Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

# E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.

## RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC

Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

## Brief Overview on Projections of Planes:

By now, all of us must be aware that a plane is any 2 D figure having an enclosed surface
area. In our subject point of view, any closed polygon, circle, semicircle, plates with
holes drilled centrally, etc are treated as simple planes with negligible thickness.

## 1) Where to draw the given shape?

If the true shape is drawn correctly in the 1st stage, the rest of the 2 stages are very
simple and solution is easy to attain.

So, we have to first decide what the true shape is and then where it is to be drawn.

## To do this, we usually learn that there can be three types of problems.

(a) The surface angle and shape angle (side/diagonal/diameter/major axis) will be
given in the data. If surface angle is with HP, shape is seen in Top View and if
surface angle is with VP, shape is seen in FV.

(b) The true shape and the reduced shape will be given and also where the reduced
shape is seen will also be given. For e.g., a square is seen as a rhombus in the top
view or a circle is seen as an ellipse in the front view or a rectangle becomes a
square in the front view, etc will be given. So in this case, we can directly know
that the shape is being seen in top view, front view, etc.

(c) The final 3rd stage figure will be stated and then we have to arrive at the figure
based on the fact that in the first 2 stages, the height of the figure always remains
the same and only the width reduces. So only in this case, a little bit of deep study
of the question is to be done to carefully decide what the 1st stage shape of the
plane is.
For e.g., draw a rhombus of 120 mm and 60 mm diagonals with longer
diagonal horizontal. The figure is the top view of a square with a corner on the
ground and diagonals 120mm long. show its projections and find plane angle.

Here we are asked to draw a rhombus with longer diagonal horizontal and also given
that the rhombus is the top view of a square with a corner on HP. Since corner is
mentioned, square is to be drawn at 45 0 to x-y in the top view. We also know that the
diagonals of a square are equal and hence in the 2nd stage, the vertical diagonal
height) remains the same and the horizontal diagonal reduces to 60. So, when the
question is to draw the rhombus with longer diagonal horizontal, it implies that first

1
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

we have to draw the rhombus to 120 & 60 with shorter diagonal horizontal and then
rotate the figure in the 3rd stage to get the longer diagonal horizontal.

## Same is the case with ellipse also.

If a circle becomes an ellipse with its major axis horizontal, it means that first its
width decreases and the minor axis will be horizontal. Then when we want the major
axis horizontal, we need to rotate the figure by 900 in the 3rd stage to get the solution.

So, just a little bit of understanding is essential to know that width always decreases
and height remains the same in 2nd stage. Based on this also sometimes questions can

The solutions to the exercise problems have been divided into 4 cases. They are:

1) Case 1: Given data is Surface angle (plane angle) and shape angle
(Side /diagonal /diameter / major axis / etc)

2) Case 2: True shape and reduced shapes are given and where they
are seen is also given (in Top view, front view, etc)

3) Case 3: 3rd stage answer will be stated and the first 2 stages have to
be drawn.

4) Case 4: Side view problems (when sum of angles is 900 and one
end of plane is in HP and other end is in VP). Only 1
problem of circle with its diameters in HP & VP is to be
solved. This is very important problem as it is drawn
using side view concept of turning the top view by 450.

2
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

The following are the problems and the cases to which they belong to.

Case 1: Solved examples are Problems 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9 from page 239-241.
Exercise problems are 1,2,3,5,7,11 & 12 in pages 244-245.
(Remember that the logic for all the problems is the same. First see where the plane
angle or surface angle is & decide where to draw the shape. Then last will be side
angle for the 3rd stage). Only variation is shapes are going to be different in each
case).

Rule: (1) Surface angle (Plane angle) is with HP Î start with the true
shape in Top View.
(2) Surface angle (Plane angle) is with VP Î start with the true
shape in Front View.
(3) Side or edge is resting on HP/VP Î take the starting side
of polygon as vertical or perpendicular to x-y.
(4) Corner is resting on HP/VP Î take the starting side
of the polygon as horizontal or parallel to x-y.

