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Advanced Biology 11

Data Analysis

Echinoderm Conservation
analyze population data for Echinoderms

Group 6
Suparuek Saetoen 5961163
Chinorod Tavichai 5961064
Pitcha Boonachatong 5961065
Vachanon Ittikraicharoen 5961170
Laksika Taweewattanakitborvon 5961004

Mahidol University International Demonstration School

Mr. Filipczak Andrew James

Semester 2 Academic Year 2017-2018
(European Map)

The European Edible Sea Urchin

Echinus esculentus​, the European edible sea urchin or common sea urchin, is a ​species​ of
marine ​invertebrate​ in the ​Echinidae​ family. It is found in coastal areas of western Europe down
to a depth of 1,200 m (3,900 ft). It is considered "Near threatened" in the IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species
Data Table

Figure 1: Population Size

This data table demonstrates the amount of population size of Echinoderm in each EU
country. The average of the population size will analyse the overall population to determine the
rate change because the number in each country is fluctuate so it is difficult to determine the
Figure 2: Average of Echinus Esculentus population in Europe

According to figure 2, it demonstrates the average of ​Echinus esculentus p​opulation in

Europe from 1985 - 2015. In the first ten years, we can observe that the average of population
size decreases rapidly from 34 to 24 individual/hectare. After 1995, the average of population
size still decrease continuously but in a slower rate.
Figure 3: Percent changes

Based on the data above, seven out of nine countries- including Portugal, Spain, Netherlands, UK,
Denmark, Ireland, and France- is experiencing the decline of Echinoderm’s population. The population of
the other two countries, Sweden and Norway, are increasing significantly. However, the decreasing
population rate outweighs the small increasing population rate. The overall movement of the population is
going down for 50% in a period between 1985 until 2015.
Figure 4: Overview

According to the data, year 1985-2015 population size in different countries in Europe shrift
variously. We can categorised these data into three groups, increasing, decreasing gradually and
decreasing rapidly.
The dash black line is the average population movement over the period from 1985 to 2015. The
line is apparently declines in the first decade until the decreasing rate slow down after 1995. The dash line
compares the statistic of each country with the average.
Figure 5: Increasing

The first group, which is composed of Norway and Sweden, increases from approximately 20
individuals per hectare to 45 individuals per hectare over the two decade-period.

Figure 6: Overview

Secondly, which is consisted of Ireland, UK and Netherlands, decline dramatically leaving

countries in this group with a little over 16 individuals per hectare.
Third group, combine with France, Portugal, Spain and Denmark. Within this group, echinus
esculentus population in every country decline to the point that only a handful amount remain.
Figure 2: GDP vs population of Echinoderm

According to data table above, It demonstrates GDP growth in EU Members from 1980 to 2020.
The GDP in EU trend to decrease as the year go on. In theoretical, the population of Echino should
increase if the GDP increase. However, compare to the population size of Echinoderm, GDP doesn’t
affects the population size of Echinoderm. The average population size Echino also decrease as the GDP
decrease over year. So we can make an assumption that this doesn’t affect the echinoderm population.
Figure 3: The Regional Trend

According to data above, the trend of the population size of Echinoderm can be divided into two
main regions including the higher latitude and lower latitude. The latitude influence the population size of
Echinoderm. Norway and Sweden is located in higher latitude and the population of Echinoderm
increases. However, the population size decrease in the lower attitude such as France, Spain and Portugal.


Bias : The loss of the European Edible Sea Urchin is not an urgent problem at present.
According to the data analysis, even though the average population of Echinoderm in 1985 to
2000 is decreasing dramatically (Data Table1); however, after 2000, its population decreasing
rate is slow down over each five year. As a result, the population of Echinoderm is still stable
and is not an urgent problem at present. Nevertheless, if the population size continue to decrease
in the future and not maintain its size, it will absolutely be an urgent problem in future and might
be extinct as well.

Base on the information above, the average population size of Echinoderm decreased
dramatically over 30 years since 1985. As shown in the figure 1, the graph illustrates that the numerous
numbers of Echinoderm declined rapidly from 34 to 24 individuals per hectare. From the data that we
gathered, it shows that there are three main trends of the population size of Echinoderm. We also
compared the decreasing of Echinoderm with the population in Europe and overall GDP in each country.
We realised that the growth of population and economic growth rate is irrelevance base on the rate of the
change in population size of Echinoderm. The second one is base on the relationship between GDP of EU
and Echinoderm’s population. Lastly, the final one is affected by the latitude of the country.