Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

DU Pre-Entrance Summer School 2017

(Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, 09 23 June, 2017)

Astrophysics, University of Delhi, 09 – 23 June, 2017) Solutions of D.U. M. Sc. (Physics) Entrance

Solutions of D.U. M. Sc. (Physics) Entrance Exam, 2015

Compiled by

1. Ms. Poonam Jain (Sri Aurobindo College)

2. Dr. Sunil Kumar (Ramjas College)

3. Dr. Hema Chutani (Hansraj College)

4. Dr. Yogesh Kumar (ARSD College)

5. Dr. Punit Tyagi (Ramjas College)

Editor

Mr. Ashish Tyagi (Swami Shraddhanand College)

Program Convenor

Programme Coordinator

Dr. Sanjay Jain Professor and Head, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi.

Dr. Shrikant Kukreti Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi.

1

1.

Assume that each copper atom contributes one free electron to the electron gas. The density of copper is 8.94 × 10 3 kg/m 3 and its atomic mass is 63.5 amu. The Fermi energy (in joule) is of the order of

Sol.

(a) 10 -18

F

T

since,

0

K

N

V

Ans. is (a)

(b)

10 -13

(c)

10 13

h

2

3 N

2 / 3

6.63 10

34

2

3

3

2

m

=

1

8

V

=

(2)(9.11 10

31

)

8

8.94 10

8.48 10

u

(

atomic mass ) 1.66 10 63.5 u

27

=

28

8.4810 electrons / m

3

28

2 / 3

=

(d)

10 18

1.13 10

18

J

8.48 10

28

/

atoms m

3

[Ms. Bhavna Vidhani, HRC]

2. The entropy of the system in statistical mechanics is defined as ( k is the Boltzmann constant and is the number of microstates accessible to the system)

Sol.

(a)

S S

= k 2 k lnln

=

=

(c)

By definition, S

Ans. is (a)

k ln

(b)

(d)

S S =

= ( k /2)ln

k

2

ln

[Dr. Anuradha Gupta, SGTB]

3. If E1 is the energy of the lowest state of a one-dimensional potential box of length ‘ a ’ and

E 2 is the energy of the lowest state when the length of box is ‘ a / 2’, then

Sol.

(a) E 2 = 2 E1

(b)

E 2

= E1 / 2

(c)

E 2

= E1 / 4

2

2

2

n

2

2 m L

Energy of a particle in a box of length L is

Put

n

= 1 and

Put

n = 1 and

L

L

=

a , we get

= a /2, we get

E n

2

2

E

1

2

2

m a

4

2

2

E

2 2 m a

2

= 4 E1

(d)

E 2 = 4 E1

Ans. is (d)

[Ms. Bhavna Vidhani, HRC]

4. The white dwarf stars are stable due to

Sol.

(a)

(b)

(c)

If the mass of white dwarf star exceeds 1.4 M Sun , then gravity is so large that electron gas

fission

electron degeneracy pressure

gravitational attraction

heat generated by fusion against gravitational collapse

(d)

pressure can never balance it. So, we can say that the white dwarf stars are stable due to

2

electron degeneracy pressure.

Ans. is (a)

[Ms. Bhavna Vidhani, HRC]

× d d r t

5. Let r

= xˆ r cos t yˆ r sint . For constant r and , calculate r

(a) r

2

xˆ

(b)

r

2

yˆ

(c)

r 2 zˆ

(d)

.

r

2

cos(2

t ) zˆ

Sol.

Given

 

=

r cos t xˆ r sint yˆ

d r

x ˆ

y ˆ

d r t = rsint xˆ r sint yˆ

d

2

So,

=

r

cos

t

r

sin

t

z ˆ

0

0

1

= r

(c)

(2

n

1) / 2

zˆ

r r × d t

Ans. is (c)

r

sin

 

t

 

r

cos

 

t

 

[Dr. Anuradha Gupta, SGTB]

 

 

6. The integral

2 n

x 2

d x

is equal to

 

x e



 

Sol.

