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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Ever since this country gained her independence in 1957, Ghana has been left with the legacy of

speaking the English language because of the British being our colonial masters. It has also been

the soul prerogative of every Ghanaian child to be able to speak Ghanaian child to be able to

speak in the Queen’s language in addition to his or her local language. During the colonial days,

the British used to communicate with the local people in the English language and since then

English language has been adopted as our official Franca. Furthermore, English language serves

as a language across the curriculum. Subjects like mathematics, science, social studies etc are all

taught in English. Since English is very important, the language must be given the greatest

attention in the educational sector of the country.

Unfortunately, there are problems in the teaching and learning of English in the Basic Schools

which are supposed to lay strong foundation for further learning.

At Nsuta D/A Primary school many pupils, particularly those in stage five, cannot read simple

sentences from their readers. It is obvious that there is a rippling effect on the ability to learn

academically if one cannot read. And since reading go side by side with writing, the new effect

of one’s poor literacy ability will certainly impact negatively on ones overall academic

performance. Nsuta is a town with majority of the people engaged in trade. Most of the parents

and guardians do not pay much attention to the education of their wards. This has led to the

falling standard of education in the town.

Majority of the pupils also engage in trading after school hours. This helps to expose the pupils

to the local dialect than English language through interaction with trades whom most of them are

illiterates.

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To be able to solve students’ inability to read, we must first analyze the factors that predispose

pupils to poor reading habits and then use effective remediation strategies.

Over the past years, the Nsuta community has lamented over the inability of the pupils of Nsuta

D /A Primary School in the Sekyere Central District of Ashanti Region, to read simple and

comprehend simple sentences and worst still to pronounce simple sight words and phonic words.

This phenomenon makes them perform poorly in the Basic Education Certificate Examination

(B. E. C. E.).

Research conducted proves that many children could not read fluently during and after

completion of school. Meanwhile those who could read did not understand what they read.

They merely pronounce the words.

It can be seen that one’s success in school depends on one’s ability to read. “The ability to read

and understand any subject matter is based on solid foundation laid down well” Ikegulu (1987).

For anyone to excel in other subject areas and move up academically, that person needs to be

well equipped in literacy and numeracy.

Despite the importance that reading occupies in our educational system, it has not been properly

developed in our schools especially, the Basic level.

It is against this backdrop that the study seeks to examine some of the problems associated with

reading comprehension at Nsuta D/A Primary with the view of initiating effective strategies to

address this recurring problem.

Statement of the Problems

It has been observed that the high rate of students’ low performance is as a result of pupils low

competency in the reading aspect of the English language. During my attachment at Nsuta D/A

Primary, I observed that majority of students could not read a full sentence from their English

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textbook easily and neither could they express themselves explicitly or effectively in simple

English.

This problem stems from the fact that students were unable to read comprehension texts

accurately. With this problem at hand, the writer sought to examine some of the factors that led

to the difficulty in reading by pupils of Nsuta D/A primary. Some of the perceived factors

include the following;

i. Inadequate of reading materials

ii. Poor teaching method.

iii. Poor language environment\absence of wall charts

iv. Lack of interest in reading at the early stages.

The researcher found out that if pupils were to make any improvement in their reading skills,

then, there was the need for the solutions of the problems.

Purpose of Study

The ultimate focus of this study, have been outline below. The researcher believe the

these objectives could help set the tone and direction for this study;

1. To investigate into the causes of pupils inability to read.

2. To assess the extent of effect pupils inability to read.

3. To design activities that can help pupils to develop skills to read and understand.

Research Question

The following questions have been design guide the research work or study.

i. What are the causes of pupils inability to read?

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ii. How has their inability to read and understand affected their academic

performance?

iii. What language games activities and strategies can help them to improve their

reading abilities and skills?

Significance of the Study

This study conducted at Nsuta D/A Primary sought to expose the factors that led to the

pupils poor reading habits the suggestions that will emanate from this study will help teachers to

use proper and effective methods to develop good reading habits. For instance, specific pre –

reading activities are to be used before the actual reading takes place. Both reading Aloud and

silent. Reading can encourage teachers on the field how reading can be done effectively when

techniques like role play, dramatization and story telling are used. The use of realized can also

reinforce effective reading.

