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T R O P I CAARL TCIOCN LS E RS V A N C Y

A Manifesto for Earth


Ted Mosquin The Ecosphere is the Life-giving matrix that envelops
all organisms, intimately intertwined w i t h
P.O. Box 279 them in the story of evo-
Lanark, ON lution from the begin-
Canada K0G 1K0 ning of time. Or-
Email: mosquin@xplornet.com ganisms are
fashioned
Stan Rowe from air,
water, and
June 11, 1918 to April 6, 2004 s e d i -
Canada V0G 1S0 ments,
Email: stanrowe@netidea.com which in
ABOUT THE AUTHORS turn bear
Ted Mosquin has a Ph.D. in Systematics & Evolution organic
from UCLA. He spent 12 years as a research scientist imprints.
with Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, and has taught at the The com-
University of Alberta, and the University of Califor- position of
nia, Berkeley. He served as editor of The Canadian
Field - Naturalist, and of Biodiversity. He is the au-
sea water is
thor or co-author of four books and of some 100 sci- maintained
entific and popular articles on ecology, natural his- by organisms
tory, endangered species, biodiversity, and environ- that also stabi-
mental ethics. A recent article: The Roles of lize the improbable
Biodiversity in Creating and Maintaining the Ecosphere atmosphere. Plants
http://www.ecospherics.net/pages/MosqEcoFun5.html
summarizes part of the ecological foundation for this and animals formed the
Manifesto. Ted has served as President and Director of limestone in mountains whose sediments make our EARTH, the
several national and regional Canadian environmental or- bones. The false divisions we have made between liv- dynamo of LIFE, with
its swirling clouds, its
ganizations (More bio details at: www.ecospherics.net/ ing and non-living, biotic and abiotic, organic and in- running rivers and
pages/aboutauthors.html). organic, have put the stablity and evolutionary poten- ocean currents, its
slow-moving crustal
Stan Rowe was educated in ecology at the Universities of tial of the Ecosphere at risk. plates and, in the midst
Alberta, Nebraska and Manitoba. He has spent equal time of it all, the Organic
as a research forester with Forestry Canada, as a teacher Humanity’s 10,000-year-old experiment in mode-of-liv- Dance!
at the University of Saskatchewan, and since 1985 as an ing at the expense of Nature, culminating in economic
emeritus Professor. A geo-ecologist and environmental globalization, is failing. A primary reason is that we have
ethicist with a background in silviculture and terrain placed the importance of our species above all else. We
(landscape) ecology, Stan authored Forest Regions of
Canada (1959), and Home Place: Essays on Ecology have wrongly considered Earth, its ecosystems, and their
(NeWest Press, Edmonton, 1990; reissued 2002), as well myriad organic/inorganic parts as mere provisioners,
as numerous articles, book chapters and reviews. Some valued only when they serve our needs and wants. A cou-
of his articles on ecology and ethics are posted at rageous change in attitudes and activities is urgent. Di-
www.ecospherics.net. He has served on provincial and agnoses and prescriptions for healing the human-Earth
federal environmental advisory councils. (More bio details
at: http://www.ecospherics.net/pages/aboutauthors.html).
relationship are legion, and here we emphasize the vi-
sionary one that seems essential to the success of all oth-
PREAMBLE ers. A new worldview anchored in the planetary Eco-
Many artistic and philosophical movements have produced sphere points the way.
Manifestos, proclaiming truths that to their authors were
as manifest as their five-fingered hands. This Manifesto STATEMENT OF CONVICTION
also states self-evident truths, as obvious to us as the mar- Everyone searches for meaning in life, for support-
vellous five-part environment – land, air, water, fire/sun- ive convictions that take various forms. Many look to
light, and organisms – wherein we live, move, and have faiths that ignore or discount the importance of this
our being. The Manifesto is Earth-centered. It shifts the world, not realizing in any profound sense that we are
value-focus from humanity to the enveloping Ecosphere – born from Earth and sustained by it throughout our
that web of organic/inorganic/symbiotic structures and pro- lives. In today’s dominating industrial culture, Earth-
cesses that constitute Planet Earth. as-home is not a self-evident percept. Few pause daily

