression of the electrical system, which is sufficient to ensure
positive operation of radio equipment without interference, should be provided.
(ix) Braking distance should not be more than 9m at 32 km/hr. when fully
loaded. 4
1.2 PUMP
(i) The foam tender should be mounted with one centrifugal type, single / double
stage pump. 9
(ii) The pump should be capable of discharging minimum 4000 lpm at 8.5 Kg/cm2 .
The suction side of the pump should be connected to water tank independently.
(iii) The pump should be capable of discharging not less than 150% of the rated
capacity at a head not less than 65% of the rated head. The shut off head of the
pump should not exceed 120% of the rated head for the pumps.
(iv) Pump should be suitably mounted on the rear / midship on the chassis and
should be accessible and readily removable for repair and maintenance. The pump
should have its control panel installed suitably.
(v) The pump should be of rigid construction and should be made of gunmetal/ any
suitable light alloy, compatible with fire fighting water and foam compound with
stainless steel grade 304 shaft should be suitable for use with saline water.
(vi) The pump impeller shaft should be fitted with antifriction bearings. (vii) The pump
impeller neck rings and impeller rings should be renewable types and the gland
should be self-adjusting type. A drain plug should be provided at the bottom of the
casing.
(viii) Primer : The pump should be fitted with an automatic water ring /reciprocating
primer. It should be capable of lifting water atleast from a depth of 7.0 m at a rate of
not less than 30 cm per second.
(ix) The delivery outlet of the pump should be connected to the monitor and 4/6/8
numbers of screwed 63 mm female instantaneous couplings in accordance with
IS:903 – 1975. The monitor and other 63 mm female coupling outlets should be fitted
with lever operated ball valves.
(x) Suction lines should be provided with strainers which should be removable easily

1.3 WATER TANK


Water tank of 1800 to 3000 liters capacity should be suitably mounted on the
chassis. It should be fabricated out of Mild Steel / stainless steel grade 304/316
sheets; of minimum 5 mm thickness for bottom and 4 mm for sides and top. The gas
tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with ER 309 MOL electrode or equivalent and 100%
radiography should be followed. 150 mm / 200 mm water filling pipe on each side of
the vehicle should be provided for water tank filling, fitted with 2/3 numbers of 63 mm
instantaneous male couplings incorporating a strainer, NRV
1.4 FOAM TANK
Foam Compound tank of 3000 to 4500 liters capacity should be mounted on the
chassis. It should be fabricated out of stainless steel grade 304/316 plates 11 of
minimum 5 mm thickness for bottom and 4 mm thickness for sides & top. All external
surface should be suitably treated to resist atmospheric corrosion and painted. The
foam tank should be of rigid type rectangular / elliptical in shape with welded
construction. The gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with ER 309 MOL electrode or
equivalent 100% radiography is required. The foam tank should be suitably baffled
to prevent the surges while the vehicle is accelerating, cornering and braking and
should be so designed and mounted as to bring the center of gravity as low as
possible in the chassis. The baffles should have flanged man ways of 450 mm dia.
The tank should have minimum 1 no. of 450 mm dia inspection manhole with hinged
or removable covers. The manhole cover should be marked ‘FOAM’ at the top. The
tank should be provided with a breather valve to enable automatic venting of the
foam compound tank when the foam compound is drawn from it or when the tank in
being filled

1.5 FOAM COMPOUND PROPORTIONER


Around the pump proportioner with variable setting selector valve (to induce 3 to 6%
of foam compound) should be provided between the foam compound tank and pump.
It should be designed for operation by water under pump pressure. Balance foam
proportioner with manual override is optional. The proportioner should be so
installed that it should not be liable to mechanical or other damage. The selector
valve should have four settings beginning with ‘On’ or ‘Off’ position. Each upward
setting will result into an equal increase 12 in the foam compound flow rate. The
linkages for this purpose should be as simple as possible to avoid distortion due to
chassis flexion. It should be very reliable and should not require frequent calibration
checks. Auxiliary foam pickup tube arrangement from outside should be provided

1.6 POWER TAKE OFF UNIT (PTO)


A power take off unit of suitable gear ratio to match the engine & pump
characteristics should be provided. A separate lever in the main cabin should
engage the PTO. Necessary supports for PTO units, propeller shaft couplings,
universal joints etc. for power input to and output from PTO unit should be provided.
The drive assembly components (shaft, couplings etc.) should be dynamically
balanced.