Reading lessons should also be made more enjoyable and more interesting to around an

sustain pupils’ inters tint he learning of English.

Delimitation of the Study

The scope of the study was limited to only primary five (5) pupils of Nsuta D/A primary

school as a result of time constraint. The problem investigated also was limited to reading and

not other aspects of English because the materials at the disposal of the researcher could not

permit him to extend the study to any other aspect of English. More importantly, the researcher

identified the inability of the pupils to read, hence the choice of English reading disability.

Limitation of the Study

The researchers work was not all that smooth. The research encountered certain setbacks

which made her work a bit difficult to complete. The following are some of the setbacks. Some

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of the English teachers were not willing to allow the researcher to observe their lesson during

English lessons.

Secondly, some of the parents and pupils never understood what the researcher wanted to

undertakes and played some lackadaisical attitude which made the work difficult.

Finally, the researcher limited herself to only one class due to time constraints and

wished the study would hare covered a whole lot of school within the district.

Organization of the Study

The chapter one of the study project talks about the introduction. The chapter two is

about literature review. The chapter three talks about the various interventions put in place and

the methodology used in the study.

Chapter four presents results or findings and discussion. The last chapter which is

chapter five consist of summary, conclusion and recommendation.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Chapter two of this study focuses on the views of relevant literature on reading by some

authorities in the field.

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It is discussed under the following heading meaning of reading, its importance, problems

encounted in the teaching and learning of reading comprehension aspect of English language and

solution to the problems identified.

Experts view of the Meaning of Reading

What is Reading?

Reading is one of the basic skills which anyone accepts as essential for survival in the

modern world. It covers a whole range of activities in the school, from being able to read words

and sentences and finally being able to read anything which is put in front of us Sessan (1997).

According to Diane Henry Leipzip (2001) “Reading is a multi – faceted process

involving word recognition, comprehension, fluency and motivation”. Reading is making

meaning of print. It requires that we;

1. Reading from left to right

2. Reading words which are not phonetic

3. Distinguishing between letter or words which are very similar.

4. Recognizing different types of the print and hand writing.

5. Scanning silently

6. Skimming

7. Going over the sentences with the eye without using the finger to trace the word.

8. Recognizing the punctuation marks involved.

According to Pemela J. Farris (1993) reading is more than word recognition and gleaning

of concept formation and idea from text. Reading is the process of words, concept formation and

ideas put forth by the author as they related to the readers previous experience and knowledge”.

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Okyere (2006) also defines reading as “the skill or activity of obtaining meaning

especially from printed or written words or symbols from papers, newspaper, magazines, journal

and books.

The above definitions consider reading as the acquisition of knowledge.

Hafner (1974:40) also perceived that “reading is a complex process involving the

perceiving of written meaning and the reaction to its application of meaning of life”.

It is an active process that requires the individual to demand meaning and the application

to its meaning and to bring idea to the printed page, so that the symbol will trigger off meaning

according to the pattern of writing and experience or the intelligence of the reader.

To add to that, reading in its regard, covers all the aspect in life, it not just reading printed

materials. It has become part of our civilized worlds. We read the inscriptions on labels, on

detergents to know how to use it and its constitutions. We also read road sign to drive or get our

way through to some places and also study road maps to get our way through unfamiliar

territories. It can also be observed from these descriptions that we come across reading materials

in our everyday dealings and activities.

A details study shows that there are at least four dimensions of the reading act namely:

 The perception of words, including both meaning and pronunciations.

 A clear grasp of the sense of meaning of a passage and of supplementary

emanating that are implied but not stated.

 Appreciative and imaginative.

 Critical reactions to what is read and the use or application of the idea acquire.

Importance of Reading

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One of the importance aspects of the teaching and learning process is reading. Reading

as one of the learning processes, has got some importance which cannot be over looked.

Gray and Roger, share similar opinions on the importance of reading. “It is an

indispensable factor in modern life, intervention with work, recreation and other activities of

young people and adults. This provides the most illuminating and varied records of human

experience that are now available and they can be restudied time and again at a readers own

convenience in acquiring clear understanding in developing national attitudes or in reading sound

conclusion.