B I O D I V E R S I T Y 5 ( 1 ) 2 0 0 4 3
to consider with a sense of wonder the enveloping ma- and regional places wherein we dwell – programs for
trix from which we came and to which, at the end, we healthy sustainable ways of living will fail.
all return. Because we are issue of the Earth, the har-
A trusting attachment to the Ecosphere, an aesthetic
monies of its lands, seas, skies and its countless beau-
empathy with surrounding Nature, a feeling of awe
tiful organisms carry rich meanings barely understood.
for the miracle of the Living Earth and its mysterious
We are convinced that until the Ecosphere is recog- harmonies, is humanity’s largely unrecognized heri-
nized as the indispensable common ground of all hu- tage. Affectionately realized again, our connections
man activities, people will continue to set their im- with the natural world will begin to fill the gap in lives
mediate interests first. Without an ecocentric perspec- lived in the industrialized world. Important ecologi-
tive that anchors values and purposes in a greater re- cal purposes that civilization and urbanization have
ality than our own species, the resolution of political, obscured will re-emerge. The goal is restoration of
economic, and religious conflicts will be impossible. Earth’s diversity and beauty, with our prodigal spe-
Until the narrow focus on human communities is cies once again a cooperative, responsible, ethical
broadened to include Earth’s ecosystems – the local member.

CORE PRINCIPLES
Principle 01 The Ecosphere is the Center of Value for Humanity
Principle 02 The Creativity and Productivity of Earth’s Ecosystems Depend on their Integrity
Principle 03 The Earth-centered Worldview is supported by Natural History
Principle 04 Ecocentric Ethics are Grounded in Awareness of our Place in Nature
Principle 05 An Ecocentric Worldview Values Diversity of Ecosystems and Cultures
Principle 06 Ecocentric Ethics Support Social Justice
ACTION PRINCIPLES
Principle 07 Defend and Preserve Earth’s Creative Potential
Principle 08 Reduce Human Population Size
Principle 09 Reduce Human Consumption of Earth Parts
Principle 10 Promote Ecocentric Governance
Principle 11 Spread the Message

Herds of Wildebeest
and Zebras on the
CORE PRINCIPLES intricately expressed in all parts of the Ecosphere, ex-
Serengeti Plains of Principle 1. The Ecosphere is the ceed in value and importance the species they contain.
Africa testify to the Center of Value for Humanity
innate generative
The Ecosphere, the Earth globe, is the generative source The reality and value of each person’s ecological or outer
capacity of Earth’s being has attracted scant attention compared to the philo-
natural ecosystems. of evolutionary creativity. From the planet’s inorganic/
(Photo by Tim Clark, organic ecosystems organisms emerged: first bacterial sophic thought lavished on humanity’s inner being, the
London, U.K. Web latter an individualistic focus that draws attention away
site: http:// cells and eventually those complex confederations of
www.wildlifetravel.net). cells that are human beings. Hence, dynamic ecosystems, from ecological needs and neglects the vital importance
of the Ecosphere. Extended to society as concern only
for the welfare of people, this homocentrism
(anthropocentrism) is a doctrine of species-selfishness
destructive of the natural world. Biocentrism that extends
sympathy and understanding beyond the human race to
other organisms marks an ethical advance, but its scope
is limited. It fails to appreciate the importance of the
total ecological “surround.” Without attention to the pri-
ority of Earth-as-context, biocentrism easily reverts to a
chauvinistic homocentrism, for who among all animals
is commonly assumed to be the wisest and best?
Ecocentrism, emphasizing the Ecosphere as the primary
Life-Giving system rather than merely life’s support,
provides the standard to which humanity must appeal for
future guidance.
We humans are conscious expressions of the
Ecosphere’s generative forces, our individual “alive-
ness” experienced as inseparable from sun-warmed

