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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

BASIC KNOWLEDGE

1. Decimal representation:

A decimal is used to represent a portion of whole. It contains three parts: an integer


(which indicates the number of wholes), a decimal point (which separates the integer on
the left from the decimal on the right), and a decimal number (which represents a number
between 0 and 1).

The decimal 3.14159 is read “three and fourteen thousand one hundred fifty – nine
hundred-thousandths”. The dot is the decimal point and is read as “and”.

3 . 1 4 1 5 9
Units And Tenths Hundredths Thousandths Ten- Hundred-
thousandths thousandths

Whole numbers can also be written with one or more zeros after the decimal point:
3 = 3.0 = 3.00 = 3.000

The number line representations of decimals:

0.5 0.05
Examples: How would you write “six and nine hundredths” as a decimal? Answer: 6.09.
How would you write “three and nine tenths” as a decimal? Answer: 3.9.
How would you write “five hundredths” as a decimal? Answer: 0.05.

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

2. Changing Decimals to Fractions

Move the decimal points to the right such that the numerator becomes an integer. Do the
same thing for the denominator.

0.27 02.7 027 27


0.27    
1.00 10.0 100 100

0.36 03.6 036 36 49 9


0.36      
1.00 10.0 100 100 4  25 25

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

3. Decimal addition and subtraction

Adding and subtracting decimal numbers is the same as adding whole numbers. The key
point is to line up the decimal points.

Examples: Compute:

(1) 3.1415926 + 2.7182818 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

3.1415926
 2.7182818
5.8598744

(2) 3.1415926 – 2.7182818 =

84
50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

3.1415926
 2.7182818
0.4233108
(3) 3.57 + 7.76 – 4.33 =

85
50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

3.57 + (7.76 – 4.33) = 3.57 + 3.43 = 7.

(4) 7.65 + 9.38 + 4.35 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

7.65 + 9.38 + 4.35 = (7.65 + 4.35) + 9.38 = 12 + 9.38 = 21.38.

(5) 15.83 + 9.76 + 4.17 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(15.83 + 4.17) + 9.76 = 20 + 9.76 = 29.76

(6) 3.98 + 4.67 – 1.98 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(3.98 – 1.98) + 4.67 = 2 + 4.67 = 6.67.

(7) 53.75 – 24.98 – 23.75 =

89
50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(53.75 – 23.75) – 24.98 = 30 – 24.98 = 5.02.

(8) 32.98 + 12.29 =

90
50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(33 – 0.02) + 12.29 = (33 + 12.29) – 0.02 = 45.29 – 0.02 = 45.27.


(9) 24.86 – 9.97 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

24.86 – 10 + 0.03 = 14.86 + 0.03 = 14.89.

(10) 72.17 + 6.48 + 27.81 – 1.38 – 5.48 – 0.62 =


(72.17 + 27.81) +(6.48 – 5.48) – ( 1.38 + 0.62) = 100 + 1 – 2 = 99.

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

4. Decimal multiplication and division

Multiplication of Two Decimals:


(1) Change both decimals to integers by moving the decimal point to the right.
(2) Count n, the total number of times the decimal point is moved.
(3) Multiply two integers and get the product.
(4) Put a decimal point on the right of the units digit of the product.
(5) Move the decimal point n times to the left.

Note that we don't have to line up the decimal points to multiply.

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Examples:

(1) 3.6 × 4.5 =

3.6  36 (we move the decimal point to the right one time)
4.5  45 (we move the decimal point to the right one time)
One time + one time = two times.
36 × 45 = 1620.
1620.  16.20 (we move the decimal point to the left two times)

(2) 3.14 × 1.1 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

3.14  314 (we move the decimal point to the right two times)
1.1  11 (we move the decimal point to the right one time)
Two times + one time = three times.
314 × 11 = 3454.
3454  3.454 (we move the decimal point to the left three times)

Division of Two decimals:


(1) Change the divisor from decimal to integer by moving the decimal point to the
right.
(2) Count n, the total number of times to move the decimal point of the divisor to the
end of the number.
(3) Move the decimal point of the dividend n times to the right.
(4) Perform the division and move the decimal point up to the quotient.

Examples: Compute:

(1) 3.14 ÷ 0.2 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

1 5 .7
2 31.4
2
0.2 3.14  2 31.4 
11
10
14
14
0
3.14 ÷ 0.2 = 15.7.