1.7 WATER / FOAM MONITORS


There should be one roof mounted water-cum-foam aspirating / non aspirating
monitor of minimum 2580 lpm capacity and 60 m horizontal water throw at 7.0
Kg/sq.cm. The monitor should be capable of traversing through 360o in a horizontal
plane and 90o up and 15o down in the vertical plane. The monitor and hand-lines
should be tested separately and in combination for delivering foam and water throw
at rated capacity and range; within the pump capacity.

2. FOAM NURSER

The Foam Nurser including all accessories should be designed and manufactured as
per relevant Indian Standards and TAC requirements wherever applicable and
should be as per sound engineering practice. The specifications given here are
guidelines for material, design, construction and accessories etc. for Foam Nurser.
All the equipment and accessories should be fixed on the appliance in a compact and
neat manner and should be so placed that each part is easily and readily accessible
for 17 use and maintenance. The centre of gravity should be kept as low as possible.

2.1 CHASSIS
The foam nurser should be fabricated on a suitable chassis of pay load capacity 10
tonnes or 16.8 tonnes or 19.0 tonnes. The spare wheel assembly (supplied along
with chassis) should be fitted at a suitable place on the appliance. Rest same as
foam tender

2.2 FOAM TANK


The net capacity of the foam tank should be 7000 to 12000 liters. The tank should
have 2% expansion space over and above foam compound capacity. The materials
of construction of foam tank and fittings should be SS-304 / SS- 316. The foam tank
of rectangular / elliptical shape and should be made of 5 mm. (minimum) for bottom
and 4 mm minimum thick plates for sides and top. The tank should be welded in
construction and should have adequate SS angle reinforcement. Suitable baffles
should be provided inside the tank, made out of 5mm. SS-304 / SS- 316 plates to
prevent surging, when vehicle is in motion. The baffle plates should be placed at
every 900mm (max.) interval. Hooks should be provided on roof of the tank for lifting
purpose

2.3 FOAM PUMP


 The pump to handle foam compound should be rotary gear type. The pump
should be driven by chassis engine through PTO and should meet following
specifications:
 Capacity : Minimum 400 lpm at 7 kg./CM2 (g) discharge pressure.
o Priming: Self priming under gravity feed from tank and capable to lift foam
from barrel kept on ground.
o Materials: Casing, shaft and other parts coming in contact with the foam
compound should be of SS-304 except gears manufactured from SS
AISI-410.
o Type of Gears: Double helical, hardened and profile ground.
o Bearings: GM and teflon bush bearing (replaceable type).
o Shaft Seal: Mechanical seal.

2.5 POWER TAKE-OFF (PTO) UNIT


The Power Take Off (PTO) Unit for driving the pump should be of suitable type to
match the pump characteristics. PTO Unit should be engaged by a separate lever in
the main cabin. Necessary supports for PTO Units, propeller shafts, coupling,
universal joints etc. for power input to and output from PTO units should have to be
provided. The drive assembly components (shafts, coupling etc.) should be
dynamically balanced.

3 WATER BOUSER

The specification covers the minimum requirement regarding design, material,


fabrication, workmanship & finish accessories and acceptance tests of fire water tender
of 6000 liter capacity to be used as a major fire fighting appliance.

3.1 CHASSIS
The water tank should be fabricated and built on a suitable chassis of pay load
capacity 10 tonnes or 16.8 tonnes.