Case2 & Case 3: Solved examples are Problems 12.10 & 12.11 from page 241-242.
Exercise problems are 4, 8, 9& 10 from page 245.

(Remember that the logic for all these problems is the same. First see where the true
shape and the reduced shape are seen; either in top view or in front views. Then last
will be side angle for the 3rd stage). Only variation is that the shapes are going to be
different in each case.

## Case 4: Solved example is Problem 12.14 from page 244.

Exercise problem is 6 from page 245.

As the detailed notes on planes have been sent earlier, the steps of each problem are
not being stated here. Instead, only the logic is discussed and the answer is given
based on first drawing the true shape. The steps of drawing are shown as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
& 6 to mean that they are the sequence in which the figures are drawn.

For some problems, lettering and dimensioning have not been shown completely with
the assumption that you will be able to do it by yourself, observing the first few
problems.

3
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

## EXERCISE XII (Page 244)—Case 1 type problems

1) Draw an equilateral triangle of 75 mm side and inscribe a circle in it. Draw the
projections of the figure when the plane is vertical and inclined at 300 to the VP
and one of the sides is inclined at 450 to the HP.

A) Given data:
Shape Æ Equilateral Triangle of 75 mm with in circle
Plane angle Æ 300 to VP (Shape is seen in Front View)
Edge / Corner Æ Edge (side) is given; starting side is vertical.
Side angle Æ 450 to HP; (3rd stage side rotation)

450 to HP.
a’ a1’
a1’ 450
31’
3’ 5
` 11’

## 5’ b’ 11’ 51’ b1’

75

1’
31’

c1’ 71’

7’
71’

c’ c1’
b 1’

x VP c1 11 a1 y
HP a(c), 3(7) 5 b a(c) 300
31
(1) 3(7)
2 5
(Top View is Line) 3
Plane angle is 300 b b1
6
Final Projections

4
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

2. A regular hexagon of 40 mm side has a corner in the HP. Its surface is inclined at 450 to the HP
and the top view of the diagonal through the corner which is in the HP makes an angle of 600
with the VP. Draw its projections.

A. Given Data:
Shape Æ Hexagon of 40 mm sides.
Surface or Plane angle Æ 450 to HP (Shape is seen in Top View)
Edge / Corner Æ Corner is given; starting side is horizontal.
Diagonal or Side angle Æ diagonal, 600 to VP; (3rd stage diagonal
rotation)

6
d’ d1’
3 c1’
e1’

2 b1’
450
d’ f1’
a’ a’
a1’
600
f e f1 e1 f1
a1-
e1
a d a1- d1 b1
d1
b c b1 c1 c1
40 5
4
1 True Shape Reduced Shape Turn diagonal a1d1 by 600 to VP.

5
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

3. Draw the projections of a regular pentagon of 40 mm side, having its surface inclined
at 300 to the HP and a side parallel to the HP and inclined at an angle of 600 to the VP.

A. Given Data:
Shape Æ Pentagon of 40 mm sides.
Surface or Plane angle Æ 300 to HP (Shape is seen in Top View)
Edge / Corner Æ Side parallel; starting side is horizontal.
Diagonal or Side angle Æ Side, 600 to VP; (3rd stage side rotation)

## Pentagon, ab=40; Surface angle to HP; side angle to VP.

6
c’ c1’
3
d1’ b 1’
2 0
c’ 30
a’ a’ e1’
a1’
c1
e d e1 d1 0
60
b1

d1
a c a1 c1

b b1 a1
e1

4 5
1
True Shape Reduced Shape Turn side d1e1 by 600 to VP

6
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

5. Draw a regular hexagon of 40 mm side, with its two sides vertical. Draw a circle of 40
mm diameter in its centre. The figure represents a hexagonal plate with a hole in it and having its
surface parallel to the VP. Draw the projections when the surface is vertical and inclined at 300 to
the VP. Assume the thickness of the plate to be equal to that of a line.

A. Given Data:

## Shape Æ Hexagon, 40 mm with a central hole of Ф 40.

Surface or Plane angle Æ 300 to VP (Shape is seen in front View)
Edge / Corner Æ Sides vertical; starting side is vertical.
Diagonal or Side angle Æ No 3rd stage.