(2) 5.6 × 16.5 ÷ 0.7 ÷ 1.1=

96
50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(5.6 ÷ 0.7) ×(16.5 ÷ 1.1) = (56 ÷ 7) ×(165 ÷ 11) = 8 ×15 = 120.

(3) 1.25 × 67.875 + 125 × 6.7875 +1250 × 0.053375 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

1.25 × 67.875 + 1.25 × 678.75 +1.25 × 53.375 = 1.25 × (67.875 + 678.75


+53.375) = 1.25 × 800 = 1000.

(4) 19 × 3.1 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

19 × (3+ 0.1) = 19 × 3+ 19 × 0.1 = 57 + 1.9 = 58.9.

(5) 0.4 × 0.2 × 8 × 0.25 × 0.5 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(0.2 × 0.5) × ( 0.4 × 0.25) × 8 = 0.1 × 0.1 × 8 = 0.08.

(6) 0.2 × 0.11 × 0.4 × 0.5 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(0.2 × 0.5) × (0.11 × 0.4) = 0.1 × 0.044 = 0.0044.

(7) 0.24 × 9.6 × 0.25 × 0.125 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(0.24 × 0.25) × (9.6 × 0.125) = 0.06 × 1.2 = 0.072.

(8) 8.99 × 6 =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(9 – 0.01) × 6 = 9 × 6 – 0.01 × 6 = 54 – 0.06 = 53.94.

(9) 0.32 ÷ (0.08 ÷ 0.25) =

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(0.32 ÷ 0.08) × 0.25 = (32 ÷ 8) × 0.25 = 4 × 0.25 = 1.

(10) 0.12 × 0.5 × 8 ÷ 0.04


(0.12 ÷ 0.04) × (0.5 × 8) = (12 ÷ 4) × 4 = 12.

5. Decimals and fractions:

Decimal Fraction Common fraction


4.3 3 3 43
4+ 4 or
10 10 10
0.01 0 1 1
0+ +
10 100 100
3.0103 0 1 0 3 103 30103
3+ + + + 3 or
10 100 1000 10000 10000 10000

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

6. Terminating Decimals and Repeating Decimals

Any rational number can be expressed as either a terminating decimal or a repeating


decimal.

A decimal such as 0.25, which stops, is called a terminating decimal.

A rational number a/b in lowest terms results in a repeating decimal if a prime other than
2 or 5 is a factor of the denominator.

1
 0.33333....  0.3 .
3

1
 0.142857142857....  0.142857 .
7

1
 0.076923076923....  0.076923 .
13

A rational number a/b in lowest terms results in a terminating decimal if the only prime
factor of the denominator is 2 or 5 (or both).

1 1 1
 0.5 ,  0.2 ,  0.1 .
2 5 10

Example: How many positive integers less than 100 have reciprocals with terminating
decimal representations?

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Solution: 14.

The reciprocals of numbers can be a terminating decimal:

2 4 8 16 32 64
5 25
10 20 40 80
50
1

Repeating block

(1). If the denominator has only 2 and 5 as its factors, this fraction can become a
terminating decimal. The length of the decimal part equals the greater power of 2 or 5.
Example:
1 1 1 1
 0.2  0.04  0.008  0.0016
5 25 125 625
Length of the decimal part 1 2 3 4

(2). If the denominator has only factors other than 2 and 5, then this fraction can become
repeating decimal. The length of the repeating block (period) is the smallest number of
nines needed for the number containing 9’s to be divisible by the denominator.

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

1 99 1
Examples: For , the repeating block is 2 since  9. (  0.09 )
11 11 11
1 999 1
For , the repeating block is 3 since  27 . (  0.027 ).
37 37 37
1 9999 1
For , the repeating block is 4 since  99 . (  0.0099 ).
101 101 101
1 999999 1
For , the repeating block is 6 since  142857 . (  0.142857 ).
7 7 7
1 999999 1
For , the repeating block is 6 since  76923 . (  0.076923 ).
13 13 13

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

(3) If the denominator has 2 or 5 as factors and other prime factors, this fraction can
become a mixed repeating decimal. The non-repeating block length is the greater power
of 2 or 5. The repeating block length (the repeating period) is the smallest number of
nines needed to be divisible by the denominator.

(4). Given 1/n, n is a positive integer, the repeating block is r and r  n – 1.


1 1
For , n = 7 and r  n – 1 = 6. In fact  0.142857 .
7 7
(5). 10r  1 (mod p). r is the smallest positive integer.

