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Handbook

am Timber
Enttineering

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110 002
SP : 33-1986
FIRST PUBLISHED MARCH 1987
First Reprint October 1988
0 BUREAU OF INDiAN STANDARDS

UDC 674(021)
ISBN 81-7061-018-4

PRICE Rs 175.00

PRINTED IN INDIA
AT KAPOOR ART PRESS, A38/3 MAYAPURI, NEW DELHI 110064
AND PUBLISHED BY
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS. NEW DELHI 110002
SPECIAL COMMITTEE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS (SCIP)

CHAIRMAN
Dr H.C. Visvesvaraya
National Council for Cement and Building Material::. New Delhi

MEMBERS REPRESENTING
SHRI A. K. BANERJEE Metallurgical & Engineering Consultants (India) Ltd,
Ranchi
SHRI J. D. CHATURVEDI Planning Commission, New Delhi
DIRECTOR Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee
SHRI GURNAMSINGH Ministry of Food & Civil Supplies (Finance Division)
SHRI U. R. KURLEKAR Ministry of Food and Civil Supplies
DR M. RAMAIAH Structural Engineering Research Centre (CSIR),
Madras
SHRI G. S. RAO Central Public Works Department (CDO), New Delhi
SHRI A. CHAKRABORTY
(Alternate)
SHRI T. S. RATNAM Ministry of Finance (Bureau of Public Enterprises)
SHRI V. RAO AIYGARI Department of Science & Technology, Nkw Delhi
SHRI G. RAMAN Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi
(Member Secretary)

.. .
111
As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank
FOREWORD

Users of va.rious civil engineering codes have been feeling the need for explanatory
handbooks and other compilations based on Indian Standards. The need has been
further emphasized in view of the publication of the National Building Code of
India in 1970 and its implementation. The Expert Group set up in 1972 by the
Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, carried out in-depth
studies in various areas of civil engineering and construction practices. During the
preparation of the Fifth Five-Year Plan in 1975, the Group was assigned the task of
producing a Science and Technology plan for research, development and extension
work in the sector of housing and construction technology. One of the items of this
plan was the production of design handbooks, explanatory handbooks and design
aids based on the National Building Code and various Indian Standards and other
activities in the promotion of the National Building Code. The Expert Group gave
high priority to this item and on the recommendation of the Department of Science
and Technology, the Planning Commission approved the following two projects
which were assigned to the Indian Standards Institution:
a) Development programme on code implementation for building and civil
engineering construction, and
b) Typification for industrial buildings.
A Special Committee for Implementation of Science and Technology Projects
(SCIP) consisting of experts connected with different aspects was set up in 1974 to
.advise the ISI Directorate General in identification and guiding the development of
the work. Under the first programme, the Committee has so far identified subjects
far several explanatory handbooks/compilations covering appropriate Indian
Standards/ Codes/ Specifications which include the following:
Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS : 456-l 978 (SP : 16-1980)
Explanatory Handbook on Masonry Code (SP : 20-1981)
Explanatory Handbook on Codes of Earth uake Engineering
(IS : 1893-1975 and IS : 4326-1976) (SP : 4.2-1982)
Explanatory Handbook on Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and
Reinforced Concrete (IS : 456-1978) (SP : 24-1983)
Handbook on Concrete Mixes (SP : 23-1982)
Handbook on Causes and Prevention of Cracks in Buildings (SP : 25-1984)
Summaries of Indian Standards for Building Materials (SP : 21-1982)
Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and Detailing (SP : 34-1986)
Functional Requirements of Buildings
Functional Requirements of Industrial Buildings (SP : 32-1986)
Foundation of Buildings
Steel Code (IS : 800)
Building Construction Practices
Water Supply and Drainage with Special Emphasis on Plumbing (SP : 35-1987)
Bulk Storage Structures in Steel
Formwork
Fire Safety
Construction Safety Practices
Tall Buildings
Inspection of Different Items of Building Work
Loading Code
Prefabrication
This Handbook, formulated under this project, provides information on the
factors that influence timber engineering design and discusses them in detail. It
provides explanatory review of Indian Standards on timber engineering and Part
VI/Section 3 Wood of National Building Code of India 1983. The relevant
literature available on the subject has been considered while preparing the
Handbook. The scope of the Handbook is, however, restricted to the use of solid
timber and does not cover wood products, such as plywood, laminated material and
sandwich constructions.

V
Wherever the symbol ‘NBC’ is used, it refers to Part VI/Section 3 Wood of the
National Building Code of India 1983. Other important features of the Handbook
have been highlighted in the introduction.
The Handbook, it is hoped, will be useful to designers of timber structures, field
engineers and also laboratories engaged in design, research and testing of structural
timber.
The Handbook is based on the first draft prepared by Shri A.C. Shekar, Retired
Director, Forest Products Research, Forest Research Institute and Colleges, Dehra
Dun. The draft was circulated for review to Inspector General of Forests, New
Delhi; Forest Research Laboratory, Bangalore; Dr A.N. Nayer, New Delhi;
Directorate General of Technical Development, New Delhi; Western India Plywood
Ltd, Cannanore; Indian Plywood Manufacturing Co Pvt Ltd, Dandeli; Indian
Plywood Industries Research Institute, Bangalore; Forest Research Institute and
Colleges, Dehra Dun; Central Public Works Department, New Delhi; and Public
Works Department (J&K), Srinagar, and views received have been taken into
consideration while finalizing the Handbook.

vi
CONTENTS

Page
1. INTRODUCTION
2. TIMBER FOR STRUCTURAI, PIJKPOSES
2.1 General
2.2 Growth and Development of Timber Engineering in India 2
2.3 Timber Resources of India for Structural Purposes
2.4 Selection and Identification of Structural Species :
2.5 Grading Practices, Standards and Preferred Sizes 12
3. MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
1NDIAN WOODS 16
3.1 Methods of Test and Evaluation of Properties 16
3.2 Factor Affecting Strength Properties 19
3.3 Factors of Safety and Working Stresses 23
3.4 Reliability of Data and Confidence Limits 27
4. TIMBER PROCESSING TECHNIQUES 30
4.1 Introduction 30
4.2 Log Storage and Conversion 31
4.3 Timber Seasoning
4.4 Timber Preservation ::
4.5 Fire-retardant Treatments 40
4.6 Other Processes and Wood Products 40
5. TIMBER DESIGN-PART 1 42
5.1 General Considerations 42
5.2 Beams (Flexural Members) 42
5.3 Columns 50
5.4 Combined Stresses 52
6. TIMBER DESIGN-PART 2 ’ 53
6.1 Timber Trusses
6.2 Special Constructions ii:
6.3 Timber Fasteners 79
7. TEST METHODS FOR TIMBER STRUCTURES AND
COMPONENTS 85
7.1 Introduction 85
7.2 Destructive Tests 86
7.3 Proof Tests
7.4 Tests on Joints and Connectors ::
8. FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND
PRECAUTIONS 87
8.1 General 87
8.2 Fabrication and Assembly
8.3 Light and Heavy Constructions :;
8.4 Erection and Fixing 90
9. WOOD FINISHES, PROTECTION AND MAINTENANCE 90
9.1 Wood Finishes 90
9.2 Application Methods 92
9.3 Maintenance 92

vii
10. FUTURE POSSIBILITIES 93
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Glue-lam Engineering 9’:
10.3 Plywood Engineering 94
10.4 Other Forest Based and Biological Materials 94
10.5 Prefab Techniques 95
10.6 Computer Techniques 95
APPENDIX A INDIAN STANDARDS USEFUL FOR TIMBER 95
ENGINEERING

APPENDZX B IMPORTANT INDIAN PUBLICATIONS IN 97


TIMBER ENGINEERING

APPENDIX C A DICHOTOMOUS KEY FOR IDENTIFICATION 99


OF 25 COMMERCIAL TIMBERS OF INDIA

APPENDIX D SUMMARY OF SCHEME OF TESTS ON 102


SMALL CLEAR SPECIMENS OF TIMBER

APPENDIX E SUMMARY OF SCHEME OF TESTS ON 106


STRUCTURAL SIZES OF TIMBER BASED
ON IS : 2408-1963

APPENDIX F LIST OF TIMBER DESIGNS DEVELOPED AT 107


THE FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE

APPENDIX G STRUCTURAL SPECIES OF DIFFERENT 109


GROUPS, THEIR TRADE NAMES, OTHER
INDIAN NAMES, AVAILABILITY,
DURABILITY, TREATABILITY AND
REFRACTORINESS

APPENDIX H MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS 130


STRUCTURAL SPECIES

APPENDIX J TYPICAL NUMERCIAL EXAMPLE FOR 137


CALCULATING THE COMPARATIVE
SUITABILITY INDEX FROM THE BASIC
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

APPENDIX K WORKED EXAMPLES 138

. ..
VIII
SP : 33(S&T)-1986

1. INTRODUCTION consolidate and update the information available


in this field and which is not full!, cover-cd in NBC
1.1 Wood is one of the earliest materials used by and several Indian standards. It also provides a
mankind for building purposes and has continued handy document to engineers, architects and
to attract attention in one form or other inspite of builders, and other technologists dealing in wood
many competitive building materials and their use constructions. The material contained is generally
under highly developed technological restricted to experiences in India and on Indian
considerations. Wood is a biological material species only. but attention has also been drawn
from renewable resources, and extensively used in wherever necessary to some cases of design trends
structural designs and other engineering fields. in other countries which may prove useful for
However, timber engineering developments are future development in this country also. For
only of recent origin in India. It is only in the past obvious reasons of insufficient data and
thirty years, new design and test methods have experience in this c<luntry, this Handbook cannot
been developed, a few types of properly designed he considered as exhaustive document to cover all
wood construction have come up, and wood has types of wood structures that have been and can
been recognized as an important building material be further developed with wood and wood
(see National Building Code of India 1983). products in this country. It is hoped that with the
1.2 The present use of wood and other cellulosic rapid developments coming up the future
materials, from forests, such as bamboo. thatch, revisions of this Handbook will appropriately
reeds for residential and commercial types of take care of the variety of needs in this country
buildings varies from about IO percent of the total keeping in view the limitation of the many species
cost in cities and urban areas, to even 160 percent of wood available in this part of the world.
in hills and remote villages where modern
architecture linked with economic improvements, 1.5 No separate section for terminology has
has not yet made much impact. In some of the been introduced in this Handbook as IS : 707-
1970 contains exhaustive list and many technical
developed countries of the west, use of timber has
words used here are covered in the same. Some of
brought out several new types of architectural
designs also, and wooden structures are reported the special terms are either covered in the rclevent
to have stood the test of time for several years. standards quoted in different places or explained
Even in this countrv examnles exist in villages. in the text itself where they occurred.
old temples, some did pala’ces, etc. where w:od 1.6 A list of Indian Standards useful for timber
has stood the test of time under continued use for engineering is given in Appendix A.
even more than 200 years.
1.3 Several international and national seminars 2. TIMBER FOR STRUCTURAL PURPOSES
held between 1955 and 1975 recognized that one
of the prime factors in not using wood extensively 2.1 General
as an -engineering materials is- due to the scant
2.1.1 When any material is used for
attention received in the present-day training
engineering purposes, it will be helpful for
programmes of architects and engineers. These
rational utilization of the same, if the basic
seminars, coupled with several R & D activities in
concepts and properties of the material are well
India, have now scientifically and technically understood. Wood is a material of biological
brought out that wood can be used economically origin and is considered by a biologist as a
in several ways, such as beams, rafters, purlins, congregation of a number of biological cells
trusses, columns, doors, windows, frames and which have some definete assigned functions
shutters. It has also been used for flooring, during the growth of a tree. The construction of
panelling, ceilings, roofings and partitions. It has these cells, their wall thicknesses, binding to each
been considered as an excellent and attractive other, distribution and alignment in a piece of
material for interior decoration and furniture. wood, all go to determine the behaviour of the
Laminated and improved woods have enhanced material in use. They also serve as a guidance for
utilization of low grade quality even for high class idehtification of timber as to which species it
architecture, both for stress-bearing as well as belongs. The chemist, considers wood as a bundle
non-stress-bearing components. Improved of chains of cellulose molecules coupled with
processing techniques have increased durability
hemicellulose, lignin and a few other extractive
characteristics and effected greater economy. On
chemicals, all of which render the necessary
the basis of these experiences more than 30 Indian
properties to the same as a raw material for many
standards have been brought out which are useful
chemical industries. In the concepts developed by
in the field of timber engineering. Some of the
essential aspects of designs, etc, have already been a physicist, wood is an orthotropic material with
incorporated in the National Building Code. different and widely varying mechanical and
physical properties in the three principal
1.4 In view of the above it has been considered directions of a piece of wood, that is, one along
necessary to bring out the present Handbook to the direction of fibres, and the other two

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 1


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

perpendicular to the same known as longitudinal, conditions. These aspects also have been discussed
radial, and tangential directions respectively (see in the following sections.
Fig. I). Like some other materials, it is also
elasto-plastic even at room temperatures. that is, 2.2 Growth and Development of Timber
it shows time-dependant strains under some Engineering in India
minimum stresses known as ‘limits-of-plastic
flow’. 2.2.1 Timber has been used in India
structurally as well as non-structurally from times
immemorial for various types of house building
t LONOITUOINAL purposes. In the early days there was no scientific
data for proper designs, and consequently many
of the early attempts on timber structures have
been attributed only to hit and try methods,
craftsman techniques, using only durable species,
particularly teak. Sometimes protection to some
non-durable woods against decay and insects was
ABC0 CROSS SECTION given only by surface coating of oils, paints, etc,
lANOCf4T1AL which were not fully effective under all types of
FACES circumstances. Occassionally, instances can also
RADIAL be observed when protection was given to wood
ASFFij FACES
by simple smoking and charring methods.
AONE HEART SlOl However, by about 1920, mechanical tests on
SAP SIDE different species under somewhat standardized
conditions began at the Forest Research Institute,
Dehra Dun. In due course of time, by about 1935,
these results yielded quite reliable data for
developing working stresses and designii:g of
simple beams, columns and small trusses. Tests
were also started on structural sizes of timber as
early as 1936 and about the same period a note
FIG. 1 PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS AND SURFACESOF was also brought out by S. Kamesam on
SYMMETRY IN TIMBER protectional methods for structural timbers
against fire, termites. borers and fungi.
Subsequently conventional trusses of spans
2.1.2 Thus. its properties exhibit variations not
ranging from 3 to 10 m have begun to be designed
only due to different species of wood, different
trees of same species, different localities and and were erected in different parts of the country
conditions of growth, but also due to methods of by different constructional agencies using
test and conditions of materials at test. Hence in ordinary bolts and metal bindings. In some of the
the use of such a material with the required army specifications, some of the strong and
confidence for safety and wide acceptability, there durable woods were recommended based on
in an absolute need of a high degree of standardized designs of earlier British defence
standardization to obtain test data based on specifications. These were largely used for
statistical and technological considerations, and temporary constructions during World War II.
there is a need for a strict code to ensure economy However, with the creation of a new Timber
and safety. In the following sections all these Engineering Branch in 1950 at the Forest
aspects have been discussed mainly from the point Research Institute, Dehra Dun, small
of view of a structural engineer using timber. dimensioned stock came into use for structures,
using nails and bolts, etc. Dowel discs and other
2.1;3 During the last fifty years, the Forest connectors were developed which were
Research Institute, Dehra Dun, had systemati- subsequently utilized in the various types of light
tally est ablished identification characteristics and heavy constructions. The Indian species by
of different species of woods grown in India, this time have been classified according to their
evaluated several of their important properties strength, durability, refractiveness to drying, and
and established suitability of various species for other characteristics. On the basis of these
different industrial and engineering purposes. classifications, and further studies on effects of
From considertion of their availability and other defects, developments have taken place in grading
important properties, like mechanical and structural timber not only according to their
physical properties, durability, refractoriness to strength and durability but also according to their
drying, workability, glueability, etc, out of nearly availability and possible end uses and whether for
300 commercial species tested so far, only about temporary or for permanent constructions. Also
85 have been identified as useful for engineering with the increasing costs, and shortage of
structures (see NBC 1983). However recent naturally durable timbers like teak, sal, deodar,
analysis of strength data of more species have etc; and with developments in the processing
indicated possibilities of utilizing many other techniques, the secondary species which were
species for structural purposes under different originally considered unsuitable, were used under

2 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

proper treated conditions with the same like ‘fir’, ‘deodar’, etc. Hence the use of the terms
confidence as conventional timbers. The design ‘softwoods’ and ‘hardwoods’ are being
aspects of timber structures had been codified and discouraged in Indian standards for identifying
incorporated in the National Building Code and the origin of the wood, and the words ‘coniferous’
several Indian standards have come up for use of and ‘non-coniferous’ or ‘broad-leaved’ for trees
timber in building industry. Indian standards for and woods are being increasingly used in many
special types of constructions also have come up. publications.
Considerable amount of published literature is
now available on research and developments that 2.3.3 All the species are known by their
took place in the last three decades in India. More botanical names (as Tectona grandis) consisting
important Indian specifications and technical of two parts; the first is the generic name,
literature are given in Appendices A and B. With indicating the genera from which the woody
more developments in wood technology, material has come, and is always written
particularly plywood and laminated materials, it beginning with a capital letter. The second part
is hoped more timbers and new designs of timber indicates the name of the particular species, and is
written beginning with a small letter. It is always
products will come into use for structures. The
possible that under the same genera there can be
wide publicity and extensive demonstration
two or more species with distinct botanical
structures are required in order to develop greater
identity (for example, Terminalia tomentosa,
confidence, and introduce timber designs in
Terminalia ujuna, etc). However commercially,
several regional and institutional construction the woods are known by ‘trade’ names and it is
codes. possible the same trade name is used for more
than one species but belonging to the same genera
2.3 Timber Resources of India for (for example, Gurjan and several dipterocarpus
Structural Purposes species). A list of botanical names and
2.3.1 Indian has about 75.3 million hectares corresponding trade names of all species along
or about 24 percent of land area under forests, with abbreviations used for the species are given
which are unevenly distributed. All the forests are in IS : 1150-1976. In most of the Indian
not ftilly inventoried for the different species standards, both the botanical and the trade names
though currently some efforts are going on for are usually given. In the recent years, there have
systematic survey of forest resources in the been some changes in botanical names in the light
different regions. Much of the currently available of fresh knoweledge about the botanical
information in the National Building Code and in characteristics of the trees from which wood is
many of the Indian Standards, as reported in the obtained, and in accordance with international
Handbook is based on the data supplied by the rules for naming the species. For this purpose the
local forest departments on the basis of their botanical names are sometimes followed by names
preliminary surveys only. of the authors who so named the species, such as
Mang$era indica Linn and Albizzia procera
2.3.2 These forests contain a variety of plant Benth but this is not a regular practice in all
life. Of these, woody plants alone constitute more technical literature. IS : 399-1963 gives botanical
than five hundred species distributed in different names and trade names of commercial timbers.
parts of the country. Commercial wood is known Some of the botanical names have subsequently
as timber. All commercially utilizable wood, for been changed and are reflected in NBC 1983.
example, timber, comes from two main types of However, the trade names remain generally
trees known as ‘gymnosperms’ and ‘angios- permanent as they came to be used popularly and
perms’. Trees of the former type are also known widely both in commercial markets and technical
as ‘coniferous trees’ which have needle type leaves. literature. These timbers are also known by their
Among the trees of the latter type, there are two ‘local names’ in regional markets.
further divisions: (a) dicotyledons and (b)
monocotyledons, the names suggesting that their 2.3.4 The total recorded production of wood
seeds contain two lobes or single lobe. in the counfry is roughly estimated as 25 million
Dicotyledons are also refered to as ‘broad-leaved’ rn3 per annum of which approximately 10 million
trees, and the monocotyledons produce meterial rn” is currently demanded by various industries
which have bundled type of fibres. like palmyrah including saw mills and construction industry. Of
and bamboos, etc, which are used generally in the this,. one can safely assume that approximately 2.5
round or circular sections as such for obtaining million m3 is now utilized in rural and urban
their full strength. Timber from coniferous trees is houses and nearly 0.5 million rn3 for non-
sometimes referred to as ‘softwood’ and that from residential construction, and the balance of timber
the broad leaved trees is referred to as ‘hardwood’ is used for other industries, such as plywood,
though the nature of the wood from the respective railways, furniture, agriculture and pulp factories.
trees has nothing to do with softness or hardness It is, however, estimated that about 30 percent of
as the terms are commonly understood. There are the building materials is in the form of timber
many hardwoods which are soft in nature like required for construction industry. On this basis,
cotton wood (semul) or balsa. Similarly there are the current demand for timber for construction is
quite a number of softwoods which are fairly hard expected to be of the order of about 6 million m3

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 3


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

and this will increase more rapidly in the future. confidence. This has been necessary in some
Although there are trends of increasing forest species, such as Carallia lucida, Gluta
productivity to meet the demands of various travoncorica, Pinus lon[folia, some dipterocarpus
industries and building constructions, the gap and Terminalia species, Zanthoxl?lum rhetsa, etc.
between availability and demand in future is still
expected to increase and hence there is a need of 2.3.6.1 When the same species in different
greater economy and rational utilization of timber localities fall in different groups, the group of
by developing new techniques in structural majority localities is taken, such as Shorea
applications of timber. A number of other robusta (Sal) of’ Assam, Bengal, Bihar and UP falls
suggestions such as developing improved products under Group A but that of MP falls under Group
B. Similarly Tectona grandis (teak) of MP and
of wood for structural purposes, utilizing more
Orissa falls under Group C but of Kerala,
species and the odd sizes of trees hitherto
Maharashtra, UP and Bengal falls under Group
considered not usable, raising fast growing species
B. Hence the above two species are taken in
in forests, obtaining quick rotations in felling the
Group B. Similarly although Stereospermum
trees, etc, are also under active consideration of
chelonoides tested from Madras falls under
the concerned authorities.
Group B yet the same tested from West Bengal
2.3.5 As known by the data suplied by various falls under Group C. Also other Stereos ermum
forest departments and the Forest Research species Ii ke Stereospermum scc*aveolens Prom UP
Institute, nearly about 85 species ha.ve been and Stereospermum xylocarpum from Madras
indentified in the National Building Code as fall under Group C. Hence all the stereos-
useful for structural purposese; and their primary permum species have been shown under Group C
characteristics, such as weight, availability, only. As grouping of species for structural species
durability, refractoriness and treatability are given is associated with safety and economy, in the long
therein. Recent analysis of strength data of more run, whenever there has been any doubt for
species indicate the possibility of using some more appropriate grouping with regard to different
species. These have been indicated in Appendix H strength characteristics and in relation to locality
along with other properties. of growth, the safer side, that is, lower grouping
has been adopted. It may be noted that different
2.3.6 According to IS : 3629-1966 all the species of same genera may fall into different
structural species are classified into three groups, such as Calophyllum tomemtosum in
groups-‘super’, ‘standard’ and ‘ordinary’-based Group B, and Callophyllum wightianum in Group
on their modulus of elasticity for green timber as C. Similarly, Terminalia arjuna, T bellerica, T.
obtained under standard tests and also flexure bialata, T. chehula, T. manii, T. paniculata, and
stress in bending as obtained under working T. tomentosa all fall under Group B, but
stresses (see 2.3). But NBC classifies these into Terminalia m!riocarpa, and T. procera fall under
groups A, B and C based on ‘modulus of Group C.
elasticity’ and gives permissible stress in bending,
tension and flexural. However, as structural 2.3.6.2 In a seminar on timber and timber
engineering design considerations of use of timber products for building purposes held in Dehra Dun
are based on permissible stresses obtained from in 1977, a suggestion was made that there should
standard tests, for all reactions like bending, be a fourth group, Group D also, for listing such
compression and shear, these are also given in timbers which are ‘neither durable nor treatable’,
Table I for the three recognized groups along to be used for extremely temporary structures or
with standard specific gravity on which all other semi-structural purposes in service work.
properties generally depend, and which generally However, this has not been standardized as such,
serves as a ready guidance for selection (see Sl nor does it seem to stand logical permanent
No. 26 of Appendix B). According to a system of classification, as any timber can be used for such
grouping several strength factors (see also 3.1.4) purposes, and technological developments in
and also expressing composite strength figures wood preservation are always directed towards
compared to teak as 100 the limiting composite improving durability and treatability of all such
strength figure as used inIS : 399-1963 is also species.
given in the same table for the three groups.
Earlier edition of IS : 833-1977 also suggests that 2.3.6.3 When in any structure all the pieces
permissible stress in bending of standard grade of timber are from the same species, then it may
timber, under use in inside locations, as additional be useful to employ the working stresses of the
limiting factor for structural grouping. These and particular species as given in Appendix H.
other corresponding permissible stresses are also However, when a number of species are required
indicated in the same table for comparison. to be used together, it is advantageous if all the
Although, as mentioned in NBC, modulus of species are of the same group and the working
elasticity alone may be generally sufficient for stresses of the particular group for a given
classification of any species under different condition as given in Table 2 would be justified
groups, the other criteria mentioned above also for maximum efficiency and economy. The
serve as a check and would be helpful to place any methods of deriving the working stresses are
species in the respective groups with greater discussed in 3.3 in greater detail.

4 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

TABLE 2 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES FOR GRADE 2 TIMBER


(Clause 2.3.6.3)
LOCATION PERMISSIBLESTRESSES, kgf/cmz

/ A 3
Group A Group B Group C
(E = 126) (E=98 to 126) (E=56 to 98)

(I) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Bending and tension along grain Inside locations 182 123 84


Outside locations 152 102 70
Wet locations 120 81 60

Shear Horizontal, all locations* 12 9 6


Along grain, all locations 17 13 9

Compression parallel to grain Inside locations 120 70 64


Outside locations 106 63 56
Wet locations 88 58 46

Compression prependicular to Inside locations 60 22 22


grain Outside locations 46 18 17
Wet locations 38 15 14

*The values of horizontal shears to be used only for beams. In all other cases shear along grain to be used.

2.3.7 For purposes of knowing the availability heavy demand for other important industries have
of the species India has been divided into five also been indicated accordingly.
zones and the approximate quantity available in
each zone is given in NBC 1983 and also in 2.3.8 Species of wood are to be chosen also
IS : 399-1963. according to their durability. The durability of
species have been classified in IS : 399-1963
a) North Zone - Jammu and Kashmir. according to the behaviour of the heartwood
Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttar sticks in ‘grave-yard test’, sometimes known as
Pradesh and Rajasthan; ‘stake tests’. Test specimens of untreated
heartwood of different species of size 60 X 5 X 5
b) East Zone - Assam, Manipur, Tripura, cm are buried to half their length in the ground in
West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Sikkim, Bhutan, different representative test centres in the country,
Andamans, North East Frontier Agency and containing different types of wood destroying
Nagaland; agents. The average results are analyzed and the
cl Centre Zone - Madhya Pradesh, Vidhar- species are classified for durability as below:
bha areas of Maharashtra and the North- High (that is, Class I of IS : 401-1982) (H) :
East part of Andhra Pradesh (Godavari Species, the test specimens of which indicate
delta area); average life of 120 months or more, when tested
4 West Zone - Maharashtra (except Vidhar- as above.
bha areas), Gujarat and North-West part of Moderate (that is Class 2 of IS : 401-1982)
Karnataka; (M) : Species, the test specimens of which indicate
e) South Zone -Tamil Nadu, Andhra average life of less than 120 months, but 60
Pradesh (except the Godavari delta area), months or more when tested as above.
Kerala and Karnataka (except North-West Low (that is, Class 3 of IS : 401-1982) (L) :
part). Species, the test specimens of which indicate
However, it may be noted that the data on average life of less than 60 months, when tested as
availability in different zone is only approximate above.
and collected quite sometime ago. In the recent It may be indicated here that the above is not
years the inter-zonal transport systems have been the actual life for designed structures. The above
improved very much, and quite a lot of timber is only a comparative classification of species for
movement has been feasible economically. Hence, appropriate choice. Properly treated timbers give
the total approximate quantity available in the much longer life.
country as a whole has been estimated and the
principal areas of growth and availability along 2.3.9 Species are classified also for
with trade names and other local names have been ‘treatability’ to indicate approximately the degree
indicated in Appendix G. ,Species which are in of resistance offered by the heartwood of the

6 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


Sp : 33(S&T)-1986

species to penetration of the preservative under c treatability for temporary structure when their
working pressure of 10.5 kg/cm2 under conditions life is not important.
of treatment normally employed for creosote-
crude oil mixture and also water soluble mixture 2.3.12 Considering all the above, the timber
(see 4.4). There can be minor differences of resources for structural purposes in India demand
treatability with different types of preservatives. a careful selection of species consistent with the
Sapwood of all species is very easily treatable. required economy. In recent years, the cost of
Treatability classification of different species is as popular and durable species ranged from Rs. 500
follows (see also IS : 401-1982): to Rs. 1000 per cubic metre depending upon the
sizes and grades. Some of the ornamental and
a>Heartwood easily treatable; decorative varieties to be used for wall panels
even cost more, though plywood and other types
b) Heartwood treatable but complete
penertration of preservative is not always of panels are gradually coming into vogue. The
attained (IS : 401-1982 prescribes least cost of sesoning has been around Rs. 75 per cubic
dimension as more than 6 cm); metre and the preservative treatment on the
average costed Rs. 150 per cubic metre. However,
cl Heartwood only partially treatable; it may be remembered that the economy of timber
utilization depends not only on the fluctuating
4 Heartwood refractory to treatment; and
costs of material and treatment in the mark%,
e) Heartwood very refractory to treatment, but also on the annual maintenance costs and ihe
penetration of preservative being negligible minimum longivity expected of any structure.
even from side or end.
2.4 Selection and Identification nf Structural
2.3.10 When species of wood are air-seasoned, Species
as most of the constructional timders of large
2.4.1 Wood identification is a highly
cross-sectional areas would be, they are likely to specialized subject falling under the discipline
crack and split. Under comparable normal ‘Wood anatomy’. Some of the popular species in
conditions of seasoning, these are classified as of the various zones can be broadly guessed and
‘high’, ‘moderate’, and ‘low’ refractoriness to air- identified by their ‘gro:,; features’ such as grain,
seasoning, that is, to indicate likelihood of losses texture, colour, hardness and weight aided by the
in air seasoning, or when exposed to normal knowledge of locality of origin of the species.
weather in outside locations. This classification However, a pen-knife and a hand lens of 10 times
will help comparative selection of appropriate magnification would be helpful for further
species in the different areas. confirmation of the timber by a closer study of
2.3.11 In the final selection of the species the the distribution of different types of cells. In order
NBC recognizes two choices as below depending to have more accurate confirmation it would be
on their combined durability and treatability. This essential to take their sections (of the order of
will help engineers to adjust according to the microns in thickness) with the help of a
required economy in constructions, particularly microtome, and study the same under a
with reference to permanent or temporary, heavy microscope of higher magnification. Still the
or light constructions, and in selecting required wood anatomists quite often feel that in some
treatment processes, etc (see IS : 3629-1966). cases they would not be absolutely sure with
regard to the species though they can confidently
2.3.11.1 First choice -The species can be identify the genus. In extreme cases, the
any of the following: herbarium specimen, that is, the leaves, fruits and
flowers of the tree, from which the wood has been
4 Untreated heartwood of high durability
obtained, will be re‘quired for establishing
(Class 1 of IS : 401-1982)
unquestionable identity. In general all the above
b) Treated heartwood of moderate (Class 2) tests, alongwith the herbarium specimen, are
and low (Class 3) durability, and of ‘a’ and considered always necessary for absolute
‘b’ treatability classes. confirmation.

