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Magnetic resonance iMaging

Prepared by,
Anand & Shonima
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MRI

• MRI is a radiology technique


• That uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to
produce images of body structures.
• MRI is based on the principles of NMR
• In1997 the first MRI exam was performed on a human
being.
• It took 5 hours to produce one image.
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HISTORY
1972 – 1985 – Insurance
Damadian reimbursements
patents idea for for MRI exams
large NMR begin.
scanner to detect
1924 - Pauli malignant tissue.
suggests that 1937 – Rabi MRI scanners
nuclear particles measures magnetic 1973 – Lauterbur become clinically
may have moment of nucleus. publishes method prevalent.
angular Coins “magnetic for generating
momentum resonance”. images using
(spin). NMR gradients. NMR renamed
MRI

1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

1946 – Purcell 1973 – 1990 – Ogawa and


shows that matter 1959 – Singer Mansfield colleagues create
absorbs energy at a measures blood independently functional images
resonant frequency. flow using NMR publishes using endogenous,
(in mice). gradient blood-oxygenation
1946 – Bloch approach to MR.
1975 – Ernst contrast.
demonstrates that
develops 2D-
nuclear precession can
Fourier
be measured in detector
transform for
coils.
MR.
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FATHER OF MRI

• Magnetic resonance imaging inventor


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NOBAL PRIZES FOR MRI

• 1944: Rabi
Physics (Measured magnetic moment of nucleus)

• 1952: Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell


Physics (Basic science of NMR phenomenon)

• 1991: Richard Ernst


Chemistry (High-resolution pulsed FT-NMR)

• 2002: Kurt Wuthrich


Chemistry (3D molecular structure in solution by NMR)

• 2003: Paul Lauterbur & Peter Mansfield


Physiology or Medicine (MRI technology)
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WHAT CAN BE DIAGNOSED BY AN MRI


SCAN?
• Most ailments of the brain, including tumours
• Sport injuries
• Musculoskeletal problems
• Most spinal conditions/injuries
• Vascular abnormalities
• Female pelvic problems
• Prostate problems
• Some gastrointestinal tract conditions
• Certain ear, nose and throat (ENT) conditions
• Soft tissue and bone pathology/conditions
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WHO CAN’T HAVE AN MRI SCAN?

• A cardiac pacemaker
• Certain clips in your head from brain operations
• A cochlear implant
• A metallic foreign body in your eye
• Had surgery in the last 8 weeks
• If you are pregnant
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PRINCIPLE

• MRI makes use of the magnetic properties of certain


atomic nuclei.
• Hydrogen nucleus (single proton) present in water
molecules, and therefore in all body tissues.
• The hydrogen nuclei partially aligned by a strong
magnetic field in the scanner.
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CONTI..

• The nuclei can be rotated using radio waves, and they


subsequently oscillate in the magnetic field while returning
to equilibrium.
• Simultaneously they emit a radio signal.
• This is detected using antennas (coils)
• Very detailed images can be made of soft tissues.
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Randomly arranged After the strong magnetic


hydrogen atom field applied
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MAIN COMPONENTS OF MRI

• Scanner
• Computers
• Recording hardware
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SCANNER

• An MRI scanner is a large tube that contains powerful


magnets.
• Main components of scanner
– Static magnetic field coils
– Gradient coils
– RF (radiofrequency) coils
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Niranjan Ultrasound India pvt.Ltd

Static Magnetic Field Coils

• Three methods to generate magnetic field


1. Fixed magnet
2. Resistive magnet
3. Super conducting magnet
• Fixed magnets and resistive magnets are generally
restricted to field strengths below 0.4t
• High-resolution imaging systems use super conducting
magnets.
• The super-conducting magnets are large and complex
• They need the coils to be soaked in liquid helium to reduce
their temperature to a value close to absolute zero.
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GRADIENT COILS  
• Gradient coils are used to produce deliberate variations in
the main magnetic field
• There are usually three sets of gradient coils, one for each
direction.
• The variation in the magnetic field permits localization of
image slices as well as phase encoding and frequency
encoding.
• The set of gradient coils for the z axis are helmholtz pairs,
and for the x and y axis paired saddle coils.
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RADIOFREQUENCY COIL
• RF coils act as transmitter and receiver
• RF coils are the "antenna" of the MRI system
• That transmit the RF signal and receives the return signal.
• They are simply a loop of wire either circular or
rectangular
• Helmholtz pair coils consist of two circular coils parallel
to each other.
• They are used as the z gradient coils in MRI scanners
• Paired saddle coils are also used for the x and y gradient
coils.
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ADVANTAGES OF MRI

• No ionizing radiation
• Variable thickness in any plane
• Better contrast resolution
• Many details without iv contrast
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DISADVANTAGES OF MRI

• Very expensive
• Dangerous for patients with metallic devices placed within
the body
• Difficult to be performed on claustrophobic patients
• Movement during scanning may cause blurry images
• RF transmitters can cause severe burns if mishandled
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SHAPES OF MRI MACHINE


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CLOSED MRI
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OPEN MRI
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UPRIGHT MRI
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FUNCTIONAL MRI

• Since the early 1990s, FMRI has come


• FMRI is based on the same technology as MRI
• FMRI looks at blood flow
• It is a technique for measuring brain activity
• It works by detecting the changes in blood oxygenation and
flow that occur in response to neural activity
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MRI AND FMRI

MRI FMRI
• Views anatomical • Views metabolic
structure function
• Focuses on protons in • Calculates oxygen
hydrogen nuclei levels
• High spatial resolution • Long-distance
• Utilized for resolution
experimental purposes • Utilized for diagnostic
purposes
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MRI scan FMRI scan


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Niranjan Ultrasound India pvt.Ltd

MANUFACTURERS OF MRI
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MARKET
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VIDEOS

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AwXJNXNcLN
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQGhqE2G6
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wqrBWK8Vt
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