Durell (1956) brings the social – cultural importance of reading to the child. Durell states

“the child with limited interest in reading is a danger to the society”. In our culture all children

must attempt to read. Society demands the child to be a reader. A child who cannot read risk

insecurity, loss of self esteem and in ability to peruse his interest to the fullest satisfaction.

In conclusion, the researcher would like to summarize the importance of reading as

fellow; reading broadens one’s horizons, information is received during reading, one also

broadens his / her knowledge by adding what he / she reads to what is known already, one

becomes abreast with current events during reading. Past, present and future perceptions also

become clearer during reading.

The Causes of Reading Disabilities

The causes of reading disabilities are numerous and may differ from one another. Here

are some of the causes;

i. Social factors

ii. Lack of continuity and concentration

iii. Unconductive classroom and environment

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iv. Large class size.

Social Factors

A number of social factors contribute to the problem in reading among pupils at the basic

level. Freser (1970:72) classified those factors under the following headings;

1. Cultural variables

2. Material variables

3. Emotional variables

For the cultural variables, it is believed that children of literate parents have high

academic achievement since it is believed that such parents provide their children with facilities

for reading at home, whilst is different for children from poor parents.

In the case of materials variable, children from poor homes with large family size have

limited resources or facilities as compared with children from middle or upper class families or

homes. Such children are often deprived of linguistic development because with large number of

family size, there is little resource to use to cater for the large size of a family. That is no way to

suggest or by that children from poor homes do not perform.

In connection with emotional factors, children from broken home and to received

constant friction between parents where none of them cares about the reprocess on the child.

This turns to affect the child psychologically where the child goes through emotion

trauma both at school and at home. This turns to affect the child adversely which puts off the

child’s learning ability to general and reading in particular.

Lack of community and concentration

According to Hann (1984) the best way to read is a little learning everyday if for some

reason such as illness, the child progress will be slaw and learning will be Frustrating.

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Bemman (1992) observed. “Lack of continuity may exist in school if teachers disagree on

what to read. Children should be taught how to read. Children may face demands they cannot

meet when they move to a higher class. Still other children may be asked to repeat instructions

even though they have already mastered the skills being taught. This may be frustrating in

reading.

Unconducive Classroom Environment

According to W. S. and Roger B. (1956) it has been observed that children learn very

well within a conducive classroom environment. Children learn in a well ventilated, well –

lighted classroom which has also been beautified with two – dimensional reading charts on

walls.

At times, some sort of class which is also furnished with some interesting story books

where children go to read at their leisure time also enhance reading.

Apart from these, the teachers should use some good methods of teaching reading in

order to make learning very interesting and enjoyable. Positive reinforcement such as “good”,

“well done” etc. could arouse and sustain pupils interest.

In the absence of these materials to create a very conducive environment there is no way

the child can learn to read better.

Large Class Size

According to Entwisted N. J. (1970), A large class size could be also contributes to poor

reading habits of children. In a class of say 60 pupils, it is very difficult for the teacher to control

them during reading lessons. In a situation where there are 5 people to one book, it becomes

difficult for the performance of each pupils to be assessed.

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In conclusion, there are a lot of factors that contributes to the poor (performance) reading

habits of children and ardent measures need to be taken to reduce the rate.

Summary of the Review

From the literature reviewed, it is evident that language learning is a complex process

that takes place over time.

Hafer (1974:40) perceive that reading is a complex process involving perceiving of

written meaning and the reaction of its application of meaning of life.

This shows that reading is a skill which needs to be acquired by everybody because it

forms part of our everyday life. Therefore it will be very unfortunate for any person to denied of

it looking at its importance. It can be seen from this review that successful reading depends on

several factors. These factors may include intelligence, physical attributes such as sight, heaving

and motivation, while many factors relating to the home background and school are also inherent

in the child being able to read smoothly and successfully.

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

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This chapter seeks to discuss the methodology adopted in contributing the research. It

also contains the research design, population and sampling techniques as well as the study or

analysis of the data used.

Research Design

The research design used or employed in this study is an action research type which is

based on descriptive survey. An action research is a kind of research in which the researcher

works in collaboration with other people to solve an identified problem.