c>Heartwood of moderate durability (Class 2) 2.4.2 Identification of commercial species of


and Class c treatability after appropriate India are usually done by what are called ‘keys’
pressure impregnation (see IS : 401-1982). for identification. There are two such system of
keys in vogue. The first is called a ‘dichotomous’
4 Sapwood of all classes of durability after
key. A typical such key is given in Appendix C
thorough treatment with preservative.
which includes only some of the timbers but it
2.3.11.2 Second choice - The species should be possible to construct such keys
should be of heartwood of moderate durability specifically for the structural timbers belonging to
and Class d treatability. a particular group. The Forest Research Institute
has published several keys for common
2.3.11.3 Although no specific mention is commercial species available in various markets
made in NBC and IS : 3629-1966 recognizing or for species used for specific purposes such as
selection of species of Class 3 durability and Class for motor lorry bodies. Some keys are constructed

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 7


SP :33(S&T)-1986 b

on the basis of features observed entirely by recorded by V-punching out the margin of the
naked eye or a hand lens, and some are perforations corresponding to the features of the
constructed on what can be observed under timber printed on the card (see Fig 2). To identify
microscope. It is also possible to combine both. It a given timber, the whole pack of the printed
is, however, not possible to prepare P key of this cards are arranged together and a needle is
type for all available commercial timbers of the inserted through the hole of the first feature
world or India. Also when such a dichotomous observed. On shaking out all such cards of
key is constructed for limited number of species different species which have the same feature fall
against a background of common market or end out. A second feature observed on the timber to
use, additional species cannot be included without be identified, is then selected and the above
changing a large section of the same. process of inserting a needle and shaking is
repeated on the fallen cards so that some more
2.4.3 A second system of key for identification cards fall out which have the same features. Thus
is through the help of marginally perforated one after another all features are taken up and
printed pack of cards describing all features. ultimately only one card will fall out which has all
IS : 4970-1973 describes this system of the key the features observed, and this card gives the
alongwith all aids required for the same. In this identitv of timber under consideration. The
system the diagnostic features of each timber are advantages of this type of keys are: (a) one can

SAJ’WOOD AND
HEARTWOOD DISTINCT ’

LIGHT COLOURED 2

lELLOW 3

I SHADES
OF BROWN 4 I

I SHADES
OF RED 6 1

=I SOFT TO VERY SOFT 6 I

I 36 EXCLUSIMLY SOLITARY Ii

‘I HEAW TO VERY HEAVY 13 I

I 41 FLAME LIKE I

FINE-TEXTURED 16

MEMUII-
COARSEJEXTVRED 19

7
tlODERATELI BROAD 23

FINE TO VERY FINE 26


g
52 CONFLUENT-BROAD a
6ROAO 6 FINE 25

63 ilANDED -NARROW
CLOSELY SPACED

66 BANDED - 6ROAO 1 FEW WIDELY SPACED 27 1

8 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

start with any obvious or unusual feature, (b) the the heartwood region to nearly white nearer
. features can be used in any sequence and (c) any the bark. However, from anatomical point
card can be prepared for any new timber species of view and also strength point of view there
and added to the pack and selection is also based is no difference between sapwood and heart-
on negative characteristics, that is, cards of wood. The sapwood is a very easily treat-
timbers, in which the selected features are not able than heartwood, and so is always
present remain on the needle itself when shaken. advantageous from the point of preser-
vation and tretment of timber.
2.4.4 Some people have tried to develop
identification keys on the basis of chemical d) Growth rings - Most timbers show on the
constituents of timber or mechanical and other cross-section a number of concentric marks
physical properties of timber but these have not approximately annualar in shape, that is,
become popular as yet. circular around the pith and ultimately
taking contour shape as of bark. Sometimes
2.4.5 In all cases of identifying biological
specimens, it is best in the end to establish they are faint and sometimes they are pro-
identification by comparison with authentic minently visible to the eye. The width of the
specimen themselves and using all available keys. ring consists of two parts, the wood formed
For this purpose purchasers and users of timber in the early part of growing season known as
regularly are advised to keep in their custody a set ‘earlywood’ and (sometimes referred in lite-
of authentic specimen so certified by recognized rature as ‘springwood’) and the wood formed
laboratories such as the Forest Research Institute, during later part of growth season known
Dehra Dun, and Forest Research Laboratory as ‘latewood’(sometimes referred in literature
Bangalore and Peechi (Kerala), etc. as ‘summerwood’). The two parts differ in
texture, colour and general structure. The
2.4.6 To be able to identify the different types time interval between two such consecutive
of common features that are to be looked for on growth rings is usually a single alteration
the different species in the *process of their of growth season which is usually one year.
identification and selection, description of the Hence they are also often known as ‘annual
same are given in 2.4.6.1 and 2.4.6.2. rings’ and thus the number of rings provide
2.4.6.1 Gross features a reliable idea of the age of the tree. Some-
times there can be ‘false rings’, and in some
4 Bark-The outer cover of a log, which regions the growing season is not regularly
many a time easily peels off on drying, is annual. Sal, gurjan, jaman, and mango do
generally a rough surface. However, in some not show any distinct annual or even sea-
species like Ficus or Eucalyptus it is smooth. sonal growth rings because the growth is
In Shorea species it shows fissures and continuous and one season’s growth merges
cracks. In some species like Melia diamond into next season’s growth. In conifers like
shaped fissures are observed. The thickness chir, deodar, and in some broad leaved trees
of the bark and its general appearance is of like mulberry, teak, toon, the rings are
some diagnostic value. distinct and give a correct idea of the rate of
growth. Fast growth indicates rings wider
b) Pith - This is the soft core found near the than 2.5 mm, and 8 rings or more per
centre of the log as seen at the end. When in centimetre indicate slower growth. Width of
dry condition, lot of radial cracks are rings has a significant effect on strength and
observed. The colour is commonly some sometimes they are of diagnostic value.
shade of brown or grey. It is rarely of any
diagnostic value. The squarish ends with e) Grain and texture-These are somewhat
concave sides is sometimes considered loosely understood terms to indicate the
typical of teak. direction, alignment and size of the cells
as seen on the surface of piece of timber.
cl Sapwood and heartwood - When viewed These are also of some diagnostic value.
on the cross-section of a log, two clear zones The grain which is concerned with orienta-
appear, the one comparatively lighter in tion of cells with reference to the axis of the
shade and nearer the bark side is known as tree is usually described ‘straight’, ‘cross’,
‘sapwood’ and the inner zone near the pith, ‘spiral’, ‘interlocked’, ‘wavy’, ‘irregular’, etc.
is known as ‘heartwood’. These two zones The texture of wood is commonly described
contain cells with different functions in the as ‘coarse’, ‘fine’, ‘even’ or ‘uneven’ to indi-
growth of the tree. However, in a felled tree cate the size, proportion and distribution of
or a log stored in a depot, colour distinction various wood elements. Sandalwood and
is not always a true criteria for distinguish- haldu are fine textured woods; mango,
ing them. In Abies pindrow (fir) and Picea hollock and kokko are coarse textured.
smithiana (spruce) there is no colour distinc-
tion. Hardwoods like mango, semul, do not r) Other characteristics, such as colour, odour,
show the colour difference. In some species, hardness and weight as their names suggest,
for example, Shorea robust, the sapwood help in identification of very commonly
changes its colour from reddish brown near known timbers but one should be very

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 9


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

cautious in applying these to any unfamiliar 4 Tracheids - In conifers they have dual role
wood. of conducting the sap and also giving
strength to the tree. They have pits on their
2.4.6.2 Minute structure qf’ ~vood walls like vessels, but have thick walls and
tapered ends like fibres. The early wood
4 Depending upon the function expected of
have thinner walls, larger pits, larger lumen
various types of cells during the growth of a
tree, they are classified as vessels fibres, and the later wood contains thicker walls,
trachieds, parenchyme, etc. The size, pro- less pits and smaller lumen, thus giving rise
to prominent growth rings.
portion and arrangement of the various
wood elements constitute the characteristic e) Paranchyma cells - Somewhat short, re-
pattern, and celluler structure seen under ctangular cells with thin walls, and pits
a lens or microscope on the basis of which designed for storage and conduction of food
identity of wood is established. These are material during growth. Generally they are
also responsible for making the specific along the direction of growth of the tree,
species usable for specific end uses, and and hence known as longitudinal paranc-
particularly building purposes where hyma. But sometimes they are formed
strength, nailability, glueability, insulating among the cells running in radial direction
properties, paintability and treatability and are correspondingly called radial para-
form important considerations. nchyma. The collective patterns of these
cells are of important diagnostic value.
b) Pores or vessels -They appear on the
cross-section of broad-leaved trees as appro- f) Rays - Horizontally oriented cells known
ximately a circular or oval openings or as medullay rays running in radial direction
holes. Hence they are called pores. In coni- appear as light coloured ribbons of various
ferous woods they are not visible and so patterns giving distinct features. Broad,
they are called ‘non-porous’. The pores may high rays are characteristic of oak, beech,
by distributed in a ring form or diffused. In etc. Fine inconspicuous rays are features of
‘ring porous’ woods, those of early wood are all conifers and some hardwoods like laurel,
distinctly larger than those of late wood benteak and ebony.
such as in teak, mulberry and toon. Hence a
ring is clearly seen. In diffused porous wood, g) Ripple marks-When viewed on the tan-
such as sal, haldu the pores are uniformly gential surface, some wavy lines caused by
distributed. Sometimes there will be other rays running at right angles to the longi-
types of groupings such as radial chains as tudinal direction are sometimes observed on
in’ ebony and lambapatti, or in oblique some woods such as bijasal kanju and satin-
grouping such as in poon. The pores may be wood, and are very helpful in identification
minute in size as in Gardenia sp. or large of timbers.
as in semul and kokko. In the sapwood,
pores may be empty but in heartwood they h) Resin canals and gum ducts - Intercellular
canals, serving as repositories of waste
sometimes get filled with deposits and
products like resin and gums, either in verti-
inclusions called ‘tyloses’ which are formed
cal or in horizontal directions observed
by ingrowth of adjoining cells as a part of
distinctly under a lens in some conifers like
heartwood formation. They appear as chir, katl, and in hardwoods like sal, vella-
‘foam-like’ structures. They are considered vine and hopea. They are of varying shades
indicative of natural durability but reduce
of brown and varying sizes, which seems to
the easiness of seasoning and treatment. be very good diagnostic feature as only a
few timbers possess these.
c) Fibres - This is a somewhat misleading
term. As commonly understood any thread- 2.4.7 After identification of any species of
like or filament-like material of plant origin wood, another important factor which influences
is a fibre. However, wood anatomists recog- selection is identifying the common defects and
nize this as vertically aligned, narrow elon- assessing their influence on the stress-bearing
gated, thick walled, wood cell with taper- capacity of the material. This is discussed in detail
ing ends occuring only in hard woods and in 2.5 which deals with grading. Several Indian
which impart mechanical strength to the tree standard specifications have indicated the extent
in its growth, and make up the bulk of the of permissibility of the defects for respective uses.
wood by weight. They appear not indivi- Brief descriptions of some common defects,
dually but collectively in dark coloured required to be identified for structural purposes
patterns. Like vessels they are absent in are given below [see IS : 3364 (Parts 1 and 2)-
conifers and the corresponding longitudinal 19761:
elements in conifers are called tracheids
which are described below. However in pulp 4 Checks - Identified by the separation of
fibres along the grain observed on the longi-
technology the words ‘long fibres’ and ‘short tudinal or end surfaces.
fibers’ are used for the filament like
materials in conifers and hardwoods res- b) Decay - Also referred as ‘rot’ is commonly
pectively. identified as brownish or greyish patches on

10 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

the surfaces, and their condition is judged tend to be wooly. Converted timber contain-
quantitatively by their surfaces. As these are ing reaction wood develops distortions due
caused by fungii which eat away the cell to high longitudinal shrinkage and reduces
wall, the strength is affected unlike ‘sapstain’ strength considerably.
in which the contents of cell and not cell
wall are eaten. [see 3.2.4.5 and item (j) Rot - See ‘decay’ above. The word ‘dry rot’
below]. is commonly used to indicate wood that is
crumbly, and not as is erroneously consi-
c) Flutes - These appear on the surface of logs dered that it is grown on dry wood. Patho-
as longtitudinal depressions, deeper and logists use this word to indicate action of
wider at the butt-ends and gradually dimi- some types of fungii such as Merculius
nishing in depth and width as it reaches lacrymans and similarly the word ‘wet rot’ as
upwards. due to action of some fungii like concophera
cerebella. As these attack only the cellulose
4 Grain orientation --‘Spiral grain’ is identi- without affecting lignin, the left over portion
fied on the logs by the direction of surface appears as brown and’-hence they are gene-
grain, or fine hair splits between them as rally known as ‘brown rot’. Certain fungii
they spiral along the length either ‘clockwise’ like Polyporus hirsutus can eat away all
or ‘anticlockwise’ as seen from the smaller components of cell wall, so that the left out
end, that is, top of the log (also known as portions appear whitish and so popularly
‘right handed’ or ‘left handed’). In cut tim- termed as ‘white rot’. Study of action of
ber, this appears as inclined in both radial different types of fungii, their identification
and tangential surfaces and there can be and action on different species is a highly
some confusion as to the exact cause of any specialized subject of the pathologist, but for
inclination of the grain to its longitudinal an engineer, particularly with reference to
axis. Any grain appearing as generally not identify and evaluate the condition of the
parallel to the longitudinal edges, are known material by the nature of the attacked
by the, general term ‘cross grain’ and inclu- portion.
des different types such as ‘diagonal grain’
(caused due to material not sawn parallel Shakes and splits - Shakes are seen only on
to the axis of a straight log) ‘inclined grain’ the cross-section of the material as a partial
and ‘slanting grains’ (caused due to natural or complete separation of wood tissues and
orientation in the growing tree). are known as ‘heart shakes’ (extending in
radial direction on the heart region of the
e) Holes-These are caused by insects, birds cross-section) as ‘cupshakes’ (occuring
and mechanical injuries, and are classified in between growth rings) and as ‘starshakes’
various specifications according to their (emerging from the pith as a number of
diameters. radial shakes and appearing as a star).
0 In-bark - Identified as patches of bark ‘Splits’ are seen as separation of fibres both
embedded in the wood partly or wholly. on the cross-section as well as on the longi-
tudinal surface.
g) Knots -These are left over portions of
branches, separated from the main stem. Wa??e-- This appears as lack of wood
They are classified according to their condi- material on edges or surfaces and indicates
tion as ‘live knots’ (syn. intergrown knots, presence of original sapwood with or with-
tight knots, sound knots) and dead knots out bark.
(syn. unsound knots or decayed knots). Warp --- Sometimes also referred as ‘distor-
Loose knots, encased knots, pith knots tion’, this is a general term for defects deve-
and hollow knots are all self-explanatory. loped in seasoning or drying such as ‘bow’
They are classified according to their size (face concave or convex along the grain),
and shape as circular, oral, spike, pin knots, ‘cup’ (face concave or convex across the
small knots, and large knots which can also grain), ‘spring’ (curvature in the longitudinal
be recognized as their names imply. plane) and ‘twist’ (spiral distoration along
the grain).
h) Reaction Wood- In conifers, this abnor-
mality in wood is found on the underside of 2.4.8 Some of the above defects can be
branches and leaning trunks and known a propriately measured and assessed [see
as ‘compression wood’. It is characterized by I 8 : 3364 (Part 1 and 2)-l 9781 and their
heavily lignified trachieds rounded and permissible limits form the subject of individual
distributed along the growth rings. They specifications. However in NBC, for the purpose
are denser and darker than surrounding of structural timbers, completely prohibited
tissues. In hardwoods this abnormal wood is defects and permissible defects with limitations
found on the upper side of leaning trees and for different grades have been identified including
branches, and known as ‘tension wood’. It permissible location of these defects. Loose grain,
is characterized by little or no lignification. splits, compression wood in conifers, heartwood
The machine surfaces with such abnormality rot, sap rot, and warps are completely prohibitive

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 11


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

defects. Wanes, knots, worni holes, pin holes, considerations in grading, some attempts have
other than those due to live power-post beetles, been made in FAO grading rules, as also adopted
checks, shakes, slope of grain are permitted to in some IS .specifications, to standardize methods
specified limits. It will be useful for any person of measurements and quantify the defects and
using timber to be familiar with various other evaluate their cumulative effects, which cannot be
types of defects, whether natural or caused by exactly predicted otherwise [IS : 3364 (Parts I
subsequent processing techniques, or external and 2)-19761. Such recent attempts on the part of
agencies like fungii and insects by reference to technologists to bring a mathematical pattern for
standard literature and relevant specifications. exactness, for a subject which otherwise is too
arbitrary and complicated to avoid disputes, can
2.5 Grading Practices, Standards and be viewed only to serve as a general guide with
Preferred Sizes wide limitations and tolerances.
2.5.2 Systems of Grading- In India, at
2.5.1 Grading a piece of timber for the present there are several systems of grading as
required end use has been ad,opted in some form practised by various sellers and purchasers, and as
or other ever since timber was being utilized. also codified in various Indian Standards
Users of tool handles, builders of early structures, according to end uses of timber such as those
all knew mostly by trial and error methods, when intended for further conversion (IS : 190-l 974
and where to avoid defects like knots, splits and and IS : 1326-1976), for cut sizes (IS : 1331-1971
even sapwood, etc. Thus grading has come to and IS : 2377-1976), for teak squares (IS : 3731-
mean as intelligent choice of timber for specific 1966), for measurements and calculation of
purposes. With the possibilities of improving the volumes [IS : 2134-1981, IS : 3364 (Parts 1 and
properties of timber and timber products, and 2)-1976 and IS : 2184-19731, for specific uses such
with improvements in conversion and processing as lorry bodies, aircraft, etc (IS : 2176-1979 and
techniques, grading rules can and should be IS : 1329-1975), and for constructional timbers
altered from time to time for rational utilization (IS : 3629-1966). All these specifications can be
of timber keeping in view the primary factors of broadly classifed as follows:
safety and also economy. At this stage it may be
also kept in view that grading of timber, even by 4 Grade classification based purely and some-
virtue of the terminology employed, has a times arbitrarily on (1) dimensions and (2)
significant impact on timber trade and its general appearance.
economy in general; for example, what can be
grade I, II and III in terms of strength, if termed b) Grade classification based on the best
as ‘select grade’, ‘Grade 1’ and ‘Grade II’ has a ultimate use of logs or converted material.
different impact on the economy. Similarly if cl Grade classification based purely on defects
classification of the whole lot is made into two or and rough estimates of our turn of utiliz-
three groups as against four or five, then again it able material.
has an impact on price structure commercially.
Sometimes a defect which is not accepted for one 4 Grade classification based purely on evalua-
purpose, may be preferable for some other tion of ‘units of defects’ and fixing the
purpose (for example, a piece with too much number of units permissible for a specified
distorted grain unsuitable for structures, can be volume in each grade.
suitably cut and matched for giving a beautiful
In spite. of. a high .degree of standardization as
decorative appearance). Thus, grading of timber is
indicated above, and also attempts to unify and
a complex problem, and so several purchasers and
codify some of the common practices, the present
sellers prepare their own grading specifications.
status of grading technology cannot be said to
Thus in spite of best’efforts for unifying several
have attained any perfect stage acceptable to all,
grading specifications and paractices, the railway,
and yet it is widely felt that some sort of grading
the MES and the PWD still continue to have their
is very necessary fqr the selection and payments to
own specifications, various forest departments in be made for the timbers. On a recent survey of
the country have their own grading specifications demand and stocking position, the preferred sizes
and there have also been some differences in of converted timber, standardized (IS : 1331-
methods of measurement of lengths of logs and 1971) and codified in NBC are given in Table 3.
converted timber, girths and diameters of logs, However, IS : 489 1-1968 gives preferred cut sizes
and also in the calculation of volumes and and tolerances of structural timbers further
measurements of defects. Even in foreign divided for: (a) roof timbers, (b) roof purlins,
countries the Lumber Manufacturing rafter and floor beams, (c) partition framing,
Associations, dealing with some specified species covering, and (d) centering. These are given in
and recommending the same for specific end uses, Tables 4 to 6.
have their own grading rules. In other countries
where grading is practised on large scale, Preferred sizes for doors, windows, ventilator
recognized inspecting organizations have also frames, etc. can be found in IS : 1003(Part l)-
come up which issue certificates of grading and 1976, IS : 1003(Part 2)-1966, IS : 2191(Parts 1
take upon themselves the responsibility for quality and 2)-1980, IS : 2202(Parts I and 2)-1980 and
of the material. In the context of such varied IS : 4021-1976.

12 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

2.5.3 Measurements and Evaluation - While


TABLE 3 STANDARD THICKNESS AND it is not intended to describe here in detail all the
WIDTHS OF CUT TIMBER NORMALLY methods of measurement, a brief mention of
AVAILABLE IN MARKETS
some, with particular reference to structural
timbers, may be useful. Hence these are discussed
THICKNESS WIDTH
(cm) (cm) below.
1.0 4, 5 and 6 to 12 in steps of 2 cm 2.5.3.1 Lengths of logs- To be measured
1.5 4, 5 and 6 to 18 in steps of 2 cm by tapes in metres, rounded off to the nearest
2.0 4, 5 and 6 to 24 in steps of 2 cm
2.5 4, 5 and 6 to 30 in steps of 2 cm lower 5 cm. When the ends are not cut at right
3.0 4, 5 and 6 to 14 in steps of 2 cm angles to the axis of log, the measurement should
4.0 4, 5 and 6 to 30 in steps of 2 cm be made up to the point which will give a full flat
5.0 8, 5 and 6 to 30 in steps of 2 cm
cut.
6.0 8 to 30 in steps of 2 cm
2.5.3.2 Girths and diameters - In the case
1::: 810 toto 3030 inin steps
steps ofof 2 2 cm
cm
12.0 12 to 30 in steps of 2 cm of standing trees calipers are employed for
14.0 16 to 30 in steps of 2 cm measurement of diameters, and tape for
16.0 . 16 to 30 in steps of 2 cm measurement of girth, usually at ‘breast-height’,
18.0 18 to 30 in steps of 2 cm that is, 1.5 metres from ground level. In the case
20.0 20 only
of felled logs, girths are incurred by tape at mid
Under each cross-section, the lengths may vary from 1 metre length of the log. When diameters are measured,
and up, in steps of 5 cm. All dimenssions are given at a
moisture content of 20 percent in accordance with IS0 which is not common, it is done at the smaller
recommendations. end, usually by averaging the smallest and largest
diameters at that end.
NOTE - Many saw mills still cut timber according to the
requirements of purchasers. The above is only a rough guide
2.5.3.3 Bark allowances - All measure-
of availability from depots where cut sizes are stocked. ments are usually done under bark, but where it

TABLE 4 PREFEREDCUT SIZES OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS FOR ROOF TRUSSES (FROM 3 TO 20 METRES)
(Clause 2.5.2)

THICKNESS WIDTH, cm
cm A
/ \
2.0 4 5 6 8 -

2.5 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16
3.0 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16
4.0 - - 6 8 10 12 14 16
5.0 - 6 8 IO 12 ’ 14 16
6.0 - 8 10 12 14 16
8.0 10 12 14 16

NOTE - Preferred lengths of timber are : 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3m.

TABLE 5 PREFERRED CUT SIZES OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER FOR ROOF PURLINS, RAFTERS,
FLOOR BEAMS, ETC.

( CIouse 2.5.2)
THICKNESS WIDTH, cm
cm 7
6 8 10 12 14 16 -
8 10 12 14 16 - -

10 - - 14 16 18 20
,NOTE- Preferred lengths of timber are : 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5m.

HANDDODK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 13


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

TABLE 6 PREFERRED CUT SIZES OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS FOR PARTITION


FRAMING AND COVERING
(Clause 2.5.2)

THICKNESS WIDTH, cm
cm h
/ 1
1.0 5 8 IO -

1.5 5 8 10 12 16

2.0 8 10 12 16

2.5 8 IO . 12 16 20 24

3.0 - - 8 IO I2 16 20 24

4.0 4 5 6 8 IO I2 I6 20 24

5.0 - 5 6 8 IO I2 I6 20 24

6.0 - I2 I6 20 24

8.0 - - IO I2 I6 20 24

NOTE - Preferred lengths of timber are : 0.5, I, I.5 and 2m

has to be measured over the bark, appropriate &m = required dimension at the observed
allowance is made for the same depending on the moisture content m’; and
species. On the averge this is I/ 16. K = a factor, representing shrinkage per
unit moisture content on the basis of
2.5.3.4 Converted timber - Lengths are dimensions at the standard moisture
measured by tape or scale and rounded off to
content m. This depends upon fibre
lowest 5 cm. The width and thickness, measured
saturation point, normal shrinkage
at the narrowest places, are rounded off to the values as determined by standard
nearest centimetre or millimetre as per individual procedures which, in turn, is rough-
specification. The face of converted timber are ly estimated as dependent on specific
recognized as ‘wide face’ and ‘narrow face’ unless gravity p, by the formula K = 0.41 p.
they are of square cross-section. The ‘edges’, But for ready use, K is recommended
particularly in planks, are sometimes referred to to be 0.2 for all species of specific
‘narrow faces’ but the words ‘edge of a face’, as in gravity below 0.6 and K = 0.3 for
structural grading terminology, refers to species of specific gravity above 0.6.
intersection of two perpendicular faces, that is, When the specific gravity is not
‘corner’ of a face. known K can be equated to 0.25 as
2.5.3.5 Volume calculations - Volume is the nearest approximation.
generally obtained by reference to prepared tables NOTE- Where greater accuracy is required in individual
[IS : 2134-1981 and IS : 336 (Parts 1 and 2)-19761 species the exact figures of change in percent, per unit
based on quarter-girth formula for logs, that is, moisture content (even separately for radial and tangential
directions, if so required) may be calculated from the following
volume = (l/4 girth)2 X length. But in view of the formula:
present day developments in selvicultural
practices and wood technology, the general trend
is to calculate volume on the basis of ‘true - -
f=f-P SP -f-20 100
volume’ of log considered as a cylinder (&h).
2.5.3.6 Conversion of sizes to the required Where
moisture content - The nominal sizes prescribed
K = the required change in percent per unit mois-
in IS : 133 I-197 1 for stocking in depot tire given ture content corresponding to the approximate
at 20 percent moisture content as required in value of 0.2 or 0.3;
some international standards, but taking into
f= fibre-saturation point of ihe species in
consideration the shrinkage effects, the size question;
obtainable at the required moisture content (that
is, equilibrium with the atmospheric humidity) is p = I2 percent or 0 percent as the case may be
corresponding to the shrinkage value taken
given by the formula: tnyge of both may be taken, if necessary);

S,, = standard shrinkage value from green to dry


(p = 12) or over-dry 0) as calcula-
ted by method given in Ig= : 1708-1969.
where
The values off and S, may be obtained from the various
d,,, = given dimension at the given standard ublications of the Forest Research Institute and Colleges,
moisture content, m; & hra Dun.