In this particular problem, there is no 3rd stage and hence the answer is to draw the 2 stages only.

## True Shape Reduced Shape

(Final Projection)
4
1
40

300
2
3

Î Locate the centre of the hexagon by intersection of the diagonals and then draw a circle of
diameter 40 mm (radius = 20 mm) at the centre. Then, follow the usual procedure to get the solution.

Do the labeling as per the usual rules followed earlier. It is left as an exercise.

7
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

7. A semi circular plate of 80 mm diameter has its straight edge in the VP & inclined at 450
to the HP. The surface of the plate makes an angle of 300 with the VP. Draw its
projections.

A. Given Data:
Shape Æ Semicircle of 80 mm diameter.
Surface or Plane angle Æ 300 to VP (Shape is seen in Front View)
Edge / Corner Æ Edge in VP; starting side is vertical.
Diagonal or Side angle Æ Side, 450 to VP; (3rd stage side rotation)

## True Shape Reduced Shape Turn edge by 450 to HP

1 4
11’ 450
1’
11’

4’ 41’
Ф 80

41’

71’

7’
71’

11
4 0 71
1(7) 1(7) 30
2
3 41
4

8
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF Final
MVSREC
Projections Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

## 11. A composite plate of negligible thickness is made up of a rectangle 60 mm X 40 mm and a

semi circle on its longer side. Draw its projections when the longer side is parallel to the HP &
inclined at 450 to the VP, the surface of the plate making an angle of 300 with the HP.

A. Given Data:
Shape Æ Rectangle & Semicircle (60X 40; D= 60)
Surface or Plane angle Æ 300 to HP (Shape is seen in Top View)
Edge / Corner Æ Side parallel; starting side is horizontal
Diagonal or Side angle Æ Side, 450 to VP; (3rd stage side rotation)

Labeling for the first stage has been shown. Please complete for the other by using
same notations as discussed in earlier problems.

2 3
300
a’(d’) 1’ 2’ 3’ b’(c’)

450

d c
30

a b

1 3
2
60
4
5
1
True Shape Reduced Shape Turn side by 450 to VP

9
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

12. A 600 set-square of 125 mm longest side is so kept that the longest side is in HP, making
an angle of 300 with the VP & the set-square itself inclined at 450 to the HP. Draw the projections of
the set square.

A. Given Data:
Shape Æ Set Square, 125 mm (Right angle Triangle)
Surface or Plane angle Æ 450 to HP (Shape is seen in Top View)
Edge / Corner Æ Side (edge) in HP; starting side is vertical
Diagonal or Side angle Æ Side, 300 to VP; (3rd stage side rotation)

6 b1’

2 3

450 a1’
a’ (c’) b’ c1’

c1
c c1 300

600

b b1
b1
125

a1
5

300

a1
a

1 4

## True Shape Reduced Shape Turn side a1c1 by 300 to VP

Draw the triangle abc by taking intersection of lines at 300 at a & 600 at c to get b.
ac= 125.

10
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

## 4. Draw the projections of a rhombus having diagonals 125 mm and 50 mm long,

the smaller diagonal of which is parallel to both the principal planes while the other is
inclined at 300 to the HP.

A. Given Data:
Shape Æ Rhombus, 125 mm & 50 mm diagonals.
Surface or Plane angle Æ 300 to HP (Shape is seen in Top View)
Edge / Corner Æ Longer diagonal is taken horizontal first.
Diagonal or Side angle Æ smaller diagonal parallel to both VP & HP.
(3rd stage details-diagonal turned by 900)

Start with the longer diagonal horizontal in the top view so that its plane can be
rotated by 300 in the front view. Since plane angle is not given and details are given
only about the diagonals, treat one of them as plane and the other as data for side
rotation in the 3rd stage.

6
11’
2
3
21’ 41’
300
1’ 2’(4’) 3’
4 31’
41

3
50

1 31
21 41

2 21
125 5
4
31
1
In the 3rd stage, rotate the rhombus by 900 so that the smaller diagonal becomes
horizontal. In the first 2 stages, width changes and height remains the same.