(a)

I =



x

n 1

2 n

e

x 2

d x

=

2

0

(b)

x

2 n x

e

2

n 1

d x

=

2

2



1

  n

1

2

2

n  

1

2

=

(d)

  n

1

2

  n

1

2

Using

0

n

a x p

d x

1

   n

1

 
 

x e

p a

(

n

1) /

p

p

 

Ans. is (d)

 

[Mr. Ashish Tyagi, SSNC]

7. Let F () be the Fourier

transform of

 

f (t ) and

G () be the Fourier transform of g (t ) =

f (t a ) . The G () and F () are related with one another as

Sol.

(a)

(c)

G () =

e i ( a t )t

i

F

()

Given, G g (t () ) = = f (t a ) .

e

F

()

Take Fourier Transform of both sides :

F g (t )= F f (t a )

G

Using Shifting Property,

Ans. is (b)

() F f ( e t

i a

(b)

(d)

() e

a

F

)

i

a

F

G G () () =

=

()

e

i

a

F () F ()

e i ( a t )

[Mr. Gagandeep Longiany, KMV]

8. A finite amount of heat released at t = 0 spreads uniformly in all directions from the origin

in a medium initially at zero temperature everywhere. The spatial and temporal temperature

3

distribution is given as

C

t 3
t
3

e

2

r

/(4

2

a t

)

, where a and C are some constants. The time it takes

for the temperature at distance ‘ r ’ from the origin to attain its maximum value, is

Sol.

(a)

r

2

6

a

2

(b)

C e  r /(4 2 a t 2 ) H =  t 3
C
e
r /(4
2
a t
2
)
H =
t
3
r
2 3
t
1/ 2
4 a t
2
1/ 2
2
Ans. is (a)

r

2

4

a

2

(c)

C

t

d H =

d t

t =

r

2

3

6 a

2

t

3/ 2

3

r

2

8

a

r

2

2

3

2

4 a t

2

2

t

1/ 2

(d)

r

e

2

/(4

2

a t

r

2

)

a

2

0

[Mr. Ashish Tyagi, SSNC]

9. The Euler-Lagrangian equation for a system is given as x= xx ( k / m) . Which of the following Lagrangians will describe this system?

Sol.

(a)

(c)

L

L

=

=

1

2

1

2

exp(

exp(

t m xk x

)

t m xk x

)(

)(

2

2

2

2

)

Euler-Lagrangian equation is

d

  L   L

x

 

d t   x

For choice (a);

d

d t

e

t

m x

e k x 0

t

i. e., xxx ( k / m)

Choice (b);

d

d t

e

t

m x

t

e

k x 0

0

(b)

(d)

L

L

=

=

1

2

1

2

exp(

exp(

t m xk x

)(

)

2

t m xk x

)(

2

2

2

m x  x e e k x 0

0

t

t

m x  x e e k x

t

t

i.

e., xxxxx x ( ( k k / / m) m) and (d) will give

Choice (c) will give Ans. is (b)

xxx ( k / m)

[Mr. Ashish Tyagi, SSNC]

)

10. The imaginary part of an analytic function in Cartesian coordinate is 2 x y . The real part is given by

Sol.

(a)

x y

2

2

a

2

(c)

If

x y v x  u y 2 y  u y

a

( x , y ) i v ( x , y ) , then v ( x , y )

2

2

2

f ( z ) u

I C-R eqn:

(b)

(d)

2

2

x x y y

2

2

a

2

a

2

=

2

x y

Int. both sides w. r. t.

