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Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

Presented at the

1995 Pennsylvania Electric Association Relay Committee Spring Meeting

Matamoras, Pennsylvania

May 25–26, 1995

1994 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference, May 1994

Aspects of Overcurrent Protection for Feeders and Motors

Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc

specialized system relays. overcurrent characteristics for

This paper discusses the coordination of the characteristics these applications may appear diverse and unrelated.

and the backup and redundancy possible with microproc- However, microprocessor relay technology has advanced to

essor relays. The paper reviews the application of negative- where it is not only feasible, but it is of distinct economic

sequence overcurrent characteristics for unbalanced protec- advan~ge to consider all these characteristics collectively as

tion in motors and also covers the rules for coordinating attributes of a universal overcurrent relay. Furthermore.

negative-sequencecharacteristics to provide sensitive phase- the issues of backup and redundancy are addressed since a

to-phase protection in feeders. The paper also covers reset single processor easily accommodates the compu~tional

characteristics and the requirements for stator and rotor burden of two complete and independent relays.

thermal protection of induction motors.

Figure I shows the block diagram for a dual universal

Key Words: lnverse-time Overcurrrent Relay, Negative- overcurrent relay having one opto-isolated input, two output

SequenceOvercurrent Relay, Motor Thermal Model, Motor contacts, and a set of three-phase current inputs for each of

Protection. the independent relays X and Y. In the relay setting

procedure, the user is prompted for relay X or Y and then

for the application. The relay then presents a group of

INTRODUCTION elements to be set. Such an arrangement focuses attention,

not only on the individual characteristics, but also on the

A comprehensive list of non-directional overcurrrent relays elements that make up each application. This universal

would include thermal overload, inverse-time, definite time, relay concept is used here to discuss the commonality, the

and instantaneous relays. The list could be further classi- differences, and the coordination of the elements required

fied by operating quantities including individual phase, for feeder, motor, and breaker failure protection. The

residual. and negative-sequence current. Taken collectively paper goes on to discuss the rules for the coordination of

and depending on the characteristic shape, pickup and time negative-sequence overcurrent characteristics for sensitive

range, and dynamics, these relays span the applications for phase-to-phase fault protection in feeders, as well as for

motor, feeder, and breaker failure protection. unbalanced current protection of induction motors.

IAX

3

lex

3

ICX

3

IAY

3

IBY

3

ICY

3

OKO. ,--/0,

MEASURANDS AND THE DIGITAL FIL TERING COORDINATION OF INVERSE TIME-CURRENT

PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

The input for a digital relay is obtained by sampling sine Coordination practice is ultimately detern1ined by the type

wave currents at discrete time intervals. A fixed number of of grounding used in distribution systems. Notably. in

instantaneous samples per cycle are converted to digital Europe the practice is to operate high impedance grounded

quantities by the AID converter and stored in memory for or ungrounded 3-wire distribution systems. Since there are

processing. Digital Filtering is the simple process of no single-phase laterals protected by fuses. coordination is

combining successive samples to obtain the quantities which obtained using definite-time characteristics. Conversely. in

represent the phasor components of the input. For North America the practice is to operate grounded 4-wire

example, in Figure 1 six currents are sampled 16 times per distribution systems with loads served by single-phase

cycle. Each successive sample is multiplied by the coeffi- laterals protected by fuses. Consequently. coordination is

cients of a stored cosine wave and combined to obtain a obtained using inverse time-current characteristics suitable

phasor component. The cosine filter has the following for fuse coordination. Figure 2 shows the close coordina-

properties ideal for protective relaying [ 1] : tion of an extremely inverse induction characteristic with

that of a high-voltage fuse.

I. Bandpass response about the system frequency.

2. DC and ramp rejection to guarantee decaying expo-

nentials are filtered out.

3. Harmonic attenuation or rejection to limit effects of

nonlinearities.