4 T R O P I C A L C O N S E R V A N C Y
air, water, land, and the food that other organisms pro-
vide. Like all other vital beings born from Earth, we
have been “tuned” through long evolution to its reso-
nances, its rhythmic cycles, its seasons. Language,
thought, intuitions – all are drawn directly or meta-
phorically from the fact of our physical being on
Earth. Beyond conscious experience, every person
embodies an intelligence, an innate wisdom of the
body that, without conscious thought, suits it to par-
ticipate as a symbiotic part of terrestrial ecosystems.
Comprehension of the ecological reality that people
are Earthlings, shifts the center of values away from
the homocentric to the ecocentric, from Homo sapi-
ens to Planet Earth.
Principle 2. The Creativity and Productivity
of Earth’s Ecosystems Depends on their Integrity
“Integrity” refers to wholeness, to completeness, to the
ability to function fully. The standard is Nature’s sun-
energized ecosystems in their undamaged state; for
example, a productive tract of the continental sea-shelf
or a temperate rain forest in pre-settlement days when
humans were primarily foragers. Although such times
are beyond recall, their ecosystems (as much as we can
know them) still provide the only known blueprints for
sustainability in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.
Current failings in all three of these industrialized en-
terprises show the effects of deteriorating integrity;
namely, loss of productivity and aesthetic appeal in
parallel with the continuing disruption of vital ecosys-
tem functions.
The evolutionary creativity and continued productivity
of Earth and its regional ecosystems require the con-
share genetic material and a common ancestry with all Desert ecosystems
tinuance of their key structures and ecological pro- cover huge regions of
cesses. This internal integrity depends on the preser- the other creatures that participate in Earth’s ecosys- Earth. Here pictured
vation of communities with their countless forms of tems. Such compelling narratives place humanity in are two scenes of the
context. Stories of Earth’s unfolding over the eons trace Mojave desert,
evolved cooperation and interdependence. Integrity California. Deserts are
depends on intricate food chains and energy flows, on our coevolution with myriad companion organisms often characterized by
uneroded soils and the cycling of essential materials through compliance, and not solely through competi- highly specialized deep
rooted shrubs, a great
such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. Further, the tiveness. The facts of organic coexistence reveal the many annual,
natural compositions of air, sediments, and water have important roles of mutualism, cooperation, and sym- ephemeral plant genera
biosis within Earth’s grand symphony. as well as the most
been integral to Nature’s healthy processes and func- unusual animals with
tions. Pollution of these three, along with exploitive unique adaptations for
Cultural myths and stories that shape our attitudes and survival.
extraction of inorganic and organic constituents, weak- (Photos by
values tell where we came from, who we are, and
ens ecosystem integrity and the norms of the Ecosphere, Ted Mosquin).
where in the future we are going. These stories have
the fount of evolving Life.
been unrealistically homocentric and/or other-worldly.
Principle 3. The Earth-centered In contrast, the evidence-based, outward-looking nar-
Worldview is Supported by Natural History rative of humanity’s natural history – made from
Natural History is the story of Earth unfolding. Cos- stardust, gifted with vitality and sustained by the
mologists and geologists tell of Earth’s beginnings more Ecosphere’s natural processes – is not only believ-
than four billion years ago, the appearance of small able but also more marvelous than traditional human-
sea creatures in early sediments, the emergence of ter- centered myths. By showing humanity-in-context, as
restrial animals from the sea, the Age of Dinosaurs, one organic component of the planetary globe,
the evolution with mutual influences of insects, flow- ecocentric narratives also reveal a functional purpose
ering plants, and mammals from which, in recent geo- and an ethical goal; namely, the human part serving
logical time, came the Primates and humankind. We the greater Earth whole.