4

y

:

2

u  y h x

(

)

II C-R eqn:

v y u x Thus, u x y c

Ans. is (b)

2

2

2 x

d h

d x

Int. both sides w. r. t. x :

2

h x c

[Dr. Anuradha Gupta, SGTB]

11. The Laurent series of a function f ( z ) about z = 2 is given by

f

( z ) =

 

1

1

1

1

z 2

 

2(

z

2)

3

4(

z

2)

2

8(

z

2)

16

32

The order of the pole and the value of the residue are

(a)

Order = 3, Residue = 1/ 2

(b)

Order = 2, Residue = 1/ 4

(c)

Order = 1, Residue = 1/8

(d)

Order = 3, Residue = 1/8

Sol.

The highest power of

1

z 2

Coefficient of

Ans. is (d)

1

z 2

is 1/8

is 3

Order of the pole at z 2 is 3

Residue at z 2 is 1/8

[Dr. Anuradha Gupta, SGTB]

12. The Bessel function J 1( x ) has its first zero at x = 3.8317. The intensity of light of

wavelength in the diffraction pattern from a circular aperture of size ‘ a ’ at an angle is

Sol.

proportional to

   J

1

   2

a

sin

     

2

. The angle at which the intensity will fall to zero for a

typical wavelength of 5.5 × 10 -7 m and a = 0.5 cm, is about

(a)

First root of J 1( x ) lie at x = 3.8317

14 sec

(b)

23 minutes

(c)

24 degrees

(d)

7 radians

Intensity will be zero if

2

a

sin

= 3.8317

sin= 6.7082 × 10 -5

= 6.7082 × 10 -5 rad = 3.8435 × 10 -3 degree = 13.84 sec

Ans. is (a)

[Mr. Ashish Tyagi, SSNC]

13. Which of the following statements is true for a square matrix A?

Sol.

(a) If A 2 = 0, it necessarily implies that A = 0.

(b) If A is real and orthogonal, its eigenvalues will always be real.

(c) If A is hermitian, its diagonal entries are always real.

(d) If A is anti-hermitian (skew-hermitian), its diagonal entries are always zero.

(i)

Now A 2 =

a

i

j

a

j i

= a i 1 a 1i a i 2 a 2 i  a i n a n i

(1)

j

5

Product in eq. (1) can be zero with non-zero a i j ' s ,

(ii)

i. e., if A 2 = 0, then A can be 0. So, choice (a) is ruled out.

If A is real and orthogonal, then A A T = I

det(A) det(A T ) = det(I)

[det(A)] 2 = 1

det(A) = 1

=

λ 1 λ 2 … λ n

where, λ 1 , λ 2 , …, λ n are the eigenvalues of A.

The most general 22 orthogonal matrices are

(iii)

(iv)

and

B =

C =

cos

sin

x

x

cos

x

sin

x

sin

x

cos

x

sin

cos

x

x

with eigenvalues 1 and 1. Product is 1

with eigenvalues

i

e

x

and

e

i

x

. Product is 1

So, choice (b) is also ruled out as eigenvalues of C are complex.

If A is hermitian, then A = A

If i

If A is anti-hermitian, then A = ‒A

If

Let a ii

x + i y = (x i y)

 

a ij

=

a ji *

i and j

Ans. is (c)

i and j

(2)

= j, then a ii

i = j, then a ii

=

a ii *

diagonal elements are real

(a) ij = ‒(a) ji *

= ‒a ii *

= x + i y, then eqn. (2) gives

2x

=

0

x

=

0

a ii = i y

diagonal elements of anti-hermitian matrix are purely imaginary.

So, choice (d) is also ruled out.

Ans. is (c)

(i)

Let A =

0

0

1

0

, then A 2 =

0

0

OR

0

0

[Dr. Anuradha Gupta, SGTB]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

This implies that option (a) is False.

Let B =

cos

x

sin

x

sin

cos

x

x

, then B T =

cos

sin

x

x

sin

x

cos

x

Clearly, BB T = I and eigenvalues of B are

i

e

x

and

e

i

x

, which are

complex.

This implies that option (b) is False.

If C =

  1

i

i

1

, then C is a hermitian matrix, with diagonal entries real.

This implies that option (c) is True.

