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lee (dl28863) – Ch14-h1 – turner – (90130) 1

This print-out should have 17 questions. • the density of the field lines is related
Multiple-choice questions may continue on the field strength — the larger the field line-
the next column or page – find all choices density, the greater the field strength (note
before answering. that the line pattern in the figure is a 2d pro-
jection of a 3d-line pattern — there is no exact
001 10.0 points proportionality relationship between the pro-
The diagram shows an isolated, positive jected line density and the field strength)
charge Q, where point B is twice as far away • the direction of the electric field at any
from Q as point A. point is tangential to the field line at that
point
+Q A B • each point in space can have only one
E-field direction associated with it
0 10 cm 20 cm
The field line picture is useful for giving an
overall qualitative feel for the “shape” of the
What is the ratio of the electric field field generated by a particular charge distri-
strength at point A to the electric field bution.
strength at point B? Consider three electric field patterns.
EA 8 (Some of these patterns are physically im-
1. = possible.) Assume these electric field patterns
EB 1
are due to static electric charges outside the
EA 4
2. = correct regions shown.
EB 1
EA 2
3. =
EB 1
EA 1
4. =
EB 2
EA 1
5. = (a)
EB 1
Explanation:

Let : rB = 2 rA .
1
The electric field strength E ∝ , so
r2
(b)
1
EA r2 rB2 (2 r)2
= A = = = 4.
EB 1 rA2 r2
rB2

002 10.0 points (c)


In the M&I textbook, electric field vectors are Which electrostatic field patterns are phys-
displayed as individual vectors located at spe- ically possible?
cific points; one can also display electric fields
in terms of electric field lines. In electrostat- 1. (b) and (c)
ics:
• field lines originate on positive charges 2. (a) only
and terminate on negative charges
lee (dl28863) – Ch14-h1 – turner – (90130) 2

3. (a) and (b) 004 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


You want to create an electric field
4. (a) and (c)
~ = h0, 4004 N/C, 0i
E
5. (c) only
at the origin. Find the y coordinate where
6. (b) only correct you would need to place a proton, in order to
create this field at the origin.
Explanation:
The value of k is 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2
(a) Electrostatic lines of force do not inter-
and the value of the proton charge is
sect one another. Otherwise at the crossing
1.6 × 10−19 C.
point there would be an unphysical situation.
A charged particle placed at the crossing point
Correct answer: −5.99285 × 10−7 m.
would not experience a unique physical force.
Therefore (a) is not possible. Explanation:
(b) The electric charges at which the lines The equation for the electric field, in gen-
of force begin and end are out of the region on eral, is
the left and right, respectively. Therefore (b)
is possible. ~ = 1 q
E r̂.
(c) In electrostatics lines of force begin and 4πǫ0 |~r |2
end at electric charges (or at infinity). In
a localized region that contains no charges, In this case, q = 1.6 × 10−19 C for a proton,
therefore, no closed loop pattern is possible. and
Therefore (c) is not possible. r̂ = h0, 1, 0i,
since the field points in the positive y direc-
003 10.0 points
tion. |~r | is the unknown we want to solve for.
An electron in a region where there is an
We can write
electric field experiences a force of magnitude
2.9 × 10−16 N.
What is the magnitude of the electric field 1 1.6 × 10−19 C
at the location of the electron? The charge on Ey = 4004 N/C =
an electron is −1.602 × 10−19 C
4πǫ0 |~r |2

Correct answer: 1810.24 N/C.


1 1.6 × 10−19 C
Explanation: ⇒ |~r |2 =
4πǫ0 4004 N/C
The field is defined to be the force per s
unit charge experienced by a particle (so long 1 1.6 × 10−19 C
⇒y=±
as the particle has a charge small enough 4πǫ0 4004 N/C
that it does not change the background field
significantly). = ±5.99285 × 10−7 m .
Thus, we have:
We choose the minus sign to place the pro-
ton below the origin; this way the field will
F ~ point upward like we want it to.
~
E =
q 005 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
2.9 × 10−16 N Instead of a proton, where would you place
=
1.602 × 10−19 C an electron to produce the same field at the
= 1810.24 N/C origin?
lee (dl28863) – Ch14-h1 – turner – (90130) 3

point A, so the answers with e2 are incorrect.