B I O D I V E R S I T Y 5 ( 1 ) 2 0 0 4 5
living at the productive, sun-warmed interface where
atmosphere meets land, brings a sense of connected-
ness and reverence for the abundance and vitality of
sustaining Nature.
Principle 5. An Ecocentric Worldview
Values Diversity of Ecosystems and Cultures
A major revelation of the Earth-centered perspective is
the amazing variety and richness of ecosystems and their
organic/inorganic parts. The Earth’s surface presents an
aesthetically appealing diversity of arctic, temperate and
tropical ecosystems. Within this global mosaic the many
different varieties of plants, animals, and humans are
dependent on their accompanying medley of landforms,
soils, waters and local climates. Thus biodiversity, the
diversity of organisms, depends on maintenance of
ecodiversity, the diversity of ecosystems. Cultural di-
versity – a form of biodiversity – is the historical result
of humans fitting their activities, thoughts and language
to specific geographic ecosystems. Therefore, whatever
degrades and destroys ecosystems is both a biological
and a cultural danger and disgrace. An ecocentric
worldview values Earth’s diversity in all its forms, the
non-human as well as the human.
Each human culture of the past developed a unique lan-
guage rooted aesthetically and ethically in the sights,
sounds, scents, tastes, and feelings of the particular part
of Earth that was home to it. Such ecosystem-based cul-
tural diversity was vital, fostering ways of sustainable
living in different parts of Earth. Today the ecological
languages of aboriginal people, and the cultural diver-
sity they represent, are as endangered as tropical forest
From the tropics to Principle 4. Ecocentric Ethics are species and for the same reasons: the world is being ho-
polar lands, the Grounded in Awareness of our Place in Nature
presence of mogenized, ecosystems are being simplified, diversity
mountains has Ethics concerns those unselfish attitudes and actions is declining, variety is being lost. Ecocentric ethics chal-
provided unique that flow from deep values; that is, from the sense of lenges today’s economic globalization that ignores the
circumstances for the
evolution of novel what is fundamentally important. A profound appre- ecological wisdom embedded in diverse cultures, and
organic forms, and ciation of Earth prompts ethical behavior toward it. Ven- destroys them for short-term profit.
the emergence of a eration of Earth comes easily with out-of-doors child-
rich diversity of local
human cultures hood experiences and in adulthood is fostered by liv- Principle 6. Ecocentric Ethics
(Principle 5). This is ing-in-place so that landforms and waterforms, plants Support Social Justice
a view of the Valhalla Many of the injustices within human society hinge on
Mountains in B.C. as and animals, become familiar as neighborly acquain-
seen from Idaho peak tances. The ecological worldview and ethic that finds inequality. As such they comprise a subset of the larger
to the east with the prime values in the Ecosphere draws its strength from injustices and inequities visited by humans on Earth’s
small delta town of ecosystems and their species. With its extended forms
Silverton at the base. exposure to the natural and semi-natural world, the ru-
(Photo by ral rather than the urban milieu. Consciousness of one’s of community, ecocentrism emphasizes the importance
John A.Rowe). status in this world prompts wonder, awe, and a re- of all interactive components of Earth, including many
solve to restore, conserve, and protect the Ecosphere’s whose functions are largely unknown. Thus the intrinsic
ancient beauties and natural ways that for eons have value of all ecosystem parts, organic and inorganic, is
stood the test of time. established without prohibiting their careful use. “Diver-
sity with Equality” is the standard: an ecological law
Planet Earth and its varied ecosystems with their ma- based on Nature’s functioning that provides an ethical
trix elements – air, land, water, and organic things – guideline for human society.
surrounds and nourishes each person and each com-
munity, cyclically giving life and taking back the gift. Social ecologists justly criticize the hierarchical organi-
An awareness of self as an ecological being, fed by zation within cultures that discriminates against the pow-
water and other organisms, and as a deep-air animal erless, especially against disadvantaged women and chil-