For Anti-hermitian matrix, its diagonal entries are zero or purely imaginary.

6

14.

Sol.

Ans. is (c)

eg. D =

2

i

2

0

, this implies that option (d) is False.

[Mr. Gagandeep Longiany, KMV]

The magnitude of r d r over the perimeter of an ellipse described by

r = xˆ a cos yˆ b sin, is

(a)

a b

2

(b)

a b

(c)

2a b

(d)

a b

On ellipse,

r = xˆ a cos yˆ b sin

So,

 

x ˆ

y ˆ

r × d r

=

a

cos

a

sin

d

 

b

b

sin

cos

d

 

2

z ˆ

d r = a sinxˆ b cosyˆd = a b d zˆ

0

0

Thus,

r d r =

0

a b d

zˆ = 2a b zˆ and r d r

= 2a b

Ans. is (c)

[Dr. Ajay Kumar, SAC & Dr. Anuradha Gupta, SGTB]

15. In which quadrants of the complex plane, is the function f(z) = |x| - i |y| analytic ?

Sol.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Given, f(z) = |x| - i |y|

Only in the fourth quadrant

Only in the first and third quadrants

Only in the second and fourth quadrants

In all the quadrants

(i)

In fourth quadrant, f(z) = |x| - i |y| = x + i y is analytic

 

since, u x = 1, u y = 0, v x = 0, v y = 1

choice (a) can be correct

(ii)

In first quadrant, f(z) = |x| - i |y| = x - i y is not analytic since, u x = 1, u y = 0, v x = 0, v y = -1 In third quadrant, f(z) = |x| - i |y| = -x + i y is not analytic

since, u x = -1, u y = 0, v x = 0, v y = 1

choice (b) is wrong

(iii)

In second quadrant, f(z) = |x| - i |y| = -x - i y is analytic since, u x = -1, u y = 0, v x = 0, v y = -1 In fourth quadrant, f(z) = |x| - i |y| = x + i y is analytic [from (i)]

choice (c) is correct.

Choice (d) is wrong as f(z) is not analytic in first and third quadrants.

Ans. is (c)

[Dr. Anuradha Gupta, SGTB]

7

L f t

0

f t dt

16. The Laplace transforms

Sol.

L cosh( L k cosh( t ) L sinh( k t ) = k t )

L cosh( k t ) =

L cosh( k t ) =

L cosh( k t ) = L cosh( k t ) = L sinh( k t ) =

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

k t

L

L

k t

2

 

s t

e

 

of cosh( k t ) and sinh( k t ) are given as

k

and

and

and

and

1

2

L sinh( k t ) =

L sinh( k t ) =

s

s

2

k

k

2

s

2

k

s

2

s

2

k

k

2

s

2

k

s

2

s

2

k

s

2

s

2 k

k

2

s

2

k

s

2

s

2

k

k t

L sinh( k t ) =

L sinh( k t ) =

e e

s 1 k

1

1

L

s 1 a

e a t

2

e e

k t

2

1

2

s

1

k

s k

k

2

2

2

s k

2

s k

s

k

Ans. is (d)

[Mr. Gagandeep Longiany, KMV]

17. A vector C i and a tensor C j k are related as C i =

symbol. The tensor C j k is given by

(a)

(c)

  0

C

 

3

C

2

0

C

3

C

2

C 3

C

2

  

0

C C

0 C

1

C

1

0

3

C

1

2

C

1

0

(b)

(d)

i j k

  

C j k

0

C

C

3

2

0

C

C

2

3

where i j k is the Levi-Civita

/2

C

3

0

C

1

C

 

0

2

C

1

C

3

0

C

1

C

2

C

1

0

Sol.

1

1

2

Given C i =

And,

i j m

i j m j k

12

21

31

C

C

C

C

2

C

C

C j k

1

k

i

i j m

=

i j m m k

3

i j k

C

j k

i j k

C

i

1

C j k = 2

=

=

=

=

i

i

=

=

2

m

j k i

C

12 i

21 i

31 i

C

C

C

i

i

i

   

j j m k

j k m j

C j k =

.