4. Reasonable bandwidth for fast response.

5. Good transient behavior.

6. Simple to design, build, and manufacture.

cycle earlier forD1 the real and imaginary components of the

current phasors. The measurands calcu1ated from the

phasor components each cycle are:

Residual Current 10

N egative-Sequence Current 12

Positive-Sequence Current Ii

Figure 2: Extremely Inverse Characteristic Compared with

Min. Melting and Maximum Clearing Time of a SOE Fuse

All the elements of the universal relay are organized under

the applications of feeder, motor, or breaker. The feeder

The straight line ft log-log plot of a fuse minimum melting

application group provides three separate sets of Instan-

time is often visualized as the basic time-current character-

taneous, Definite- Time, and Inverse- Time elements. The

istic. However, a definite time must be added to form the

first set responds to I., Ib, and 1..and provides conventional

maximum clearing time characteristic of the fuse. This

phase fault protection. The second set responds to 312and

illustrates the fundamental concept that whenever fixed

provides for sensitive phase-to-phase fault, and ground

clearing time is added to a straight line log-log plot the

backup protection. The third set responds to residual

result is a curve. For this reason, the most viable shape for

current 310,and provides conventional ground fault protec-

a time-current characteristic for coordination purposes is the

tion.

curve formed when a definite time is added to the straight

tine of a 108-108plot.

The motor application group shares the phase, negative-

sequence, and ground instantaneous and definite-time

Appendix I shows that, were it not for the use of saturation,

elements to protect the motor for winding faults or faults in

the induction characteristic would be the straight line log-

the connecting leads. However, an added element, respon-

log characteristic of a fuse. However, the viable curve is

sive to both positive-sequence and negative-sequence

formed by deliberately saturating the electromagnet at a

current, provides thermal protection for overload, locked

specific multiple of pickup current to introduce a definite-

rotor, or unbalanced current conditions.

time component as discussed in [2]. Therefore, adding a

2

constant definite time teIDl to Eq. 12 of Appendix I forms

the induction characteristic equation. Consequently. all the Table 1: Faults on a Radial line

characteristics can be accommodated in the dual overcurrent

relay using the following equations: Fault 13lz~1

BC .';3

A BCG

t=TD (I) s.';3

M2-:t

For M > 1

A +B

t=TD (2)

MP- 1

M is multiples of pickup current

TD is the time-dial setting ( I through 15)

shape of the characteristic. The constants A and B can be The negative-sequence elements differ only in their operat-

chosen to accurately emulate the extremely and the very ing quantity and are easily coordinated with phase and

inverse induction time-current characteristics with the ground relays. Elneweihi et al. [3] , have devised a simple

exponent p of 2. An accurate emulation of the moderately method for setting negative-sequence elements. The method

inverse characteristic is obtained by using an exponent of is based on the observation that the greatest ratio between

0.02 with specific values for A and B. The shapes of the the negative-sequence current 312 and the phase current lp

induction characteristics are defined by the ratios of A to B is V3 as illustrated in Tables I and II. The simple method

and the exponents listed below: of setting negative-sequence overcurrent elements is as

follows:

Curve A/B p

1. Start with the most downstream negative-sequence

Moderately Inverse 0.46 0.02 element (e.g., feeder relay).

Inverse 33.05 2.0

Very Inverse 40.29 2.0 2. Identify the phase-overcurrent device (relay, fuse,

Extremely Inverse 161 2.0 etc.) downstream from the negative-sequence

element that is of the greatest concern for coordina-

tion. This is usually the phase-overcurrent device

COORDINATING NEGA TlvE-sEauENcE with the longest clearing time.

OVERCURRENT ELEMENTS

3. Consider the negative-sequence element as an

It is well understood that ground overcurrent elements, "equivalent" phase-overcurrent element. Derive the

operated by the residual current 310, do not respond to setting for this element as any phase element would

balanced load and can be set to operate faster and more be done. The setting only differs in that it is only

sensitively for the most frequent fault type, the phase-to- governed by coordination time and not by load.

ground fault. Similarly, negative-sequence overcurrent

elements, responding to 312, do not respond to balanced 4. Retain the time-dial or time-delay settings but

load and can be set to operate faster and more sensitively multiply the "equivalent" phase-overcurrent pickup

for the second most frequent fault type, the phase-to-phase setting by ..;3. The result is the negative-sequence

fault. overcurrent element pickup in terms of 3~ current.