3.2 PUMP
The Tender should be mounted with one centrifugal type, single / double stage pump.
The pump should be capable of discharging minimum 4000 lpm at 8.5 Kg/Cm2 . The
suction side of the pump should be connected to water tank independently. The pump
should be capable of discharging not less than 150% of the rated capacity at a head
not less than 65% of the rated head. The shut off head of the pump should not exceed
120% of the rated head for the pumps. The pump impeller shaft should be fitted with
antifriction bearings.
Primer : Pump should be fitted with an automatic water ring /reciprocating primer. It
should be capable of lifting water at-least through 7.0 m at a rate of not less than 30
cm per second. The delivery outlet of the pump should be connected to the monitor
and 4/6/8 numbers of screwed 63 mm female instantaneous couplings should be in
accordance with IS:903 – 1975. The monitor and other 63 mm female coupling outlets
should be fitted with lever operated ball valves. Suction lines should be provided with
strainers which should be removable easily.

3.3 WATER TANK


Water tank of minimum 6000 liters capacity should be suitably mounted on the
chassis. It should be fabricated out of MS/Grade 304/316 Stainless Steel sheets; of
minimum 5 mm thickness for bottom and 4 mm for sides and top. The Gas Tungsten
Arc Welding (GTAW) with ER 309 MOL electrode or equivalent and 100%
radiography should be followed. Tank made of MS should be epoxy coated. The tank
should have adequate MS / SS angle reinforcement

3.4 WATER MONITORS


There should be one roof mounted water monitor of minimum 2580 lpm capacity
and minimum 60 m horizontal throw at 7.0 Kg/sq.cm. The monitor should be capable
of traversing through 360o in a horizontal plane and 90o up and 15o down in the
vertical plane. The monitor and hand-lines should be tested separately and in
combination for delivering water throw at rated capacity and range; within the pump
capacity.

4.EMERGENCY RESCUE TENDER


The Emergency Rescue Tender (ERT) including all accessories should be designed
and manufactured as per relevant Indian Standards and TAC’s requirements
wherever applicable and should be as per sound engineering practice. The
specifications mentioned hereunder lays down the requirements regarding material,
design, construction, workmanship and finish, accessories and acceptance tests
emergency rescue vehicle . All the equipment and accessories should be fixed on the
appliance in a compact and neat manner and should be so placed that each part is
easily and readily accessible for use and maintenance. The centre of gravity should
be kept as low as possible. This specification covers the general requirements
regarding materials, performance and acceptance tests for Emergency Rescue
Tender to be used for Rescue Operations including handling LPG Emergencies
. The scope of supply should be inclusive of, but not limited to the following:
· Diesel generator set of 5 KVA fitted with CCE approved spark arrestor & Flood
lighting arrangement.
· A battery operated amplifier system.
· An extension ladder.
· Pneumatic lifting equipment.
· Leak sealing pads
· Leak control kits.
· Low temperature protective suit
· Fire entry suit
· Fire proximity suit
· Hydraulic spreader and cutter
· Portable gas detectors
· LPG transfer equipment
· Traffic control equipment
· other accessories.

5. MULTIPURPOSE FIRE TENDER

Since the most commonly encountered fire in everyday life is class A fires,
water tenders from the bulk of fire vehicles in organized Fire Services.
However, in the hydrocarbon industry, B & C classes’ fires are major hazards
and so Foam Tenders are required. The drawback of the two types of fire
tenders above is that they cannot be effectively used in combating electric fires,
for which Dry Chemical Powder (DCP) is the more appropriate firefighting
medium. Initially, fire tenders in use were catering to each of the above
segment and so water tenders, foam tenders and DCP tenders were kept in the
fire stations. However, the concept of multipurpose fire tender incorporating all
the three extinguishing medias i.e. water, foam and DCP in the same vehicle
evolved over a period of time and the convenience of having a single fire
vehicle which can be effectively utilized in fighting all classes of fire gave the
ONGC Fire Services more capabilities in its fire
ONGC NORMS FOR FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT AT FIRE STATIONS
SL DETAILS OF ITEM MAIN FIRE STATION SUB - FIRE STATION

NO (In No.) (In No.)