=

=

=

123

213

312

C

C

3

C

3

C

2

j

m

=

=

=

m

k

C

j k

replace m by k , we get

Clearly,

C

3

,

C

3

C

2

,

,

C

11

C

13

23

32

C

C

=

=

=

=

C

2 2

13 i

23 i

32 i

=

C

i

C

C

i

i

C

33

= 0

=

=

=

132

231

321

C

2

C

1

C

1

i j k

=

=

=

C

i

=

C

2

C

1

,

C

1

,

C

j

k

Ans. is (d)

[Dr. Anuradha Gupta, SGTB]

8

Given C i =

1

2

i j k

Put i

= 1, we get

C

1

1

2

1 j k

C

j k

C j k .

=

1

2

C 23 C32 2 C1

123

C

23

132

C

32

OR

=

1

2

(1)

C

23

  C

32

(

1)

(1)

Similarly, if we put i = 2, we get

And i = 3, will give

C12 C 21 2 C31 C3 C13 2 C 2

(2)

(3)

Only choice (d) satisfies the equations (1), (2) and (3).

Ans. is (d)

[Mr. Ashish Tyagi, SSNC]

18. Under a rotation by an angle θ about the x-axis, the vector that remains invariant is

Sol.

(a)

2 xˆ - yˆ + zˆ 2 xˆ 5
2 xˆ -
yˆ + zˆ
2 xˆ
5

(b)

(d)

3 zˆ 3 yˆ
3 zˆ
3 yˆ

(c)

Under rotation about x-axis, x-component of any vector will not change while its y and z

components will change. Only option with only x-component is (c).

Ans. is (c)

[Dr. Ajay Kumar, SAC & Dr. Anuradha Gupta, SGTB]

19. A free electron and a free proton of the same energy have their de Broglie wavelengths in

Sol.

the ratio

 m  m e  p e  e (a) (b)  m 
m
m
e
p
e
e
(a)
(b)
m
m
p
e
p
p
h
/ p
p
2
m K
m
e
e 
p 
p
p
p
h
/ p
p p
e 2
m K
m
p
e
e
e

Ans. is (a)

(c)

K

p

e

m

p

p

m

e

K

e

(d)

e

m

e

p

m

p

[Dr. Yogesh Kumar, DBC]

20. The wave function of the particle is given by a linear combination of two of its energy

states 1 and 2 (with energy eigenvalues E 1 and E 2 respectively) as

=

 

1

2

a

b

. If a

measurement of energy is made, the probability of finding particle energy to be E 1 is

Sol.

b 2 (a) a 2  b 2   1  2 Given 
b
2
(a)
a
2
b
2
 
1
2
Given  =
a
b

(b) (c)(a) a 2  b 2   1  2 Given  = a b

* =

9

1

*

a

*

b (d)

a b

2

*

b *

a

a b

=  *  Now, = P P = a 2  b 2 i.
=  * 
Now,
=
P P =
a
2
b
2
i. e.,
a
2
b
2
p
=  *
1
1
Also, let
    * *     * * 1 1 1
   
*
*
   
*
*
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2 
a
a b
*
b a
*
b
2
.
   
*
*
1
1
1
1
1
2
0 
=
a a b
a
a

=

and

p

p

1

2

1 , then required probability is P 1 =  1 , then required probability is P 1

p =

P

1 1  0  0  a 2 b 2 b 2 a 2
1
1
0
0
a
2
b
2
b
2
a
2
b
2

Ans. is (a)

[Ms. Bhavna Vidhani, HRC]

21. A particle of mass m is in a one-dimensional potential given by V(x) = for x < 0 and V(x) = k x 2 /2 for x > 0. The first excited state has an energy

Sol.