Negative-sequence elements are useful in clearing faults on 5. Set the next upstream negative-sequence element to

the secondary of a delta-wye. Also, the settings realized coordinate with the first downstream negative-

for a bus negative-sequence element may be as sensitive as sequence element (and the third with the second and

the feeder phase-overcurrent elements for effective backup so on).

for feeder phase-to-phase faults. The feeder relay sensitiv-

ity for phase-to-phase faults may also be improved.

3

MOTOR PROTECTION which decreases to a low nmning value at rated slip labeled

Ro.

The characteristics of the motor application are shown in

Figure 3 with the starting current of an induction motor. In Using a typical starting current of six times the rated

the motor application, definite-time and instantaneous current and a locked rotor resistance Rl of three times value

elements provide protection for faults in the motor leads of ~, the rr heating is estimated at 62 x 3 or 108 times

and internal faults in the motor itself. A definite-time normal. Consequently, an extreme temperature must be

setting of about 6 cycles allows the pickup to be set to 1.2 tolerated for a limited time to start the motor. Where an

to 1.5 times locked rotor current to avoid tripping on the emergency rt threshold is specified by the locked rotor

initial Xd" inrush current (shown magnified). The instan- limit during a start, a threshold for the normal running

taneous can then be set at twice the locked rotor current for condition is specified by the service factor. Therefore, the

fast clearing of high fault currents. thermal model requires a trip threshold when starting,

indicated by the locked rotor thermal limit, and a trip

threshold when running, indicated by the service factor.

: i : ~t (P~)

---J

lDLRT

""r"""""f """."""""."""""".".""""""""

R\U!I1irIgCIn

::J::.::::..:::..:: ;

T

~~.~..~~..

R, j:j'! :

(p )

O.lLRT

f

:;::1:::D.6Dit&- Time

---1"""" ~tantaneons

. ! :Speed m

. RO

1 u

O.OILRr O Inrush

2.5 CIlITent

5 i?5 02 t4 Oj OJ I

I I I I I I

CU%rentm per Imit ofFLA OJ Oj t4 02

SlIp (l-m)

FIgure 3: Motor Characteristics Plotted with Motor Starting FIgure 4: Current, Torque. and Rotor Resistance of an Induc-

Current tion Motor Versus Speed

An inverse-time phase overcurrent element and a separate The slip dependentbeatingeffect of positive- and negative-

negative-sequence overcurrent element could be applied to sequencecurrents is derived as follows. The positive-

prevent the overheating caused by a locked rotor or an sequencerotor resistanceplotted in Figure 4 is calculated

unbalance current condition. However, neither of these using current, torque, and slip in the following equation:

elements can account for thermal history or track the

excursions of temperature. Instead, an element is used

(3)

which accounts for the rr heating effect of both POsitive-

and negative-sequence current. The element is a thermal

model, defined by motor nameplate and thermal limit data, and can be represented as a linear function of slip. The

that estimates motor temperature. The temperature is then positive-sequence resistance R.+ is a function of the slip S:

compared to thermal limit trip and alarm thresholds to Rr+ = (R1 -~)S + ~ (4)

prevent overheating for the abnormal conditions of over-

load, locked rotor, too frequent or prolonged starts, and The negative-sequence resistance R.. is obtained when S is

unbalanced current. replaced with the negative-sequence slip (2-S):

Rr- = (Rl -RJ(2 -S) + ~ (5)

DEFINING THE THERMAL MODEL Factors expressing the relative heating effect of positive-

and negative-sequence current are obtained by dividing Eqs.

The rr heat source and two trip thresholds can be discerned 4 and 5 by the running resistance, Ro. Consequently, for

from a motor characteristic of torque, current, and rotor the locked rotor case, and where Rl is typically three times

resistance versus slip shown in Figure 4. The plot shows ~, the heating effect for both positive- and negative-

the characteristic of the induction motor to draw excessively sequence current is three times that caused by the nom1al

high current until the peak torque develops near full speed. running current.