14 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

2.5.3.7 Dqficts - Methods of measurement knots at the area are taken. For number of
of defects have been standardized in knots ranging from 1 to 15, and the average
IS : 3364(Part 1 and 2)-1976 and according to maximuq diameter of knot varying from 5
their sizes,. shapes or numbers, etc, the ‘units’are to 20 cm, the defect values vary from 0.1 to
given, which represent approximate degrade of 4.50, for other sizes and number propor-
the utilizable material. These defects are discussed tionate values can be taken. Double values
very briefly in the following clauses,. For are taken for unsound and decayed knots.
identifying the defects see 2.4.7. All measure-
ments of defects are made correct to 1 mm and g) Shu~Yr .-~ Except star shakes. all the other
the units are evaluated correct to second shakes are measured by the length and
decimal place on the basis of IO-metre length of maximum width of the opening. It is presu-
the material; For defects not covered in the med that the width is generally proportio-
following clauses, and which are suspected to nal to the depth also. However, in NBC, for
cause degrade, they may be measured and structural grades, only the depth at its
evaluated as ‘equivalent defects’, guided by their maximum point is recommended to be
appearance, size, location and distribution with measured. For length of shake from 2 to 20
reference to the whole piece and the purpose to cm and for the width ranging from 0.2 to 2.5
which it is put. cm, (provided the area of cross-section does
not exceed 0.5 ml). the defect values range
a) Check - Measured by length and width of from 0.06 to 1.74. For areas of cross-section
maximum separation of fibre up to 2 mm. exceeding 0.5 m2, the values are halved.
When such checks are numerous on any In the case of star shake, the large shake is
surface they are evaluated on the basis of taken for consideration and the defect values
average length and the effective area are multiplied by half the number of shakes
expressed as a percentage of whole area on of the group.
which they appear. For affected areas from
20 to 50 percent and for checks ranging in h) Splits - In the case of splits which appear
length from 5 to 50 cm, the defect units on two surfaces, the length on the longitu-
range from 0.01 to 1.60. Checks more than dinal surface and depth on the perpendicular
2 mm are generally evaluated as shakes. surfice (that is, the end surface in cross-
section) are measured. For lengths ranging
b) Decay or rot -This is estimated as from 0.25 to 4 metres, and for depths from
percentage of affected area to entire area of 1 to 4 cm, the defect values range from 0.06
the surface. The units of defects for decay to 1.86.
ranging from 1 to 50 percent varies from
0.01 to 0.5. j) Cross grail1 - This is measured by the slope
of the grain with reference to the edge of the
cl Flutes-These are measured by their major on which it appears. When present on
lengths on the longitudinal surface of logs both the adjacent surfaces of a piece of
and depths at their maximum points which timber the combined slope is given by
is sometimes expressed as percentage of the
1 I
girth of the log. Defect units for lengths +J-
2=
x A2 Lt
varying from 0.5 to 5 metres for different
depths ranging from 5 to 25 cm, the units
where
of defects vary from 0.04 to 1.66.
1
4 Ho/es-Except pin holes, others are ex- - = combined
X
slope, and
pressed by their diameters. When in large
numbers, they are expressed as so many per 1 1
100 cm? to limit their occurance in various and 2 = slopes on the adjacent
A
grades. In terms of defect values for varying surfaces
concentrations of holes from 1 to 5 per 100
cm’, and for the diameter of the largest hole The slope ranging from 5” to 50” are
ranging from 5 to IO mm, the defect values given defect values ranging from 0.2 to 1.OO.
range from 0.01 to 0.90. In the case of spiral grain for logs, the same
values as above are given.
e) lnbark - Measured and evaluated in the
same way as knots. k) Distortion or warp-This is identified by
any deviation in converted timber from a
f-l Knots - The maximum diameter of a knot true plane surface causing departure from
is taken as its size though some practices its original planes. It includes bow, cup,
exist in some places to take the average of spring, twist and any combination thereof.
the maximum and the minimum, or the
average of maximum and of the one per- 2.5.4 Guiding Principlei - Reference may be
pendicular to it at the pith centre of the made to IS : 6534-1971 for full details, special
knot. When a group of knots exist together, terminology, and code of ethics for inspection and
the mean of the maximum diameters of all reinspection. It should be kept in mind by all

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 15


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

concerned that all systems and procedures of working stresses of common grade (Grade II) and
grading discussed above are somewhat arbitrary, 5/6 times those of standard grade. The
based only on available experience, brought on, permissible sizes of some defects under the
as close as possible, to a technoiogical pattern, different grades as accepted in NBC are given in
and cannot be claimed to be of exact assessment Table 7. In addition to the above consideration
of the quality of material. Thus, grading of a for grading of structural timbers, the other criteria
whole consignment becomes preferable to grading which limit the use of timbers are given below:
of individual pieces. In a lot. where most of the
pieces fall in a particular grade, any single 4 Light timber having a weight less than 75
individual piece having one of the defects slightly percent of averge weight indicated in co1 12
in excess of permissible limits for a particular of Appendix H are rejected.
grade may not necessarily qualify for the expected
properties of the grade, as the location, b) Defects not permissible in any grade are
loose grain, splits, reaction wood, decay,
distribution and combination of the defects play a
knot and holes with live infestation.
major role. In this connection the discretion of the
grader comes into play quite often. A small cl Wanes are permitted provided they are not
latitude of 5 percent is generally allowed for combined with knots and they do not
personal judgement of the inspectors and graders adversely influence bearing areas and
who have to exercise a balance of consideration nailing edges, and general appearance.
between the availability of the material, end use,
urgency of requirement, and costs involved, etc. 3. MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL
Experience and integrity of graders and inspectors PROPERTIES OF INDIAN WOODS
will add to a great extent the acceptance of the
material by all concerned. 3.1 Methods of Test and Evaluation of
Properties
2.5.5 Stress Grading and Structural 3..1.1 Accurate evaluation of basic properties
Grading - These two terms are often used of timber, which exhibits wide variations, is an
synonimusly. However, sometimes a small important base for establishing design functions.
difference is conceived; the former referring to a For obtaining a confident average of a given
system by which the materials or species as a species, the samples should be representative of
whole, are graded purely by consideration of the different portions of a tree, different trees,
principal stresses that come into play, (that is, different localities in India, and the tests should
evaluating how the species, the sizes together with be conducted under highly standardized
defects can bear the required stresses or what procedures to obtain maximum reliability and
percentage of basic stress it can bear). The latter, repeatability of the data. For this purposes, tests
that is, structural grading is a system by which the on timber are conducted: (a) in small clear
material graded is on the basis of evaluation of specimen in accordance with IS : 1708-1969 and
supposed effects of visible defects on general (b) on structural sizes in accordance with
strength of the material, irrespective of what type IS : 2408-1965. The former are conducted as a
of stresses are likely to arise when employed in the routine on all species in the green condition and
structure. Obviously the distinction is on1.y narrow in the dry condition. Greater emphasis is,
and theoretical in nature particular19 for visual however, given on the results of green condition
selection. Stress grading machines are’in vogue in as the results are more reliable, being free from
other countries, but they have not yet been influence of any drying stresses introduced in the
introduced in India even for research and timber. Also from the point of design, they are
development activities. Machine grading depends safer values because the strength properties in
on the principle of relationship between stiffness green timber are lower compared to strength of
and strength, and brings out not only cumulative dry timber, though eventually the larger sections
effects of all visible defects, but also effects of any of timbers used in structures become dry and
hidden features in structural members. attain a moisture content in equilibrium with
2.5.5.1 The structural grading of Indian atmospheric humidity of the locality where they
species is covered by IS : 3629-1965 and are placed. The standardized details of sizes of
IS : 1629-1971. In India three grades are test specimens, rate of loading, surface on which
recognized. The select grade contains defects load is applied, and the properties evaluated as
which do not reduce strength by more than 12.5 routine are summarized in Appendix D but the
percent of fundamental, that is, ultimate stresses; exact procedures required to be essentialy
the Grade I also known as ‘standard grade’ followed are described in greater detail in
contains defects which reduce strength by more IS : 17081969. A set of formulae employed to
than 12.5 percent but not more than 25 percent evaluate the properties obtained in different tests
and Grade II also known as ‘common grade’ are also given in Appendix D for ready reference
contains defects which reduce strength by more and convenience. The data obtained on the basis
than 25 percent but not more than 37.5 percent. of the above procedures and formulae, when
The safe working stresses of selection grade are obtained in accordance with the sampling
716 times those of standdrd grade (Grade I) and procedures prescribed in IS : 2455-1974, are

16 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

TABLE 7 PERMISSIBLE DEFECTS FOR CUT SiZES OF TIMBER FOR STRUCTURAL USE
(Ch4.w 23.5. I)
All dimensions are in millimetres

SL DEFECTS GRADE 1 GRADE 2 GRADE 3


NO.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


i) Wane Shall be permissible at its Shall be permissible at its Shall be permissible at its
deepest- portion up to deepest portion up to deepest portion up to
a limit of I / 8 of the width a limit of I /6 of the width a limit of I /4 of the width
of the surface on which of the surface on which of the surface on which
it occurs it occurs it occurs

ii) Worm holes Other than those due to Other than those due to Other than those due to
powder post beetles are post beetles are permis- powder post beetles are
permissible sible permissible

iii) Slope of grain Shall not be more than I Shall not be more than in Shall not be more than I in
in 20 I5 I2

iv) Live knots:

WIDTH OF PERMISSIBLEMAXIMUM SIZE PERMISSIBLE MAXIMUM SIZE PERMISSIBLE MAXIMUM SIZE


WIDE FACES OF LIVE KNOT ON OF LIVE KNOT ON OF LIVE KNOT ON
OF CUT SIZES
TO TIMBER Narrow Faces Remaining Narrow Faces Remaining Narrow Faces Remaining
and l/4 of Central Half and I /4 of Central Half and l/4 of Central Half
the Width of the Width the Width of the Width the Width of the Width
Face Close of the Wide Face Close of the Wide Face Close of the Wide
to Edges of Faces to Edges of Faces to Edges of Faces
Cut Size of Cut Size of Cut Size of
Timber Timber Timber

(2) (3) (6) (7)


IO 29
1; I3 :I:
I50 I9 :r:
200 22 ::
250 25 Z 87
27 114
:: :: 123
400 :; 132
450 ZG 141
500 :: 105 150
550 36 IO8 I56
600 38 I I4 I59
v) Checks and
shakes
WIDTH OF ‘THE PERMISSlBILE DEPTH PERMISSIBLEDEPTH PERMISSIBLE DEPTH
FACE OF THE MUX Max Max
‘TIMBER
Max

(3) (4)
75 25
::
I: ::
200 2
250 ::
100 1::
:g II5 171
I31 198
g I50 225
500 165 270
550 181 300
600 200 -

presented according to a system prescribed in the Institutes where systematic studies are carried out
same standard. While most of the engineering as a routine on all species, follow the above
laboratories are not always able to follow the procedures, and the data presented by these
above presented procedures for sam ling and organizations can be taken as most authentic.
layout of the tests, and presentation o P data, the However, in organizations like most of the
regular laboratories like Forest Research colleges, engineermg laboratories, where they do

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 17


SP : 33(S&T)-1986
not or cannot follow the detailed testing scheme of tests for major tests and formulae are
procedures prescribed in IS : 24551974, for given in Appendix E.
various reasons they do adopt the standard sizes
and rates of loading, etc, which will give data on a 3.1.3 From the data thus obtained, the
limited base and can be considered suffi- ‘working stresses’, also known as ‘permissible
cient for comparison with any acceptable limits stresses’ are derived. These are discussed in 3.3
of confidence and for further evaluation for pur- alongwith factors of safety, etc, and they are the
pose of local design considerations, if any. stresses actually used in designs.
3.1.4 The above strength data. called
3.1.2 The tests of structural sizes given in 3.1.1 ‘suitability indices’, are used for a quick and
are described in greater detail in IS : 2408-1963. comparative assessment of timber species in a
The main object of testing in the larger sizes, quantitative manner for various industrial and
according to the methods prescribed in this engineering purposes (XV U/.VO2.3.6 and Table 2).
standard is to serve as a cross check on the design These are based on basic strength data on
data wherever necessary and wherever such large physical and mechanical properties, evaluated on
sized material can be spared for such tests. They small clear specimen by selecting mechanical and
serve to check the established relations between physical properties. which play principal or
the strength functions based on small clear auxiliary roles for particular end use. such as
specimens, and the permissible stresses in strength as a beam, suitability as a post, tool
structural timber. When such tests are done on a handles, agriculatural implements, etc. The
large number of timbers and data become selected basic properties are given appropriate
available for study, they can also be used to weightage according to relative important role
develop and improve upon the grading rules for they play. The variations in green and dry
different structural timbers and different strength conditions are also taken into consideration. The
groups. In a way they serve to determine the effect average value obtained by adding the computed
of defects and other variables on the strength of and adjusted values of the concerned properties is
timber in structural sizes and study all relevant usually compared with a similar value of a well
factors as are necessary for specific structural known species commonly used for the purpose in
designs. As described in IS : 2408-1963, while the view, usually with teak, which is widely used and
‘major tests’ are conducted on large-sized material well known in its behaviour. It should be
for bending, compression parallel to grain, and remembered that these suitability indices are not
compression perpendicular to grain, the ‘minor to be used for design purposes but they serve only
tests’ are conducted according to IS : 1708-1969 for comparative selection of different species
011 defect-free small clear specimens cut from based on limited and arbitrary considerations. A
matched portions of material intended for ‘major typical example of deriving such indices is given
tests’ or from undamaged portions of material in Appendix J. The values for a few selected
already subjected to such ‘major tests’. The species are given in Table 8. These figures have

TABLE 8 COMPARATIVE SUITABILITY INDICES IN TERMS OF TEAK AS 100 FOR SOME IMPORTANT
PROPERTIES (FIGURES ARE ADJUSTED TO NEAREST 5)

(Clause 3. I .4)
SL SPECIES AND TRADE NAME STRENGTH SUITABILITY SHOCK SURFACE REFRAC- NAIL OR
No. AS A BEAM AS A POST RESISTING HARDNESS TORINESS SCREW
COMPARA- ABILITY (SPLITING HOLDING
TIVE INDEX ST%T CO-EFFI- PROPERTY
CIENTS) COMPARA-
TIVE INDEX

(I) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (‘3)

i) Adina cordifolia (haldu) 80 80 70 100 60 loo

ii) Cedrus deodara (deodar) 80 85 55 65 85 80


iii) Dalbergia sissoo, (sissoo) 95 90 130 120 80 115
iv) Dysoxyium malabaricum 90 95 110 90 80 100
(white cedar)

v) Hopea glabra (hopea) 130 130 145 205 55 145


vi) Mang$era indica (mango) 75 75 90 85 60 100
vii) h4imusop.y littoralis. 145 145 145 230 105 150
(bullet wood)
viii) Ougeinin dalber&oides 80 80 I05 I30 80 120
(sandan)
ix) Shoree robusta II5 110 130 I50 90 I25
(salI
x) Xykn xylocarpa (irul) 105 110 80 180 60 120

18 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

been in wide use in various forest departments where


and depots for comparative evaluation only.
S = strength, and
3.2 Factors Affecting Strength Properties
p = standard specific gravity based on
3.2.1 Being a biological material, naturally the even-dry weight and volume at test
‘cell size, the thickness, and orientation of wood (see IS : 1708-1969)
cells have necessarily some influence on the
strength properties and these depend on inherent K and n are constants of the particular property.
hereditary characteristics and growth condition The formulae with K and n values are given in
(such as soil. climate, locality and selvicultural Table 9. Similar formulae were obtained also for
methods employed). It has not been possible to working stresses for standard grade of timber
study these effects in any systematic manner. but under different locations. These are given in Table
empirically some conclusions have been arrived 10. It may be seen from these formulae that in
most of the properties n is unity, thus indicating a
that material of the same species do not have very
linear relationship. However, it may be noted that
significant difference from commercial points of
all properties do not vary with specific gravity in
view, and their densities would reflect the serious
the same manner to expect the same
differences, if any. It may be remembered that in
proportionate increase or decrease as n, the
actual use, considerable factors of safety are
power index for p in some of the properties, is not
employed on a statistical average. Factors like age
unity. No data is available in India for variation
of tree, position of wood in the tree, season of
of strength with specific gravity within the range
felling, natural or plantation grown wood,
of any single species, but in USA a formula as
condition of the tree when felled (that is, whether given below is used.
dead or green or twisted or containing
abnormalities like streaks, etc), also come up
often, but for engineering purposes, when
material has to be selected from depots and yards
it would not be possible to lay much importance where
to the above as these pertain to the quality of the
S,= strength corresponding to p,,
tree in standing condition only. However, most of
the laboratories engaged on systematic tests from &= strength corresponding to p2, and
selected trees in the forests, keep appropriate
records of the same. The only criteria of growing 4= on an average 1.7 (varying between
condition which can be judged at the time of 1.25 and 2.25) for various properties
selection and use of timber for engineering 3.2.3 Moisrwe Content - This affects the
purposes is the rate of growth as reflected by the strength of wood in dry condition. In green
width of the growth rings on the cross-section of condition, that is. well above the so called fibre
timber pieces. In the same species, too wide rings saturation point (fsp) which is between 20 and 30
or too narrow rings may indicate slightly lower percent for most of the species, the strength is not
strength than those with average growth. Presence
affected and is the lowest obtained on the species.
of distortions or abnormalities in the wood
In the dry condition, the strength increases as the
structure as identified in growth rings may cause
moisture content is reduced and is given by the
undue concentrations of stress at those places.
formula :
However, keeping in mind that the width of the
ring may also vary from bottom to top or from Log snl =a-bm
pith to periphery, this should not be taken as too
serious a criterian for strength particularly as where S, is the strength at moisture content m,
compared to specific gravity. By and large studies and a and b are constants for the species and
on variation of strength due to causes as discussed properties in question. The formula is sometimes
above have so far been oriented more to study known as Madison formula, and although
variations in specific gravity which in turn reflects evolved for timbers in USA, the same has been
the strength. fairly successfully used for Indian timbers also. By
knowing strength at any two given moisture
3.2.2 Specific gravity of wood is the basic content, the values of a and b can be calculated
property which has considerable influence on the and used for knowing strength at any other
strength properties, so much so in the event of moisture content. Usually, by knowing strength S
non-availability of actual strength data, the same of green timber, that is, S above the fibre
can be computed by the formulae developed on saturation point, ,f moisture content (S being
the basis of studies on more than 150 species of constant at any moisture content in the green
India, and confirmed on quite a large number of condition) and also by knowing strength in dry
species subsequently tested. The general formula condition at any determined moisture content, the
is given by: strength value at the required air-dry condition
(12 percent) is computed for presentation of
S = Kp’ standard data; and for purposes of comparison of

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 19


SIP : 33(S&T)-1986

.
TABLE 9 EFFECT OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY ON ULTIMATE STRESSES
(Clause 3.2.2)
PROPERTY UNIT GREEN AIR DRY
CONDIIION CONDITION
Static Bending
Modulus of rupture kg/ cm2 1153p 1495p
Fibre stress at elastic limit kg/cm’ 682~ 865
Modulus of elasticity 1000 kg/cm* 165.9~ 194.8~

Impact bending
Fibre stress at elastic limit kg/ cm* 1665p 1853~
163p’.*’ 14 L.25
Height of drop cm P

Modulus of elasticity 1000 kg/cm’ 236.9p 270~


Compression parable1 to grain
Compression stress as elastic limit kg/ cm2 414p 464P
Maximum Crubling stress kg/ cm2 579p 825~
Modulus of elasticity 1000 kg/cm* 185.8~ 209.2p
Compression perpendicular to grain
Compression stress at elastic limit kg/cm* 176P I.” 191P ‘.5
Compression stres at elastic limit kg/ cm2 176P I.” 19lpl.5

Shear
Radial kg/ cm* 135p
Tangential kg/ cm2 151.2~
Tension to grain
Radial kg/ cm2 53.lp
Tangential kg/cm2 75.9p
Hardness
End Load in kg 1232P I.” 149op’.‘5
Radial (standard 1376~’ 1669P 2.2s
Tangential steel ball 1211P ‘.75 1524~’

strength properties of different species in the dry when they are used for structural purposes, and
state. As the constants are not the same for all hence the structural grading of timber depends
properties and as it is sometimes cumbersome to largely on the nature and also location ?f defects.
quickly evaluate the influence of moisture, the These are discussed here briefly in so far as they
change in strength properties for 1 percent effect the strength properties. Although it is not
decrease in moisture below the fibre saturation proposed to discuss here all the research
point is given in Table 11 for some important developments in this field, it is useful to remember
properties. that all defects do not affect the strength to the
same extent and that the same defect does not
No such data is available exclusively for Indian reduce the strength to the same extent at all
species but as the strength-moisture relationship positions of a stressed member. It would also be
employed in India is still the same as ‘Madison not possible to evaluate quantitatively the exact
formula’ employed in the USA. It is believed that cumulative effect of all defects on a structural
Table 11 roughly holds for Indian species also. member of a stressed member, though attempts
However, in some of the literature from Forest have been made to define the defects and their
Research Institute, Dehra Dun the formula S X
cumulative role in terms of quantitative figures
M = K has been confidently employed in close called ‘units of defects’ assigned to them as in
ranges, where S is the strength, M is the moisture
some grading rules of Food and Agriculture
content below fibre saturation point (6p) and K is
the constant for the species and the property. Organization (FAO) for Asia and Pacific region,
and which, to some extent, have also been
3.2.4 Defects - Defects have major influence adopted in IS : 3364 (Parts 1 and 2)-1976.
on strength properties of timbers particularly

20 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1985

TABLE 10 WORKING STRESS - SPECIFIC GRAVITY RELATIONSHIP

SL WORKING STRESS CONDITION STRESSIN kg/cm’


No.

Location Location Location

i) Extreme fibre stress in beams for


broad leaved trees (non-conifers) 3oop 250p 2oop

ii) Extreme fibre stress in beam for 13op


coniferous species 185~ 160~

iii) Shear along the grain 26.5~ 26.5~ 26.5~

iv) Horizontal shear in beam 18.5~ 18.5~ 18.5~

v) Maximum crushing stress along grain 205~ 185p 15op

vi) Compressive stress across grain 1I0pl.S 85 P ‘.’ 70 P I,5

of fibres (that is, grain) is given by the following


TABLE II EFFECT OF I PERCENT CHAYGE formula popularly known as Hankinson formula:
IN MOISTURE
CONTENT lIPON THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES se = sosq.3
&sin*8 + SqoC0S20

where
PERCENTCE
S, = strength in the direction of grain,
Static Bending, and
a) Fibre stress at elastic limit 5 S,,, = strength in the direction perpendi-
b) Modulus of rupture 4 cular to grain.
C) Modulus of elasticity 2
The nature of the equation indicates that the rate
Impact Rending of reduction in strength is somewhat rapid up to
about 30” to 40’ and thereafter the rate is
a) Fibre stress at elastic limit 3 comparatively slow. However, taking into
b) Height of drop of hammer causing - ‘A consideration the tolerance limits of permissible
complete failure
stresses, and the various lengths commonly used
as structural members, the following limits of
Compression Perailel to Grain
ratios of slope of grain for the different stresses
a) Fibre stress at elastic limit 5
are recommended in various text books:
b) Maximum crushing strength 6
a) Compressive strength 1 in 10

Compression Perpendicular to Grain b) Modulus of elasticity I in I5

a) Fibre stress at elastic limit 5% c) Modulus of rupture I in 20

Maximum Shear Stress Parallel to Grain 3


d) Shock resistance 1 in 25
But in NBC, for purposes of selecting the
Maximum Tensile Stress Perpendicular to Grain Ii/z
required grade of timber the following slopes have
tla~tlmw
been permitted irrespective of stressess concerned
(see also 2.56 and Table 7).
a) End grain
b) Side grain Grade I I in 20
I in I5
3.2.4.1 Grain angle-- The strength in any
direction (Se) making an angle 6 with the direction Grade 3 I in 12

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 21


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

Also a modification factor is suggested for should be expected between well kiln-dried timber
design purpose, for different slopes of grain for and properly air-dried timber of comparable
beams joists and ties, and also separately for posts moisture contents.
and columns.
3.2.6 Temperature - The effect of temperture
3.2.4.2 Knots - In view of the deviation of on strength properties of wood, particularly when
grain around a knot, not only the strength is used as structures, is not generally considered,
affected but stress concentrations may take place. except as a cause for combinstion under very high
Hence the position of knot in a structural member temperatures, or developing additional stresses
is equally or even more important than the size, due to moisture movement or developing cracks
shape or soundness of the knot. As timber is in the member. However, laboratory
weaker in tension across the grain than in investigations have indicated some interesting
compression, the position of knot in a tension results of academic nature and consequently of
member or on the tension side in bending, affects importance in standard testing. Most strength
the strength more than on compression side. properties increase at temperatures above the
Knots do not affect stiffness, and as such they are room temperature and reduce below the room
not considered seriously in long columns where temperature more or less linearly though not very
stiffness is the controlling factor as against short significantly in all cases. The increase or decrease
and intermediate columns where strength comes depends upon specific gravity, moisture content
into more prominent play. In NBC the size and and type of stress, and also on the duration for
position of knots for different widths of the face which the material remains at that temperature.
are included. (see 2.56 and Table 7). Due to poor conductivity naturally the time factor
for the entire member to attain uniform
3.2.4.3 Checks, shakes and splits ~ These
primarily reduce the resistance to shear temperature is important.
proportionate to the area of separation of fibres. 3.2.7 Age of Wood -- Sometimes there is an
However in prescribing permissible limits, and in unfounded belief that wood stored for a long time
conformity with the unusual methods of may lose its strength. If well protected against
measuring such defects, one or more of the length, destroying agents like fungii, insects, weathering,
width and depth only are indicated. In NBC, the etc, old wood is as strong as fresh wood properly
depth is prescribed for different widths of the seasoned to equilibrium moisture content. Even in
faces on which they occur for different grades. service, properly designed, protected and
maintained structures, there should be no loss in
3.2.4.4 Pith and boxed heart -The
strength as borne out by numerous century old
presence of pith as such is not of considerable
structures. It should however be kept in mind that
importance, if otherwise sound and not decayed.
wood, unlike other materials, creeps under
However, the almost certain existance of shakes,
ordinary temperature if the applied load is high,
checks, etc, are to be considered on the basis of
that is, above what is called ‘limit-of-plastic-flow’.,
discussion in 3.2.4.3. It is for this reason that appropriate factors are
3.2.4.5 Decay and sapstain which can be introduced for deriving working stresses (see 3.3)
identified as discussed in 2.4.7 (b) will affect the and also a suitable modification factor is further
strength depending upon their condition and area introduced in designs (see 51.3 and Table 17).
attacked and nature of breakdown of wood cells, 3.2.8 Besides the above, there are other
brashness or brittleness may appear even in the factors which affect the strength of wood and are
incipient stage. However, sapstain may not be so of importance not so much at the time of
serious, unless shock-resistance or toughness of consideration of the use of the material for
the stressed member is in picture. It is, however, structures, but at the time of evaluating the
imperative in all cases, that there should be no strength properties in the laboratories. It will be
cause for increasing any form of fungal attack in useful i’or the designer to understand these as he
actual use. NBC lists decay under prophibited will then be able to understand the background of
defects for all structural timbers. the data he will be employing. These factors are
3.2.5 Treatments - Very often doubts arise given below and have been standardized
whether a particular type of preservative (1s : 1708-1969) to obtain the safest and
treatment or seasoning increases or decreases the repeatable values apart from other considerations
strength of timber. Several investigations have of economy.
revealed that there will be no variation in strength
due to treatment as such, if properly done, but 3.2.8.1 Rate of loading - As wood
any change2 caused due to the methods of elements are partly elastic and partly plastic, the
treatment employed, such as changes in moisture mechanical behaviour of the material as a whole,
content or destruction of wood cells due to any that is, the full strength obtained as well as the
induced stresses, pressures and temperatures, may neture of failure at ultimate stress depends very
affect the strength accordingly. Sometimes much on the rate at which load is applied on the
pretreatment operations, such as incising, test specimen, and there is a need for
steaming, etc, may affect the strength if not standardization of this factor for comparable
properly done. Similarly no difference in strength results. With increase in the rate of loading, there

13 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

is generally an increase in strength properties. At than in radial direction or radial plane. In case of
impact loads, that is, sudden loads the strength is static bending tests, the load is applied on the
nearly twice than under slowly increasing loads. heartside (IS : 1708-1969) of tangential plane.
The following are the formulae used for the speed
3.2.8.3 Size and shape qf a specimen -
of moveable heads of machines:
Even defect-free, clear specimens of wood have
a) The load shall be applied continuously and shown different strength values for different sizes
with a uniform motion of the movable head of specimen and for different ratios of cross-
throughout the test so as to produce a rate sectional dimensions, to the length or span of the
of strain of 0.001 5 cm per cm of outer fibre specimen. In bending, lowest figures are obtained
length per minute at the point of maximum when the ratio of span-to-depth is between 10 and
bending moment. The required head speed 14. In compression perpendicular to grain,
shall be calculated from the following specimen in the shape of cubes have shown lower
formula in the case of simple beams: figure than specimens extending on either side of
compression area. In specimens for compressions
Za parallel to grain tests, the length should not be
N = 3d X (3L - 4~)
more than 4 times the shortest cross-sectional
dimension.
and for third point loading, this becomes:
3.2.8.4 Other factors, such as shape of
N = ZL? notches in izod tests, shear tests, tension tests, etc,
J=X4 d have shown interesting results of academic value
and so of standardization value in testing.
where
Similarly methods of gripping and holding
N= head speed in cm per minute, specimens in some tests, the accuracy of strain
measuring devices, have also indicated variations
Z= unit rate of strain of outer fibre in ultimate strength. Conditioning of the material
in cm per cm per minute, to uniform moisture content throughout the
a= distance from support to nearest specimen under test and throughout the test
load in cm, period is very essential. This becomes all the more
necessary in long-term tests like fatigue and creep.
L= span in cm, and In the end, as one cannot always predict the
d= depth of the specimen in cm. internal nature of the material before test, the
final examination of the failure, whether it is
b) The rate of loading shall be constant appropriate with reference to the type of stress
throughout the test and shall be determined induced in the same, is very necessary to accept or
by the following formula: reject the data for presentation. The type of
failures that can be expected for the green and dry
N = 0.029 1 d419
conditions of the material under different types of
where stresses are described in some of the text books
dealing with timber mechanics. Schematic
N = machine head speed in cm per diagrams of some typical failures under bending,
minute, and compression and shear are given in Fig. 3 and 4.
d = depth of specimen in cm.
c>The rate of loading shall be constant 3.3 Factors of Safety and Working Stresses
throughout the test, and shall be calculated
from the following formula: 3.3.1 The usual strength properties reported
by many testing laboratories are based on tests on
N = 0.0015 L small clear specimen under standard conditions.
Naturally they have to be suitably adjusted to
where meet the conditions that exist in the material and
N = machine head speed in cm per situations of actual use. For this reason the
minute, and original data are divided by appropriate factors,
known as ‘factors of safety’, and the resultant
L = length of specimen in cm. stresses are known as ‘working stresses’ or ‘safe
working stresses’ or ‘permissible stresses’ in timber
3.2.8.2 Direction of loading- As wood is engineering. These words are used more or less
an orthotropic material, with presence of radial synonimously. At this stage it is necessary,
ray-elements in the structure, the direction of however, to understand the various terms used in
application of load with reference to principle axis proper perspective as they are slightly different in
of symmetry plays an important role, and hence it different text books:
needs to be standardized. The strength in the
direction of grain is always higher compared to a) The strength properties as obtained on small
strength across the grain. The strength in clear specimen are denoted as ‘fundamental
tangential direction or tangential plane is higher stresses’ and sometimes as ‘ultimate stresses’.

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 23


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

(a) SIMPLE TENSION (SIDE VIEW)

(b) CROSS GRAIN TENSION (SIDE VIEW)

(c) SPLINTERING TENSION (VIEW OF TENSION


SURFACE)

(d) BRASH TENSION (VIEW OF TENSION SURFACE)

(e) COMPRESSION (SIDE VIEW)

(f) HORIZONTAL SHEAR (SIDE VIEW)

FIG. 3 TYPES OF FAILURES IN BENDING

b) Timber being a non-homogeneous biological ing, the above fundamental stresses are
product there would be considerable varia- divided by a factor, commonly known as
tion in the properties of the same species. ‘factor of ignorance’ and these values are
Keeping this in view, and also effects of known as ‘basic stresses’. Thus these re-
accidental overloading and longtime load- present ‘working stresses’ for ideal structural
.
‘24 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING
SP :33(S&T)-1986

cl Keeping in view. the influence of the grade

5
SPLITING with its accompanying defects, and condi-
(4 tion of use the above are again divided
by suitable factors to obtain final ‘working
stresses’ or ‘permissible stresses’ on which
the designer normally starts his work. Thus,
the total factor applied on ‘Fundamental
WEDGE SPLIT COMPRESSION AND
stresses’ has come to be known as ‘factor
(b) SHEA;b”GGR’A9”N”LLEL of safety’.