(a)

3

2

k m
k
m

(b)

7

2

k m
k
m

(c)

If particle of mass m moves in harmonic potential

 1 k 2 m 1 V ( x )  k x 2 2
1
k
2
m
1
V ( x )  k x
2
2
 5 k (d) 2 m ; -∞ ≤ x ≤ ∞, then
5
k
(d)
2
m
; -∞ ≤ x ≤ ∞, then
 1  k E   n    n   1
1
k
E 
n
 n 
1 2   
n
2
m
; n = 0, 1, 2, …
   
(
x )
C H a x e 
(
)
a x
2
2
/ 2
n
n
, here C and a are constants.

if n = 1, 3, 5, …

energy of the particle is

and its eigenstates are

If V ( x ) is ∞ for x ≤ 0, then boundary condition demands that n (0) 0 .

This will be true only if n = 1, 3, 5, … since H n ( a x ) 0

Here, n = 1 corresponds to ground state, n = 3 to first excited state and so on.

Put n = 3 in eqn. for

E n , we get

E 3

=

 k 7 k  3     1 2   
k
7
k
 3 
1 2    
m
2
m

Ans. is (b)

[Mr. Ashish Tyagi, SSNC]

22. The wave function for a particle is given by =

A e

x

, where

A is a constant. This

Sol.

implies that the potential

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

We know that if a particle of mass

potential

Then the energy and the normalized wave function are

is differentiable everywhere

is continuous everywhere but not differentiable at x = 0

has discontinuity at x = 0

has discontinuities at x = ±1 but differentiable everywhere

V ( x )  a ( x ) ; a

> 0

m

and energy

E

moves non-relativistically in a

10

E =

m

a

2

2

2

and

( x ) =

E =  m a 2 2  2 and  ( x ) = C

C e

C

x

; C

Clearly, V ( x )  a ( x ) has discontinuity at x = 0

Ans. is (b)

m

a

2

[Mr. Ashish Tyagi, SSNC]

23. The electric field E

and magnetic field B

in frame 1 are parallel and related by E

= c B

.

respectively, the angle x

If the electric and magnetic fields in another frame are E

and B

Sol.

between E

(a)

B B

is given by cos(x) equals

E

2

B

(b)

B

B

is invariant

=

E = B cos E B x cos x

2

B B

c

E

2

c B

2

is invariant

and B

B B 
B B 
B  B
B
B

(c)

(d)

We know that E

E B cos0

c B

2

cos x

Also,

E B

=

E  B

[since E

and B

in frame 1 are parallel]

[since E

(1)

E

=

2

c B

]

2

c B

2

=

E   c B

2

2

2

0

=

E   c B

2

2

E  c B

2

Put (2) in (1) :

cos x

Ans. is (c)*

B

2

B

2

[since E c B ]

(2)

[Dr. Deepak Chandra, SGTB]

24. A linearly polarised electromagnetic wave is incident on a quarter wave plate. The emergent wave will in general be

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Suppose a linearly polarised electromagnetic (em) wave is incident normally on a quarter wave plate such that E-vector makes angle θ with the the optic-axis (OA). Case I: If θ = 0 0 , then emergent em wave is linearly polarised having vibrations along OA.

Sol.

E θ
E
θ

linearly polarised

elliptically polarised

unpolarised

mixture of linearly polarised and unpolarised wave.

OA

Case II: If θ = 90 0 , then emergent em wave is again linearly polarised having vibrations perpendicular to OA. Case III: If θ = 45 0 , then emergent em wave is circularly polarised.

11

For other angles, emergent em wave is elliptically polarised.

Ans. is (b)*

[Mr. Ashish Tyagi, SSNC]

25.

The magnitude of the Poynting vector gives the

 

(a)

energy transported per unit area per unit time

(b)

energy density of the electromagnetic wave.

(c)

angular momentum density of the electromagnetic wave.

(d)

angular momentum transported per unit area per unit time

Sol.