Correct answer: 5.99285 × 10−7 m. Recalling the form of the electric field,
Explanation: ~ = 1 q
This is simple. The proton and electron E r̂,
4πǫ0 |~r |2
carry the same magnitude of charge, but the
we see that it has the distance squared in the
electron’s charge is negative. The calculation
denominator. Therefore the correct choice is
from above will be exactly the same, but we
choose a positive sign at the end to place the 1 2e BA
~ =
E r̂ .
electron above the origin. This way the field 4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
will still point upward as we want it to.
007 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
006 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points What is the force on the charged particle at
The following figure shows a particle with a B?
positive charge of 2e at location A creating
~ at point B. Any charged
an electric field E ~ = 1 9e2 BA
1. F r̂
particle placed at location B experiences a 4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
~.
force F 1 3e2 BA
~ =
2. F r̂
~
E 4πǫ0 |~r BA |
~ = 1 6e2 BA
3. F r̂ correct
B F
~ 4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
~ = 1 6e BA
4. F r̂
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
~ = 1 3e BA
5. F r̂
A + 4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
Explanation:
Now, imagine a positive charge of 3e is Force involves both particles, and has the
placed at point B. What is the value of general form
the electric field at location B due to the
charge at A? (Remember that e represents ~ = 1 Q1 Q2
F r̂,
the fundamental unit of charge, 1.6 × 10−19 4πǫ0 |~r |2
C. Also, r BA is the position vector pointing where ~r is the vector pointing between the two
from point A to point B.) charges. In this case, Q1 = 2e and Q2 = 3e,
1 2e BA so we end up with
~ =
1. E r̂ correct
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2 1 6e2 BA
~ =
F r̂ .
~ = 1 6e2 BA 4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
2. E r̂
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
1 4e BA 008 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
~ =
3. E r̂
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2 The positive particle at B is removed and an
1 6e BA electron is placed at location B.
~ =
4. E r̂ What is the magnitude of the force on the
4πǫ0 |~r BA |
electron?
~ = 1 2e2 BA
5. E r̂
4πǫ0 |~r BA | 1 6e2
1. F =
4πǫ0 |~r BA |
Explanation:
The electric field at point B is not related 1 3e2
2. F =
to the charge at point B, only the one at 4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
lee (dl28863) – Ch14-h1 – turner – (90130) 4

1 2e Correct answer: 2.74304 × 10−8 C.


3. F =
4πǫ0 |~r BA |
Explanation:
1 2e2
4. F = correct
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
1 e Let : L = 0.13 m ,
5. F =
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2 m = 0.03 kg , and
Explanation: θ = 4◦ .

~
The magnitude of the force is just F . So
we just take the length of the force vector,
which (following the explanation from part 2)
is given by

L
~ = 1 −2e2 BA
F r̂ .
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2 q θ
a q
m m
(Remember the electron has a negative
charge.) Taking the length, we get From the right triangle,
a
sin θ =

1 −2e2
L

~ BA
F = r̂
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2 a = L sin θ = (0.13 m) sin 4◦


1 2e2 BA = 0.00906834 m .
F = r̂
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2 The separation of the spheres is r = 2 a =
1 2e2 0.0181367 m . The forces acting on one of the
= (1) spheres are shown in the figure below.
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
1 2e2 T θ
= T cos θ
4πǫ0 |~r BA |2
θ
Fe
009 10.0 points T sin θ
Two identical small charged spheres hang in
equilibrium with equal masses as shown in mg
the figure. The length of the strings are equal Because the sphere is in equilibrium, the
and the angle (shown in the figure) with the resultant of the forces in the horizontal and
vertical is identical. vertical directions must separately add up to
zero:
X
Fx = T sin θ − Fe = 0
0. 1

X
3m

Fy = T cos θ − m g = 0 .

Dividing,
4◦
0.03 kg 0.03 kg F sin θ Fe
=
F cos θ mg
Find the magnitude of the charge on
Fe = m g tan θ
each sphere. The acceleration of gravity is
= (0.03 kg) 9.8 m/s2 tan 4◦

9.8 m/s2 and the value of Coulomb’s constant
is 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 . = 0.0205585 N .
lee (dl28863) – Ch14-h1 – turner – (90130) 5
From Coulomb’s law, the electric force be-
tween the charges has magnitude 011 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Atomic physicists usually ignore the effect of
|q|2 gravity within an atom. To see why, we may
|Fe | = ke 2
s r calculate and compare the magnitude of the
|Fe | r 2 ratio of the electrical force and gravitational
|q| = Fe
ke force between an electron and a proton
s Fg
(0.0205585 N) (0.0181367 m)2 separated by a distance of 6 m.
= What is the magnitude of the elec-
(8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 )
trical force? The Coulomb constant is
= 2.74304 × 10−8 C . 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 , the gravitational
constant is 6.67259 × 10−11 m3 /kg · s2 , the
mass of a proton is 1.67262 × 10−27 kg, the
010 10.0 points mass of an electron is 9.10939 × 10−31 kg,
Two spheres, fastened to “pucks”, are rid- and the elemental charge is 1.602 × 10−19 C.
ing on a frictionless airtrack. Sphere 1 is
charged with 1 nC, and sphere 2 is charged Correct answer: 6.40714 × 10−30 N.
with 4 nC. Both objects have the same mass. Explanation:
1 nC is equal to 1 × 10−9 C.
As they repel,
Let : r = 6 m,
1. they do not accelerate at all, but rather k = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 ,
separate at constant velocity. qp = 1.602 × 10−19 C , and