11
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

8. The top view of a plate, the surface of which is perpendicular to the VP &
inclined at 600 to the HP is a circle of 60 mm diameter. Draw its three views.

## Ans) Given data:

Shape Æ --not given.
Surface or Plane angle Æ 600 to HP (Shape is seen in Top View)
Edge / Corner Æ ------
Diagonal or Side angle Æ ----------
Reduced shape Î circle of 60 mm diameter.

## 1) Draw a circle in top view with diameter 60 mm and project it (1).

2) In front view, draw a line at 600 to cut the projector of circle & find the plane
length.
3) Using the plane length of (2), draw it horizontally on x-y line and mark as many
points as there are in (2).
4) Project lines from the plane line and match it with projector from circle to get the
final shape of an ellipse. 5’

2
3 3’(7’)

600
1’ 3’(7’) 5’ 1’

71 7
Ф 60

11 51 1 5

31 3

1
4

12
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

9. A plate having the shape of an isosceles triangle has base of 50 mm long and
altitude 70 mm. It is so placed that in the front view, it is seen as an equilateral triangle
of 50 mm sides and one side is inclined at 450 to x-y. Draw its projections.

## Ans) Given Data:

True Shape Æ Isosceles Triangle.

## Edge / Corner Æ Side (Edge); starting side vertical.

Side angle Æ side, 450 to HP (3rd stage rotation)

Since the side of triangle remains same as 50 mm, the starting side of the triangle is
taken as vertical so that the width (altitude) reduces in the 2nd stage to give an
equilateral triangle.

70
3
c’ c1’
450
c1’
1 50 5
600
b’ b1’
50

600
50 a1’

a’ a1’
b1’

c(a) b c(a) a1 c1
2
4

b b1

13
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

10. Draw a rhombus of diagonals 100 mm and 60 mm, with the longer
diagonal horizontal. The figure is the top of a square of 100 mm long diagonals, with a
corner on the ground. Draw its front view and determine the angle made by the plane
(surface) with the ground.

## Ans) Given Data:

True Shape Æ Square with a corner on HP.

## Side angle Æ 900; diagonal being tilted,

(i) Since the square is the true shape, draw it first in top view &
draw its projectors.

(ii) Convert the square into a rhombus such that the longer
diagonal remains unchanged vertically and the width reduces
to 60 mm in the 2nd stage.

(iii) In the 3rd stage, tilt the rhombus such that 60 mm side is
made horizontal; match the projections to get the final views.

c’ c1’
6
4
b’(d’) b1’ d1’
2
θ
a’ b’(d’) c’ a’ a1’
d d1 a1

b1 d1 60

a c 100 a1 c1
c1
100
1 3 5
b b1
100 60

14
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

## Side View Problems

EXERCISE XII (Page 245)—Case 4 type problems

## 6. Draw the projections of a circle of diameter 75 mm, having the end A of

diameter AB in the H.P., the end B in the V.P., and the surface inclined at 300 to the
H.P and at 600 to the V.P.

A. Given Data:
Shape Æ Circle, 75 mm diameter.
Surface or Plane angle Æ 300 to HP & 600 to V.P

## (Shape’s surface angle is seen in Side View)

In the front view and top view, we see a reduced circle (representing an ellipse).

Æ Best Example of this case is a ladder standing on a wall with one end on the wall
and other end on the floor. The inclinations of the ladder surface can be seen in the
side view, assuming the wall as VP & the floor as HP.

Also in this special case of problems, the sum of angles made by the surfaces with HP
& VP is always 900.

So, to identify this case of problem in projection of planes, we have to check 2 data:

## (i) One end on HP & other end on VP.

(ii) Sum of angles made by plane (surface) will be equal to 900.
(iii)

TV

PP

VP

FV
HP

SV

15
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

600 PP
TV

VP
300

HP

FV

SV

The final three views of the plane surface are shown below.