(4
d) Applying further necessary correction fac-
tors as may be required in a particular
design for the size of members, for in-
SHEARING 13ROObl4~~~0~ END- clination of applied loads, for changes in
k) duration of loading, etc, ‘design stresses’
(f) are obtained.

In. NBC and IS : 883-1970 both the terms


‘ultimate stresses’ and ‘basic stress’ have been used
4 TYPES OF FAILURES IN COMPRESSION as synonimous, and working stress has been used
PARALLEL TO GRAIN for the design stress and no definitibn has been
given for the’permissible stress’. Even though it
component free from defects, that is, with- has been used in the text the derivation ot vartous
out taking grade or condition of use into stresses indicated above can be better understood
consideration. diagrammatically as below:

Fundamental Stresses (Ultimate Stresses)


(Derived from small-clear specimen on
statistical consideration)

Divided by total
factor of safety BASIC STRESSES

SAFE WORKING STRESSES


(or simply ‘working stresses’ or
permissible stresses as reported
in IS : 883-1970)

4
DIVIDE BY SPECIFIC DESIGN FACTORS F,(i,etc)

J
DESIGN STRESSES

where
f, = factor due to inherent variability f4= factor for grade of the material;
in the species,
fs= factor for location of use; and
f2 = actor due to long time. loading;
f6= factors for specific design, such as
f3 = factor due to accidental loading; form factor, etc.

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 25


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

3.3.2 It will be useful to understand the fundamental stresses for sudden temporary over-
derivation of the above factors. But here it will be loading which can never be twice the original
discussed briefly to make the reader understand static load; but as the over-loading, may also
the general methodology and concepts involved. occur sometimes for long durations, this factor is
It is known that the fundamental stresses all over necessary to be introduced for deriving the
the world. as explained earlier, are obtained from working stresses.
the test data of small c!ear specimen taken out of
five to ten logs from each of the different localities 3.3.5 Taking the above three factors into
where the species is grown. The tests are consideration the factor-of-ignorance, presently
used in this country works out to be
conducted and the average results are presented
under a high!y standardized procedure. From the
study of variability, the standard deviation, and 1
normality
particularly
assumption
teak, a factorj;
of some species.
= 0.72 has been used
(-
0.72
x &
.
X &
.
= 3.86.

to multiply the average modulus of rupture to get


95 percent confidence lower limit. Several other This is slightly higher than the factor used in
correction factors have been used for groups of other countries (3.37 in USA). Comparable
species, or specific species, in other countries and ‘basic stresses’ between timbers of this country
attempts were made to obtain 99 percent and other countries can be obtained only by
confidence limits also. These statistical aspects are dividing the fundamental stresses by the ‘factor-
discussed in 3.4. of-ignorance’ adopted in the respective countries.
3.3.3 As it is well known that under long time 3.3.6 In India, 3 grades of structural timbers
loading, wood exhibits creep depending on the are recognized on the basis of possible influence
applied stress, a factor fi = 0.6 had been taken of defects on them. It is estimated that defects do
based on earlier experiences in USA. However, not reduce the strength in Grade I by more than
some recent experiments at the Forest Research 12.5 percent, in Grade 2 by more than 25 percent
Institute, Dehra Dun, have indicated that a load and in Grade 3 by more than 37.5 percent
equivalent to about 45 percent or below of the (IS : 3629-1966). Accordingly factors of 0.875,
load at elastic limit (which itself is generally 60 0.75, and 0.625 have been used for ,/i for
percent of modulus of rupture) does not cause respective grades. In Western countries the factor
failure due to creep even for long periods. This applied for the grade is sometimes known as
can reduce this factor to 0.3 (0.45 X 0.6 = 0.3), ‘strength-ratio’ (ASTM-D.245) and these stresses
but no changes have yet been introduced as the are sometimes referred to as’grade stresses. Thus
final factors of safety are on the safer side and the strength ratio denotes the ratio between basic
they are in use for a long time. In USA stress and grade stress for a particular grade of
appropriate factors are specifically used for timber. It is interesting to note that in this ratio
different duration of load, as also adopted in there is an assumption that the factors
NBC (see Table 12). l/fly 1 if23 l/f3 leading to derivation of
basic stresses have the same extent of influence in
all grades. The present practices in other countries
TABLE 12 MODIFICATION FACTOR Kz FOR CHANGE are that there are different grades for different
IN DURATION OF LOADING
species, and different end uses. Many trade
DI~RATION OF LOADING MODIFICATION associations dealing with particular species have
FACTOR K2 put out different grades and also give out
Continuous I .o corresponding grade stresses. In India too with
Two months 1.15 the changing economic pattern by using several
Seven days I .25 secondary species, a need may arise for
Wind and earthquake 1.33
Instantaneous or impact 2.00 reconsideration of structural grades. In fact, in a
seminar held in Dehra Dun (1976) for architects,
builders and engineers dealing with timber
3.3.4 As there is always a possibility of structures, a suggestion was made to introduce a
accidental over-loading a structure, inspite of all fourth grade consisting of some strong timbers
precautions, a factor off3 = 0.6 has been taken in which are generally and properly understood to
earlier days based on the then experiences in other be ‘nondurable’ and ‘non-treatable’, and which
countries. In this connection it may be known can be safely employed for temporary
that several recent investigations have revealed construction and service purposes. This
that ratio of fibre stress at elastic limit under suggestions is also included in IS : 3629-1966 for
dynamic condition to that under static condition Class 3 durability and Class c treatibility.
is nearly 2.5, and that of dynamic modulus of
elasticity to static modulus of elasticity is 1.5. 3.3.7 As timber structures are likely to be
Timber is well known for its capacity to show located in different places ranging from FxtrefnelY
nearly double the strength under dynamic loads dry to extremely humid and wet situations,
compared with that under static loads. Thus, suitable factors for location of use are required to
there is hardly any justification for reducing be considered for deriving safe working stresses.

26 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

By a series of observations at the Forest Research Justification for considering revision of factors of
Institute, factors 1.0, 516 and 213 are used for fs safety, and revision of working stresses for the
for ‘inside’, ‘outside’ and ‘wet’ locations different species or groups of species, particularly
respectively; that is, for locations where timber keeping in view: (a) the incoming of large number
will remain completely dry and protected like in of secondary species for actual construction, (b)
the inside of a building, or subjected to alternate the technological developments in protection of
wetting and drying, or will remain more or less Indian species which are much stronger than the
continuously in damp and wet conditions like species in other countries used under similar
being in touch with ground, in dockyards, in conditions, (c) the possibility of developing
shores, etc. In Australia these factors are slightly laminated structural elements by combination of
different but in most other countries, this factor is inferier and superior species, (d) the utmost
not specifically considered but seems to be needed economy in timber utilization in India
implied in the grade stress for different species owing to serious depletion of forests, shortage of
which prescribe specific end uses under different constructional timbers, and (e) improvements in
circumstances. economical designs of timber constructions.
3.3.8 In consideration of all the above, the
3.4 Reliability of Data and Confidence
present factor-of-safety applied to modulus of
Limits
rupture as obtained in laboratory, works out like
5 (reciprocal of 0.259 X 0.75 X 1.0 = 0.19 = 0.2) 3.4.1 When designing any structure on the
for inside locations, for grade 2. Similarly, factors basis of published data, it would be necessary for
of safety for other properties are also derived for the engineer to know the origin and reliability of
the three locations for Grade 2, and given in the data. Particularly in wood, which exhibits
Table 13. While these factors as such are applied wide variation in strength on account of different
directly to the fundamental stresses in case of factors, the strength data will be relevant and can
bending, compression parallel to grain, and command the required confidence only when such
compression perpendicular to grain, it is not so in data is associated with a measure of variability
the case of shear. The fundamental shear values which has now become possible owing to high
are increased by 10 percent and then divided by degree of standardization in testing and
the respective factors indicated in Table 13, evaluation. For reasons of economy and non-
because the shear tests on small clear specimens availability of full facilities, it may not always be
are usually done on a corner notched specimen possible for all laboratories to follow strictly all
which gives a lower value. The shear strength in the relevant clauses of published standards, and in
specimens without a notch is usually 5 to 15 all such cases the data should be accompanied by
percent (average 10 percent) higher than that in comparison of standard data and relevant
notched specimen for different species. It may be statistical discussions. These aspects are discussed
further noted that the factor of safety for shear below.
values for all the different locations are retained
same, as maximum shear occurs in neutral planes 3.4.2 The first step for evaluation of
which is not so seriously affected as extreme fibres properties of any material is the standard method
exposed under different locations. employed for selection of the material. Different
countries have adopted slightly different
3.3.9 From the above discussion and procedures for the same. Some countries which
considerable amount of recent research have their own timber resources have proceeded
publication, it seems there is sufficient from selection of logs themselves of the required

TABLE 13 FACTORS OF SAFETY APPLIED TO FUNDAMENTAL STRESSES TO DERIVE SAFE


WORKING STRESSES

(Clause 3.3.8)
STRENGTH PROPERTY WORKING STRESS STANDARD GRADE
k Inside Outside Wet
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
i) Extreme fibre stress in beams for non-coniferous species 5 6 7.5
ii) Extreme fibre stress in beams for coniferous species 6 7 8.5
iii) Shear along the grain 7 7 ?
iv) Horizontal shear in beams 10 IO 10
v) Maximum compressive stress parallel to grain 4 4.5 5.5
vi) Compressive stress perpendicular to grain I .75 2.25 2.75
vii) Modulus of elasticity 1.25 1.75 2.0

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 21


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

species from different forest zones of their own


country. Some countries, particularly timber
importing countries, choose their testing sticks
from converted material from depots. in India, f - 12 log SlZ - log SB
based on long experience and also recent work or f-d = iogsd - logs;
developed at 1SO level, the standard selection of
the trees and logs for timber testing is governed where
by IS : 2455-1974 which lays down rules not only
for selection of 10 model trees for marking, Sl2 = strength required at 12 percent
felling, and conversion of the same into suitable moisture content,
logs for their despatch to the testing authority Sd = strength observed at d percent mois-
with relevant documents but also for receipt and ture content below the fsp,
proper storage of the logs by testing authority, for
marking and conversion of logs into sticks, and f= fibre saturation point (fsp.),
for storage of such sticks until tested. Rules have s, = strength in green condition, and
also been prescribed for the order of routine tests
to be conducted for selection of test specimen d= observed moisture content in dry
from different matched sticks in green and dry condition.
condition. A schedule has also been prescribed for
If the fibre saturation point is not available then
allotment of material from different bolts for
the formula employed is:
different tests depending upon the relative
importance of tests and the variation of the
properties in question. Another standard (+q = (ik)
IS : 8720-1978 covers sampling of scantlings from
depots and their conversion for timber testing. It provided the difference between 12 and d is not
may be observed from the standards that the greater than 5.
actual test specimens are comparatively small in
size as compared to the bulk material and so 3.4.3.3 When data in different conditions
representative portions of the bulk material are (say, green and dry condition) is required to bc
chosen for different tests. In selecting the bulk compared, care is taken to see that the data
material itself methods of random sampling as corresponds to equal numbers of matched
recommended in IS : 4905-1968 are followed and samples in each condition. Otherwise the data is
all precautions are taken for establishing the adjusted by giving due weightage to the number
absolute identity of the species. It is only under of samples tested and by evaluating the average
such detailed standardization procedures, the ratio of the values in the condition from known
results of different species become well matched materials explained below :
comparable.
If (a) Species average of 5 bolts in green condi-
3.4.3 The test specimen are then prepared and tion = K; and
tested according to 1’S : 1708-1969 as already
described under 3.1. Where structural sizes are (b) Tree average of five individual bolts in the
required, IS : 2408-1963 is followed. However, the green condition are given by S,, S2, &, S4,
presentation of data of physical and mechanical and Ss, and only values of 3 matched
properties is in accordance with IS : 8745-1978 bolts in dry condition are known as S’,,
which prescribes details regarding taking S2 and S3 then, the species average R, in
averages, a scheme to round off the data under the dry condition for all five bolts is given
different tests, and recording all relevant by :
information of the data which will help to assess 1 3sn
reliability of the data. K’= KX ,zZ
3.4.3.1 In the presentation of data, the
average of all sticks in a bolt (known as ‘tree
average’, if from logs) or in a scantling (known as 3.4.3.4 Among the important characteristics
‘scantling average’, if from converted timber in a and properties generally reported the following
depot) are first evaluated. Then the average of also are reported so that ideas can be developed
such averages are reported as species averages of a on variability of the strength in green and dry
conditions of the species and their reliability for
given locality. Sometimes when the same species
comparison can be judged.
is tested from different localities and there is no
significant difference in the average figures, the 4 An ‘improvement factor’ which is the
averages of localities are averaged to get an ‘all- average percentage of improvement of
India’ average of the same species. strength values from green to dry condition
(at 12 percent);
3.4.3.2 The tree average in dry conditions
(or scantling average as the case may be) is b) Details of area of growth, rate of growth
adjusted to 12 percent moisture content by the and dimensions of bulk material (logs or
formula: scantlings);

28 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP:33(S&T)-.1986

cl Number of trees, logs, or scantlings, and from standard test data of representative
number of specimens for individual tests as specimen. However, in deriving working stresses,
the case may be; and as already explained in 3.3,the values of standard
deviation of teak (representing the average of all
d) Measure of variability is described in Table wood species) is taken into consideration for
4 of IS : 37451978. In brief these include, as working the various factors of (ignorance) safety.
necessary, the range of observations (that is, Recently it has been established that variation
maximum and minimum values of all between trees is more than variation within a tree.
observations in a test); the standard devia- Coefficients of variation for different properties of
ation u or co-efficient of variation a/X to be timber based on average values for 50 green
calcuIaated according to number of logs or consignments of species, each based on five trees
scantlings and number of lo@ties chosen, from a’locality, are given in Table 14. From this it
etc. For calculating u and x, see 3.451. is apparent that with an average coefficient of
variation of 11.5 for the different properties, the
3.4.4 As stated in 3.4.3.4, in India, greatest data that was being collected previously on the
reliability has been placed on average values, that basis of 5 trees is fairly justifiable and the present
is, arithmatic mean of different values as obtaifled standard prescribing 10 trees is amply justified.

TABLE 14 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION FOR DIFFERENT PROPERTIES OF TIMBER


PROPERTY COEFFICIENTOF VARIATION
A
f Average Minimum Maximum 3

(1) (2) (3) (4)


Specific gravity (vol. green) 5.2 0.6 12.7
Specific gravity (vol. oven dry) 6.0 1.5 11.9

Shrinkage
Radial 12.0 2.6 26.3
Tangential 9.2 22.5
Volumetric 8.0 ::: 21.2

Static Bending

Fibre stress at elastic limit 10.4 3.6 21.5


Modulus of rupture 7.8 3.0 22.7
Modulus of elasticity 10.5 2.7 31.8
Work to elastic limit 16.6 42.6
Work to maximum load 16.0 ::: 29.4
Total work 18.7 4.5 71.7

Impect Bending
Fibre stress at elastic limit 8.7 3.3 23.2
Maximum height of drop of hammer for complete flaiture 12.0 2.9 32.0
Modulus of elasticity 12.3 3.3 33.4
Work to elastic limit 9.4 2.4 18.6
Brittleness (izod) 19.0 4.3 38.2

Compression Parallel to Grain


Fibre stress at elastic limit 12.9 4.2 37.9
Maximum crushing 9.4 22.9
Modulus of elasticity 12.3 ::‘: 31.5

Compression Perpendicular to Grain


Fibre stress elastic limit 14.4 5.4 31.8

Hardness
Radial 12.3 3.1 24.5
Tangential 11.6 4.5 29.5
End 10.7 3.4 23.7

Shear
Radial 10.6 3.3 21.1
Tangential 10.4 1.8 20.2

Tension Perpendicular to Groin

Radial 17.0 44.4


Tangential 15.8 ::; 35.1

Fibre Saturation Point (YJ 4.0 1.1 9.0

Average 11.5 3.2 28.7

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 29


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

3.4.5 The practices for reliability of data in lead to the use of a mean value Em and also a
other countries are slightly different and vary statistical minimum values EN depending on
according to a required level of probability. They whether one or more members act, to share the
are briefly discussed below. load. Taking 1 in 100 probability level, when one
member acts alone, the above minimum value
3.4.5.1 In UK and some other countries the E,, = E, and this is usually recorded in standard
basic stresses (that is, the stress which can be data, and design codes of these countries. Thus
safely and permanently sustained by timber
containing no strength reducing features) are E, = E,,, - 2.33~
derived from tests on small clear specimen as where u is the standard deviation. When more
discussed in 3.3.1(b). In deriving these stresses, a than one member takes the load, it is considered
histogram or normality curve (Gaussian reasonable to design using increased minimum
distribution curve) of all values obtained from a value, and the formula below is used to obtain the
large number of specimen, is first drawn. The statistical minimum value:
standard deviation is then evaluated by the
formula: EN = E,,, - 2.33aN

where oN is standard deivation for multiple pieces


in each component and is equal to
o/n where
where
N represents the number of pieces sharing the
u = standard deviation,
load.
x = individual test result,
Hence, EN = Em - 2.33 a/fi
F= average of all test results (mean), and
When N = 1 in the above equation, EN becomes
n = number of specimens tested. equal to El which is the recorded modulus of
elasticity in standard data. As N increases, EN
From this the basic stress is derived by the approaches E,,, and so the design codes of these
formula: countries permit the use of E,,, when four or more
members act together to support a common load.
fb = fm- po From the above discussion it can be seen that:
R
Em- E,
where
a=2.33
fb = basic stress,
Em- El
fm= mean value of the stress as determined or EN = Em - I_
under tests (3, dN
R = reduction factor which is a factor allowed Similarly
for small variations in moisture content, EN E,,, - 2.33 a/\/N
duration of test loading, size and shape of _=
specimen and so naturally varies according El Em - 2.33 o
to the nature of stress (R = 2.25 for bend- On the same principle, the other stresses are also
ing, tension and shear; 1.4 for compression computed sometimes for improving the design
parallel to grain; and 1.2 for compression considerations, that is, if f stands for the relevant
perpendicular to grain), and stress, and using the same notation as above
P = probability coefficient (1.96 for 1 in 40;
2.0 for 1 in 44 and 2.33 for 1 in 100 which
indicate the probable values falling below
A_= fm - 2.33 a/n
fi fm - 2.33 o
the level).
For bending, shear, tension and compression 4. TIMBER PROCESSING TECHNIQUES
parallel to grain, the lower I percent exclusion 4.1 Introduction - As discussed earlier, all
limit of probability level is considered by taking P timber is initially obtained from trees in forests
as 2.33. For compression perpendicular to grain and other areas, and before it is actually put into
lower than 1 in 40 probability level is considered final use, there are several processes it has to
by taking the value of 1.96. undergo. The engineer should be familiar with
these so as to understand not only the problems
3.4.5.2 While in India sometimes a factor of and costs involved in such processes but also to
safety is applied to modulus of elasticity (see assess the adequacy and quality of the processing,
3.3.8) no such factor is applied in UK and some so that the material that is being used is safe for
other countries for calculation of deflection. structural purposes. There have been quite a
Hence there is no such property as basic stress number of instances in this country when well
discussed above for the modulus of elasticity. designed wood structures have given way because
However, design considerations in those countries of inadequacy of processing required before final
30 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING
SP : 33(S&T)-1986
use. Hence br-ief mention is made here of various machines. Depending on the space and quantity
processes involved for converting wood from log of production in the mill, there are a variety of
form to its ultimately utilizable form, bringing out machines to choose for ‘breaking’the logs, that is,
more prominently the aspects where some lndian converting the logs vertically along the grain.
Standards are available. It is not the intention to Under this operation, usually section of 1.5 cm
describe in very detail either the types of and above, sides or planks not less than 2 cm
equipment and their maintenance or the methods thick, and of width covering the full section of the
and principles of processing techniques, or the log are taken out. After completing the log
details of layouts, costs, storage and movement breaking operations, the material is ‘reconverted’
operations under different processes. For these, (also known as ‘re-sawn’) by means of several
adequate books and other literature are available, types of ‘re-sawing’ machines which are smaller
and some of these have been referred in Appendix band-saws of about 5 cm width or smaller circular
B. An understanding of the above is required for saws of about 45 cm diameter (also known as
regular processing engineers and technicians. But ripping saws). This operation is also known as
from the point of view of a constructional ‘edging’. The material is then cross cut again (also
engineer, it would be sufficient to know the known as trimming) to the required length sizes.
general outlines involved in various processes. Where machines are not available resawing is
done by hands in various ways. In this connection
4.2 Log Storage and Conversion a reference may be made to IS : 4423-1967. All
4.2.1 When logs are harvested and transported the wastage, like off-cuts, saw-dust, trimmings,
usually proper precautions are taken to prevent etc, are transported towards one end, and all the
any splits and decay. But before they are finally converted material is transported to the
converted into beams, planks and scantlings, they other end for inspection and grading. One of the
require to be stored properly to avoid end drying important objectives of saw mill and conversion
and splitting. Such rapid end drying may result in operation is not only to avoid wastage and obtain
considerable wastage of the material. One of the the required size of the material but also plan
best methods of storing the logs is to debark them operations in such a way that objectionable
and keep them completely immersed under water defects in timber are carefully removed and
for which most of the saw mills either construct improve the grade of the turned out material, and
special log ponds as necessary, or use nearby thus obtain better value for the converted
natural ponds, if any. In these ponds it would be material. For this, not only the machine precision
often necessary to remove the contamination and and skills must be high but also the operational
keep the water clean to be free from bacteria and discretions must be carefully used. The standard
fungus. In the specially built ponds arrangements preferred cut sizes of structural timber are
are generally made for frequent change of water. discussed in 2.52.
Where the facilities of log ponds are not available,
the debarked logs are also stored on concrete 4.2.3 After the mill operations and grading,
floors under water sprays which can be either the material is either sent to seasoning kilns or
continuous or intermittant and recycled for air-drying sheds for reducing the moisture
economy. In the absence of water-spray facilities, content. Then it is sent to preservation plants for
logs are required to be stacked on raised necessary treatment, if any, in case it is to be used
platforms under shade. The bark is usually as such. Otherwise, it is first sent to wood
removed except in cases where the species is prone workshops for other wood working operations,
to heavy surface cracking. A suitable prophilactic such as planning, tongue and grooving,
treatment, as recommended in IS : 401-1982, tennoning, mortising, and boring before applying
should be given to the logs in stacks. In IS : 1141- preservative treatments. Where production is not
1973, some end-coating compositions have been high, these operations are also done by hand
recommended which can also be adopted for logs tools.
stored in open yards depending on local
circumstances. Out of the many end coatings tried 4.3 Timber Seasoning
at the FRI, the paraffin and its emulsion, bitumen
solution and asbestos powder, bitumen solution 4.3.1 Seasoning essentially means removal of
coating followed by aluminium paint, bitumen excess moisture from wood and bringing it to the
solution and red lead, were rated high in level of equilibrium with the humidity in the
effectiveness. atmosphere in which wood is to be used. IS : 287-
1973 prescribes different permissible moisture
4.2.2 In further conversion of logs to smaller content for different zones of India for different
sections, most of the mills have two distinct end uses of wood. Quite often construction
operations: (a) log breaking, and (b) resawing. engineers have been found to confuse seasoning as
The former is carried on heavy type machinery a process which would render some unknown
which can take the bulky logs. The logs are first improved qualities to the material such as
cross cut to the required lengths, and then the durability or strength. This is quite erroneous. In
edges (or slabs) are removed in band mills, or big the removal of excess moisture from wood,
circular saws or sometimes even by hand sawing seasoning no doubt helps to reduce otherwise
where no facilities of machines are available. Then considerable losses of wood due to surface -
the required sizes of ‘beams’ and ‘planks’, are cracking and spliting. The strength of wood no
obtained by further cutting on the same or similar doubt depends on moisture content (see 3.2.3). In
HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 31
SP : 33(S&T)-1986

the several techniques employed in seasoning, the rapid winds. The ends of members may be coated
comparative aim is to remove the excess moisture wherever necessary. Where a number of stacks are
in the shortest time possible and with the least necessary and large amount of timber is required
amount of degrade so that the technique to be air-seasoned special sheds may be
employed is as cheap as possible, and as constructed as required. Air-seasoning is
convenient as possible, to to local circumstances. necessary and economically useful for seasoning
During the removal of excess moisture, wood all sections above 10 cm thickness. The initial and
shrinks, and if shrinkage is not uniform and not final moisture content of members in the stack
appropriately controlled, differential stresses may may be determined by marked samples placed at
be set in the material causing sometimes splitting, different places in the stack. Final moisture
warping and degrade in the stock of timber. The content may also be determined by calibrated
rate of drying of wood, and consequently the moisture meters.
shrinkage is governed by interaction of three 4.3.3 Kihweasoning - In this process the
external conditions surrounding the material. seasoning is obtained by drying timber in specially
They are: (a) temperature which will start drying designed kilns in which the temperature, humidity
the wood from the surface, (b) circulation of air, and circulation of air can be controlled better
which will carry away the moisture evaporated than in air-seasoning. Any limitations placed by
from the surface of wood, and (c) relative air-seasoning due to uncontrollable factors can be
humidity which will control the rate of outward overcome in this process, and so the period of
diffusion of moisture from the interior of the seasoning will be considerably shortened for the
wood to its surface. These factors naturally same species and sections. There are several
depend on the species of wood in question and methods of introducing the heat, etc, in the kilns,
how refractory they are to seasoning (see 2.3.10). but the most popular in the country seems to be
The important techniques, of seasoning relevant the one steam-heated with overhead internal fan
to structural timbers and their limitation are and reversible air circulation systems. Perforated
briefly described in the paragraphs which follow. steam tubes are used for controlling humidity
For greater details on operation controls, details also. The kiln is initially set with high humidity,
of kiln design, etc, reference should be made to low temperature, and gradually altered to low
the numerous text books and other literature on humidity and high temperature with controlled
Indian woods which had mainly emanated from and reversed air circulation in order to reduce the
the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun. Some moisture content from green condition to about
of these have been referred in Appendix B. There 12-15 percent, which is required for actual use.
are special seasoning methods for other purposes The kilns are also provided with appropriate vents
such as high temperature drying, chemical and ducts. All types of species up to 5 cm thick,
seasoning, solvent seasoning, high frequency can be properly seasoned in such cases. Thicker
drying, vapour drying, vacuum drying and boiling
sections, that is, above 5 cm and up to 10 cm must
in oil, which have not yet attained any
commercial popularity nor tbey are of specific be initially air-seasoned up to about 25 percent
interest for structural purposes. Hence they have before kiln-seasoning for economic reasons.
Forest Research Institute has published different
not been discussed here in detail.
schedules of seasoning for different species, and
4.3.2. Air-seasoning - Under this method the these have been standardized and given in
sawn timber is properly stacked with the help of IS : 1141-1973. In the end, the same kilns are also
crossers on raised foundations in open air at a used for what is called ‘conditioning’ of timber to
clean and dry place. In air-seasoning, proper relieve edge-hardening stresses, if any. have been
stacking is the most important, and the location developed in the material. The most common size
of stack and its orientation with reference to air of an ordinary kiln is to take a charge of about 14
movement and direct heat of the sun is equally to 15 cubic metres. In the recent years the cost of
important. Experience will indicate how these are construction of such a kiln with a suitable boiler
to be adjusted so that undue degrade is not has roughly worked out to be between Rs. 50000
developed in the stack. Howeve.r, some and Rs. 60 000. Some ready-made commercial
precautions indicated below will help proper air- seasoning kilns with a few sophisticated controls--
seasoning. The width of the individual stack are available in the market for slightly higher
should not ordinarily exceed about 1.5 to 2 price. The cost of seasoning of average species
metres. The longest planks or scantlings should be and average dimensions roughly works out to be
placed at the bottom and the smaller ones at the Rs. 50 to Rs. 70 per cubic metre.
top. The crossers should be of strong timber and
uniform thickness. They should be vertically 4.3.4 Solar Kiln Drying -The installation of
aligned one above the other and heavier beams full scale economic seasoning kiln as described
should be placed at the top so that undue warping above needs high initial investments. There are
of members is prevented. Heavy sections like already quite a few of such kilns existing iri
railway sleepers and thick beams can be stacked different parts of the country, either as part of big
in crib forms using the same members as crossers saw mills or even as independent units. Some
where necessary. The stack should be well types of low cost seasoning kilns also have been
protected from direct sunlight and heat, and too developed like furnace heated kilns, etc. But

32 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

recently a kiln designed to trap solar energy described above. The air-seasoning periods are
wherever possible as heating agent and claimed to have been reduced by about 60
eliminating a separate boiler has become fairly percent. Some efforts are under way to find
popular and useful. Utilizing transparent screens whether control of humidity and air circulation
which permit transmission of short-wave solar can also be obtained without the use of external
radiation reaching black surfaces inside the kiln, electricity.
and which also prevent going out of long wave
emission from these black surfaces, it has been 43.5 Determination of Moisture Content -
possible to trap large quantities of heat of low This is a very important link in timber seasoning
temperature. that, is up to 60°C and obtain fairly and utilization. For accurate determination of
quick drying of timber. Although the heat is easily moisture content of the stack, small moisture
obtained from the sun, the electric energy is still discs are taken out from sample pieces placed in
required for running fans to control air different locations in the stack. These are initially
circulation. The kilns may be provided with vents, weighed, oven-dried for about 24-48 hours, and
ducts and humidifying arrangements also. It has reweighed (see IS : 1708-1969). The moisture
been observed that the efficiency of solar kilns is content of the disc, and so of the sample in
between that of air-seasoning and kiln seasoning question is given by

(initial weight of the disc - oven dry weight of the disc) X 100
moisture content =
oven dry weight of the disc

Periodic weightment of the sample would then principal constituents of wood, namely, cellulose
indicate the moisture in the sample. Average in lignin [see 2.4.7(b) and 2.4.7(j)]. The terms
moisture content of all samples in the stack is white rot, brown rot, incipient decay and sepstain
taken as moisture content of all timber in the as explained earlier describe the decay. Decay due
stack. However, as this is a destructive and time to fungii usually occurs only when temperature is
consuming method, various types of electrical between 20” and 35”C, moisture between 20 and
moisture meters have come into vogue. These 50 percent when there is adequate supply of
depend mostly on resistance (and sometimes on oxygen, and pH between 4 and 5. The insects
capacitance) offered by wood under different which attack timber are popularly known as
moisture contents between its fibre saturation ‘bees’, ‘beetles’, ‘borers’, ‘pin-hole borers’ and
point and dry condition. They naturally depend ‘termites’ which have some characteristic habits of
on species, the type of electrode probes driven in attacking barks, or green wood, or fermenting
wood, the extractives in wood, etc. Hence, they wood, etc. Some of them feed on fungus which is
require to be properly calibrated and some cultivated on wood. Some of them (powderpost
guidance to this effect is also available in beetles) attack ring porous hard woods as the
IS : 1141-1973. large diameters of the pores are suitably adopted
for laying the eggs by female insects. Thus,
4.4 Timber Preservation
softwoods adopted for laying the eggs by female
4.4.1 One of the most common fears which insects. Thus, softwoods are somewhat immune to
prevents use of wood for structural purposes is its such beetles. A detailed note on termites is given
deterioration or degradation, which may be due in IS : 6313-(Part I)-1971. There are about
to biological or even other causes. For this seventy species of termites which can be grouped
reason, whenever timber had to be used, engineers into two broad classes: (a) the subterranean
always used to prefer only long established very termites, and (b) drywood termites. The former
durable timbers like teak. However, in the present are more dangerous and their attack is by boring
day the science of wood perservation by chemicals holes longitudinally inside the timber which may
has advanced so much that many types of hitherto not be easily observed from outside. The latter
unknown secondary species have begun to be used generally bore across the growth rings and can be
after treatment, with the same confidence as the easily detected. In view of these known behaviour
popular species were being used earlier. Also the of fungii and insects, if buildings are properly
various timber species have been classified into designed and constructional provisions are
different durability classes (see 2.3.8) and the suitably made to prevent attack by fungii and
methods of treatment of these species have been insects, the dangers of degrade in constructional
standardized (see IS : 401-1982). Consequently wood can be largely eliminated. As a further
the choice of timber for structural propose has protection, chemical treatment of material as
become somewhat easier wherever treatment briefly described in the following clauses would
facilities exist or can be created as required. ensure safety of construction beyond doubts.