An action research encourages teachers to be aware of their own practice, to be critical of

that practice an also to be prepared to change.

The valve of an action research allows both the teacher and the pupils to learn

experimentally by doing instead of being told how to do it.

It does not only focus on new knowledge it also enables the participants to develop

appropriate intervention strategies which are triggered at finding solutions to an identified

problem.

The research therefore used this design because she was interested and enthusiastic in

knowing the root cause of the reading disabilities of Nsuta D/A primary five (5) pupils.

An action research has a number of strengths. Among them are the following;

- It helps the researcher to understanding what really pertains in the teaching and

learning process.

- Again, it does not only enhance the teachers professional status but also promotes the

teachers personal development and improvement of her practice.

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Teaching today combines a whole lot of methods and approaches that best suit children’s

abilities. It is through action research that teacher evaluates his/her teaching techniques.

It is through action research that a teacher gets a better and in – depth understanding of

her own practice, be it relation to subject, content, the curriculum or methods appropriate to the

level of the pupils in a class.

With its weakness, the researcher had less time at her disposal to carry out the research.

Population and Sample Selection

The study took place at Nsuta D/A Primary; stage (five 5) in the Sekyere Central District

of Ashanti Region. The school has a population of about two hundred and fifty and to make the

study very effective and also to achieve a better result of the study, the researcher sampled a

population of thirty – five (35) pupils form 50 pupils in basic five class.

In order to gather adequate information and to have a valid assessment of the study, the

researcher used thirty five pupils from the class. The participants were selected as random in by

the teacher in change until a target of approximately thirty- five was obtained.

Research Instrument

Observation

Because the researcher staged with pupils during the attachment programmed at Nsuta

D/A Primary, the researcher observed pupils read a passage from their reading books on their

own. The researcher found out that pupils could not read even with guidance of their teacher.

Due to this, the researcher decided to investigate into the problem.

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Because of this, the researcher continued to observe pupils in their subsequent English

lessons and the researcher prepared a checklist to specify what he wanted to observe about

pupils. A test was given on the passage often observation.

Interview

The researcher sought permission from the headteacher and the green light was given for

the interview. The pupils did not want to avail themselves for the interview but it was later on

explained to them that the interview was aimed at helping them read comprehension texts. The

interview was conducted on one – on – one basis.

The researcher prepared an interview guide for the pupils. The interview guide consisted

of six questions. The questions were open-ended type. After the researcher had conducted the

interview with the pupils, their parents were not left out therefore the researcher met the parents

and also had interview with them.

Questionnaire

There are two sets of questionnaires, one for the English teachers and the other for the

headteacher.

The questionnaires were administered to only teachers and headteacher because the

parents were mostly illiterate and as such, any not be able to read what is on the questionnaire.

Intervention

It is a programme which aims at solving an identified problem. It needs constant

monitoring over a period of time with a variety of mechanisms. Some activities were planned,

implemented and monitored for a period of time. It has got three (3) phases which include pre –

intervention main intervention and post – intervention.

Pre – Intervention

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During the pre – intervention the researcher used the first two paragraph of unit 8 page 37

of pupils textbook to diagnose the problem. The researcher used the passage which is entitled,

“come and visit us” to test pupils level of reading.

Here the researcher awarded each pupils twenty (20) marks. Marks were deducted from

each pupils marks for every mistake committed. It was seen that pupils made a whole of mistake

which gave them a lot of low marks at the end of the reading exercise, mark were recorded and

these have been tabulated in the next chapter.

Main Intervention

The researcher in an English lesson, prepared lesson note and put together the appropriate

teaching and material such as flash cards, word cards, and letter cards. Some of the teaching and

learning materials are describe below:

Flash Cards:

A flash card is a piece of card which contains a word or phrase or a sentence in large or

bold letters. This words phrases and sentences on the cardboards should be familiar to pupils.

Its purpose is to a rouse and sustains the mental and visual alertness of pupils also provided a

stimulating means of revision and reading.

A word card should also have the effect of sustaining the mental alertness of pupils.

The cards are used by placing them downwards on a table and should be raised one at a

time to the level of pupils eyes with the blank side towards them. Then the cards should be

quickly turned and the printed side exposed to be viewed three (3) or four (4) times. Example

are

TOURIST RELATIVE SEASON

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Letter Cards:

These are cards with individual letters of the English alphabets. They are used to teach

the recognition of individual letters to the alphabet.