VP PP

SV (80 mm)
600
FV

300

TV

HP

16
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

## Side View Problems

EXERCISE XII (Page 245)—Case 4 type problems

## Procedure to solve this problem:

1) Assume the circle to be resting completely on the VP or HP in the first stage
and draw its projections. Usually, we assume it to be resting on the VP.

Hence the Front View (FV) will be a circle of 80 mm diameter and the Top
View (TV) & Side View (SV) will be straight lines of 80 mm length.

To draw the Side View (Left Side View), draw a vertical line of 80 mm to the
right of FV at some distance, on the same x-y line.

Do the labeling using the usual rules. For the SV use 1’’, 2’’, 3’’, etc.

Also note that the views have to lie on x-y since A & B are in HP & VP.

TV
Ф 80
b’
b’’
4’
2’ 2’’ (4’’)

SV
1’ 5’
1’’ (5’’)

6’ 8’’ (6’’)
8’
x VP a’ y
HP 1 2(8) b(a) 4(6) 5 a’’

2) Since the inclination is seen in the side view, tilt the line b’’ a’’ in the side
view by an angle 300 to the HP. The length will be the same as 80 mm.

3) On b’’, draw a vertical line, x1y1 which represents the profile plane.

4) On b’’ a’’, mark the same points 2’’ (4’’), 1’’ (5’’), 8’’ (6’’) at the same
distances as on the original line by using arcs or scale.

17
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

Side View
TV x1
Ф 80
b’
b’’
4’
2’ 2’’ (4’’)

SV b’’
1’ 5’
1’’ (5’’)
2’’ (4’’)
0
60
1’’ (5’’)
6’ 8’’ (6’’)
8’
x VP a’ 300 y
HP 1 2(8) b(a) 4(6) 5 a’’

y1

5) Now, draw projectors from b’’, 2’’, 4’’, 1’’, etc of side view to the front view.

6) On these lines, draw projectors vertically down from 1’, 2’, b’, 4’, etc of the
circle in the original FV to get points of the Final Front View, which will be
an ellipse.

TV x1
b’

4’
2’

SV b’’
5’
1’
2’’ (4’’)

1’’ (5’’)
6’ 8’’ (6’’)
8’
x VP a’ y
HP a’’

## Joining the above points will give ellipse in the FV. y1

The FV will be shown in the final figure along with the TV. The above figure is for
understanding only to identify how the points of projections are to be marked.

18
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

To obtain the final top view from the side view: (Turn the SV by 450 to get TV)

7) First, project all the points on the SV line (inclined line) onto x-y line. From there
draw lines at 450 to meet x1- y1 line. Then project these points horizontally.

x1 TV
b’’
2’’ (4’’)

1’’ (5’’)

8’’ (6’’)

x y

## 2-4 projector 450

1-5 projector

8-6 projector

a projector
y1

8) Now, after getting the projectors of side view, match projectors from the top view
1,2 (8), b(a), etc of the original line in step 1 to get the final top view, which will
also be an ellipse.

Thus, obtain the front view by projecting from side view horizontally and obtain the top
view by projecting vertically, turning by 450 and then projecting horizontally.

In this figure, another exception is that both the final FV and final TV are shown on the
same original FV and TV.

A little bit of practice is essential to perfect this problem. But the concept involved is
very simple, to use side view to get the final projections.

19
E GRAPHICS: PROJECTION OF PLANES S.RAMANATHAN ASST PROF MVSREC
Ph: 9989717732 rama_bhp@yahoo.com

The combined final figure with the constructions is shown below. This is the final figure
which we have to show and not the above individual figures, which have been shown only
for understanding.

Side View
x1
Ф 80
b’
b’’
4’
2’ 2’’ (4’’)

b1’ b’’
Final Front View 1’ 1’’ (5’’)
5’ 2’’ (4’’)
0
60
1’’ (5’’)
6’ 8’’ (6’’)
8’ 300
x VP a’ y
HP 1 2(8) b(a) 4(6) 5 a’’

11 51

a1

## Final Top View y1

As a practice, refer to the Problem No. 12.14 on Page 244 which is of the same model as
above. The only difference is that the surface angles are 600 to the HP and 300 to the VP.

20