( A) Self propelled Major Appliances

1. Self propelled Multipurpose 02 02

Large Fire Tender (16 Ton

GVW)

2. Self propelled Multipurpose 0 * (01 No. of unit to be

foam cum – DCP Fire Tender 02 equipped where no main

(25 Ton GVW) fire station exists)

3. Self propelled Multipurpose 01 01

Small Fire Tender (07 Ton

GVW)

4. Self propelled DCP 2000 KG 01 00

Capacity Fire Tender

SL DETAILS OF ITEM MAIN FIRE STATION SUB - FIRE STATION

NO (In No.) (In No.)

5. Self Propelled Foam Nurser unit 01 00


6. Water Bowser with Water Tank 01 00

of 10000 litre capacity

7. Emergency Rescue Tender 25 *01 No., Sibsagar, 00

Ton GVW Ahmedabad and

Narsapur

8 Fire Jeep with Ultra High 01 01

Pressure Pump with 500 litre

water & 50 litre foam capacity.

9. Self Propelled Fire Jeep with 01 01

DCP 150 kg and 50 litre Water

Mist System.

(B) Portable & Mobile equipment

1. Portable Fire Pump 1600 LPM 03 02

capacity

2. Portable Fire Pump 275 LPM 02 02

capacity

3. Fire water/ Foam monitor 500 to 02 02

1000 GPM (Variable capacity)

with self foam pickup facility.

4. Fire water/ Foam monitor 1000 01 01

to 2000 GPM (Variable

capacity) with self foam pickup

facility.

5. Fire water/ Foam monitor 500 to 01 01

1000 GPM with self foam pickup

facility , 500 litre foam tank &

trailer

6. Water Mist System 9 litre 04 02

capacity With 100% spare

cylinder

7. Water Mist System 35 litre 03 02


capacity With 100% spare

cylinder

8. Water Mist System 50/60 litre 03 02

capacity With 100% spare

cylinder

9. Different class/ type of Fire To be worked out To be worked out

Extinguishers, to meet standby, asperapplicable as per applicable

training requirement. standards standards

(C) Break – away , personnel protective and Rescue gears

1. SCBA set with 100% spare 10 06

cylinders

2. Fire proximity suit. 04 04

3. Fire Approach suit. 12 06

4. Gas /Liquid tight chemical suit. 04 02

5. Thermal imaging camera (4 01 0

probes)

6. Breathing Air filling Compressor 01 -

(150+ - 50 lpm) unit.

7. Mobile /portable Emergency 01 01

lighting system unit.

8. Floater water pump 02 01

SL DETAILS OF ITEM MAIN FIRE STATION SUB - FIRE STATION

NO (In No.) (In No.)

9. Turbo/submersible pump 01 0

10. Smoke extractor 01 0


11. High expansion /medium 01 01

expansion foam generator

12. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01

Cutters 25 ton capacity

13. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01

Cutters 38 ton capacity

14. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01

Spreaders 10 ton/15 ton

15. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01

Circular Saw.

16 Hydraulic powered lifting jack 0 01

50 ton cap

17. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01

Diamond chain

(D) Stores, Accessories and Tools

1. Delivery hoses.(63mm) with 50 Nos in stock. 25 Nos in stock

Couplings . .

2. Suction hoses 100 mm 04 04

3. Suction hoses 150 mm 04 04

4. Dry chemical powder 6000 Kg stock 3000 kg stock where no

main fire station exists.

5 Foam compound 10000 Litres 6000 Litre

High expansion foam compound 3000 litre 2000 litre

7 Fire buckets 100 No 50 No

8 Fire blanket. 25 nos. 20 nos.


9 Hydrant valves/pillar post To be worked out as To be worked out as per

,Double headed 63 mm. per applicable applicable standards

standards

10 Multipurpose Nozzles (Orifice 10 05

of varying size)

11. Inductor with variable metering 05 03

valve

12. Foam branches (FB-5,FB-10 02 Nos each 01 Nos each

and FB-20)

13 Hose binding machine with 02 0

allied accessories

14 Standard maintenance tool kit 02 01

15. Hydraulic testing machine 02 01

16 Spark arrestor with muffler 02 02

17 Rechargeable emergency torch 02 02

18 Weighing machine capacity 0 to 01 0

2000 grams + - 5 gram

Sensitivity

SL DETAILS OF ITEM MAIN FIRE STATION SUB - FIRE STATION

NO (In No.) (In No.)