W E A T H E R

The researcher in an English reading lesson put together the necessary teaching and

learning materials with notes to teach pupils. The researcher made use of letter and words to

teach pupils how to read. The researcher put together words which contained consonants and

vowels which make syllables.

Ta / Be / So SA/ Hi / Ha / No

Again certain words were also written on the chalkboard for pupils to identify the vowels

sounds in those words.

Through this the researcher introduced pupils to the use of syllabic methods of teaching

reading. It help them to pronounce words by breaking them into syllables.

The researcher used the letter cards and put together some unfamiliar words and

prompted pupils that when they see these letters they should pronounce them according to the

way they see it.

The researcher started with an example by putting together the letters R / E / L

while the words were pronounce by the researcher, she later put together the letters and also

pronounced it. A T I V E

R A L A T I V E After that researcher put the

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two together to become pronounce it. The researcher made pupils understand that when the first

part of the word is put together he would clap for them to mention it and after that he would add

the other part while he claps twice for them to pronounce. The researcher followed the activity

by using words like LODGES ACTIVITIES

NATIONAL

The researcher continued with the word cards. It contained words from the passage and

the researcher asked pupils to identify the words and also identify its number of syllabic units.

Some of these words were DRIVER HISTORY FESTIVALS

HOTELS

During the use of the word cards, the words on the cards were broken into syllabic units

where the researcher gave several examples.

Post – Intervention

After the syllabic technique was used, a post test was conducted to measures the

approach for the correction of the problem.

A reading aloud test was conducted by using the same passage, which is unit 8 page 37 of

pupils textbook.

During the reading aloud session, pupils kept quiet with all alertness so that they could

develop their listening skills, pupils were also given the chance to read on their own so as to

develop their fluency skills.

The post – test continued two parts which entailed identification of at least ten (10) words

from the passage and reading of passage which was part B.

Result were tabulated and analyzed in the text chapter.

Data Collection Procedure

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The researcher used personal observation so as to obtain first – hand information about

pupils.

Again, interviews were also conducted to elicit information.

Questionnaire was also administered to teachers and head teachers to elicit information

from them.

Data Analysis Plan

The data analysis procedure was based on frequency counts and percentages

conversation.

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CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

The aim of the study was to use multiple practical methods especially the syllabic method

and games to help improve reading difficulties among Basic Five (5) pupils of Nsuta D/A

Primary in the Sekyere Central District.

This chapter presents the overview of statistical procedure of the data collected in chapter

three. It also presents the results from the respondents and other finding relating to the study.

Results are presented in tables with respect to the research questions. Below are the tables of the

data for the results.

Reading Materials in the School

The researcher found out from observation that the materials in the school were not

enough it is seen that during reading lesson five pupils share a book and this make participation

and assessment of pupils very difficult.

Table 1

Reading Materials in the School

Responses Number of Pupils Percentages %

Adequate 0 0

Quite adequate 5 14

Inadequate 30 86

Total 35 100

It is found out from the table one (1) that out of the thirty five (35) pupils in the class 30,

which is 86% showed that reading materials in the school was not adequate.

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Method of Teaching

The researcher also found out that the teachers in the school were all restricted to the look

and say method as well as the phonic method. The table below shows the responses to teachers.

Table 2

Methods of Teaching

Responses Number of Pupils Percentages %

Look and Say 2 40

Phonic 3 60

Syllabic 0 0

Total 5 100

It was found out from table two (2) that two of the teachers used only the look and say

method while only three (3) teachers used only the phonic method and none of the teachers used

the syllabic method.

Pupils Interest in Reading

The researcher also found out that the pupils’ interest in English reading lesson was very

low. The table below shows the pupils interest in reading.

Table 3

Responses Number of Pupils Percentages %

Yes 5 14

No 30 86

Total 35 100

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In table three (3), it is seen that 30 pupils representing 86% responded “No” with respect

to their interest in the subject. This indicates that no matter what is being taught by the teachers,

pupils have a pre – conceived mind and this resulted in pupils inability to read.