Also, the skin effect of the slip frequency causes the rotor

resistance to exhibit a high locked rotor value labeled Rl

4

the operating temperature with full load current. The

R R R

~IS.l= ~IS.l= ~ = 3 (6) locked rotor time, To' is oot usually specified, but may be

calcu1ated by using a hot spot temperature of six times the

operating temperature in the following relation:

For the nmning case, the positive-sequence heating factor

returns to one and the negative-sequence heating factor 12T

L .= 6 :. ~T = 1.2 (8)

increases to 5:

IL2(T. -To) To

There are two reasons for using the rotor model in the

running state. The first is that, despite a difference in

thresholds, it is an industry practice to publish the overload

These factors are the coefficients of the positive and and locked rotor thermal limits as one continuous curve as

negative currents of the heat source in the theImal model. illustrated in Figure 3. The second is that the rotor model

accounts for the heating of both the positive-sequence and

the negative-sequence current. As a final refinement,

STATES OF THE THERMAL MODEL assigning standard values of 3 and 1.2 to the ratios ~/Ro

and T .rr o respectively, allows the model parameters to be

Because of its torque characteristic, the motor must operate determined from five fundamental settings:

in either a high-current starting state or be driven to a low-

current running state by the peak torque occurring at about FLA Rated fu1l-load motor current in secondary amps

2.5 per unit current. The theIn1al model protects the motor LRA Rated locked rotor current in secondary amps

in either state by using the trip threshold and heating factors LRT Them1al-limit time at rated locked rotor current

indicated by the current magnitude. The two states of the TO Time dial to trip temperature in per unit of LRT

theIn1al model are shown in Figure 5. The theIn1al model SF Motor rated service factor

is actually a difference equation executed by the micro-

processor. However, it can be represented by the electrical

analog circuit shown in Figure 5. In this analogy, the heat

source is represented by a current generator, the tempera-

ture is represented by voltage, and theIn1al resistance and

capacitance are represented by electrical resistance and

capacitance. The parameters of the theIn1al model are

defined as follows:

Ro = Running rotor electrical resistance also rated slip (a) Startin& State I >2.5 pu

(per unit ohms)

IL = Locked rotor current in per unit of full load current

T. = Locked rotor time with motor initia1ly at ambient

To = Locked rotor time with motor initia1ly at operating

temperature

whenever the current exceeds 2.5 per unit of the rated full

load current and uses the threshold and heating factors

derived for the locked rotor case. Thermal resistance is not (b) RunniD& State I < 2.5 pu

shown because the start calculation assumes adiabatic ~ s: SlAtes of the Thermal Model

heating. The running state, shown in Figure 5b, is declared

when the current falls below 2.5 per unit current and uses

the heating factors derived for the nmning condition. In DUAL APPliCATIONS

this state the trip threshold "cools" exponentially from a

locked rotor threshold to the appropriate threshold for the Out of the many possible applications, two shown in Figure

running condition using the motor thermal time constant. 6a and 6b illustrate the versatility of the dual universal

This emulates the motor temperature which cools to the overcurrent relay. In Figure 6a, both the relays X and y

steady-state running condition. are set for feeder application to protect a delta-wye trans-

folmer bank. Relay X provides phase and negative-

In the model, the thennal limit IL~ .represents the locked sequence overcurrent protection on the high side (delta) that

rotor hot spot limit temperature and IL 2(T .-T J represents also see through the bank to the low side. The ground

5

overcurrent elements provide sensitive protection for the of ba~~ load to provide sensitive phase-to-phase

high side but cannot see through the delta. However, relay fault coverage.

y provides the ground protection for the low side. In

Figure 6b, relay X is set as a feeder where the phase and

negative-sequence overcurrent elements provide protection APPENDIX I

for high phase-to-phase faults using a higher ratio ct. Relay

y is set for motor application using a low ratio ct to protect The TJme-CUIIent Equation

An equation for the inverse time-current characteristic can

be derived from the following basic differential equation for

input dependent time delay as it applies to an induction

relay:

(9)

t> Where:

I is the input current in amperes

(8) De1ta-wye Transfonner (b) Small Motor lp is the pickup current in amperes

1'. is the spring torque

FJgUIe 6: Applications of a Dual Universal Overcurrent is the damping factor due to the drag magnet

~

Relay 8 is the angular displacement and d8/dt is the angular

velocity

CONCLUSION The small moment of inertia of the disc is neglected and the

spring torque is represented by a constant because the effect

I. An analytic equation for induction-type inverse time- of its gradient is compensated by an increase in torque

current characteristics has been derived. The integral caused by the shape of the disc. Integrating Eq. 9 gives:

equation also defines reset characteristic and the

dynamics which guarantee close coordination with To ~ (M2-1)dt (10)

8 = f

induction relays under all conditions of varying current. o K

d

2. The equations of a motor thermal element have been Dividing both sides of Eq .10 by 8 gives the dynamic

derived. The element exists as two-state thermal which equation:

accounts for the slip-dependent heating of positive- and

negative-sequence current. The model is defined by J T. ~ (M2-1)dt = J T.-.!.-dt = 1 (11)

o K,,9 o t(I)

motor nameplate and thermal-Iimit data and provides

protection during the abnormal conditions of overload, where t(l) is the time-current characteristic and the constant

locked rotor, and unbalanced current. A equals ~9/T.:

breaker protection consist of sets of thermal, inverse-

r Kd el

t(I) = ~ -A (12)

time, definite-time, and instantaneous elements. These

elements, grouped by application, are collectively (W -1 ) -'(M2:i)

accommodated as attributes of a universal overcurrent

relay.

ResetChaI..:t..;sIic

4. The issues of backup and redundancy have been

addressed by a dual-relay implementation.

Where the time integral of any element can be reset in one

cycle, an optional reset characteristic is available when

5. Negative-sequence elements, as well as traditional phase

required for close coordination with existing induction

and ground elements, are obtained from three phase-

relays.

current measurands. Negative-sequence elements with

induction-type characteristics coordinate directly with

Eq. 12 defines the induction characteristic for currents

phase and ground elements and can be set independent

below, as well as for currents above, the pickup current.

6

If an induction disc bas an initial displacement from its reset [2] G. Benmouya1, and S. E. Zocholl, .Testing Dynamic

position when the applied current is reduced to zero, the Characteristics of Overcurrent Relays, .PEA Relay Com-

disc will be driven in a negative direction toward the reset mittee Fall Meeting, Hershey, PA, September 21-22, 1993.

position. This is represented in Eq. 12 by setting M = 0,

which produces a negative number indicating the reset time [3] A. F. Elneweihi. E. 0. Schweitzer. and M. W. Feltis.

and the rotation of the disc in the direction toward reset. "Negative-Sequence Overcurrent Element Application and

Coordination in Distribution Protection. " IEEE Transactions

With this substitution, Eq. 12 gives the reset time 1.:

on Power Delivery. Volume 8. Number 3. June 1993. pp

Kd e (13) 915-923.

Itrl = -

7.

[4] S. E. Zocho11, E. 0. Schweitzer ill, and A. Aliaga-

and the reset characteristic for any value of M between zero

Zegarra, "TherD1al Protection of Induction Motors Enhan-

and one is: ced by Interactive Electrical and TherD1al Models, " IEEE

Transactions on Power Apparatus and SysteJns, Volume

PAS-I03, Number 7, July 1984, pp 1749-1755.

Mosher ill, "Heating of Induction Motors on Unbalanced

Voltages, " AlEE Transactions, June 1959, pp 282-287.

Frequency of Starting: The Myths and the Facts, " IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Applications, Volume 29,

Number 1, January/February 1993.

Phase: Analyzing the Polyphase Induction Motor

[1] E. 0. Schweitzer and Daqing Hou, WFiltering For Dilemma, " IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications,

Protective Relays,W 19th Annual Western Protective Relay Volume IA-13, Number 4, November!December 1977, pp

Conference, Spokane, WA, October 1992. 504-517.

(All rights reserved)

Printed in USA

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