19 Weighing machine capacity 0 to 01 0

200 kg + - 1kg sensitivity.

20. Battery charger for charging 2 01 01

batteries at a time.

(E) Fire prevention training equipment


1. Fire fighting training kit 02 01

2. Smoke generator 01 0

3. Cut models of fire extinguishers One set One set

of different size &types

4. Cut models of SCBA Set One set One set

(F)Transportation communication equipment

1 Transport jeep. 01 01
Overall Process Flow in ONGC AHEMDABAD
Important Definitions and abbreveations as per OISD 189
 Central Tank Farm (CTF)-It is a facility where petroleum is received and stored
in bulk for further dispatch either by pipeline, rail or road. The aggregate storage
capacity of petroleum should be above 5000KL for class A and B petroleum
products.
 Drilling Rig (DR)-It is a compact mobile unit comprising of derrick structure,
power generating unit for running the draw-works, mud preparation unit and other
associated equipment necessary for carrying out drilling operation in the earth’s
crust by mechanical means to reach down to the petroleum bearing zones below
the ground for exploration and development of oil and gas field.
 Early Production Set-up (EPS)
It is a production installation similar to GGS/OCS in nature; however, smaller in
capacity. It is generally setup at a very early stage of development of any oilfield
area where the number of wells are limited and the aggregate petroleum storage
capacity is above 240KL but up to 1000 KL for class A and B petroleum products.
 Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
A plant where effluent (produced water) is treated to bring down outlet
parameters to an acceptable level as per the applicable regulatory requirements.
 Gas Collecting Station (GCS) and Gas Compressor Plant (GCP)
A plant/station where gas is received, liquids separated, gas is dehydrated (if
required) and gas is further compressed for onward transmission. However the
installations where gas processing also involves dew point depression, etc,
this standard is not applicable. Refer OISD-STD-116 on “Fire protection facilities
for petroleum refineries & oil/gas processing plants” and OISD-STD-226 on
“Standard on natural gas transmission pipelines” for applicable provisions.
 Group Gathering Station (GGS)/Oil Collecting Station (OCS)
It is a production installation where petroleum production from number of wells is
collected for treating and separating oil, water and gas before dispatch. The
aggregate storage capacity of petroleum is above 1000 KL but up to 5000 KL for
class A and B petroleum product.
 Workover Rig (WOR)
It is a compact mobile unit comprising of derrick structure, equipment
necessaryfor mud/ workover fluid preparation and power generation, etc. The
unit is mainly used for oil and/or gas well servicing to perform a variety of
remedial operations on oil and/or gas well based on the technical requirement
with the overall objective of restoring/increasing its production.
GGS-MOTERA
DATE OF COMMISION:
29.03.1992

AREA OF INSTALLATION:WELL PRODUCTION STATUS:


TOTAL WELLS CONNECTED-33
TOTAL FLOWING WELLS-28
TOTAL LIQUID PRODUCTION-40 m3/day
WATER INJECTION WELLS- nil
GAS INJECTED-20000 m3/day

VESSELS:
LOW PRESSURE SEPARATOR- (vol- 6 m3)
GROUP SEPARATOR- (vol-6 m3)
TEST SEPARATOR- (vol- 6m3)
VERTICAL SCRUBBER-(capacity-1.7 lacks m3/day)
HORIZONTAL SCRUBBER-(capacity- 50000 m3/day)
BATH HEATER- 1 NO.S

TANKS
OIL STORAGE TANKS- 3 NO.S (45 m3)