2. sphere 1 accelerates 16 times as fast as qe = −1.602 × 10−19 C .


sphere 2. The electrical force between electron and pro-
ton is
3. sphere 2 accelerates 16 times as fast as qp qe
Fe = k 2
sphere 1. r
= (8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 )
4. they have the same magnitude of acceler- −(1.602 × 10−19 C)2
ation. correct ×
(6 m)2
5. sphere 1 accelerates 4 times as fast as = −6.40714 × 10−30 N ,
sphere 2. with a magnitude of 6.40714 × 10−30 N .
6. sphere 2 accelerates 4 times as fast as
012 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
sphere 1.
What is the ratio of the magnitude of the
Explanation: electrical force to the magnitude of the gravi-
The force of repulsion exerted on each mass tational force?
is determined by
Correct answer: 2.26874 × 1039 N.
1 Q1 Q2
F = = ma Explanation:
4 π ǫ0 r 2
where r is the distance between the centers of
Let : G = 6.67259 × 10−11 m3 /kg · s2 ,
the two spheres. Since both spheres have the
same mass and are subject to the same force, mp = 1.67262 × 10−27 kg , and
they have the same acceleration. me = 9.10939 × 10−31 kg .
lee (dl28863) – Ch14-h1 – turner – (90130) 6
The gravitational force between electron Now, a particle whose charge is −6 × 10−9 C
and proton is is placed at location A.
mp me Which arrow best indicates the direction of
Fg = G the electric force on this charge? Enter ’j’ if
r2
= (6.67259 × 10−11 m3 /kg · s2 ) the force is the zero vector.
× (1.67262 × 10−27 kg)
9.10939 × 10−31 kg a
× . h b
(6 m)2
~ e k ≫ kF
~gk . g c
Note: kF
f d
~ ek
kF e
= 2.26874 × 1039 .
~gk
kF

013 (part 1 of 5) 10.0 points


Correct answer: b.
In the region shown in the diagram below
there is an electric field due to a point charge Explanation:
located at the center of the circle. The arrows Like charges repel, so the direction of the
indicate the magnitude and direction of the force on a negatively charged particle at point
electric field at the locations shown. A should be away from the circle, and thus, in
direction b.

D A 015 (part 3 of 5) 10.0 points


The electric field at location A has the value
h−5000 N/C, −5000 N/C, 0i.
~ can be
The unit vector in the direction of E
written in the form:

Ê = hÊx , Êy , Êz i


where we understand Êz = 0.
What is Êx ?
C B
Correct answer: −0.707107.
What is the sign of the source charge? Your Explanation:
answer should either be a plus sign or a minus For any vector, the unit normal can be
sign. found by taking the vector and dividing it by
its magnitude, since
Correct answer: -.
Explanation:
   
~v ~v ~v · ~v
Electric fields point away from positive · =
|~v | |~v | |~v |2
charges and toward negative charges.
The fields are pointing toward the circle, so |~v |2
=
there should be a net negative charge inside |~v |2
the circle. =1

014 (part 2 of 5) 10.0 points ~


We can easily find the magnitude of E:
lee (dl28863) – Ch14-h1 – turner – (90130) 7

q
~ 017 (part 5 of 5) 10.0 points
E = Ex2 + Ey2 The electric force on the −6 × 10−9 C charge
q can be written in the form
= (−5000 N/C)2 + (−5000 N/C)2
= 7071.07 N/C hFx , Fy , Fz i

So, finally, we find where it is understood that Fz = 0.


What is the value of Fx ?
Ex
Êx = Correct answer: 3 × 10−5 N.
~
E Explanation:
−5000 N/C The force on a charged particle is merely
= the charge of that particle times the field at
7071.07 N/C
= −0.707107 its location.
Therefore, we have:

016 (part 4 of 5) 10.0 points


What is Êy ? ~ = qE
F ~
Fx = qEx
Correct answer: −0.707107. = (−6 × 10−9 C)(−5000 N/C)
Explanation: = 3 × 10−5 N
For any vector, the unit normal can be
found by taking the vector and dividing it by
its magnitude, since

   
~v ~v ~v · ~v
· =
|~v | |~v | |~v |2
|~v |2
=
|~v |2
=1
~
We can easily find the magnitude of E:

q
~
E = Ex2 + Ey2
q
= (−5000 N/C)2 + (−5000 N/C)2
= 7071.07 N/C
So, finally, we find

Ey
Êy =
~
E
−5000 N/C
=
7071.07 N/C
= −0.707107