4.4.2 The main cause of decay or degrade 4.4.3 Wood Preservatives - IS : 401-1982
which necessitates wood to be chemically treated covers all types of preservatives, their description,
is biological, which may be caused due to some choice and methods of treatment for different
types of wood-destroying fungii or insects, The species and different purposes besides other useful
term ‘decay’ and also ‘rot’ is generally used for the information on the subject of wood preservation.
destruction caused due to fungii which feed on the There are principally three types of

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 33


SP : 33(S&T)-1986
preservatives : (a) oil type, (b) organic solvent spray as a prophilactic treatment against
type, and (c) water soluble type, which are again borers.
divided into two sub-classes as: (1) leachable types 4.4.3.4 Water. soluble fixed type preserva-
and (2) fixed (or non-leachable) type. tives consists of mixtures of various salts
described above with the addition of a fixative
4.4.3.1 The oil type preservatives are coal tar salt, usually sodium dichromate or potassium
creosote with or without admixture of petroleum dichromate. In presence of wood, they react and
coal tar, fuel oil or other oils having high boiling form non-leachable complex salts permanently
range. These are recommended for exterior use fixed inside timber. Hence they can be used in
only, they are extremely stable and possess high outside locations also. Treated timber should,
toxicity to all organisms and noncorrosive to however, be allowed to dry for a period of 3 to 6
metals. The wood is, however, discoloured and weeks to complete the fixation process. These
gives some unpleasent odours due to treatment. preservatives are applied at room temperatures
The creosote for wood preservation should only, and treated wood can be easily painted or
conform to IS : 218-1961 and fuel oil (LV grade) polished or waxed. If proper care is not taken,
to IS : 1593-1960. The oily nature of wood is a treatment with water soluble preservatives may
protection against splitting and does not permit develop small cracks. The various chemicals are
any painting on wood. Fifty percent admixture of described below briefly:
fuel oil, etc, with 50 percent creosote ensures
prevention of evaporation or leaching of creosote 4 Copper-chrome-arsenic composition (CCA)
from treated material. consisting of copper sulphate, sodium or
potassium dichromate and arsenic pentoxide
4.4.3.2 The organic solvent type preserva-
in approximate proportion of 7 : 10 : 2 by
tives are used after dissolving the toxic chemicals
weight (Total solid content 95 percent).
in suitable organic solvents. The treated wood is
IS : 10013 (Part 2)-1981 prescribes the
clean, and it can also be painted. Some water
following proportions:
repellent compounds like wax can also be added
to the preservatives. The various preservations Normal Minimum
are:
Copper sulphate 37.5 35
a) c,opper and zinc naphthanates (see IS : 107% Sodium or potassium
1973) which are metallic salts of imported dichromate 50.0 47.5
naphthenic acid. Recently Forest Research Arsenic pentoxide 12.5 10.0
Institute has developed similar wood pre- - -
servatives from copper, zinc and chir-pine Total 100.0 92.5
resins from indigenous sources which are - -
claimed to be equally effective.
b) Acid-cupric-chrome composition (ACC)
consisting of copper sulphate, sodium or
b) pentachlorophenol (PCP), a fully chlori-
nated derivative of phenol (IS : 716-1970) potassium dichromate and chromic acetate
and is indigenously manufactured by Durga- in approximate proportion of 10 : 9 : I by
pur Chemical Works, Durgapur. weight (total solid content 95 percent) and
pH between 2.7 and 4.2. IS : 10013(Part 2)-
c) benzene hexachloride (BHC) conforming to 198 I prescribes the following proportions:
IS : 560-1980.
Normal Minimum
d) DDT conforming to IS : 563-1973 (dichloro
diphenyl trichloro ethane). Copper sulphate 50 47.50
Sodium or potassium
4.4.3.3 Water soluble type preservatives are dichromate 45 42.50
inorganic salts soluble in water. However they get Chromic acetate 5 4.75
leached out due to action of water but it can be - -
prevented to some extent if weatherproof paints Total 100.0 94.75
- -
are coated on the treated material. They are quite
useful under cover. The va+ous salts are: c) Copper-chrome-boric composition (CCB)
consisting of copper sulphate, boric acid and
4 Zinc chloride - Toxic to fungii and borers sodium or potassium dichromate in the pro-
but not so for termites. It has some fire- portion of 6 : 3 : 8 (see Appendix B) or
retardant chracteristics also but tends to be 10: 1 : 10 (as recommended in IS : 401-
hygroscopic. 1982). IS : 10013 (Part 2)-1981 gives the
Boric acid and borax - Useful against following proportions:
borers, sapstain and some types of termites. Normal Minimum
It has good penetrating properties and so is
usually used for veneers and thin members. Copper sulphate 35.0 32.5
Boric acid 18.0 15.5
cl Sodium pentachlorophenate (Na-PCP) - Sodium or potassium
Highly effective against sapstain. dichromate 47.0 44.5
- -
d) DDT and benzene hexachloride (IS : 562- Total 100.0 92.5
1978) - Water dispersible powder useful for - -

34 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&Tbl986

This is an alround and all purpose methods, and (b) non-pressure methods.
preservative including conditions of However, before treatment the material is brought
soft rot attack. to appropriate moisture level, surface is well
cleaned and properly stacked. Where necessary,
4 Chromated zinc chloride (CZC) consisting of
the material is steamed and vacuumed to kill any
zinc chloride and sodium or potassium infection, reduce the moisture and also facilitate
dichromate in the ratio of 81.5 : 18.5. easy penetration of preservatives during
e) Zinc meta-arsenite consisting of zinc oxide subsequent treatments.
and arsenic trioxide in the proportion of
2 : 3 with acetic acid sufficient to keep the 4.4.4.1 In the pressure method, inpregnation
compound in solution under operating of wood by preservatives is obtained in cylinders
conditions. equipped with vacuum pressure pumps, storage
and mixing tanks. For treatment with creosote,
Zinc chrome-boric composition of zinc such cylinders and tanks are also equipped with
chloride, sodium or potassium dichromate steam heating coils. The details of pressure
and boric acid in proportion of 3 : 4 : 1.
treatment plant are given in IS : 2683-1980. In the
4.4.3.5 Of all the above, the most full-cell process which is generally used for species
commonly used wood preservatives for treatment difficult to treat and for high preservative loading,
of building timbers are creosote, pentachlorop- an initial vacuum of about 56 cm is given for
henol, CCA, CCB, ACC, boric acid and borax about half-an-hour. This is followed by filling the
compositions. These compounds under different cylinder with preservatives and building a
trade names,. such as tanalith, celcure, boliden pressure of 2.0 to 12.5 kg/cm”. For most of
salts and compounds of boron, tin, etc, are used building components, the main aim being to get
in other countries. In India also ‘ASCU’ adequate absorption and penetration, the empty-
(conforming to CCA and CCB compositions) cell process is employed for which no initial
‘Solignum’ (creosote or petroleum based, PCP vacuum is necessary. The duration of pressure
containing, resinous substances), etc, are used. In depends upon the species, the required loading,
any case when a new commercial product and the dimensions of timber inside the cylinders.
becomes available in the market, it would be best After the pressure period, a vacuum is given for
to obtain the efficacy of such preservatives from about fifteen minutes to recover any extra
recognized wood preservation laboratories and preservative adhering to surface layers of wood.
also obtain indication of chemical constituents Pressure cylinders are indigenously manufactured
and, if possible, their proportions to be sure of the and there are about 200 plants distributed all over
performance of such preservatives under different India. Some mobile plants have now come into
conditions. IS : 4873-1966 describes ‘the method vogue and these can be used in remote areas also
for the laboratory testing of wood preservatives and at erection sites of timber structures.
against fungii by soil block method and Kolle
flask methods. IS : 6341-1971 describes method of 4.4.4.2 Under the non-pressure treating
laboratory tests for efficiency of wood methods, the following may be of some interest
preservatives against soft-rot which is found in for structural timbers.
very damp pieces. IS : 6497-1972 prescribes
methods of test for the efficacy of preservatives 4 Surface applications either by brushing or
spraying or dipping. For water soluble type
and also for evaluating the natural durability of
preservatives, the moisture content of the
timber used in cooling towers. Similarly
wood can be around 20 to 30 percent. For
IS : 679 I-1973 describes methods of testing
dipping in organic solvent type or oil type
natural durability of timber and efficacy of wood
preservatives, the moisture content should
preservatives against marine borers. be around 15 percent. Surface applications
4.4.4 The methods of tretment and degree of do not give long protections and is useful
preservation, that is, the absorption and only for re-treatment of cut surfaces or for
penetration of preservatives would naturally some temporary treatments at sites. This
depend upon the different hazards and so the treatment should be repeated periodically
protection required, and to keep it economical for effective protection.
and safeguard subsequent maintenance costs.
IS : 401-1982 gives exhaustively the recom- b) Diffusion treatment is applicable to green
mended processes of treatments, recommended timber for treatment with water-soluble
preservatives, ranges of absorption for different preservatives. The penetration of the
situations. Several publications of the Forest preservative is achieved because of
Research Institute, Dehra Dun, have also brought concentration gradients existing between
out these very elaborately. A summary of the preservative solution and free water present
necessary information, useful for structural in wood cells. Sometimes the green material
engineers is given in Table 15 to serve as a ready is first steamed for two to three hours after
reference and rough guide. The various methods which the material is transferred to
of treatment commonly employed are described preservative solution at ambient temp-
and can be broadly classified as: (a) pressure erature (known as quenching).

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 35


K
TABLE 15 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PRESER VATION OF TIMBER

(Clause 4.4.4)
GROUP SERVICE CONDITION COMMODITY PROCESS OF TREATMENT PRESERVATIVE RECOMMENDED REMARKS
OF TREATED TIMBER (see a/so 3) ABSORPTION kg! r
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
I Timber in direct cpn- Hot and cold process a) CTC/LTC wit fuel 80-128 For timber under a, b
tact with ground or F%zr than railway (if applicable), dif- oil (50 : 50) and c categories of
water especially in sleepers) fusion treatment of treatability
outside location. green timber and 30-45 For timber under d
pressure processes and e categories of
(preferably) treatability
b) CTC/LTC .64 For a, b and c cate-
gories of treatability

25 For d and e categories


of treatability

c) CTC-fuel oil (25 : 80 For a, b and c cate-


75) + 2.5 percent gories of treatability
PCP
30 For d and e cate-
gories of treatability

d) CCA followed by IO For a, b and c cate-


IO percent asphalt gories of !reatability
in crude oil after
drying
5 for d and e cate-
gories of treatability

e) ACC followed by IO For a, b and c cate-


IO percent asphalt gories of treatability
in crude oil after
drying
5 For d and e cate-
gories of treatability

Poles. fence posts, Hot and cold process a) CTC/LTC with fuel I60
bridge timbers, box (if applicable), oil (50 : 50)
columns, sign boards, Boucherie treatment b) CTCi LTC 128
shuttering, etc for green poles and cj PCP’ 8
fence posts, diffusion d) CCA
treatment of green e) ACC 12’
timber and pressure f) CCB I6
process (preferably)

Marine timbers Hot and cold process a) CTC/LTC with coal 320 First coal tar shall
a) Timbers in contact (if applicable), tar (60 : 40) be melted and only
with sea water, such Boucherie treatment b) CTC/LTC-fuel oil 320 then creosote shall
as floating fenders, for green poles and (50 : 50) be mixed with it
catamarans, piles, fence posts, diffusion c) CCA 16-32 (Trials were carried
etc treatment of green out with 80-120
timber and pressure grade coal tar
processes (preferably) only)
(1) (2) (3) (4) * (5) (6) (7)

b) Structures out of Hot and cold process a) CTC/LTC with fuel 160
water but subject to (if apphcable), oil (50 : 50)
tide, salt water Boucherie treatment b) CCA 12
splashes, etc for green poles and c) ACC 12
fence posts, diffusion d) CCB 16
treatment of green
timber and pressure
processes (preferably)
Timbers in cooling a) CTC/LTC with fuel 128
towers oil (50 : 50)
a) Constructional b) CCA
members c) ACC
d) CCB
I:
16
Timber in fill Hot and cold process a) CTC/LTC with fuel 160
(if applicable), oil (50 : 50)
diffusion treatment of b) CCA
green timber and c) ACC 16”
pressure processes d) CCB 20
(preferably)
Mine limbers do a) CTC/LTC with fuel 160
a) Tramline sleepers oil 150 : 50)
b) CCA 12
c) ACC 12
d) CCB 16
b) Pit props do a) CCA 8-12 If timbers become
b) ACC 8-12 unserviceable due
c) CCB 12-16 to mechanical fail
ure or are to be
left in mine for
safety reasons,
minimum retention
may be used

2 Timber not in direct Bridge timber, shingles do a) CTC/LTC with fuel 80


contact with ground scaffoldings. ladders, ;i&i50 : 50)
or water but exposed etc b)
cj A&C
d) CCB
e) PCP

3 Timber not in direct Weather boards, fence Hot and cold process a) CCA 6.5
contact with ground rails, exterior doors (if applicable), b) ACC 6.5
or water but exposed windows, etc diffusion treatment c) CCB 8
and in addition given of green timber and d) PCP 5
a cast of paint or pressure processes e) CZC 16
varnish regularly (preferably) f) Copper naphthenate 0.5 Calculated as copper
after preservative g) Zinc naphthenate 0.8 Calculated as zinc
treatment h) Copper abietate 0.5 Calculated as copper

( Con/inued)
TABLE 15 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PRESERVATION OF TIMBER

(Clause 4.4.4)
GR0t.P SERVICE CONDITION COMMODW PROCESS OF TREATMENT PRESERVATIVE RECOMMENDED REMARKS
OF TREATED TIMRER (see also 3) ABSORPTION
kg: ml

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

4 Building timber for Doors, windows, frames, Hot and cold process a) CTC LTC
internal use but in leaves, ceilings, (if applicable), b) CCA tz
contact with ground, trusses, timber colu- diffusion treatment c) ACC 6.5
soil or under humid mns. pole support, of green timber and d) CCB IO
conditions etc pressure processes e) CZC I6
(preferably) f) PCP 5
gj Copper naphthe- 0.5 Calculated as copper
nate/ abietate
h) Zinc naphthenate/ 0.8 Calculated as zinc
abietate
j) Boric acid : borax 6.5
(I : I)
5 Building timber or a) Doors. windows, do a) CTC/LTC 80
timbers in interior frames, leaves, false- b) CCA
use not in contact ceiling purlins, pel- c) ACC 1
with ground or soil met, etc d) CCB 6.5
and used in dry con- e) CZC 6.5
ditions lj Copper naphthe- 0.4 Calculated as copper
nate/abietate
Zinc naphthenatel 0.6 Calculated as zinc
abietate
PCP
Boric acid : borax :
(I : 1)
b) Furniture, cup- Two liberal brush coats PCP 5%
board, chicks, etc or momentary dip- Boric-acid : borax
ping (I : I)
2% solution in water
6 Timber for packing Packing cases, pallets, Hot and cold/ pressure lCCA
cases to be stored ammunition boxes, ACC t
outside and exposed cable drums, etc CCB 6.5
PCP 4
Copper naphthe- 0.5
nate/abietate
Zinc naphthenate/ 0.8
abietate
7 Timber for packing do Brushing/ spraying/ dip- ‘CCA 3.2
cases to be stored in- ping ACC 3.2
side or under cover CCB 4
PCP 4
Boric acid : borax 3
(I : I)
Zinc-meta-arsenite 5
Copper naphthe- 0.4 Calculated as copper
nate/abietate
Zinc naphthenate/ 0.6 Calculated as zinc
abietate
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
8 Seasoned timbers and Tool handles. baskets, Brushing/ spraying/ dip- Boiling creosote
finished articles to be ploughs, etc ping :] Copper naphthenate Calculated as copper
painted and used I percent solution
cl Zinc naphthenate Calculated as zinc
I .5 percent solution
d) Copper abietate Calculated as copper
I percent solution
9 Prophylactic treatment a) Timber logs and Brushing/ spraying, dip- 4 Sodium pentachlo-
for storage of timber, converted timber ping rophenate (Na-
etc PCP) I percent
b) Boric acid : borax
(1 : I)
2 to 2.5 percent
solution
c) Gamma BHC
I percent solution in
water dispersible, or
2 percent in oil, if
soluble
d) DDT To be preferred for
2 percent in oil open storage
e) PCG
2 percent in oil
b) Wood carvings, do PEG (I 000) + 1
blocks for rifle butts, percent Na-PCP + I
textile accessories, percent borax
sports goods, etc.
c) Plywood logs, match Brush application Artificial bark
logs, etc
Penetration of the preservative

Group I - In the case of timbers to be embedded in the ground like transmission poles. piles, etc, it is desirable to have at least 31 mm ring of sapwood,
and care should be taken that the penetration of the preservative is completed in the entire sapwood portion; penetration in the non-
durable heartwood in addition would ensure a satisfactory service life. In the case of sleepers, while it is best that the penetration is
through and through in the sap and non-durable heartwood portions, a minimum penetration of 25 to 40 mm is essential. Where the
heartwood of the non-durable timbers is refractory to treatment, incision of all the surfaces except the ends to a depth of 12 to 19 mm
is recommended, particularly in the case of conifers.

Groups 2 to 7-In the case of timbers under Groups 2 to 7, while the sapwood portions should be completely treated for all timbers, a minimum
penetration of 19 mm in the case of Groups 2 and 4, 12 mm for Group 5, aid 6 mm for Groups 6 and 7 is essential.

NOTE I - Percentages in co1 5 refer to strength of solution to be used for dipping, soaking, brush or spray treatment. For pressure and open tank
treatments, the absorptions are indicated in col 6 and refer to the non-durable portions of the timber. Unless stated otherwise, the above treatments ensure
protection against fungal decay, termite and borer attack. The absorptions given under col 6 against Group 6 shall enable repeated use of the treated
material, provided suitably strong timber is used originally.

NOTE 2 - Wherever an individual value of recommended absorption is made, it shall be taken as minimum.
NOTE 3 - For water-soluble and organic solvent type of preservatives. the absorptions mentioned against them refer only to dry chemicals present in
them.

NOTE 4 - For treatment of packing cases for foodstuffs, pencil slats only, boric acid : borax treatment should be given.

Y *Use of CCA in packing cases should be restricted, as most of the packing cases find their way in household fuel, where arsenic can be hazardous.
SP : 33(S&T)-1986

c) Hot and cold process is most convenient for 4 Chromated zinc-ammonium-copper-boric


structural timbers when pressure cylinders composition (CZACB) comprising sodium
are not available. The timber to be treated is dichromate, zinc chloride, ammoniurt7 phos-
heated in tanks containing hot preservative phate, copper sulphate and boric acid in the
solutions (for oil type) or in hot water (for proportion of 3 : 5 : 3 : 1 : 3.
water soluble preservatives) for about two
A number of compositions of varying proportions
to three hours (by which the air in timber is
expelled) and then the timber is allowed to of some of the above are available in markets
cool in the same tank, along with the under trade names, such as pyrolith, celcure-F,
ASCU-C, etc. It way be noted that most of these
cooling of preservative (for oil type
chemicals are leachable and also hygroscopic
preservatives) or it is transfered to another
which may render them less suitable for
tank containing cold preservative (for water
decorative members in exterior conditions. Fire
soluble preservatives). In this process the
retardents based on water soluble monomers
preservative enters the wood to replace the
subsequently polymerizing in wood are of resin
expelled air. The cooling time is adjusted type and can stand to weather conditions fairly
according to the absorption required. well. Hence they can be used for roof shingles,
fence posts, etc. They do not also stand in the way
4.5 Fire-retardant Treatments
of any subsequent paints and varnishes required.
4.5.1 Of all types of so tailed combustible
4.5.3 Treatment Methods - Simple brush,
materials used in buildings, wood can perhaps be
dip or immersion treatments are not generally
rated as safest. The two principal criteria to
sufficient as heavy dry salt loadings are required
divide the fire performance of the building
materials are: (a) fire resistance, that is, how long for effective control of flame spread. The full-cell
it takes before the material can resist heat or pressure treatment recommended in 4.4.4.1 is the
flame before losing its basic strength, and (b) fire most suitable for this purpose. However, a
hazard which is rated on the basis of its surface penetration of about 1.5 cm deep from the surface
inflamability or combustibility. Since wood is also may be sufficient, but heavy absorption as
a combustible material, it will be necessary to indicated below in Table 16 is recommended.
treat it with fire retarding chemicals particularly
where incidence of fire is likely to take place.
There is no treatment which would make the TABLE 16
material completely fire-proof, but a number of (Clause 4.5.3)
chemicals can retard the combustion and reduce
the glow in timber. h’fINIMliM DIMENSION OF CROSS- ARSORFTION
SECTION OF THE MEMHER kg/ rnj
4.5.2 Fire-retarding Chemicals - Some of cm
the chemicals like ammonium sulphate and up to 5 40-48
ammonium phosphate are only fire retardants. A
5 to IO 32-40
mixture of the two in the ratio of 4 : 1 is found to
be fairly effective. There are other types which are IO to 20 24-32
fire-retardant-cum-antiseptic compositions. These more than 20 12-24
provide some resistance to decaying organisms
also. Inorganic salts, such as boric acid, borax,
zinc chloride with or without preservatives such 4.6 Other Processes and Wood Products
as copper sulphate have proved useful; but these 4.6.1 Besides the above, there are quite a
are corrosive to metals used as fastners in timber number of processing techniques for improving
joints. Hence limited amounts of potassium or the quality of wood but which are not of much
sodium dichromates are added to reduce relevance in the limited scope of the Handbook.
corrosiveness. The following are some of the well However, a passing mention of the same would
tried compositions: keep the engineer informed of the potentialities of
wood utilization. Also some of the products
a) Sodium tetraborate and boric acid in the
developed under these processes are already in
ratio of 3: 2;
use for some of the non-structural uses of wood
b) Ammonium borax-boric (ABB) composition in buildings, such as doors and windows. Some of
comprising ammonium phosphate, these are described below very briefly.
ammonium sulphate, borax and boric acid
4.6.2 Panel Products - This is a general term
in the ratio of 1 : 6: 1 : 2;
used for plywood, hardboards, particle boards,
c) Chromated zinc-ammonium-boric composi- insulation boards and block boards which are
tion (CZAB) comprising sodium already extensively used in building industry.
dichromate, zinc chloride, ammonium sul- There are a variety of these products available in
phate and boric acid either in the proportion the market. Some are made for decorative pur-
of 4 : 4 : 1 : 1 or in the pro ortlon of poses and some are intended for general purposes.
1 : 7 : 7 : 5, both of which are ef Pective; and Some of these are gradually coming ‘into use even

40 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

for structural purposes, but in all such cases the 1966 deals with high density particle boards,
strength data is generally obtained on specific and IS : 3129-1965 deals with low density
product. Corresponding Indian standards have particle boards. In addition to wood parti-
been evolved for these products and evaluation of cles, other cellulosic materials like bagasse,
their properties; and these are also referred below have also been successfully used for produc-
for ready reference: tion of these type of panels. Decorative
aspects are alo obtained by overlaying with
4 Plywood - IS : 303-1975 covers the manu- decorative laminate. IS : 3097-1980 deals
facture and classification of plywood for with veneered particle boards. Considerable
general purposes; IS : 1328-1970 deals with amount,, of R & D work is still going on in
veneered decorative plywood; IS : 7316- the country for producing improved varieties
1974 deals with decorative plywood using of particle boards and their use in diverse
plurality of veneers for decorative faces; fields. Quality of these boards are tested
and IS : 4990-i 98 1 deals with plywood for according to IS : 2380 (Parts 1 to 12)-1977.
concrete shuttering work. In the
manufacture of these products, thin veneers 4 Block boards-These are sometimes referred
are first taken out from logs on big peeling also by the genera1 term ‘core board’, which
lathes or slicers.They are properly dried and also includes ‘batten boards’ and ‘lamin-
glued to each other with grain direction boards’ or ‘lamin wood’. However, in block
generally running at right angles to each boards the core is made of strips of wood
other in alternate layers. The quality of 2.5 cm wide, laid adjacent to each other, to
plywood is tested as per IS : 1734 (Parts 1 form a sort of core slab and then covered by
to 20)-1972 depending on the end glued veneers with the direction of the grain
requirement. The most important quality of of core strips running at right angles to that
plywood, in general, is its glue shear strength of adjacant veneers. IS : 1659-1965 deals
and its capacity to hold the laminations with block boards. These are widely used in
together under various circumstances of furniture panelling, shutters, etc. Some of
use. The general purpose plywood is thus the block boards are made decorative by
broadly graded as: (1) CWR (cold water laying ornamental veneers on one of the
resistant), (2) WWR (warm water resistant), faces.
(3) BWR (boiling water resistant), and (4)
BWP (boiling water-proof) for which e) Flush doors-A sizable industry has come
appropriate adhesives and species are up in India producing flush doors for use in
chosen to make the plywood of required modern buildings, replacing the old type of
choice. slid panel doors. However owing to mal-
practices, and production of inferior types of
b) Fibre boards-These are also referred as doors, serious doubts have been entertained
hardboards, fibre hardboards and insulation in some quarters and trends have been rever-
boards. IS : 1658-1977 deals with the manu- ted to pane1 doors in those quarters. This
facture, classification, and standard sizes of may not remain a permanent feature. Reali-
fibre hardboards, and IS : 3348~1965 deals zing the several advantages of flush doors,
with fibre insulation boards as they are avail- more and more flush doors will be utilized
able in Indian markets. These are princi- if their quality is assured. IS : 2191 (Parts 1
pally products made of wood pulp, defibra- and 2)-1980 deals with wooden flush doors
ted and pressed under hot presses. Recently with cellular and hollow core and with ly-
decorative hardboards have come into wood or particle board, or hard board Pace
vogue. Several types of plastic surfaced, ena- panels and IS : 2202 (Parts 1 and 2-)I980
melled, moulded, perforated, embossed, deals with wooden flush doors with solid
printed, and paper-overlaid hardboards are core faced with plywood, or particle boards
gradually coming into markets. These build- and hardboards. Quality tests for these
ing boards have fairly good strength, insula- doors are now made severe to avoid any
tion and accoustic properties. The density of malpractices. For determining the quality
the board and annealing treatments are of these doors, a series of type tests are
important characteristics of the hardboards also given separately in IS : 4020-1967. i
on the basis of which they are classified. These doors are sometimes made decorative
with overlaying of ornamenta! veneers, etc
c) Particle boards-Dry wood, appropriately (see also 6.2.16).
chipped into small ‘particles’ and made into
panel forms by suitable adhesives are known f) Glued laminated structural members-Based
as ‘particle boards’. A variety of them, both on experiences in other countries, new
for general as well as for decorative purpo- trends are developing in the country also for
ses, are already available in Indian markets, producing laminated structural units from
though the actual use of this product in even inferior grade timber. With the help of
india is not as extensive as in other coun- synthetic adhesives, planks of wood from
tries. These have also been used for structu- 2 to 5 cm can be suitably laminated to get any
ral purposes in other countries. IS : 3478- thickness and any length. Even curved mem-