FUNCTION:
At group gathering system (GGS) fluid from various wells is collected in
header from various we l l s t h r o u g h p i p e l i n e n e t wo r k . T h e n t h e l o w
p r e s s u r e f l u i d ( 1 - 2 k g / c m 2) g o e s t o t h e l o w p r e s s u r e s e p a r a t o r , a n d
t h e n i n t h e o u t p u t we g e t s e p a r a t e d o i l a n d g a s . O i l g o e s d i r e c t l y t o
storage tanks and gas goes to common sucker separator. On the other hand
fluid of 4-5 kg/cm2 pressure goes to group separator. Then from the outlet of
this separator gas goes to common suction separator and oil goes directly to
storage tanks. Th e n i n c o m mo n s u c t i o n s e p a r a t o r a l l t h e g a s e s f r o m t h e
o u t l e t o f g r o u p s e p a r a t o r a n d l o w pressure separator is further separated,
thus if any amount of oil is still present in gas can be separated. So after
separation gas is directly sent to GAIL and oil goes to storage tank.
Fire Protection System for GGS
Design fire water flow rate for GGS shall be the largest of the following two:

 Fire water flow rate for tank farm shall be aggregate of the following :-
Water flow rate for cooling single largest tank on fire and exposure
protection to other tanks as
 Flow rate for water spray application for fixed or floating roof tanks shall
be aggregate of the following :-
 3 lpm/m² of tank shell area for cooling a tank on fire.
 lpm/m² of tank shell area for exposure protection for all other tanks
falling within a radius of (R +30) m from center of the tank on fire (R is
the radius of tank on fire).
 1 lpm/m2 of tank shell area for exposure protection for all other tanks
falling outside a radius of (R+30) m from center of the tank on fire (R
is the radius of tank on fire) and located in the same dyke.
 Water flow rate for applying foam solution on single largest tank on fire.
 Fire water flow rate for supplementary water streams shall be based on using 4
single
hydrant outlets and 1 water monitor simultaneously. Capacity of each hydrant
outlet as 36 m3 / hr and of monitor as 144 m3/hr should be considered.

GGS MOTERA FIRE CALCULATION

The fire water system at Group Gathering/Oil Collecting Station shall be designed to
meet the fire water flow requirement for fighting a single largest fire.

FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR CONE ROOF TANK PROTECTION


Data
Total storage capacity in one dyke area : 2000 m³.
No. of tanks : 2.
Capacity of each tank : 1000 m³.
Diameter of each tank : 12 m.
Height of each tank : 9.7 m.
a) Cooling water flow rate
Cooling water required for tank on fire
Cooling water rate : 3 lpm/m2 of tank area for tank on fire.
Cooling water required : 3.142 x 12 m x 9.7 m x 3 lpm/m2.
= 1098 lpm. = 66 m³/hr.

Assuming that other tank is also located at a distance less than 30 m from the tank
shell.

Therefore, in such case cooling required is at the rate of 3 lpm/m2 of tank shell area.
Cooling water required for tanks falling within (R+30) from centre of tank on fire
Cooling water rate : 3 lpm/m2 of tank area.
Cooling water required : 3.142 x 12 m x 9.7m x 3 lpm/m2.
= 1098 lpm. = 66 m³/hr.
Total cooling water required = 66 + 66 = 132 m3/hr.

b) Foam water flow rate


Foam solution application rate : 5 lpm/m² of liquid surface area.
Foam solution required : 3.142 x (6 m)² x 5 lpm/m2.= 566 lpm.
Water requirement if = 0.97 x 566 lpm = 549 lpm. = 33 m³/hr.
3% foam concentrate is used

c) Total water flow rate


Tank cooling = 132 m³/hr.
Foam solution application = 33 m³/hr.
Total water requirement for 2 hours = 132x2+33x65/60=300 m³

FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MONITOR/HOSE STREAMS


Water for 4 single hydrant streams = 4 x 36 = 144 m3/hr.
Water for 1 monitor stream = 144 m3/hr.
Total water requirement for 2 hours = 288x2=576 m3.