6 T R O P I C A L C O N S E R V A N C Y
dren. The argument that progress toward sustainable liv-
Ecocentric ethics that value Earth and its evolved systems
ing will be impeded until cultural advancement eases the
over species, condemns the social acceptance of unlimited
tensions arising from social injustice and gender inequal-
human fecundity. Present need to reduce numbers is great-
ity, is correct as far as it goes. What it fails to consider
est in wealthy countries where per capita use of energy and
is the current rapid degradation of Earth’s ecosystems
Earth materials is highest. A reasonable objective is the re-
that increases inter-human tensions while foreclosing
duction to population levels as they were before the wide-
possibilities for sustainable living and for the elimina-
spread use of fossil fuels; that is, to one billion or less. This
tion of poverty. Social justice issues, however impor-
will be accomplished either by intelligent policies or inevi-
tant, cannot be resolved unless the hemorrhaging of eco-
tably by plague, famine, and warfare.
systems is stopped by putting an end to homocentric phi-
losophies and activities. Principle 9. Reduce Human
Consumption of Earth Parts
ACTION PRINCIPLES The chief threat to the Ecosphere’s diversity, beauty and
Principle 7. Defend and Preserve stability is the ever-increasing appropriation of the
Earth’s Creative Potential planet’s goods for exclusive human uses. Such appro-
The originating powers of the Ecosphere are expressed priation and over-use, often justified by population over-
through its resilient geographic ecosystems. Therefore, growth, steals the livelihood of other organisms. The
as first priority, the ecocentric philosophy urges preser- selfish homocentric view that humans have the right to
vation and restoration of natural ecosystems and their all ecosystem components – air, land, water, organisms
component species. Barring planet-destroying collisions – is morally reprehensible. Unlike plants, we humans
with comets and asteroids, Earth’s evolving inventive- are “heterotrophs” (other-feeders) and must kill to feed,
ness will continue for millions of years, hampered only clothe and shelter ourselves, but this is no license to plun-
where humans have destroyed whole ecosystems by ex- der and exterminate. The accelerating consumption of
terminating species or by toxifying sediments, water and Earth’s vital parts is a recipe for destruction of
air. The permanent darkness of extinction removes ecodiversity and biodiversity. Wealthy nations armed with
strands in the organic web, reducing the beauty of the
Earth and the potential for the future emergence of unique
ecosystems with companion organisms, some possibly
of greater-than-human sensitivity and intelligence. WHY THIS MANIFESTO?
This Manifesto is Earth-centered. It is precisely ecocentric, mean-
“The first rule of intelligent tinkering is to save all the ing home-centered, rather than biocentric, meaning organism-cen-
parts” (Aldo Leopold - Sand County Almanac). Actions tered. Its aim is to extend and deepen people’s understanding of the
that unmake the stability and health of the Ecosphere and primary life-giving and life-sustaining values of Planet Earth, the
its ecosystems need to be identified and publicly con- Ecosphere. The Manifesto consists of six Core Principles that flow
demned. Among the most destructive of human activities from ecological reality, plus five derivative Action Principles outlining
humanity’s duties to Earth and to the geographic ecosystems Earth
are militarism and its gross expenditures, the mining of comprises. It is offered as a guide to 21st Century ethical thinking,
toxic materials, the manufacture of biological poisons in conduct and social policy.
all forms, industrial farming, industrial fishing, and in-
Over the last century advances have been made in scientific, philo-
dustrial forestry. Unless curbed, lethal technologies such sophical and religious attitudes to non-human Nature. We commend
as these, justified as necessary for protecting specific hu- the efforts of those whose sensitivity to a deteriorating Earth has
man populations, enriching special corporate interests, and turned their vision outward, to recognition of the values of the lands,
satisfying human wants rather than needs, will lead to ever- the oceans, animals, plants and other creatures. And yet, for lack of
greater ecological and social disasters. a common ecocentric philosophy, much of this goodwill has been
scattered in a hundred different directions. It has been neutralized
Principle 8. Reduce Human Population Size and rendered ineffective by the one, deep, taken-for-granted cul-
A primary cause of ecosystem destruction and species tural belief that assigns first value to Homo sapiens sapiens and
then, sequentially, to other organisms according to their relatedness
extinctions is the burgeoning human population that al- to the primary one.
ready far exceeds ecologically sustainable levels. Total
world population, now at 6.5 billion, is inexorably climb- The recent insight that Earth, the Ecosphere, is an object of su-
preme value has emerged from cosmologic studies, the Gaia hy-
ing by 75 million a year. Every additional human is an pothesis, pictures of Earth from space, and especially ecological
environmental “user” on a planet whose capacity to pro- understanding. The central ecological reality for organisms – 25
vide for all its creatures is size-limited. In all lands the million or so species – is that all are Earthlings. None would exist
pressure of numbers continues to undermine the integ- without planet Earth. The mystery and miracle called life is insepa-
rity and generative functioning of terrestrial, fresh wa- rable from Earth’s evolutionary history, its composition and pro-
cesses. Therefore, ethical priority moves beyond humanity to its in-
ter, and marine ecosystems. Our human monoculture is
clusive Earth home. The Manifesto maps what we believe is an es-
overwhelming and destroying Nature’s polycultures. sential step toward a sustainable Earth-human relationship.
Country by country, world population size must be re-
duced by reducing conceptions.