The table below also shows the pre – test results.

Table 4

Pre – Test Results

Marks Number of Pupils Percentage %

0 2 5.7

2 5 14.3

4 9 25.7

6 8 22.9

8 7 20.0

10 2 5.7

12 2 5.7

14 - -

16 - -

18 - -

20 - -

Totals 35 100

The table above shows the results of pre – test conducted by the researcher. During the

pre – test it was seen that pupils could not identify simple words let alone read a sentences and

this contributes to the poor marks attained by pupils.

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Due to this, the researcher uses the syllabic method of teaching reading as well the game

called mother and child.

That is, during the instruction stage the researcher employed the syllabic method

researcher used letter cards lesion putting them together to form words in syllabic division. The

researcher picked words from the passage used for the pre – test.

Table 5

The rate at which pupils participate in the English reading lesson after intervention

Post – Test Results

Marks Number of Pupils Percentage %

0 0 0

2 0 0

4 3 8.6

6 7 2.0

8 3 8.6

10 10 28.6

12 2 5.7

14 2 5.7

16 3 8.6

18 5 14.3

20 0 0

Totals 35 100

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The results shown by table five (5) clearly indicate that 25 pupils out of the 35 pupils

representing 62.5% could read effectively as compared to the pre – test which saw 30 pupils

representing 85.7% getting below 10 which was a very bad situation.

This shows that the multiple method including the syllabic method as well as mother and

child game is an effective way of teaching English reading and must be used at the basic level to

help solve or reduce pupils’ inability to read.

Summary of Finding and Discussions

The aim of this study was to use the multiple strategies including the syllabic techniques

to help improve the poor reading habits of pupils of Nsuta D/A Primary and suggest possible

solution to the identified problem.

The researcher found out that pupils inability to read comprehension text was due to

certain factors. Some of the factors include inadequate reading materials which makes it difficult

for pupils to be assessed.

Again, poor teaching method made pupils lose interest in the studying of the English

language.

Moreover, the socio-economic background of parents makes it difficult for them to

provide their wards with the needed reading materials at home.

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CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION

This chapter seeks to provide summary of the research findings, draw conclusion and

make recommendation and suggestion for further studies or research.

Summary of the Main Finding of the Study

The researcher carried out this study in order to ensure that the teaching of reading /

spelling with reference to Nsuta D/A Primary in the Sekyere Central District was taught more

effectively by the use of appropriate methodology.

The purpose of using flash cards and syllabic method was to make teachers aware of the

importance of maximum participation of each pupils in the teaching and learning process.

Now the answer to the research question “How can reading be improved at the basic

level” has proved in the post test results after the intervention.

Observation, interview and post – test were use for the collection of data. These were

used to assess the impact and effectiveness of the intervention.

It was also observed that classroom management was not effective. There was lack of

proper ventilation lack of space due to large class size.

There were also no wall charts and pictures which would enhance pupils reading skills.

Also due to the poor economic background of parents they could not buy books for their wards

to read.

Conclusion

The poor reading performance of pupils was as a result of the following problems. The

use of inappropriate reading material, poor economic background of pupils, poor classroom

management etc.

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If pupils are to make headway in their career, measures ought to be taken to cheek the

above problems.

Recommendations

The following recommendations are made with the view of improving the teaching and

learning of reading.

School should be provided with the requisite relevant reading materials. Teachers are

required to make appropriate teaching and learning materials where they are not available.

Methods of teaching should be varied. Teachers are improved to use effective methods

like role play, dramatization gestures, discussions, story telling and others such as combination

of syllabic phonic and look and say techniques to teach reading.

Classroom management should be effective. Wall charts, three dimensional figures

which urge pupils to read always, should be created to make reading enjoyable.

Medication for Further Studies

It is also suggested that the time frame set by the Institution of Education and University

of Cape Coast for researcher to complete and present them should be extended so that in-depth

and defective work can be produced.

To come out with a research work required huge capital outlay this problem can

sometimes moth the findings which can be adopted by the Educational body for national

development. It is recommended that researcher be offered some level of financial assistance to

Custion them in the preparation of research materials.