DESIGN FIRE WATER REQUIREMENT


Design fire water requirement would be the largest of fire water requirements
calculated 576 m3.
First-Aid Fire Fighting Equipment
Water based extinguishing
Parameters of Extinguishers conforming to IS 940:2003 & IS 6234: 2003 are as under

Gas Cartridge type Stored pressure


Parameters As type
As per IS 6234 :
per IS 940 : 2003 2003
(fourth revision) (second revision)
Capacity 9 ltrs 9 ltrs
CO2 Gas Cartridge 60 gm Dry N2 Self Pressurised
Capacity
Working Temperature 27+ 20C 27+ 20C
Range
Test Pressure 25 Kg/Cm2 25 Kg/Cm2
Working Pressure 15 Kg/Cm2 15 Kg/Cm2
Dia of Cylinder 175 + 5 mm 175 + 5 mm

Jet Length Not less than 6 mtrs. Not less than 6 mtrs.
Duration of Discharge 60 – 120 Seconds 60 – 120 Seconds
As per ONGC specification based on IS 15683

Parameters Requirement

Extinguishing Media Water

Expulsion of water shall be by means


Principle for Gas Cartridge of

compressed gas from a gas cartridge attached


Type to

the cap

Principle for Stored Method of expulsion of water shall be by


Pressure means of

Type stored pressure of dry nitrogen gas

Propellant for Cartridge


Type Carbon Dioxide Gas Cartridge

Propellant for Stored


Pressure Dry Nitrogen gas

Type

Capacity (by volume) 2 ltr, 3 ltr, 6 ltr & 9 ltr.

Hydraulic Test pressure:- not less than 30


Pressure Requirement bar

Minimum burst pressure:- not less than 55


bar

Working Pressure Not more than 15 bar (kg/cm²)

Operating Temparature (-) 100C to (+) 550C

Operating Position Upright


HOT OIL SERVICES

A problem that has plagued producers since the discovery of the first oil well is that of
paraffin deposition in well tubular. This is especially true for oils with a high asphaltine
base.The low ends of oil may build up on the tubular to the extent of completely
shutting off production. Usually production gets chocked with solid paraffin deposition
in upper portion.

An effective method of removing paraffin build-up is to melt the paraffin with hot oil/hot
water/chemicals circulation. Specially designed Hot Oil Units are used to heat the
oil/water to a temperature of 2000 to 5000 F and either bullhead it into the well or
circulate it through a work string.

If the paraffin depositing is solid it will often have to be “washed” out with a work string.

Common Procedure for Paraffin Removal from the Well Tubing using CTU :-

Common procedure to remove paraffin from the tubing involves rigging up of CTU in
standard manner and circulating hot oil using hot oil unit. A high temperature pack-off
rubber should be used in the pack-off. Procedure in brief is as described below.

1. The hot oil unit discharge line is connected to the rotating hub of the CTU reel. Hot
oil/hot water/chemicals should be circulated through the CT until the CT is hot prior
to going in the hole.
2. Circulation of the hot fluid should be maintained from surface to approximately 500
feet below the fresh water zones. Circulation should be maintained for at least two
hours after reaching the desired depth. This will ensure melting away all the paraffin
rather than simply washing a hole through it.
3. Returns should be monitored to be sure the oil is hot enough to melt the paraffin
before circulation is stopped.
4. Extreme caution should be used when working around hot oil. If the hot come in
contact with someone, then creates severe burn.
5. Hot water and chemicals can also be used for paraffin removal depending upon the
situation.

CASE STUDY:HOC JOB:

Well no. – UM3##41

Well type – Oil Well

Problem in the Well – Wax Deposition

Tubing Size – 2 7/8”

Casing Size – 5 1/2”

Packer – SRP

Objective of Job – Hot oil circulation

Circulating Medium – Hot Oil

Units used for Job: Oil tanker and hot oil Pumper.

Job Details –

Oil was transferred from oil tanker to the hoc unit where it was heated at 850 C and then
pumped into the well in the annulus. Circulated oil and produced oil was observed in
return.

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