Repeating Block of 1/p (for primes p)

p block p block p block p block p block p block

2 – 3 1 5 – 7 6 11 2 13 6

17 16 19 18 23 22 29 28 31 15 37 3

41 5 43 21 47 46 53 13 59 13 61 13

67 33 71 35 73 8 79 13 83 41 89 44

97 96 101 4 103 34 107 53 109 108 113 112

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

6. Operation with Repeating Decimals

Examples:

(1) Convert the repeating decimal 0.1 to a fraction.

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Solution: Let x = 0.1 = 0.111111… (1)

Multiply both sides by 10: 10x = 1.11111... (2)

(2) – (1): 9 x = 1  x = 1/9

(2) Convert the repeating decimal 0.25 to a fraction.

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Solution: We set x = 0.25 = 0.25252525.... and multiply both sides by 100:

100 x = 25.25252525...

Next we subtract:

100 x = 25.25252525...
- x = .25252525...
-----------------------------
99 x = 25.00000

Next we divide both sides by 99 to get: x = 25/99


5
(3) The fraction of any single digit repeating decimal is the digit over 9.  0.5 
9
55
(4) The fraction of any 2-digit repeating decimal is the digits over 99.  0.55 
99
3123 347
(5) 0.3123  
9999 1111
17857142  17
(6) 0.17 857142  0. 17   999999 00
 857142
2 digits 6 digits  
6 9's 2 0's

(7) Express 0.72 45 as a common fraction.

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

7245  72 7173 797


Method 1: 0.72 45   
9900 9900 1100
Method 2: Let x = 0.72 45 (1)
100x = 72. 45 (2)
10000x = 7245.45 (3)
(3) – (2): 9900x = 7173 (4)
7173 797
x 
9900 1100

(8) Calculate: 3.14  0.32 .

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Solution:

3.14
 0.32
Since , so : 3.14  0.32  3.46
3.46

(9) Calculate: : 2. 48  2.83

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Solution:

2.48
 2.83
Since , and the sum of the first repeating digits ( 4 in 2. 48 and 8 in 2.83 )
5.31
in the addends carries 1, so the last digit of the resulting number needs to be
increased by 1: 2. 48  2.83  5.32

(10) Calculate: 1. 436  0.312

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

1.436
 0.312
Solution: Since , so 1. 436  0.312  1.124
1.124

(11) Calculate: 3. 215  1.307

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

3.215
 1.307
Solution: Since , and the first repeating digit (2 in 3. 215 ) in the top
1.908
number is smaller than the corresponding digit (3 in 1.307 ) in the bottom number,
so the last digit of the resulting number needs to be decreased by 1:
3. 215  1.307  1.907

(12) Calculate: 1. 36  2.375

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Solution:

Since the first addend has 2 repeating digits and the second addend has 3
repeating digits, the sum should have 2  3 = 6 repeating digits (the least common
multiple of 2 and 3).

1.363636
 2.375375
3.739011

So 1. 36  2.375  1.363636  2.375375  3.739011

(13) Calculate: 0.342  2.35

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Solution:
0.342
 2.353
2.35  2.3535353.....  2.353 and , so 0.342  2.35  0.342  2.353  2.695
2.695
(14) Calculate: 2.25  1.36

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Solution:
Method 1: 2.25  1.36  2.250  1.36  2.250  1.366  0.883
225 136  13 2025  1230 795
Method 2: 2.25  1.36     .
100 90 900 900
We see that both expressions are the same:
883  88 795
0.883  
900 900
(15) Calculate: 0.142857  3.5

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Solution:
142857 5 1 5 1 32 32
0.142857  3.5  3  3   
999999 9 7 9 7 9 63

(16) Calculate: 0.27  3.2


Solution:
27 2 27 29 27 9 27
0.27  3.2  3     
99 9 99 9 99 29 319

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

EXERCISES

Problem 1. Add: 3.28 + 17.5 + 39

Problem 2. Subtract: 275.4 – 187.93

Problem 3. Find the product: 1 · 2 · 3 · (0.2) · (0.5) · (4 · 5)

Problem 4. Multiply: 4.08 × 0.98

Problem 5. Divide: 12.98 ÷ 2.36

Problem 6. Divide: 0.007 ÷ 0.35

Problem 7. Simplify: (7 – 0.25)(6 + 1.2)

Problem 8. Simplify: 0.25(8.125 + 24.375)

Problem 9. Simplify: (12.7 – 7.45)

Problem 10. What is the product of 3.85 and 0.5?

Problem 11. Express the product 2.1 × 1.01 as a decimal number.