B I O D I V E R S I T Y 5 ( 1 ) 2 0 0 4 7
Wetland ecosystems powerful technology are the chief offenders, best able to processes of Earth and about human ecology, will give
(top) are more
productive of plant and reduce consumption and share with those whose living voice to the voiceless. In present centers of power,
animal biomass than standards are lowest, but no nation is blameless. “Who speaks for wolf?” and “Who speaks for temper-
any other on the planet.
Their secure presence on ate rain forest?” Such questions have more than meta-
The eternal growth ideology of the market must be re-
the planet made possible phorical significance; they reveal the necessity of le-
the stupendous array of nounced, as well as the perverse industrial and economic
gally safeguarding the many essential non-human com-
marsh wildlife — policies based on it. The Limits to Growth thesis is wise.
waterfowl, plants, and ponents of the Ecosphere.
One rational step toward curbing exploitive economic ex-
invertebrates, living
together in complex pansion is the ending of public subsidies to those indus- A body of environmental law that confers legal standing
food chains. No marsh tries that pollute air, land or water and/or destroy organ- on the Ecosphere’s vital structures and functions is re-
organism could have
evolved without these isms and soils. A philosophy of symbiosis, of living com- quired. Country by country, ecologically responsible
ecosystems that are so pliantly as a member of Earth’s communities, will ensure people must be elected or appointed to governing bod-
dependent on the the restoration of productive ecosystems. For sustainable ies. Appropriate attorney-guardians will act as defendants
security of water supply.
Bruce Peninsula economies, the guiding beacons are qualitative, not quan- when ecosystems and their fundamental processes are
National Park, Ontario. titative. “Guard the health, beauty and permanence of land, threatened. Issues will be settled on the basis of pre-
Photo by Ted Mosquin. water, and air, and productivity will look after itself” (E.F. serving ecosystem integrity, not on preserving economic
Coral reef fishes Schumacher - Small is Beautiful). gain. Over time, new bodies of law, policy, and adminis-
(bottom) such as these
attest to the high tration will emerge as embodiments of the ecocentric phi-
Principle 10. Promote Ecocentric Governance
productivity of losophy, ushering in ecocentric methods of governance.
undamaged reef Homocentric concepts of governance that encourage
Implementation will necessarily be step by slow step over
ecosystems where over-exploitation and destruction of Earth’s ecosystems
creative symbiotic the long term, as people test practical ways to represent
processes have
must be replaced by those beneficial to the survival and
and secure the welfare of essential, other-than-human
prevailed for hundreds integrity of the Ecosphere and its components. Advo-
of millions of years parts of Earth and its ecosystems.
cates for the vital structures and functions of the Eco-
and involving countless
different groups of sphere are needed as influential members of governing Principle 11. Spread the Message
organisms. bodies. Such “ecopoliticians,” knowledgeable about the Those who agree with the preceding principles have
a duty to spread the word by education and leader-
ship. The initial urgent task is to awaken all people
to their functional dependence on Earth’s ecosys-
tems, as well as to their bonds with other species.
An outward shift in focus from homocentrism to
ecocentrism follows, providing an external ethical