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 41


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

bers can be produced where desired. In such nailing, the area pre-bored is not taken into
places where the stresses are comparatively account, and no notch or groove in any case
low (that is neutral surfaces of beams.etc), should remove more than one quarter of the
low grade timber can also be used, and section. Also in the design of intermediate and
strong timbers can be used at the outer long columns, gross section is used in calculating
layers where higher stresses come into play. load carrying capacity of the column.
Apart from the cost, several factors are
5.1.3 Timber has a property of withstanding
involved in producing these structural units,
higher stresses for short periods than for longer
such as glueability of the species; prepara-
periods or permanently. Hence, while considering
tion of the laminates, suitable adhesives for
the various types of loading on timber
cold pressing for exterior use, and the fabri-
components, the duration of such loading is
cation and pressing equipment. Although
required to be assessed. The permissible stresses
designed structural units are not readily
of different groups of species, and different grades
available in Indian markets, there is a great used in different locations are to be modified
potentiality for development in this field as
further by multiplying with a factor Kz, given in
timber engineering progresses in the country.
the Table 17.
5. TIMBER DESIGN-PART 1
5.1 General Considerations TABLE 17 MODIFICATION FACTOR K2 FOR
DIFFERENT DURATIONS OF LOADING
5.1.1 When designing a structural component
or full structure in timber. careful selection is to (Clause 5. I .3.)
be made of species economically available in the DURATION OF LOADING MODIFICATION FACTOR Kz
local markets. All the properties of the species,
such as strength, durability, treatablity and ConJinuous 1.0
refractoriness should be carefully assessed. Where Two months 1.15
necessary, the processing and treatment facilities
should be explored. After deciding on appropriate Seven days 1.25
grade of the material for the required purpose, Wind and earthquake 1.33
proper facilities for storage of the material, and
Instantaneous or impact 2.00
in-situ fabrication and erection should be ensured.
Availability of other material used in timber
constructions, such as nails, screws, bolts and 5.1.4 The NBC recognized a further
nuts, connecters to be used, and adhesives where modification factor Ki with which the permissible
required. should be ensured according to relevant stresses require to be multiplied for changes in
standards. slope of grain, when the timber has not been
properly graded, and contains major defects
5.12 In design considerations, NBC has within the permissible limits. These factors are
recognized some basic factors which require to be given in the Table 18.
ensured under all conditions. All structural
members, assemblies, or frame work in a building
in combination with other units of the building, TABLE 18 MODIFICATION FACTOR K, TO ALLOW
should be capable of sustaining, for the required FOR CHANGE IN SLOPE OF GRAIN
duration, the worst combination of all loadings (Clawe 5. I .4.)
without exceeding the limits of specified stresses
SLOPE MODIFICATION FACTOR KI
for the species and at the worst are weakest A
location of structure. The NBC has also ‘%eams, joists Columns and ’
prescribed, the various types of loads that should and ties posts
be considered for different structures. These are 1 in IO 0.80 0.74
applicable to timber structures also. Based on
I in 12 0.90 0.82
IS : 875-1964, suitable dead loads and live loads
or imposed loads should be assumed. There is no I in 14 0.98 0.87
specific guidance as yet in this country for the I in 15 or more 1.00 1.00
varieties of combination of dead loads and
imposed loads with specific reference to varieties
of species of wood. Wind and seismic forces are, 5.2 Beams (Flexural Members)
however, not considered to act simultaneously. As 5.2.1 In the design of beams the principal
in timber members, boring, grooving, etc, may be considerations are :
required at different places, the least net section of
the member is to be obtamed by deducting from a) Form, size and shape of the flexural member,
the gross section, the projected area of the
material removed by wood working operations. b) Bending stresses or extreme fibre stress,
Such net sections are obtained by passing a plane,
or a series of connected planes transversely C) Prevention of lateral buckling,
through the members. However, in case of 4 Shear stresses,

42 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

e) Deflections, and The values of I and Z for different cross-sections


can be found in any standard book on strength of
f) Bearing at supports or under load points. materials.
5.2.2 The NBC recognized some general
considerations on the size and shapes of beams. For rectangular beams I = $ and Z =. $
The minimum width of the beam or any flexure
member should not be less than five centimetres,
or one fiftieth of the span whichever is greater. Since the strength of wood in tension is much
The depth of the beam or any flexure member greater than in compression it is unreasonable to
should not be taken more than three times its expect wood to behave like other homogeneous
width without lateral stiffening. All such members and isotropic materials. Experiments have shown
having a depth more than three times its width or that fibre-stress at elastic limit in bending is far
a span exceeding fifty times its width or both, greater than that obtained under pure
should be laterally restrained from twisting or compression parallel-to-grain and lower than that
buckling and the distance between such restraints obtained under pure tension parallel-to-grain and
should not exceed fifty times its width. In U K the lower than that obtained under pure tension
maximum depth to width ratio varies from 2 to 7 parallel-to-grain. The explanation for this is
depending upon end fixing and stiffeners obvious from the structure of fibres in wood
employed. The deflection in the case of all material which lend gradually increasing support
members under bending loads should not exceed to adjacent fibres starting from neutral plane to
l/ 360 of the span, if such loads are caused due to the extreme fibres. Thus, there is variable
brittle materials like gypsum ceilings, slates, tiles, influence of neighbouring fibres to the extreme
etc. In other cases, it should not exceed l/240 of fibres, depending upon the homogeneity and also
the span and in case of cantilever, it is 1/ 180 of the cross-section of the beam whether it is
the freely hanging length. In deciding these rectangular, square, circular beam, or box-beam
limitations, experiences gathered in the country or an i-beam. Hence various form factors (K) are
and also in other countries have been consiaerea indicated in 5.2.4 for different types of cross-
keeping in view that wood is an orthotropic sections. These should be used as multipliers in
material with three principal axes of symmetry the beam formula so that the resisting moment,
and shows strains due to component stresses in all
the three planes governed by the three axes. In
making any wood working operation, it should be A4 = K.f:Z. or K.jI I/y
ensured that notches are not unduly made except
in top or bottom faces, neither deeper than l/5 of 5.2.4 Form Factors ,for DiJferent Cross-
the depth of the beam, nor further than l/6 of the sections qf Beams
span from the edge of the support. Also holes
a) Rectangular section - For different depths
larger in diameter than l/4 of the depth should
of beams more than 30 cm, the form factor
not be bored in the middle-third of the depth and recommended in NBC is
length. If holes or notches occur at a distance
greater than 3 times the depth of members from
the edge of nearest support, only the net
remaining depth is used in determining the
bending stresses. In all cases it is desirable to This is obtained from a series of tests on different
calculate local stresses and ensured to be within beams, and for ready reference given in Table 19.
permissible limits.
5.2.3 In calculating the extreme fibre stress TABLE 19 VALUES OF D AND K,
the well known equation developed on theory of
(Clause 5.2.4)
bending is :
D 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
f=!$=$ cm
K3 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.92 0.90 0.89 0.88
where
NOTE I - However in UK, both for solid and laminated
f= extreme fibre stress, beams which are mostly of soft woods, this factor is applied
only for beams greater than 30 cm and is given in BSCP
M= bending moment, 112: Part 2: 1971.

Y= distance of extreme fibre from neu- D= + 92 300.


tral plane which for all practical
purposes is assumed located at
Kj = 0.81
I 0’ + 550 I

NOTE 2 - In USA, based on a series of tests of beam up


central place of the beam, to 30 cm, the formula for modification factor is given below
and the same is adopted in Australia also.
I= moment of inertia of cross-section
(in cm4), and
Z= modulus of section in cm’.

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 43


SP : 33(.5&T)-1986

b) For a square section, where the load is Thus the modification factor becomes:
applied in the direction of a diagonal, the
form factor Ki is taken in all countries as
1 + 0.72[Q(F) + ($1
1.414. This is justified because the moment
K4 =
of inertia of a square, about a neutral axis 1.72
perpendicular to its sides is the same as the
moment of inertia about a diagonal, and
= 0.58 + 0.42[Q (%‘) + (2)]
since the bending moment is directly
proportional to I and inversely proportional
to y it seems necessary to use a form factor. and now considering for the stresses like modulur
The distance of neutral axis to extreme fibre of rupture, which are beyond elestic limit,
of a square beam y with a vertical diagonal
is 42 times as great as that for a beam with K4 = 0.50 + 0.50 Qy + $-)
vertical sides. Hence for for the same load the
resisting moment is fi or 1.414 times the
The same factor is used in Australia also and the
usual one.
relationship of Q to PI is given below. A smooth
c>For beams of circular section a similar curve between Q and P, gives the values of Q for
intermediate values of P,.
condition exists. Tests have shown that a
beam of circular section will sustain
practically the same load as a square beam
of equal area. The section modulus Z for a P1 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.80 1.0
square is approximately 1.18 times that of a
circle of equal area. Hence, in all countries Q 0.0850.2300.4000.5750.7400.8750.985 1.00
the modification form factor KS is 1.18.

4 For box-beams and l-beams the Based on similar arguments, some earlier
form factor K4 arises out of different publications in Europe, and also earlier
situation. Only the fibres lying within the experience in India, NBC recommends a
projection of the width of the web get modification factor:
complete supporting action similar to that in
a solid beam. The fibres outside the K,=0.8+0.8Y ;:I;;;
( -1)
projection of the width of web that are
influenced by loads are in the compres- where Y = p: (6-8~~ i- 3~:) (l-q,) -l- ql
sion flange and so its depth is important.
Thus, of the same height and section where D and pI are the same as above and q1 is
modulus, the L-beam or box-beam is weaker the ratio of total thickness of web (or webs in the
than a solid beam of the same height and case of box-beam) to the overall width of the
section modulus. It is difficult to evaluate beam (tl/t2). BSCP 112-1952 gives the
the exact interacting support of the fibres, modification factor for I-beam and box-beam in
but based on experimental evidence and terms of ratio of tl/ t2 and dl/d2 reproduced in
associated theoretical considerations, Table 20 (see Fig. 5). In these days, solid wood I-
various formulae have been worked out in beams and box-beams are not much in vogue in
the different countries. If the width of the current design trends, and usually plywood web
flange of I-beam or box-beam is t2 and the beams are employed. In calculation of bending
width of the web in the l-beam, or combined stresses in the case of such beams, there are four
thicknesses of web in box-beam is tr, the methods in common practice and the designer is
supporting ability of the compression flange left to decide on the best for his own purpose.
These are briefly described below.
is considered to be Q(f2 - ‘I) times the
t2
The homogeneous beam method-1n this
method, the web is treated as a homogeneous
supporting ability of the rectangle of t2
width, and similarly the supporting ability of section with the rest, as in rolled steel beams and
the modulus of section Z is given by :
the web is considered to be tl/ tZ times the
ability of rectangle of t2 width; where Q Z = (Ii + L>/ (d/2)
depends on PI which is the ratio of the
thickness (that is, depth) of compression where Ir is the moment of inertia of cross-section
flange to the total depth d, of the beam. of the flange
Since the increase in fibre stress at elastic
limit in flexure over the direct compression = t2 - tl
(-----
12 )(d’ - d:)
is about 72 percent, the increased amount
in the I or box-beam can be written as: I, is the moment of intertia of cross-section of
web

0.72 fQ (y) + +] =- t’ $
12

44 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


.

SP : 33@&T)-1986

or z = (trr,) cc+4) + lid3


6d
The maximum moment capacity is given by
A4 =fz.
The lever arm methodP-This is an approximate
method and neglects the contribution made by
web in resisting bending. The sections considered
are the compression flange (A,) and tension flange
(A,) having their centres at a distancef = (d-d,)
In this case, 2 = A, (d-d,) or A, (d-dl) and the
bending moment is given by M = j(d-d,) A, orf
Cd-4 A,
If A, and A, are not exactly equal, the lower value
is taken.
The.flange modulus method -~~~ This is more or
less same as above, where the contribution of web
is neglected, but extreme fibre stress is more
accurately assessed by taking full depth into
consideration and Z of the beam as :

pIr= & (w-t,) (d3-d


d/2
The exac.1 method -~ IIere the beam is
considered as a composite of two materials, and
the calculation of the bending moment is done on
the theory of composite elements, that is,

or E = Ftlr + &I,
where the suffixes f and w indicate for flanges and
webs; the bending moment, M, the modulus of
elasticity E, and the moment of inertia of cross-
section I. Similarly if fiand fw represent the fibre
stress of flange and web materials, then

M = 2(M f EJJf,; Z = 2(&A + E&)


Erd Erd
where fi is in consideration;

or A4 =
2(.5X + &I,)f,. . .
- _
7

BOX-BEAM where fw is in consideration.


FIG. 5

TABLE 20 MODIFICATION FACTOR FOR FLEXURAL STRESSES IN MEMBERS OF I


OR BOX SECTIONS
RATIO d,/d
RATIO
0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50
t*/r2
Modification factor

0.1 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.74 0.77 0.81 0.84 0.87 0.90

8:: 0.73
0.69 0.75
0.72 0.77
0.74 0.80
0.71 0.82
0.80 0.85
0.83 0.87
0.86 0.89
0.88 0.92
0.91

::; 0.77
0.81 0.79
0.82 0.81
0.84 0.83
0.85 0.85
0.87 0.87
0.89 0.89
0.91 0.91
0.93 0.93
0.95
E 0.88
0.85 0.89
0.86 0.90
0.87 0.91
0.88 0.92
0.90 0.94
0.91 0.95
0.93 0.96
0.94 0.97
0.96

0.8 0.92 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.98
0.9 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.9R 0.99
I.0 1.00 1.00 1.00 I .oo 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 45


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

The lower value of M is to be considered D1 = depth of the beam at the notch in cm;
depending on the respective values of Er, fi, li$, fw
of the material of flanges and webs. Substituting D2 = depth of the notch in cm; and
for Ir and I, in terms of dimensions the above e = length of the notch measured along
equations become the beam span from the inner edge of
the support to the farthest edge of the
M = ~l-(tz - tl> (d3 - d:) + &t,d3 fi notch.
6d &
e = length of the notch measured along
the beam span from the inner edge of
Er(rz - TV>(d3 - d:) + &vt,d3 &_ the support to the farthest edge of the
or M =
6d .Ew notch.
5.2.5.2 In determining the vertical reaction
In these equations if Er = W, and ff = fw the V, all uniform loads within a distance equal to the
values of Z and M become the same as in depth of the beam from the edge of the nearest
homogeneous beam method. support are neglected. It is well known that
concentrated load placed close to the support
52.5 Shear Stresses
causes at the neutral plane a much less shear
5.2.5.1 In calculating shear and vertical stress than given by simple shear theory. This is
reactions the following formulae are employed : because some of the load is transmitted directly to
the support without inducing shear stresses in the
4 General formula : H = VQ/Zb
member. Also the upper and lower halves of the
b) Rectangular beam : H = 3V/2bD (see beam act as somewhat independent beams
note against Q) because of inevitable presence of checks, etc.
These have been demonstrated experimently and
c) Notched beams with : H = 3VD/2b& mathematically. Hence all concentrated loads
tension notches and near the supports are, according to NBC, reduced
supports that is on by a factor given in the Table 21. For
the lower face intermediate distances percentage reduction is
obtained by linear interpolation. If any relief is
d) Notch at upper : H = 3V/2bDl
obtained to the beam under consideration by
(compression) face
distribution of load to adjacent beams or flooring,
where e > D this’ should be given due consideration.
e) Notch at upper :H= 3v
(compression) face
[2b(D-$fe)] TABLE 21 REDUCTION FACTORS FOR DiFFERENT
where e < D DISTANCES OF LOAD FROM NEAREST SUPPORT
(Clause 5.2.5.2)

DISTANCE OF LOAD FROM THE REDUCTION FACTOR


NEAREST SUPPORT
NOTE-Only the first three are given in NBC.
1.5 d or less 0.6
where
2d 0.4
H= horizontal shear (or longitudinal
2.5 d 0.2
shear) in kg/cm* at the level under
consideration (usually this is calcula- jd OT more No reduction
ted at the neutral axis);
V= vertical end reactions, or shear at a If there are moving loads, the largest one should
section in kg; be placed at a distance of 3 times the depth of the
beam but not more than ‘/ the span. If the
Q= moment of area above the level at member does not qualify for shear resistance by
which H is considered, about neutral the above procedure, a more accurate evaluation
axis. If A is the area of the beam of V is given by:
above the level at which H is consi-
dered and _Vis the distance from neut- v-lopx 1
wx)(~~*
ral axis of the beam to the centre of
9 -i-
area, then Q = Ay. 2 + ($)’
I= moment of inertia of a section in cm4
also known in literature as second and for uniformly distributed loads,
moment of area of the cross-section
under consideration; I+-~)

b= width of the beam in cm at the level


where I” = total modified end reaction,
at which H is calculated; d = depth of the beam,
D= depth of the beam in cm; 1 = span of the beam,

46 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

P= concentrated load, fen= permissible stress in compression normal


W= total uniform load,. and (perpendicular) to grain in kg/cm’, and.
X= distance from the reaction to load
6 = angle of load-to-grain direction.
. . Thus after obtaining the value of V
. 5.2.5.3 5.2.7 Lateral Stability (Lateral Buckling)
and substituting in the formula for horizontal 5.2.7.1 Lateral stability of a beam is
shear given in 5.2.5.1, it should be ensured that it sometimes referred also as lateral buckling is
does not exceed the permissible horizontal shear caused by torsional forces occuring in the beam.
for various species, grades and locations discussed and this becomes predominent in narrow and
in 3.3 and Appendix H.
deep beams. That is a beam in which ratio D; b or
5.2.6 Bearings and Bearing Stresses L/b is high where b is the width of the beam. This
is also caused due to elastic anisotropy in wood.
5.2.6.1 Wherever flexural’ members are There are several methods of linking the degree of
supported in recesses, there should be adequate lateral stability of a timber beam with working
provision for proper ventilation and other stresses in bending. However, the various codes
protection from wood destroying agents likefungii prescribe maximum Di b or L/b ratio only. The
and insects. It should also be ensured that the NBC does not give any guidance for this, except
bearing surface of wood is well finished to a plane in general terms of limiting spans, depths and
surface, and rests fully and adequately on the breadth. The critical lateral buckling load in many
supports. respects is similar to the critical loads of columns
5.2.6.2 For bearings of any length at the and on the basis of mathematical analysis,
ends of a member, and for bearings of 150 mm or formulae have been developed for calculating the
more in length at any other position, the critical loads. In order to ensure that failure
permissible stresses are the same given in standard should not occur by lateral buckling, the total safe
tables for compression perpendiculer to grain (see load W should be:
Appendix H). However, for bearings less than 150 w (
CJEI’GK
mm length, but located 75 mm or more from the .
end of a member, the permissible stress is equal to L2
the standard working stress in compression and the same for a rectangular beam is given by
perpendicular to grain, multiplied by a modifi-
w < CA .db’ .I:‘( W,. + WI,)
cation factor K7 given in Table 22 is taken from
NBC. No allowance is, however, made of ’ -zxzli-w, + 3W*)
differences in intensities of bearing stresses due to where W = critical buckling loads;
bending.
C = a constant depending on condition of
loading and fixing (example, for a
TABLE 22 MODIFICATION FACTOR K7 FOR BEARING centilever C = 4 with a concentrated
STRESSES load at the end, and C = 12.9 with
(Clause 5.2.6.2) uniformly distributed load. For sim-
ply supported beam C = 16.9 with
Length of 15 25 40 50 75 100 150
;“n’“rin,p, Or
concentrated load at the centre and
more C = 28.3 for uniformly distributed
Modification load. If the ends are clamped the
factor. K: 1.67 1.40 1.25 1.20 1.13 1.10 1.00 value of C = 43.3);
E = modulus of elasticity in bending;
5.2.6.3 Where wanes are permitted, only the
net area should be taken for calculation. Similarly r = moment of inertia of the beam about
for bearing stresses under a washer, or a small its vertical axis;
steel plate the same coefficient of Table 22 should
be taken for a length equal to the diameter of the L= span;
washer, or the width of the small plate. d= depth of the beam;
5.2.6.4 When the direction of stress is at an b= width of the beam;
angle 0 to the direction of the grain, then the
permissible bearing stress $ in that member is WL = live load;
calculated by the usual Rankinson formula:
WD = dead load;
_fh =
.L, x 5” K= tortion constant of the section and
fcP sin’ 8 + fen cos20
is equal to oldb3 where (Ydepends on
where d/b (see Table 23);
fcs= permissible compressive stress in the
direction of the line of action of the load G= modulus of rigidity in torsion usually
in kg/cm*, taken as El 16; and
fcp= permissible stress in compression parallel A= a constant depending on d/b (see
to grain in kg/cm’, Table 23).

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 47


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

TABLE 23 VALUES OF a AND A FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF d/b


d/b I 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO 20
a for K 0.14 0.19 0.23 0.25 0.2650.27 0.28 0.29 0.2970.3030.3090.31 0.3110.315
x 0.3750.4420.478 0.4990.5120.5220.530 0.5390.5460.5500.5530.5560.5580.568

From Table 23, it can be shown that if the applied For checking up the permissible deflection in case
load is limited to the permissible deflection of of timber beams, the load is taken as twice the
l/360 of span, there can be no possibility of dead load + % of the live load (IS : 883-1970). In
lateral buckling if d/b is less than 4.4 and if recent practices in USA, while taking twice the
ermissible deflection is l/200 it is safe if d/b is dead load, no reduction is made in the live load.
Pess than 3.3, It is customary in all countries to use the average
E of the species, except under some special
52.8 Defections
circumstances, when load is shared (see also
5.2.8.1 Deflections which reflect stiffness in 3.4.5.2). But as E is a variable quantity some
beams are caused not merely due to bending pieces may have 75 percent more or 75 percent
stresses which cause elongation and compression less than calculated deflection, and this is
on extreme fibres but also due to shear stresses, neglected. In some of the Australian designs, it
and consequent strains. Even though the latter in has been presumed that for a continually applied
most cases are negligible inspite of low modulus load, the value of E is usually about l/3 of the
of rigidity it is useful to know their contribution value obtained in normal laboratory tests with
and the engineer can check wherever necessary. short time loading. Hence E/3 is taken for the
This is all the more important in view of the fact contribution of dead loads.
that timber is elastically an orthotropic material.
Even in ordinary strength tests, the contribution 5.2.8.4 As discussed in 5.2.8.1, the
of deflection due to shear is neglected, and so the deflection of any beam being a combination due
recorded modulus of elasticity is naturally 10 to to bending and shear forces, it would be
15 percent lower than true value which is on the interesting to study in a little more detail the
safer side. relative importance of both, even if shear
deflections are often neglected. For reasons
5.2.8.2 Most of the codes prescribe the explained in 5.2.8.3, the deflections are calculated
limitation of deflections for different purposes
(see also 5.1). Given the dimensions of the beam WL3
by the usual deflection formula - which, in
for calculating EI values and knowing the loads KEI
W, it would be easy to check weather the span in
question is adequate to meet the limits of the case of central loading is given by WL3i48 EI
and in the case of uniform loading is given
deflection, coded for different purposes; and then
the flexural strength for the optimum span can 5 WL3
also be checked up. In ordinary cases the - -.Even in the case of any complicated
by 384 EI
deflection of the beam is limited to I/ 360 of the
span primarily to prevent cracking of plasters, etc, loading it is quite safe to calculate the central
in buildings and particularly when the beam deflection from an equivalent uniformly
supports brittle materials like gypsum ceiling, distributed loading for which the deflection at
slates, tiles, asbestos sheets, etc. For bridges, etc, mid-span A in such a case is given ordinarly by
ratio of l/200 to l/300 is recommended, 5 W,L3
depending on the nature of bridge. In India, it is
the practice not to exceed l/240 in case of simple A = 384EI
beams and joists, and I/ 180 of freely hanging
length in case of cantilevers. In small building where W, is the equivalent uniformly distributed
constructions, stiffness is more important than (KbW). For the method -of evaluating Kb, and so
deflection. the equivalent load, for various types of loading a
5.2.8.3 In calculating deflection, the normal reference may be made to Sl No. 54 in Appendix
deflection formula is employed for different types B. Similarly, the deflection due to shear stresses,
of loadings and fixings. For various types of some (except in cases where such stresses do not exist if
simple loadings, see Fig. 6 for bending moment, the beam is subjected to pure bending) is given by:
deflection and shear. For some types of
complicated loading, the central deflection may be F +’
V.H.dh
different from maximum deflection. However, for a,=.,/
simply supported beams, for whatever loading, 0

the maximum deflection will not be more than


2.57 percent of central deflection and its position FMo
which at mid-span = AG
always occur within 0.077 L of the centre of span.

48 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

W=wL R=W R=W -- WL3


-WL hj=-WL D- 3E1
MC_.__- Dd!c
2 8El
W
1

w= WL M=F

R,= R?=+ D= - 5WL3


384El

DC WL3
48El

Wab
R, + &I=-
L

R=Wa
2 D = Wab(L + bh/m
L
Wa(3L’ X 4a”)
D=
48El

FIG. 6 CANTILEVERS

49
HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING
SP : 33(S&T)-1986

where F = form factor dependant on cross sec- 5.3.2 The principal considerations in the
tional shape of the beam (equal to 1.2 design of columns are axial stress and its
for a solid rectangle), duration, positional restraints of ends, directional
restraints of ends (fixing), lateral restraints along
V = external shear due to actual loading, the length, effective length, slenderness ratio
H = shear due to unit load at the point (S/6), deflected form, bearings at top and bottom.
where the deflection is being calculated, The NBC has dealt with only axial stress and
slenderness ratio. In NBC, the duration aspect is
A = area of section, dealt in a common way for all types of stresses in
constructional members.
G = modulus of rigidity (El 16),
5.3.3 Columns of soild timber are classified
M = &;ding moment at mid span ( WoL/ 8), as:
a) short columns where S/d (slenderness ratio)
W. = WK, (W = actual load) does not exceed 1I, and permissible stresses
For evaluating K, for different types of loading a are same as given in standard tables, that is,
reference may be made to Sl No. 54 in Appendix standard working stress for compression
B. From these discussion the total deflection parallel to grain &) (see Appendix H);
A, = Ab + A, where the suffixes b and s indicate b) intermediate columns where S/d is between
as deflectton due to bending and shear forces 11 and KS (see below) and the permissible
respectively. When actually worked out, usually stresses are obtained by multiplying stan-
A$ is between 2.5 and 10 percent which is dard working stresses for compression paral-
negligible. If a graph is drawn between L/D
and a,,, it will be seen that for values of L/D based on
Ab
from 5 to 12, & reduces from about 1.6 to 1.1; the fourth power parabolic formula develo-
ped in USA. This formula is, however,
for values of L/D more than 12 and up to 25, the dependent on the assumption that the com-
A, pressive stress at proportional limit is 2/3 of
ratio of a reduces from 1.1 lo about 1.025.
maximum crushing stress and that the shape
5.2.9 &mber-There is no specific guidance of the curve below S/d = KB is parabolic
on the subject in any of the timber engineering and at S/d = KS this curve is tangent to the
codes. Camber is, however, considered important Euler curve for long columns; and
particularly in built-up beams, so that under the
action of dead-loading the beam settles down to c) long columns where L/d is greater than
approximately a horizontal position. In all these KS and the Permissible stress is given by
cases, a certain amount of engineering judgement 0.329E/(S/d) . This is on the assumption
will be necessary, how to work out the camber, that only 2.5 factor of safety is used which is
and what modulus of elasticity may be taken. It different from that recommended in 3.3 and
should be remembered that it is often easier to Table 13. Without the factor of safety the
adjust the .erection if there is slight residual constant will work out to 0.818 instead of
camber thand there is any sag. In the earlier days, 0.329.
when tension rods were being employed in the
trusses, camber could be obtained by adjusting where S = unsupported overall length of the
the nuts in the tension rods. A few moments of column in cm,
thought on the subject at the time of design will
d= dimension of least side of the column
save considerable embarrassment at erection and in cm,
subsequent behaviour of the beam in use.
KS = 0.702 dEK
5.3 Columns
5.3.1 In preparing columns or compression f, = working stress in compression parallel
to grain in kg/cm’, and
members, it is essential that there should be no
notches or cuts in the same. However, when E= midulus of elasticity in kg/cm’.
services have to be necessarily passed through
such members, it can be effected by boring a hole
5.3.3.1 The general equation for long co-
of a diameter not more than one fourth of the
lumn of uniform cross-section when end fixing
width of the face on which it occurs, and the
are considered is obtained from the well known
distance from the edge of the hole to the edge of Euler formula in which
the member should not also exceed one fourth of
the width of the face. It should be further ensured Load on column (P) K?r2 E
that the centre line of action of the force due to Area of cross-section (A) = (slr)2
load coincides with the axis of the member.
Eccentric loadings may result in erroneous where K = constant depending on end fixity, and
calculations and undue deformations. is equal to 1 for pm ended column, and 4 for

so HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

fixing ends, and radius of gyration (r) = d/ 12 and U and q depend on plank thickness as
[see 5.3.7(l)]. follows:
It has been prescribed in NBC that in solid Plank thickness, t u
columns of timber, S/d ratio should never exceed 4
cm
50. Rules have also been prescribed for tapered
columns. The induced stress at the small end 2.5 0.80 1.00
should not exceed the working stress in
compression parallel to grain. For determining 5.0 0.60 1.00
S/d ratio in such a case, the least dimension d Table 24 shows the strength of builtup column
should be taken as sum of: (a) the least dimension as a percentage of solid column of equal height,
at the smaller end, and (b) I/ 3 difference between size and grade. In building up the coIumn, it
the least dimension at larger end and correspond- should be ensured that the width of the plank is
ing least dimension at small end. In any case the not more than 5 times the thickness and the nails
so computed least dimension should not exceed penetrate at least three planks. The nails should
1% times the least dimension of the smaller end. also be spaced in longitudinal direction at a dis-
In USA the equivalent area of a long tapered tance equal to six times the thickness of one
column is taken at a point l/ 13 of its length from plank. When S/d ratio is 10 or greater, the same
the bottom of the column (that is, larger end). In percentages given in the Table 24 can be consi-
designing a round column, first a square column dered for butt-jointed pieces also.
is designed and then the diameter of equivalent
cross-sectional area is computed.
TABLE 24 BUILT-UP COLUMNS STRENGTH AS
PERCENTAGE OF SOILD COLUMN
53.4 Many instances arise when it is econo-
mical to build up columns from smaller sizes. L/d ratio 6 IO 14 18 22 26
Similar to the above classification, such built up
Percentage of solid
columns and box columns also are classified as: column strength 82 77 71 65 74 82
4 short columns where S/dr& is less
than 8; and the permissible compressive 5.3.5 Similar to the above classification, spa-
stress fc if given by f&q; ced columns also are classified as short, interme-
diate and long spaced columns. The formula for
‘-4 intermediate columns where S/ Jr& is
solid columns described in 5.3.2 is applicable to
between 8 and KS and the permissible comp-
ressive stress fc is given by: spaced columns also with a restraint factor
F = 2.5 or 3 depending upon distances of end
connectors in the column. However, for
intermediate spaced column the permissible
compressive stress fc is given by: -

or fc = qfcp
[1 - 3(K9j4
Y
(d, + d:)*
] fe= f.,[ 1 - +(edr]

and for long spaced columns it is given by:


c) long columns where S/ dr& is greater
than KS and permissible compressive 0.329 EF
stress fc is given by: fc = 5, (S/d)2

where all notations are the same as before and

KIO = 0.702

0.329 UE (d: + d:) 5.3.6 In Australia the ‘eccentric formula’


or fc = - modified to allow the effect of duration of loading
s* is used. This is given by:
where S and fcphave the same notation as above,
Pt. + PD
dl = the least overall width of the box
column in cm, 4 0.8P‘ + PD 1
fi=
d2 = the least overall dimension of core in
box column in cm, and 1+ y set 6

KS = constant equal to
where f. = ssa:zeverage stress that can be per-

.fi= work&g stress for compression paral-


IeI to grain,

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 51


SP:33(S&T)-1986

PL = live axial compressive load, length is the same in both the directions) will de-
P,, = dead& axial compression load, termine. In the rectangular sections, since R can
be linked to the least cross-sectional dimension d,
e = eauivalent eccentricitv of loading it is more easy to express slenderness ratio merely
gi;en in terms of L as L/360, - as L/d.
b= least dimension of column,
5.4 Combined Stresses
L= effective length of the column,
5.4.1 When any member is subjected to both
bending and axial stresses, then it is said to be
e= 99.3+ ,/m , and
under the action of combined stresses. All neces-
sary precautions taken for individual types of
stresses are required to be taken for this purpose
E= modulus of elasticity.
also, and the design shall comply with the formula
(see NBC and IS : 883-1970 ).
In B.S. CP 112, combined modification factors
available for different slenderness ratio and dura- r- + G is not greater than 1.
tion of loading. Derivation of general formulae L sb
and expanded values, of modification factors for
the above are discussed in Sl No. 54 of Appendix where& = calculated average axial compressive
B. or tensile stress,
_L= permissible axial compressive or ten-
5.3.7 In designing columns, the formulae sile stress respectively,
given in IS: 883-1970 and NBC for columns with calculated bending stress in extreme
fab =
pin ends conditions shall be used and they shall be fibre in kg/cm*. and
modified depending on the end conditions. But
fb= permissible bending stress in extreme
the practice in other countries is to determine the
fibre.
‘effective length’ which depends on the condition 5.4.2 When the end loads, side loads and
of end fixing and whether a sway is permitted or
eccentricity exist together in a column, special
not in the columns. In timber design, it appears formulae are required to be used. There is not
only two cases are important. They are: (a) when
much experience in India on these aspects. Some
the ends are fixed in position in which case actual
of these formulae can be found in Sl No. 49 of
length is the effective length, and (b) when one
end is fixed in position and direction, and the Appendix B.
In Australia the following general formula is
other end is free in which case the effective length
recommended for the required cross-section:
is taken as twice the actual length. In UK a
further distinction is also made on the mode of
fixing the ends. If both the ends are pin joints, A’ = 2 L 1+4$sec e
then the effective length is the total length; if one I
is pin jointed and the other is fixed end, then it is

1
0.85 of total length; if both the ends are fixed
ends, then the effective length is 0.7 of actual PL2 (WI. + 3WD)
dfb 1- -
length. Similarly for the effective cross-section, lOE1 (WL + W”)
open holes and notches must be deducted from
the area, but no such deduction will be necessary
for nails, tight bolts with only nominal clearance, when the notation in general is the same as given
etc. 1 earlier and
W,, = live transverse load,
5.3.8 For convenience and easy calcula- W, = dead transverse load, and
tions, in the NBC and in many publications in fb = permissible stress in bending.
India, the slenderness ratio is defined as the ratio Since the term in brackets in the denominator
of the length of the column to its least cross- of the second term on right hand side of above
sectional dimension. However,keeping in view the equation is nearly 1, and since the first term repre-
basic mechanics of action, it should be remem- sents the area required as a column (see 53.6) the
bered that ‘radius of gyration’ is regarded as a above equation can be written as:
measure of dispersal of any area about a given
axis. The radius of gyration R = dI/A where I -4’ = A + 6MI&
is the second moment of the area and A is the
area. The slenderness ratio (SR) is strictly defined
and adopted in some countries as: 5.4.3 When in the design of any structure,
particularly framed structure, proper considera-
s R = Ll R = effective length
tion is to be given to sway. a limit should be stan-
radius of gyration dardized for the same. Many building codes do
If the directions of buckling are denoted by x and not provide for this. A guide limit of0.003 X height
y then the larger value of (L?(R), or (SR), (that for the design consideration of sway has been
is, the smaller values of R, or Ry when effective suggested in Sl. No. 54 of Appendix B.