Problem 12. Find the sum of 18.1, 7.56 and 0.97. Express your answer as a decimal.

Problem 13. Divide 9.62 by 3.7 and express your answer as a decimal.

Problem 14. Find the product of 3.9 and 4.7 and express your answer as a decimal.

Problem 15. Express the difference 36 – 4.781 as a decimal.

Problem 16. Subtract 241.346 from 3568 and express your answer as a decimal.

Problem 17. Express in simplest form:

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

10(0.2)  8(0.15)  6(0.5)


8(0.125)

Problem 18. Find the sum 4.16 + 36.5 + 216 and express your answer as a decimal.

Problem 19. Express as a decimal: 1001 × 3.63

Problem 20. Express as a decimal: 170.2 ÷ 46

Problem 21. Express the product as a decimal: (60.5)(0.25)(4.4)

Problem 22. Express the quotient as a decimal: 9.648 ÷ 2.4

Problem 23. Find 347 ÷ 25. Express your answer as a decimal.

Problem 24. Express as a decimal: 4.48962 ÷ 0.02

Problem 25. Express as a decimal: 3.86 + 38.6 + 386.

Problem 26. Express as a decimal: 17952 ÷ 10560.

Problem 27. Express as a decimal: 0.0004 ÷ 25.

Problem 28. Express as a decimal: 150.8 – 14.75

Problem 29. Express as a decimal rounded to the nearest thousandth: 1948 ÷ 39

Problem 30. Write as a decimal: 800 – 0.005.

Problem 31. Express the product as a decimal: (0.125)(4.8)(0.025)(1.6)

Problem 32. Express as a decimal: 0.1125 × 600.

Problem 33. Express as a decimal to the nearest tenth: 1713.249 ÷ 817

Problem 34. Express as a decimal to the nearest thousandth: 9132.123 ÷ 9123


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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

Problem 35. Express in simplest form: 24(0.708 3 ) – 6(0.8 3 ).

Problem 36. Express in simplest form: 18. 18 + 81. 81 .

Problem 37. Express as a decimal: (3.8)(120) – 38.75.

(0.3)(0.056)
Problem 38. Simplify: .
1.2  0.08
1
3
Problem 39. Express as a common fraction: 0.2
0.75
Problem 40. Simplify: (0.25 – 0.24 9 ) + (0.75 – 0.74 9 )

Problem 41. A sheet of paper is 0.0075cm thick. How many centimeters high is a stack
of 500 sheets?

Problem 42. Express the reciprocal of 0.0625 in decimal form.

Problem 43. Compute: 378.63 – 5.72 – 78.63 – 4.28

Problem 44. Compute: 176.2 + 348.3 + 42.47 + 252.5 + 382.23

Problem 45. Compute: (6.4 × 7.5 × 8.1) ÷ (3.2 × 2.5 × 2.7)

Problem 46. Compute: 15.37 × 7.88 – 9.37 × 7.37 + 1.537 × 21.2 – 93.7 × 0.262

Problem 47. Compute: 1.25 × 17.6 + 36 ÷ 0.8 + 2.64 × 12.5

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50 MATHCOUNTS LECTURES (6) OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS

ANSWER KEYS

Problem 1.59.78 Problem 2. 87.47 Problem 3. 12

Problem 4. 3.9984 Problem 5. 5.5 Problem 6. 0.02

Problem 7. 48.6 Problem 8. 8.125 Problem 9. 5.25

Problem 10. 1.925 Problem 11. 2.121 Problem 12. 26.63

Problem 13. 2.6 Problem 14. 18.33 Problem 15. 31.219

Problem 16. 3326.654 Problem 17. 0.2 Problem 18. 256.66

Problem 19. 3633.63 Problem 20. 3.7 Problem 21. 66.55

Problem 22. 4.02 Problem 23. 13.88 Problem 24. 224.481

Problem 25. 428.46 Problem 26. 1.7 Problem 27. 0.000016

Problem 28. 136.05 Problem 29. 49.949 Problem 30. 799.995

Problem 31. 0.024 Problem 32. 67.5 Problem 33. 2.1

Problem 34. 1.001 Problem 35. 12 Problem 36. 100

Problem 37. 417.25 Problem 38. 0.015 Problem 39. 99/10

Problem 40. 0 Problem 41. 3.75 Problem 42. 16.0

Problem 43. 290 Problem 44. 1201.7 Problem 45. 18

Problem 46. 60 Problem 47. 100

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