Since the present was carried out at Nsuta D/A Primary (5) in the Sekyere Central

District of Ashanti Region. It is suggested that the study should be extended in other schools

within the district to test the effectiveness of the findings.

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REFERENCES

Bamman, H. A. (1963) Fundamentals of Basic Reading Instruction. New York: David

Mokay Company Inc. USA.

Durell, D. D. (1956) Improving reading Institution, New York: Harcourt Bruce and

World Inc. USA.

Fresiser, J. D. and Entwisted N. J. (1970) Education at Researcher Methods. London: U.

L. B.

Grellet, F. (1992) Developing reading skills. USA: Cambridge University Press.

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Hafner, E. L. (1974) Improving reading in middle and secondary schools, New York:

Macmillan Publishing Company.

Hann, W. (1984) Learning to read and write. London: Holder Stoughton.

Okyere (2006) Golden English for Senior High School.

Gary, W. S. and Roger, B. (1956) Maturity in reading, its nature and appraisal

Blay, A. A. (2003) Method of teaching English language in primary school.

Frank M. G. (1984) teaching foreign languages University of United States.

Grey (1987) Improving pupils interest in reading 2nd Edition.

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APPENDIX A

Interview Guide for Pupils

1. Do you like reading lessons? Yes or No

If no why? ………………………………………………………………………….

2. Do you like the approach used by your teacher?

………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Do you have school library?

……………………………………………………………………………………..

4. Do read in groups or individually?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

5. Do you have enough reading books?

……………………………………………………………………………………..

6. Do you continue English lesson from where you end?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

APPENDIX B

Interview Guide for Parents

1. Do you help your wards with his/her English assignment? Yes or No.

If no why?

………………………………………………………………………………………..

2. Do you visit your wards in school to check their performance academically?

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Yes or No If no why?

……………………………………………………………………………………….

3. What chores do your children do before and after school?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Do you make your wards study after materials at home?

………………………………………………………………………………………..

APPENDIX C

Questionnaire for Headteacher

1. Age of respondent : 25 – 30 [ ] 30 – 35 [ ]

35 – 40 [ ] 40 – 45 [ ] 45 – 50[ ]

Sex: Male [ ] Female : [ ]

2. Do you have a library? Yes [ ] or No [ ]

If yes, are the book in the library adequate?…………………………………………….

3. Are there enough T. L. Ms. For teaching English reading? Yes[ ] No[ ]

4. What method do you use for teaching English reading?…………………………………

5. Is the reading time adequate? Yes [ ] No [ ]

6. Do you prepare enough TLM for reading lesson? Yes [ ] No[ ]

7. Do you continue from where you end your reading lesson? Yes [ ] No [ ]

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APPENDIX D

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ENGLISH TEACHERS

1. Age of respondent :20 – 30 [ ] 40 – 60 [ ]

Sex: Male [ ] Female [ ]

2. Do you have a school library? Yes [ ] No [ ]

If yes, are there books in the library accurate?

………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. Are there enough TLMs for teaching English reading?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

4. What methods do you use for teaching English reading?

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

5. Is the reading time adequate? Yes [ ] No [ ]

6. Do you prepare enough TLM for reading lesson?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

7. Do you continue from where you and your English lesson?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

APPENDIX E

COMPREHENSION PASSAGE

COME AND VISIT US

Where do you go for your holidays? Perhaps you stay with a relative in another town or

village.

In some parts of the world, people go to another area or country on holiday.

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They stay in hotels relax and visit interesting places. We call these people tourists. They

are very important for Ghana because they bring a lot of money and we can all learn from each

other. There are lots of new jobs for people in the tourist industries.

Ghana is a proud country with Africa’s Friendliest people so it is a very good choice for

tourists.

Although there are rainy seasons, the weather is warm all years.

There are good readies and tourists can hire cars, join tourist buses or arrange a trip with

a taxi driver.

Ghana has many excellent places to stay from modern hotels to lodges in our national

parks. We provide tour guides for lots of different types of attraction and they don’t cost much

money.

1. Cultural activities

2. National parks

3. Festivals

4. Sports activities

5. Local history events

Ghana has a rich cultural history end is well known for its traditional festival which take place all

over the country throughout the year. This is when Ghanaian hospitality is at its best end visitors

are always very welcome.

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