52 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(5&T)-1986

6. TIMBER DESIGN-PART 2 c>All the dead loads including those due to


6.1 Timber Trusses roofing, sheathing, rafters, weight of truss,
6.1.1 Introduction---Because of the very etc, should be computed.
nature of material and the long traditions in the
use of timber for trusses, it is quite possible to 4 The stresses in various members may be
develop a variety of truss profiles, far greater than worked out.
any other constructional material. While the main e) The availability of species and grade of tim-
function of a truss is to essentially take all the ber is to be examined with particular refer-
loads at the points of application, and transfer ence to the costs involved.
them to supports as efficiently and economically
as possible, the choice of profile also depends on f) The size of the member required to carry the
architectural requirements consistent with loading maximum stress due to worst combination
conditions. In the design of trusses, several other of loads may be worked out.
factors also have to be taken into consideration g) The type of joints and connectors to be used
such as any unbalanced conditions arising out of should be determined on the availability of
fabrication and erection, quite often a conflict material and workmanship, and sizes of
may arise between the required architectural members determined above.
profile and the designed structural profile and, so
the design must then introduce an economic h) The joint has to be designed for carrying the
balance between materials and workmanship, care maximum load at the joint and special care
being taken to keep the joints at a minimum as far should be taken for members which take
as possible. All the typical profiles that are load at an angle to the direction of grain.
commonly used in the country can be classified
and designed broadly under three main types: (a) 9 In the analyses of stresses in a truss or any
framed structure some commonly accepted
pitched type (mono or double), (b) parallel-chord
assumptions are to be remembered.
type (also known as flat type), and (c) bow string
type. The usual span-depth ratio for these trusses 1) When forces act parallel to long axis of a
are L/4 to 7L/ 10 for mono pitched trusses, L/8 to member it should be designed as a column
7L/20 for double pitched trusses and L/6 to L/ !O or tension member. If there are lateral
for bow string trusses and parallel-chord trusses. forces also on the member it should be
Only some general considerations are discussed treated as a beam under the action of
here as more details and special types are combined forces.
available from several text books on timber
engineering published in USA, European count- 2) External forces are always assumed to act
ries and Australia. In India, there are as yet no on joints at the point of intersection of
specific standards on trusses but a fair amount of the axes of the members. Resisting forces
literature is available from the Forest Research acting towards a joint induce compres-
Institute, Dehra Dun; Defence Departments sion and those acting away form a joints
(MES) and some PWD organizations on typical induce tension.
designs of trusses. The Forest Research Institute
has made some systematic studies on trusses using 3) Since a joint is in equilibrium, sum of all
vertical components of all forces is equal
timber of different species and different type of to zero (that is, Z V = 0) and similarly
joints from 3 to 16 metres span, for light, medium sum of all horizontal forces is zero (that
and heavy weight roofing material. Some is, C H = 0). Also the sum of moments
structural forms developed in the Institute with of forces acting about the joint is equal to
small dimensioned timber are illustrated in Fig. 7 zero (that is, X M = 0).
to 9.
A list of available designs are indicated in 4) In view of the above, for determining the
Appendix F. These designs can be obtained on forces acting on each member of a joint,
payment from the Forest Research Institute. and so on the entire truss any of the fol-
lowing methods available in any standard
text book on civil engineering or applied
6.1.2 General Factor For Design-The fol-
mechanics can be adopted as convenient:
lowing check list in the order suggested helps
(i) trigonometric method (ii) moment
to reduce the amount of work involved in method and (iii) the graphic method.
designing trusses:
(see Fig. 10 and example 4 in Appendix
K for a simple trigonometrical method).
a) Choose the type of truss (truss profile) dep-
ending on architectural requirement and k) Some of the following experiences at the
structural compatability and feasibility of Forest Research Institute are useful in the
fabrication and erection. design of trusses.
1) An initial camber for short span trusses is
b) All the live loads acting on the truss should recommended ds l/200 of the span. For
be carefully assessed. longer spans this may be slisht1y

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 53


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

\ 1
FIG. 7 ROOF TRUSSES (Contd.)

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


54
SP : 33(S&T)-1986

FIG. 7 ROOF TRUSSES

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 55


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

I I

l *e*ee*e*eeeee
l eeeeeeeeeeeee

l ee
0.0
l eo l e*
I

FIG. 8A. BEAMS, GIRDERS AND ARCHES

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

.b
L
.

FIG. 9 ELECTRIC POSTS AND Porn

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

increased. If unseasoned wood is used and at ioad transmission points. Stressed


the camber is recommended to be li 100 members may be allowed permissible
of span (see NBC). defects.
2) For different spans of trusses there is an Wood-working operations should ensure
optimum spacing of trusses for best that no unaccounted stresses come into
economy. This is about 3 to 4.5 metres play, particularly at the joints.
for spans ranging from 6 to 20 metres,
and 5 to 6 metres for spans greater than 7) Undue deflections which may create
20 metres. Increase in spacing of trusses, unaccounted stresses, may be minimized
reduces the overall cost which includes by using lower safe stresses, larger sizes,
the supporting pillars also. The National lessening the joints, and using fastenings
Building Organisation (India) in its Hand- with low slip characteristics.
book for Building Engineers suggests a
8) In all cases where the designer is not fully
formula for economical span L (length of satisfied with the details of calculations
purlins) in terms of modulus of elasticity to meet a particular requirement, he
(E), moment of inertia of the section (I), should be particularly careful to ensure
and total loads per centimeire length of that the strength and stiffness of the truss
the purlin (IV,) as: as a whole is adequate and should prefer
L3 = 0.384EI a prototype test (see 7.2 and 7.3).
W
6.1.3 Joints in Trusses - It is obvious, the
but neither this seems to have been joint
. in a stressed member being the weakest, its
incorporated in Indian standards, nor design should ensure complete safety not only in
widely used. the use of truss as such and its load bearing
capacity, but also take into consideration the
3) For three-metre spacing of trusses, join: limitations of carpentary practices involved and
ted purlins will be quite economical. For the probability of timber swelling and shrinking.
greater spacings trussed purlins or trian- the development of cracks, splits, etc, and many
gular purlins are recommended. other factors which may reduce the effectiveness
4) While the purlins are to be placed at of the joint. There are many types of joints, which
requisite node points, for practical pur- can be broadly classified as: (a) mechanical joints
pose a shift of 10 cm on either side of the which are effected through fasteners, and (b)
centre of node will not seriously affect glued joints which ensure permenent rigidity if
structural safety. proper!y done. Of the latter the finger joints are
coming into prominence more recently (xe 6.3).
5) Strength-reducing defects should be avoi- Many of the housing type joints like mortise and
ded as far as possible at the joints, tennons are generally avoided these days. Instead,

R’.3*5P
6

FIG. 10 ANALYSIS OF A SIMPLE TRUSS

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 59


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

dowels, bolts, straps, spikes and nails are used for where
the mechanical type joints. Sometimes glued and
nailed joints are used. Generally the cutting of A = total deflection in metres,
timber is now limited to notching or preboring, L = span of the truss in metres, and
where necessary, thus developing the lapped or
half-lapped joints and using fasteners. The design H = height of the truss in metres.
and use of fasteners and joints are discussed in
6.3. The NBC gives requirements of spacing nails 6.1.5 From the limited discussions above, it
in structural joints, but some of the individual may be seen that although there exists in India
specifications for special constructions indicate some experience of designing, fabrication and
typically accepted joints, for example, IS : 3670- erection of a few timber trusses of different types,
1966 prescribes jointing details for floor boards there is still considerable scope for engineering
and IS : 2366-1963 for structural purposes, etc. investigations in .studies relating to trusses and
Considering the special case of nail-jointed truss their standardization. As examples of these
construction, NBC recommends that the total aspects, mention may be made of analysis of
combined thickness of the gussets or splice plates stresses at different mechanical and glued type of
on either side of the joint m a mono-chord type joints, development of modification factors for
construction should be equal to, or more than one the same for calculating stresses; quality control
and a half times the thickness of the main requirement for such joints; development of
members subject to minimum thickness of 258 design coefficients for various members for ready
mm of individual gusset plate. The total combined evaluation of stresses in them, standardization of
thickness of all spacer blocks or plates or both
typical truss& using different groups of species
including outer splice plates at any joint in a split
chord type construction should be not less than and grades, and development of codes for using
one and a half times the total thickness of all the different types of timber trusses under different
main members at that joint. In passing, mention conditions, etc.
may also be made here of IS : 38451966 which 6.2 Special Constructions
mainly deals with joints for furniture but the
general precautions mentioned therein will also be 6.2.1 The general aspects of timber design in
applicable to some types of structures, so far as they relate to solid structural compo-
particularly light constructions. Wherever nents and simple trusses have been dealt in the
transmission of load through a bearing area, earlier sections. The current practices as reported
particularly where washers of metal plates are in various Indian standards and other published
used, the modification factors discussed in 5.2.6 literature has been covered, and wherever
should be kept in mind. considered necessary, the practices as exist in
other countries have also been briefly mentioned.
Eccentricity in joints should be avoided, In the foregoing sections, it is proposed to deal
particularly in heavy stressed members, if however with only some specific areas of timber
eccentricity comes in the design or fabrication, the engineering for which there exist already some
effect of induced moments should be taken into relevant Indian standards. As reference to the
consideration when calculating the fibre-stresses. corresponding standard is always desirable, only
the most important aspects are discussed below.
6.1.4 Deflection in Trusses - The deflection
in a truss is caused by: (a) strains in members 6.2.2 Timber Floors US : 3670-1966)
which may be due to compression or tension, and
6.2.2.1
The snecification on timber floors
(b) slips in joints. These may be computed covers only the fabrication and laying of timber
separately for each member and for each joint, floors and their relevant components. The
and the total may be computed. The American specification provides also for special contractual
Institute of Timber Construction Standards quote information to be exchanged as a pre-condition
some empirical formulae for calculating deflection for satisfactory laying of floors. This includes not
of different types of trusses, but these are highly only the time schedules for various operations but
empirical and independent of the size of members, also the quality of materials, the design data, the
the stresses that come on the same, and the type required processing of the materials before the
of joints. The formulae are given below: floor is laid out,’ and alSo subsequent dressing
a) For symmetrical flat and pitched trusses : operations, filling with floor seals, and further
treatment required on flooring, when completed.
6.2.2.2 Five types of floors have been recog-
-.&?-- [“+ I] ,and nised in IS : 3670-1966. They are briefly described
A = 429033 26.6
here. The main floor boards recommended are to
b) For bowrstring trusses be 2.5 to 4 cm thick and not greater than 15 cm
wide and 3.5 metres long. Several types of end-to-
end jointing of boards are recommended
“[++I] according to economy and efficiency, though no
a = 19OOH specific details are indicated.

60 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


-

SP : 33(S&T)=1986

Single joisted ,floors - These may be either has been given to other indices such as ‘shock-
at ground level or upper floors, with floor resisting-ability’, ‘strength as a beam’ and
boards laid directly on bridging joists. The ‘retention of shape’. In this connection, if a choice
maxitium span of the joists should not be of species is to be made at all, that is. particularly
more than 3.5 metres and the width should when species as such are intended to be used, then
not be less than 5 cm. The ratio of depth-to- it would have been more appropriate to arrive at
breadth should be between 3 and 4 and it a composite index figure by suitable combination
should be designed as a beam with deflec- of the properties, giving due weightage to their
tion not more than l/360 of span. At the relative importance as discussed in 3.1.4. It has
ground level a minimum of 30 cm floor been recommended further that for girders,
space is required to be provided beneath the binders, and bridging joists, all species of Group
floor and also proper ventilation of 22 to 85 C may be used up to 6 metres span, all species of
cm2 depending on extreme dry to highly Group B for spans between 6 and 12 metres, and
humid conditions. In the upper floors, the all species of Group A for spans of 12 metres and
resting of joists should be on wall plates, greater (see 5.1.1 and, Appendix B of IS : 3670-
and when covered, should be well treated 1966). There does not seem to be any specific
and protected to prevent decay. If the rational behind these recommendations. In fact,
spacing between joists is more than 2.5 metres, species of higher strength (that is, Group A can
they should be herring-bone strutted by also be used for shorter spans with increased
3 X 5 cm members. In case of heavy floors, economy and safety, for timber is sold not
solid type strutting may be employed with according to their weight which in turn reflects its
members of Yd depth of the joists, and strength, but according to dimensions). Longer
breadth equal to l/3 or l/4 of the depth. dimensions cost more. Except the popular species,
most of other species have roughly the same price
b) Double joisted floors, having the bridging in market. It may be noted that in Appendix C
joists .rupported on binders - These are of IS : 3670-1966, a minimum values of 56 246
adopted where the span of bridging joists is kg/cm* of modulus of elasticity, and 85 kg/cm’
more than 3.5 metres but less than 5 m. The
for extreme fibre stress are recommended for
binders supporting the bridging joists may
timbers for various purposes. But obviously this
have a maximum span of 5 m and they
serves only as a further guide in selection of
should be well supported.
species, and appears somewhat redundant in the
cl Triple joisted floors or .framed J’oors - context of limitations already placed on surface
These are adopted when the span of binder hardness, and also in the context of sufficient
exceeds 5 metres but not more than IO met- variation having been permitted in the dimensions
res. Hence they are recommended to, rest on of various members of the floor, depending on
girders. Although it is said in the specifica- commonly assumed loads and other requirements.
tion that jointing between binders and gir-
ders should be by tennons. and is indicated 6.2.3 Wooden Stairs in Houses (IS : 1674-
by a rough diagram, it appears there can 1973)
be considerable -flexibility in construction 6.2.3.1 This specification deals with
techniques, depending on loads and the sizes material, constructional details of interior wood
of the girders available. Also some limita- stairs for houses, and does not cover the design,
tion is placed on the spacing of girders but construction of monumental, decorative and
this is a factor which may depend on the special types of wood stairs for which sufficient
length of binders which according to the number of advanced books on timber architecture
specifications may vary from 5 to 10 metres. are available. The general arrangements recom-
mended are as follows and these have been
4 Solid timber ,floors - These consist mainly aligned with the relevant provisions in the NBC.
of a cement concrete sub-floor of 5 to 7.5 cm
thickness embeded with wooden fillets of 4 The material can be any of the species recom-
12.5 X 4 cm on which the main wood floor mended in IS : 399-1963 for construction-
boards of atleast 2.5 cm thick are placed. al purposes. It would have been preferable
if at least the range of hardness of the spe-
e) Purpose made Joors - These are generally cies is limited similar to floors given in
designed for skating rinks, and indoor games IS : 3670-1966 for this purpose also. Simi-
like badminton and squash. larly, if plywood is used, it is recommended
6.2.2.3 IS : 3670-1966 does not deal in de- that it shall conform to BWR type of IS :
tail any particular design aspects. For floor 303-1975 in a general way.
boards it recommends species mainly on the basis
of suitability figures of ‘hardness’ of timbers
b) The head room should be at least 2.2 metres
from ceiling or soffit to the pitch-line with a
compared to teak as 100 (we 3.1.4 and Table 7). clearance of atleast 1.5 metres at right angles
The range of the suitability figure chosen is from to the line.
55 to 135. It is further claimed that in the
recommendation of the species due consideration cl The pitch should not be more than 37”.

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 61


SP :33(S&T)-1986

d) The going (g) should not be less than 25 cm flooring including the species and the grade,, (c)
and the riser (I) not more than 19 cm and the thickness of flooring and relationship of
both should be same for all steps in any one finished surface with’ reference to a datum, (d)
flight. The empirical rules governing the. constructional aspects including anv services
above are: (1) 2 Y + g > 530 mm and passing, type of under lay, fixing techniques, and
< 630 mm. and (2) r X g > 40 X103 (e) treatments like damp proofing preservative
< 50 X IO’ mm’. treatment to species, treatment of skirtings,
treatment of junction with adjacent flooring,
The number of risers in any one flight should dressing and polishing, etc.
not be more than 12. After considerable discus-
sion, the committee concerned with the prepara- 6.2.4.2 In discussing the various species
tion of the standard, came to the conclusion that suitable for the purpose, suitability figure of
physical exertion in climbing the steps relates to hardness compared to teak as 100 (see 3.1.4 of
the dimensions of each step and the number of IS : 5389-1969) has been chosen as the main
steps rather than to the total height of the flights. criteria and it is further recommended in the
specification that species of different hardness
e) Treads should be less than 27 cm in width should not be used as there would be a likelihood
and their nosing should be properly rounded
of uneven wear in due course. However it would
off with its projection not less than I5 mm
have been evolved taking into consideration the
and not more than its thickness, beyond the
shock resisting ability and retention of shape also.
face of the riser.
But it should be kept in mind that in evolving
Clear width of stairs between inside to inside such types of floors, different naturally coloured
end strings shall not be less than 1.0 m and species are generally selected to give different
the width of landing should not be less than beautiful patterns. The timbers used should
the width of the stairs. definitely be seasoned and processed well in
accordance with IS : 1141-1973 and IS : 4Oi-
g) The vertical height from the pitch line to the
1982, and the whole floor should be protected
top of any sloping hand rail should not be
against termites, and other wood destroying
less than 1.0 metre.
agents. Also moisture should be prevented by
h) Winders are generally to be avoided but damp proof layers according to IS : 1609-1976.
provided there should be three for a quarter
of space and six for half the space. 6.2.4.3 In the code of practice for laying of
arquet and wood block floors, the thickness of
6.2.3.2 IS : 1634-1973 gives further general 8 oor blocks and parquets are recommended to be
guidance on constructional details about treads, from 25 to 40 mm. which is a very wide range but
risers, strings, landings, newels, hand-rails and in practice, to reduce the costs and working
balustrades, and also about finishing. This guid- operations 25 mm is the most common thickness.
ance is based on general good carpentary The other components of floors are recommended
practices, and cannot be taken strictly as a in IS : 5389-1969 as follows:
building code requirements or standard practices.
However references to IS : 3670-1966, IS : 5389- a) Sub-floor - 50-75 mm thick; to be well pla-
1969, IS : 2338 (Part I)-1967 and 1S : 2338 ned and all loose boards to be made firm.
(Part 2)-196’7 are recommended to be made for Sometimes this sub-floor can also be of cem-
satisfactory performance and appearance of the ent concrete.
stairs. It appears that with the incoming of several
other types of alternate wood based materials, like b) Panels - Generally square pattern of 30 to
compregnated woods, veneered particle boards, 35 cm side but occasionally panels of size
plywoods, etc, there is a further scope of develo- used are as small as 15 cm or as large as 90
ping the designing and construction of wood cm. Panels are placed in position with
stairs. mastics (IS : 3037-1965).
6.2.4 Hardwood Parquet and Wood Block
Floors (IS : 5389-1969) c) Battens - Properly square edged, generally
15 to 50 cm in length 5 to 10 cm in width,
6.2.4.1 This specification deals only with and 5 to 10 mm in thickness are used.
fabrication and laying of parquet and wood block
floors but mosaic parquet flooring has not been 4 Border - A design, different from the main,
is adopted up to a width of about 60 cm. In
covered. Parquet has been defined as aggregate of addition to beauty this will set the required
parquet strips assembled in horizontal plane geometry of the main floor.
forming the upper part of a floor. Regular
patterns of parquet floor are arranged in large e) Wood block jloors -These are to be pro-
areas to form panels and laid in symmetrical perly grooved, tongued, and fitted either
designs on a sub-floor of timber boards. In the through battens or directly on mastic or bitu-
execution of these type of floors the important men in semi-fluid condition. The blocks are
factors to be considered have been recognized as: usually of sizes 25 X 7.5 cm to 30 X 7.5 cm
(a) the floor to be covered, (b) the type of timber with thickness of 2.5 to 4 cm approximately.

62 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(%&T)-1986

6.2.4.4 After laying the various components gle (that is, 10 to 13 cm for length of shing-
of floors, all pores and holes appearing on the les of 30 to 40 cm). The spacing of rafters
floors should be sealed with proper floor seals, should not normally exceed 60 cm unless the
and the surface should be made smooth battens also are designed for loads.
preferably by power driven sanding machines. d) At every section in the roof area the shingles
The floors should be also polished by traditional should be atleast three deep course of shing-
oils, waxes, synthetic resin polishes, and should be les (except the bottom two courses) and they
frequently maintained on the same lines (see 9). shall be fastened to battens by standard MS
The cost of such flooring is an important factor nail; (IS : 723-1972) of 2.24 mm shank dia-
and should be viewed against the background of meter and 4 cm length. The distance of nails
the architectural requirements and purposes from the butt end of the shingle should be
intended in different halls, auditoria, etc. It may 1 to 1.5 cm more than exposed length of the
be interesting to note that in 1960-70, the floors shingle, and not more than 2 cm from the
laid in different parts of the country costed edge. Each course of wooden shingles should
between Rs. 30 and Rs. 90 per square metre be overlapped by another course such that
depending on species and designs, etc. New types only I/ 3 of the length of the shingle of lower
of material like irradiated woods, compregs and course is exposed and the remaining two-
laminated products are gradually coming into use thirds is overlapped. In each horizontal
in several parts of the world. course the shingles should be atleast 3 to 6
6.2.5 Roofing with Wooden Shingles (IS : mm apart for shrinkage and swelling.
2700-1964)
e) Each successive course of wood shingles
6.2.5.1 This specification deals with laying should be break-jointed; that is, the inter-
of wooden shingles for roof covering. For laying shingle gaps in the successive courses should
and fixing of other roof coverings (slatesj, not be in the same line but should be off set
reference may be made to IS : 5119 (Part I)-1968. by about 4 cm. The general arrangement of
A shingle has been defined as thin flat tapering roofing with woodenshingles may be seen
rectangular piece of wood, 30 to 40 cm long, and from Fig. 1 and 3 of IS : 2700-1964.
12 to 15 cm wide used as a roofing tile, obtained
either by sawing or by splitting. Currently the 6.2.6 Timber Ceilings {Is : 5390-1969)
specification recommends species of high decay 6.2.6.1 This specification is a code of prac-
resistance, for heartwood and low shrinkage as tice for fabrication and laying of timber ceilings
suitable for shingles. but in the suggested fifteen and their relevant components. Two types of ceil-
species, there are some of lower,durability also ings have been recognized: (a) the ceilings when
which can be used after proper treatment only. the distances between trusses are not greater than
Well seasoned and treated species are reported to one metre and the truss acts as truss rafter, and :
have given quite a long life. However, as these are (b) the ceilings when the distance between the
exposed to weather, periodical maintenance and trusses is more than one metre. In the above spe-
replacement of any decayed material would be cification about 24 species have been selected as
necessary. suitable for ceiling and no special criteria has been
6.2.5.2 The following are some of the mentioned. However, since they are to be fixed
important design considerations: from bottom side it is considered that compara-
tively light timbers would be preferable.
a) Wooden shingles may be supported on bat- Sometimes architectural designs may be required
tens over purlins and rafters over rooting in the ceilings for. which easy wood working
sheets like GI sheets or timber roofing qualities of the species would be an added
boards, (particularly in very damp and advantage.
heavy rain fall areas). The load of shingles 6.2.6.2 In the design and execution of
along with only battens are taken as 20 to 25 ceilings while keeping IS : 883-1970 in view some
kg/m* for all design purposes. Where neces- factors have been indentified in the code as
sary, this can be worked more accurately important. These are: (a) species and grade of
from the specific gravity and moisture con- timbers; (b) types of ceiling and its thickness, its
tent of the species employed. The moisture level to a datum and its fixing; (c) type of
content of all timber used should be in ac- underlay, if any; (d) preservative treatment of
cordance with IS : 287-1973 for different timbers; (e) treatment of junctions; (f) services
zones of India. passing through ceiling, if any; and (g) dressing,
painting or polishings, etc. The required moisture
b) The itch of the common rafter or .surface
content is recommended to be based on IS : 287-
on wIJlich shingles are laid, should not be less
than 3Y and this should be increased in ele- 1973 for different zones of India. The recommen-
vated sites or areas of heavy rain fall. dation with regard to seasoning and preservation
are to be as usual in accordance with IS : 1141-
cl The battens generally of 5 X 2.5 cm sup or- 1973 and IS : 401-1982. The usual protection
ting the shingles should be spaced equal Py at against termites and dampness also is recommen-
distance of about 1I3 the length of the shin- ded. In addition to t.he above, the following

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 63


SP : 33(5&T)-1986

specific recommendations are made with regard to Sometimes the designs were checked by actual
stzes and constructions: loading tests, and sometimes by testing reduced
a) Timber plants used should be between 15 size models in structural laboratories. It is
and 20 mm thick, and not more than 100 needless to point out that in such types of
mm wide. The longitudinal edges of planks constructions as bridge constructions, the joints
may be jointed by any conventional method and fasteners have always attracted greatest
as: (1) butt and beading type, leaving a small attention. The economy of the bridge depends not
gap between the edges and using a bead of only on the initial cost and annual maintenance,
about 30 mm wide; (2) overlap type such but also on the expected life of the bridge. Well
that each plank overlaps the adjoining plank treated timbers may preserve a bridge for much
by about 15 mm keeping alternate planks in longer time than usual, but the life expectancy
should be based on consideration when the
the same level; (3) half-lap edge joint with
structure may become obsolete either on account
the lap of about 15 mm wide; and (4) tongue of new types of traffic or on account of new
and groove joint with about 10 mm tongue. materials of construction. As the bridges generally
b) With regard to fixing, three types are recog- remain exposed to weather, it is necessary to use
nized as follows: (1) sloping ceilings are durable or well treated timbers and adopt special
fixed immediately below the roofing, usually maintenance precautions such as painting with
just above the purlins; (2) horizontal closed moisture resistant oils or paints.
ceilings are fixed on the underside of floors,
and roof-framings, or sometimes indepen- 6.2.8 Lamella Construction
dently, when the roof frame is too high and
lower ceiling levels are to be adopted; and 6.2.8.1 Recently some attempts have been
(3) horizontal open ceilings are fixed below made for developing lamella roofs by using
roofs and floors by nailing suitable fillets relatively short curved timber planks bevelled and
of 4 X 4 cm cross-section to the bridging bored at their ends and joined together by bolts at
joists or tie beams, etc. Open ceilings have an angle through another member bored at its
the advantage of provision for sound proof centre to form a curved network of stiffenned
material in the hollow spaces. timber members. These structural elements are
decorative in themselves and so it has attracted
6.2.1 Bridge Constructions the architectural requirements mostly for
assembly halls, churches, pavilions and
6.2.7.1 Although there are no prescribed
national standards and codes for timber bridge restaurants, etc. Depending on the span of the
constructions in India, there is a fair amount of arch, and the loads on the roof, the individual
experience in the country in the design of bridges. lamella units can be easily fabricated in
One of the earliest publications on the subject of workshops and the erection is carried out easily at
highway bridges was by Dr S. Kamesam. Basing site, giving adequate protection at the ends of the
his designs on standard PWD loadings, he had arch to prevent its slipping laterally. The thrust of
constructed several bridges ranging from 2.5 to the roof is taken either by tie rods, or buttresses,
21 m with both treated sawn timber and also or concrete pipes. The rise of the arch generally
round timber for the standard widths, namely, 4 varies from l/5 to I/7 of the span.
and 5 m. Forest Research Institute has developed 6.2.9 Earthquake Zone Constructions
various types of bridges from spans of 3 to 18
metres for IRC Class B loading of PWD 6.2.9.1 Not much information is available
standards. Several types of bridges, including on any special types of timber constructions for
pantoon bridges, have been developed by defence earthquake zones, but it is advisible for the
services in India for crossing rivers, and narrow designer to take into consideration the relevant
valleys in hill regions. However, these experiences clauses on seimsic loads recommended in NBC.
have neither been standardized nor codified at The vibrations caused on the structure may be
national level so far, and it may be worth while to resolved into three perpendicular directions and
coordinate these designs and arrive at some the design may be made safe for the vibration
uniform basic design considerations for bridges. sway and damping’ in a11 directions
simultaneously. The predominant direction of
Timber bridges are broadly divided into two vibration is considered horizontal. Wherever
types: (a) the trestle type, and (b) the truss type earthquake forces are considered along with other
bridge. In India mostly the truss types exist. In normal design forces, the permissible stresses in
other countries bridges of 80 to 100 metres spans materials (in the elastic method of design) may be
have been developed using metal connectors and increased by one-third. However, it should be
by glued laminated constructions. So far, it remembered that timber can normally develop
appears that general guidelines of design in under dynamic conditions twice the strength
IS : 883-1970 have been followed for bridge required under static conditions, but the same
beams, girders and trusses. Where necessary may not be exactly true of the joints. For the
increased consideration of safety have been purpose of determining seismic forces, the country
specifically provided on local circumstances. is classified into live zones with horizontal seismic