Some Historical Background


This Manifesto provides a unifying framework for earlier
environmental/ethical thinking which, though mostly
biocentric, shows ecocentric tendencies. Three ex-
amples:
a) The Deep Ecology Platform http://www.deepecology.-
org/deepplatform.html, developed in 1984 (slightly revised
in 2000) by Arne Naess and George Sessions. Although
its first four Principles indicate a biocentric rather than
ecocentric stance, the Deep Ecology Movement has
championed the creativity of all Nature, viewing organ-
isms and natural ecosystems as far more important than
simply providers of resources for humanity.
b) The United Nations World Charter for Nature http://
www.oceanlaw.net/texts/wcharter.htm written in 1982.
Although it begins well, pointing out that life depends on
the uninterrupted functioning of natural systems, it pro-
ceeds to emphasize utility for humanity as the chief rea-
son for Earth care.
c) The Earth Charter http://www.earthcharter.org, re-
leased in March 2000, is a praiseworthy environmental
statement. Its first two Principles — “Respect and Care
for the Community of Life” and “Ecological Integrity” —
are commendably placed ahead of explicit humanistic
goals. It links maintenance of biodiversity and the re-
covery of endangered species to protection of Earth and
its ecosystems. In this Manifesto we emphasize above
all else the primary values of the Earth.

8 T R O P I C A L C O N S E R V A N C Y
Barrier islands such as
these, created by ocean
wave action over eons,
make possible the
emergence of
specialized brackish
ecosystems, including
nursery beds. Their
positive physical role of
the barrier islands and
similar dune areas is to
create protected
shoreline wetlands
which are among the
most productive on
Earth.

regulator for the human enterprise. Such a shift sig- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


nals what must be done to perpetuate the evolution- We thank the following persons for offering critical remarks
ary potential of a beautiful Ecosphere. It reveals the and commentaries on earlier drafts of this article: Ian Whyte,
necessity of participating in Earth-wise community Jon Legg, Sheila Thomson, Stan Errett, Howard Clifford,
activities, each playing a personal part in sustaining Tony Cassils, Marc Saner, Steve Kurtz and Doug Woodard
the marvelous surrounding reality. of Ontario; Michelle Church of Manitoba; Don Kerr and
Eli Bornstein of Saskatchewan; David Orton of Nova Scotia;
This Ecocentric Manifesto is not anti-human, though Alan Drengson, Bob Barrigar and Robert Harrington of
it rejects chauvinistic homocentrism. By promoting a British Columbia; Cathy Ripley of Alberta; Holmes Rolston
quest for abiding values – a culture of compliance and III of Colorado; David Rothenberg of Massachusetts; Bur- The integrity
symbiosis with this lone Living Planet – it fosters a ton Barnes of Michigan; Paul Mosquin of North Carolina; (Principle 2) of
unifying outlook. The opposite perspective, looking savanna ecosystems
Edward Goldsmith, Patrick Curry and Sandy Irvine of the around the world is
inward without comprehension of the outward, is ever UK, and Ariel Salleh of Australia. Their helpful reviews do profoundly degraded
a danger as warring humanistic ideologies, religions, not imply endorsement of this Manifesto for which the au- through conversion to
human utilitarian
and sects clearly show. Spreading the ecological mes- thors take full responsibility. purposes. This photo
sage, emphasizing humanity’s shared outer reality, opens Text only file at: http://www.ecospherics.net/pages/ provides an example of
a new and promising path toward international under- a savanna ecosystem
EarthManifesto.html. Text plus illustrations file at: http:/ that still retains a
standing, cooperation, stability, and peace. /www.ecospherics.net/pages/EarthManifesto.pdf semblance of
normalcy.

B I O D I V E R S I T Y 5 ( 1 ) 2 0 0 4 9