64 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

befficients of values 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05 and 4. Chloroxylon .rwietenia


0.08 (see IS : 1893-1975). Vertical seismic Euca1.vptu.s globulus
i: Anogeisses latlfolia
coefficients, wherever necessary, may be taken as
7. Quereus spp
half of the corresponding horizontal coefficient.
8. Acacia arabica
The choice .of a value for damping coefficient of
Shorea robusta
timber structure is a matter of judgement, but a
lo’. Terminalia tomentosa
damping coefficient of 2 to 5 percent of critical
11: Stereospermum chelonoides
value is suggested in NBC.
12. Bichovia ,javanica
6.2.10 Fire-prooj Construction (NBC Part IV, 13. Albizzia lebbeck
IS : 1642-1960 and IS : 1643-1960) 14. Pterocarpus dalbergiodes
15. Terminalia paniculata
6.2.10.1 It is now well recognized that fire 16. Carapa moluccensis
hazard is a potential danger to any type of 17. Pterocarpus marsupium
building with any material. What is more 18. Albizzia odoratissinna
important is to prevent the causes of fire and its 19. Dipterocapus spp
spread than choose a building material on the Terminalia belerica
basis of its resistivity to fire or to reject a material 4:. Dalbergia sissoo
because of its combustibility. It has been the
22: Tectona grandis
common experience that in the case of serious
23. Lugerstroemia spp
fires to buildings, in the various types of efforts to
Juglans regia
control the same, the wood material can be
salvaged for re-use, and part of the money at least ZZ. Artocarpus hirsuta
is recovered, whereas most of other materials are 26: Cedrela toona
destroyed completely with no value for re-use at Hymnodicton excel.yum
;;: Adina cord{folia
all. However in all cases of precautions against
fire, the intention in the design is to save life in Caloplyllum tomentosum
preference to property and so the time’taken for Z: Terminalia bialata
the occupants to escape is most important. British Schima wallichi
standard classifies building materials into four ::: Morus spp
classes depending on their fire-resistivity and Pinus roxburghii
flame spread characteristics. Most of the wood ::: Mangtfera indica
and wood products come under Class 3, that is, Cupressus torulosa
::: Terminalia myriocarpa
surfaces of medium flame spread. Low density
Picea morinda
woods and insulation boards are classified as
Z Pinus excelsa
Class 4 (that is, surface of rapid flame spread).
39: Anthocephalus cadamba
Wood wool cement boards are classified Class I
(that is, surfaces of low flame spread). There does The trade names and local names of the above
not seem to be any such standard classification of species are given in Appendix G.
wood and wood products in India as yet.
However, IS : 1643-1960 and NBC (Part IV) deals 6.2.10.3 One of the methods used in fire-
with fire protection in greater detail and the proof construction is to treat the wood with
general clauses are applicable to timber structures appropriate fire retarding chemical, (Fee 4.4)
depending upon the species and the nature of
also.
hazard likely to arise. Apart from such treatments
6.2.10.2 As a result of some laboratory discussed therein, there can also be a possibility of
studies on fire resistance of wood, D. providing in the structure, some systems to
Narayanamurthi and G. Gopalachari (Indian prevent the spread of the flames. One way is to
Forest Bulletin No. 118, 1943) came to the know the rate of charring of surfaces and to
conclusion that heavier timbers and timbers with calculate safe dimensions to withstand the load,
tylosses offer more resistance than timbers free for people to escape in time. Another way is to
from tylosses, as the vessels plugged with tylosses identify spots of possible start of fires and provide
offer more resistance to the movement of gases fire stops to prevent the spread of fire. The greater
through the timber. This is taken as an indication danger of fire being at joints and connections
that timbers which are difficult to treat also offer which may induce undue twisting moments
more resistance to spread of fire. Other properties (particularly if they have metal components), it
which affect the fire resistance are the thermal may be possible to design such joints either far
conductivity and specific heat which determine away from the source of fire and the charring line,
the rate of change of temperature. Some of the or to protect the joint externally by material of
structural species arranged in order of their higher fire resistance or low combustibility. The
resistance to fire, calculated from their rate of engineer may also design the joint with increased
burning curves, are the following: net section or by collaborative tests under
1. t Diospyros spp conditions of anticipated hazards.
2. Hopea parv[jlora 6.2.11 Bolts and Nail Jointed Constructions
3. Hardwickia binata (IS : 2366-1963. IS : 4983-1968 and NBC)

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 65


SE’ : 33(S&T)-1986

6.2.11.1 Or all types of jointed ces, edge distances and spacings should be
constructions in wood, the nail jointed generally as given below and also illustrated
construction has made rapid strides in the country in Fig. 1 I to 13 more clearly for lengthening
as it was always necessary to make use of small and node joints.
dimensioned stock to keep the economy at lower
levels. This subject on design aspects has been Spacing Stress in Require-
discussed in greater detail under 6.3. Here only the Joirzt rnent
some special considerations that go into the
constructions have been discussed. The nail joints End distance Tension 12d
can be used for butt joints or lap joints either in Compression IOn
mono-chord construction or in split-chord
In the direction Tension IOd
constructions. At present only a few species have
of grain Compression 5d
been tested for strength and these have been
recommended in IS : 23661963 for permanent Edge distance 5n
and temporary constructions.
Between rows of 5d
6.2.11.2 Some important aspects on the nails perpendi-
fabrication of nailed constructions are discussed cular to the
below: grain
4 The dimension of members should be within
g) All nails should be so arranged that the line
the following range (see IS : 2366-1963 and of force in a member passes through the
and NBC) centroid of the group of nails, as otherwise
Thickness of : 15 to 100 mm suitable allowance should be made for any
members eccentricity. All projecting nails should be
properly clenched or cut to be flush with the
Width of Normally should not face. Adjacent nails should preferably be
members exceed eight times the driven from opposite faces.
thickness.
h) When nails are driven through a lap joint
In the case of lap joints minimum thickness fro-m the side of the thinner member: the
of thinner member shouid be atleast 2/3 length of penetration of nails in the thicker
thickness of thicker member, and in case member should be 11% times the thickness
of butt joints, minimum thickness of splice of the thinner member subject to the maxi-
plate members should be 3/4 times the mem thickness of thicker member. For butt
thickness of main structural member. joints the nails should be through the entire
thickness of the joints. When in doubt pre-
b) Preferably there should be no lengthening ference should be given to more number of
joint at the node1 point and there should vertical rows rather than more nails in a
preferably be only one such joint, at any’ row. When prebore is necessary for the
rate, not more than two between two nodal nails, the diameter of pre-bore should be les-
points. ser than the diameter of the nail by atleast
0.5, 0.1 and I .5 mm in very hard or dense
cl The total combined thickness of the gusset
woods, medium dense, and soft or light
or splice plates (in a monochord type cons-
truction) or of spacer blocks and plates in a woods respectively.
split chord type should not be less than one
and a half times the total thickness of all
j) Nail jointed structures should be periodi-
cally mspected for corrosion, or looseness of
main members. The total combined thick- nails, joints, etc, and preferably maintained
ness of all spacer blocks or plates or both at by painting or reinforcing the nailing scheme.
any joint in a split chord type construction
should not be less than one and a half times k) See examples 5 and 6 of Appendix K for
the total thickness of all main members at designing nailing scheme.
that joint.
6.2.11.3 Nail jointed designs have also been
4 The diameters of nails should be between employed for laminating wood beams
l/6 and I/ 1 I of the least thickness of mem- mechanically (IS : 4983-1968). The beam is made
ber and they should be preferably galvanized. of 2 to 3 cm thick planks placed vertically with
joints staggered in the adjoining planks at a
e) A camber of not less than L/360 should be minimum distance of 30 cm and a maximum of 60
provided in the lower chord of nail jointed
cm. They are jointed by minimum number of 4
timber truss for permanent constructions
nails in a vertical row at regular intervals not
and L/200 for temporary constructions
exceeding 7.5 cm to take up not only horizontal
using seasoned wood and L/l00 for unsea-
shear forces but also to keep the planks in
soned or partially seasoned wood.
position. In such laminations lower grade material
fl All nails should be so arranged as to avoid can be used in the interior where the stresses are
undue splitting of the wood. The end distan- lower compared to extremes. In the above

66 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

EFFECTIVE END
QISTANC E
1
10n min.
1
L I

11A Monochord Type Butt Joint Subject to Compression

NO DISTANCE

DISTANCE 5n mtn.

l1B Monochord Type butt Joint Subject to Tension

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 67


SP:33(S&T)-1986

11C Split-Chord Type Butt Joint Subject to Compression

11 D Split-Chord Type Butt Joint Subject to Tension


n = shank diameter of nail

FIG. 11 SPACING OF NAILS IN A LENGTHENING JOINT

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGlNEERlNG


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

12A 128

12c

“5n may be increased to 10n. if designed width of chord member permits.


Otherwise the end of the loaded web member may be extended by at least 5n Min.
n = shank diameter of nail
FIG. 12 SPACING OF NAILS WHERE MEMBERS ARE AT RIGHT ANGLES TO ONE ANOTHER

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 69


SP:33(S&T)-1986

r TIMBER FISH

BOTTOM CHORD J

FIG. 1.x

'5n may be increased to 10n. if designed width of chord member permits.


Otherwise the end of the loaded web member may be extended by 5n, Min.
n = shank diameter at nail

FIG. 13 SPACING OF NAILS AT NODE JOINTS WIIERE MEMBERS ARE INCLINED TO ONE ANOTHER

HANDROOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 71


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

referred specification, the maximum depth and Where a number of bolts are used in a joint, the
length of the planks are remmmended to be from allowable load in withdrawal or lateral resistance
25 to 200 cm respectively. But a minimum depth shall be the sum of the allowable loads for the
of the beam for nails 3.75 mm and 4 mm individual bolts.
diameter; and 12.5 cm for nails of 5 mm diameter
is recommended. 6.2.12.3 Arrangement qf bolts - The
following spacings in bolted joints shall be fol-
lowed (see Fig. 14) :
6.2.12 Design of Bolted Construction Joints
aj Spacing oJbo/ts in a row -~ For parallel and
6.2.12.1 General - For total prefabrication,
bolt jointed construction is the most befitting idea perpendicular to grain loading = 4d3.
for timber structural components. Bolt jointed b) Spacing between rows qf bolts
construction units give better facilities as regards
workshop ease, transport convenience and re- 1) For perpendicular to grain loading =
assembly at site of work. This technique is best 2.5d3 to 5ds (2.5d3 for t/d3 ratio 2 and
suited for defence purposes for semi-permanent 5d3 for t/d3 ratio of 6, where t is the
structures (sheds) which are required to be erected thickness of main member and d3 is the
at high altitudes and in far off places. Mass diameter of the bolt used).
production of structural components in factories
can thus be made far rational.
2) for parallel to grain loading: At least
(N - 4)d3 with a minimum of 2.5d3,
where N is total number of bolts. Also
6.2.12..2 Design considerations - Beams shall governed by net area at critical section
be designed in accordance with NBC (Part IV/ which should be 80 percent of the total
Section 6). area in bearing under all bolts.

14A Spacing of Bolts in Lengthening Joints 148 Spacin of Bolts at Node Joints
(Joints loaded parallel to grain) (Joints loa dged perpendicular to grain)
A = (N - 4) 4 or 2.5 d, whichever is greater. Also governed by net area at critical section (area should be 80 percent of the
total area in bearing under all bolts).
N = total number of bolts in the joint.
B = 1.5 d3 or half the distance between rows of bolts, whichever is greater.
dx = diameter of the bolt.
r = thickness of the main member,
FIG. 14 TYPICAL SPACING OF BOLTS IN STRUCTURAL JOINTS

12 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

C) End distance - 7 d3 for soft woods in ten- periphery of the building may be provided,
sion, 5 d, for hardwoods in tension and 4 Q and a cement concrete apron wall around
for all species in compression. the building is recommended. It should be
remembered that the function of termite
4 Edge distance shields, masonry grooves, etc, is to cause
1) For parallel to grain loading 1.5 dJ or termites to build their entry tunnels at such
half the distance between rows of bolts, places which can be easily detected on perio-
whichever is greater. dical inspections, and facilitate further
appropriate control measures. Termite shie-
2) For perpendicular to grain loading, the lds are made of galvanized sheet of 0.63 mm
loaded edge distance shall be at least 4 d3. (conforming to IS : 277-1977) embedding
50 mm in the cement concrete subfloor, with
6.2.12.4 For inclined members, the spacing 50 mm horizontal projection on the external
given above for perpendicular and parallel to side and further projection of 50 mm bent
grain of wood may be used as a guide and bolts downwards at an angle of 45O. Joints in
arranged at the joint with respect to loading termite shields should be made by lap-
direction. ping the ends atleast 20 mm lengthwise
and soldering the same. Initial cost of
6.2.12.5 The bolts shall be arranged in such installation, frequent maintenance, occasio-
a manner so as to pass the centre of resistance of nal replacement after installation and also
bolts through the intersection of the gravity axis sharp edges of the metal shield projecting
of the members. out causing injury to children playing
nearby in the residential buildings. The
6.2.12.6 Staggering of bolts shall be avoided metal shields can be conveniently used
as far as possible in case of members loaded for grain storage godowns, warehouses, etc.
parallel to grain of wood. For loads acting Where timber columns exist, termite caps
perpendicular to grain of wood, staggering is can be used at the basement.
preferable to avoid splitting due to weather
effects. 4 Some pre-constructional chemical treat-
ments can be undertaken [IS : 1003 (Part 2)-
6.2.12.7 Bolting- The bolt holes shall be 19811. All the termite mounds in the neigh-
bored or drilled perpendicular to the surface bourhood should be broken and water sus-
involved. Forcible driving of the bolts shall be pensions or emulsions of the following may
avoided which may cause cracking or splitting of be poured on the destroyed mounds: (1) 0.5
members. A bolt hole of 1.0 mm oversize may be percent chlordane, (2) 0.5 percent hepta-
used as a guide for pre-boring. chlor, and (3) 0.25 percent aldrin.

6.2.13 Anti-termite Construction [IS : 6313 e) Treating the soil beneath the building and
(Parts I to 3)-1981]. around the foundation by any one of the
following emulsifying concentrates provides
6.2.13.1 It is well known that subterranian sufficient chemical barrier between termites
termites cause considerable damage to timber and and the wood used in buildings. The chemi-
other cellulosic materials used in buildings. For cals are: (1) aldrin 0.5 percent (IS : 1307-
understanding classification of termites, develop- 1982), (2) heptachlor 0.5 percent (IS : 6439-
ment of their colonies and recognizing their 1978), and (3) chlordane 1 percent (IS : 2682-
presence in buildings, a reference may be *made to 1966). Since these chemicals are chlorinated
note in Appendix A of IS : 6313 (Part 1)-1971. hydrocarbon insecticides, they are poisonous
However, at sites where the presence of such and require careful handling and, where
termites is recognised, special precautions are there is any risk of wells or other water
required to be taken. There are many methods supplies becoming contaminated, they
which prevent a termite attack and these are should be avoided. The same chemicals
briefly discussed below, and any one or more of can also be used for treatment to older buil-
these can be adopted depending on the intensity dings infested with termites after careful
of termite infestation and other local examination of the source of infestation. If
circumstances. any wood-work in such b.uilding is comple-
tely damaged it should be carefully replaced
a) Timber used may be such as are resistant to by new timber properly treated, but in cases
termite attack (that is, heartwood of very where no serious damage has already taken
durable species). place but is likely to cause damage if not
attended to, it is recommended that 6 mm
b) Foundations and sub-base of ground floors
diameter holes may be bored in slanting
should be free from cracks.
positions in the concerned wood members
c) For protection against termite attack from (like chowkats, joists, purlins, shelves, etc)
surrounding areas of a building, a termite and the above chemicals may be liberally
metal shield or masonry groove around the infused into them.

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 13


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

6.2.14 Antimagnetic Structures 6.2.16 Marine Constructions


6.2.14.1 In some of the harbour 6.2.16.1 Very few timbers remain stable
constructions, mine sweeping boat constructions under marine conditions, and so several
and special laboratories, particularly in Navy, treatments have been tried recently to protect
sometimes a need arises to construct antimagnetic timber exposed to marine conditions. The type of
structures. In such cases bolts, nails, and metal marine organisms existing in different harbours of
connectors should be avoided. Examples exist of India are not exactly the same. In some parts like
using wood dowel pins, dowel rods or bamboo Cochin and Bombay there are mainly marine
pins for the joints. Indian Forest Records [Vol. 3, baorers which destroy the wood and in some parts
No. 3(1943) by V.D. Limaye] gives details about like Visakhapatnam there is a predominance of
manufacture of bamboo nails by special tools. It marine fowlers which only settle down on wood
is claimed that bamboo nails of 8 or 9 SWG have surfaces, without destroying the material but
the same holding power as MS nails of 12 SWG. adding considerably to its weight. Sometimes
In all such cases, it would be preferable to design along with the new incoming ships into Indian
the joint on the basis of test data obtained with harbours new types of marine organisms may
the designed joint. Depending on the locations, come. So far the treatments recommended in
whether it is under water, or in open air, and the IS : 401-1982 for marine purposes are considered
sizes of jointing members, etc, appropriate adequate enough. In some cases treatments with
adhesives which are not impaired by such fish oils have been found useful. However, in view
exposures may be employed at the joints. of the possible changes in the marine conditions
Synthetic resin glues are often considered as mentioned above, the treatments recommended
adequate for the purpose. so far, may not always be adequate and
consequently continuous observations, testing and
evaluation are required at important areas. Hence
6.2.15 Constructions in Chemical Factories in the design of timber constructions for use
6.2.15.1 Most of the timbers and metal under marine condition, a thorough knowledge is
parts in chemical factories are likely to be required of the existing and possible organisms
attacked by chemical fumes. There are very few which may affect the timbers and the treatment
timbers such as teak and some conifers which are given to them. Study should also be made of tidal
resistant to acids and alkalies. Acids up to a conditions and their effect on the material used. A
concentration of 10 percent with conifers and 5 proper design can be undertaken only when all
percent with hardwoods, do not very much affect the information is available. In view of not many
the wood in the cold. It has also been observed satisfactory results so far, in the recent years
that with alkalies wood swells beyond water trends have been in the direction of avoiding
swollen conditions. Other timbers recommended timber and timber products for such constructions
in Indian Forest Bulletin [No. 119 (1943) by D. and replacing by concrete for jetties, etc, and
Narayanamurthi] for safe use in chemical vulcanized rubber where cushioning effects are
factories are white siris, pussar, sissoo, white required. However R & D activities are still going
cedar, cypress, dhaman, jarul, lendi, kail, chir, on for developing and improving wood and wood
kindal with proper treatments, wherever products for marine constructions wherever they
are still considered useful and economical keeping
necessary, As metals used at joints may get
in view particularly the need of changing the jetty
attacked and corroded by chemical fumes, they
designs fairly frequently in some of the small
can be avoided and replaced by all wood joints.
harbours.
Hence properly treated timbers so as to neutralize
the effects of acids and alkalies, or appropriately 6.2.17 Timber Doors, Windows and
coated by commercial paints, some types of resin Ventilators
impregnated and compressed timbers (known as
compregs) and such other forms of improved 6.2.17.1 In the design of timber doors, etc,
woods, can be tried. So also, joints will have to be there are no specific aspects of strength, except
appropriately protected. Quite often commercial that the sizes should fit in with rationalized metric
paints, shellac treatments, asphalted paraffin, etc, system, and the species should have a good
seem to have served the minimum purpose, but dimensional stability, and the finished doors
more scientific data will be needed for drawing up should stand the type tests according to IS : 4020-
proper specifications of treatment. In all such 1967. Another important consideration has been
cases, it is always recommended that accelerated the use of proper adhesive for the manufacture of
tests may be performed on treated material and the doors to withstand delamination of glued
joints before design or fabrication work is parts due to varying humidity and temperatures
undertaken. If such treatments do not affect the they are subjected in actual conditions and
structure of the fibres of wood, strength is not simultated tests. The acceptance tests and
seriously affected. However, it would be advisable guidance for selection of material are covered in a
to undertake the strength tests of the material also number of Indian standards. Those include timber
before and after the accelerated exposure panelled and glazed door shutters [IS : 1003 (Part
conditions. I)-1977, IS : 1003 (Part 2)-19661, timber door.

14 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : ,33(S&T)-1986

window and ventilator frames (IS : 4021-1976).


Standards have also been formulated on cellular TABLE 25
and hollow core type flush doors with facings of LOAD HEIGHT CIH(.I.MFFKENU 4~ TRE GROUND
plywood, particle boards, and hardboards C‘LASSI- OF ~11~ LIXF FOR DIFFFRFNT GROWS (cm)
[IS : 2191 (Parts I and 2)-19801. Although in the
earlier versions exterior and interior type grades
.4LONC
were permitted. In view of certain malpractices in GRWND
the trade, only one grade of flush doors, bonded LEVEL
with phenol formaldehyde (BWP) are now (m)
recommended in the standards. I 12 83 87 96
4.8 60 63 70
6.2.18 Poles. Posts, Pitprops and Piles
7 12 54 57 63
6.2.18.1 Poles. posts and pitprops of solid
4.8 40 41 45
wood are primarily decided on the basis of such
species which are available in round form and are
of sufficient strength. A number of wood poles These figures have been worked out on the basis
are already in use for electric distribution system of design of wood poles according to IS : 5978-
in several states of India. If the species are not 1970 in which the pole has been considered as a
naturally durable, they require to be treated in verticle cantilever fixed firmly in the ground; the
accordance with 4.4. The Indian standard for effect of wires have been considered, and a factor
wood poles for overhead power and telecommu- of safety of 3.5 has been assumed, keeping in view
nication lines is covered in IS : 876-1970 which that the lowest factor of safety permitted in the
divides the species available in the pole form, into specification is 2.5 or that which is permitted by
three main groups A, B and C according to their the statutory rules of each state in India, based on
modulus of rupture taking sal, teak and chir as Indian Electricity Act. The factor of safety is
general reference species. Accordingly in Group given by:
A, there are six species for which the modulus of
rupture is more than 850 kg/cm*, in Group B r D3
--__L&L*L
there are’ 22 species for which the modulus of 32 100 A4
rupture lies between 630 and 850 kg/cm2. In
Group C there are ten species for which the where
modulus of rupture lies between 450 and 630 Dg = diameter of the pole at ground line
kg/cml. In each group seven different load classi- in cm,
fications as given below are recognized and the
length of the poles and the girth dimensions at R= modulus of rupture of the species,
ground line and also the girth at the top of the
M= Mp + Z MC,,
pole are given. The seven load classifications
followed in India are given below:
Mp = $$ (D, + 24)
4 Ultimate breaking load not less than 1 350 kg, = overturning moment due to wind
b) Ultimate breaking load between I 100 and load on the pole in kg. m,
1 350 kg,
MC” = (MC,; Mc2, etc)= P,L( S’ i S’)
c) Illtimate breaking load between 850 and
1 100 kg,
= overturning moment due to wind
4 Ultimate breaking load between 700 and pressure on the nth wire,
850 kg,
Dt = diameter of the pole at the top in
e) Ultimate breaking load between 550 and cm,
700 kg,
H= height of the pole above the ground
f-l Ultimatebreaking load between 400 and line in metres,
550 kg, and
Ll= height of the nth conductor in
g) Ultimate breaking load between 300 and metres,
400 kg.
S, and& = lengths of spans on each side of the
The circumferences at the ground line for three pole in metres,
groups of species, for the two extreme heights and
the two extreme load classifications are given in PC = wind pressure on each conductor
Table 25 for guidance. For other cases refer- in kg per metre run, and
ence may be made to IS : 5978-1970 or IS : 876- P= design wind pressure for the region.
1970.

HANDBOOK ON TlMBER ENGINEERING 15


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

Where stays are used, crippling load due to verti- b) Z-type lap jointed poles using flat bars or
cal components of the forces in the stays is calcu- angle iron with bolts,
lated using the following formula:
c) angle iron used vertically with bolts on butt
4.16 D: jointed poles,
Crippling load in kg = 7
c 4 half-sleeve half-lap jointed poles, and
where e>half-sleeve tongue and groove jointed
poles.
D, = effective diameter of the pole in cm,
L, - L, + 0.9 x 6.2.18.3 After designing and erecting wood
= (Dr) +
0.9 (b - 1.8) poles there is a need of continuous care and
diameter at 1.8 maintenance of these poles as in the case of any

[( metres from butt


in cm
Lr = full length of the pole,
)
- D,.
1
other kind of poles particularly at the ground
line portion. As the wood poles arc continuously
subjected to drying and wetting there is a danger
of possible decay and quick deterioration at these
Lg = length of the pole in the ground, and portions. 1S : 671 I -I 972 covers not only some
erection precautions, some periodic maintenance
L, = effective length of the pole between and observation procedures, preparation of
the top and 0.3 metres below the reports and remedial measures against biological
ground line in metres and mechanical damages, but also methods of
= Lf - L, + 0.3. replacements of poles when they are beyond
6.2.18.2 Where long lengths of wood poles remedial measures. 1s : 2203-1976 prescribes the
would not be available. simple designs of jointed species and permissible defects for wooden cross-
poles of round wood have been described in arms for use with the above wood poles. It also
IS.: 7610 (Part 3)-1975. Some of the various deals with testing of suitability of different species
methods of joining and the loss in the joint and standard sizes for wooden cross-arms.
strengths have been described in the specification.
The general principles of grouping the species and 6.2.18.4 Although wood poles can be
selecting load classifications are the same as designed and suitable species can be selected on
explained above. The specification also prescribes the basis of their basic strength, their dimensions
the general requirements, the permissible and and other criteria prescribed in 1s : 7610 (Part 3)-
avoidable defects, and care required in the prepa- 1975, there would still arise occasions to test the
ration of the components. The easiest and full poles for their behaviour under actual loads.
cheapest type of jointed pole recommended and This would not only give the strength data of the
used in most of the places is the wire-bound lap- full or the jointed poles to compare with the
jointed pole which is obtained by winding two design loads by taking into consideration the
bands of galvanized wire of 8 SWG around the cumulative effects of all permissible defects but
half-lap made in each of the pole sections. The such data will also ensure the adequacy of factors
minimum number of required turns (N) in each of of safety employed in pole design. 1s : 1900-1974
the band in the wire-bound lap jointed pole is prescribes how the poles are tested in a fixed or
given by: movable crib as a cantilever taking movement of
the load point (at a distance of 60 cm from the
N - P.? top of the pole) in the direction of the applied
. .

, k.d load, as well as in the direction of the length of


the pole. It also prescribes a method of testing
where poles on a universal high capacity testing
N= number of turns required at each band, machine. After testing the pole in full length small
clear specimens are taken out from the unstrained
P= anticipated load + 30 percent cover safety, portions of the butt ends to find the basic strength
of the material and compare the same with the
Y= distance from load point to the farthest
observed maximum load for failure of the pole.
point of the lap, The poles are generally tested in: (a) green
k= 1.8 t (where t = breaking load of the condition, (b) air-dry condition, (c) treated
wire), and condition, and (d) sometimes in air-seasoned and
butt-soaked condition. In the recommended
d= distance between central line of nearest methods of tests, there are ‘major’ tests on full
band and the farthest point of the lap. sized poles and ‘minor’ tests on small clear
The other types of useful joints recommended specimens according to IS : 1708-1969 on atleast
with appropriate criteria of sizes and shapes of one sample for each test taken from the least
hardware used are: stressed (that is, butt portions) of each pole. The
major tests consist of:
a) V-type lap jointed poles using flat bars or
angle iron with bolts, a) weight of the full pole, and

76 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

b) bending (as a cantilever in the crib method W = weight of the section of the pole from the
and as a beam on supports in the machine load point to the tip end in kg.
method with the load applied on the ground
Similarly, the modulus of elasticity, E, is calculated
line). by the formula:

I[ 1
In the cantilever method the maximum fibre stress 4a3b T
v) is given by E=
[ 3 A A’B(AL - Bb)
where
E= modulus of elasticity in kg./cm2,
where
a= distance from ground line to tip support,
P= load at failure in kg,
b = distance from ground line to butt support,
I = distance between load point and the point
of break, A= observed deflection at ground line measu-
red from initial horizontal neutral axis,
z = C3/32 n2, and
T= tip reaction from superimposed load in kg,
C= circumference at the point of break which
may be either at the ground line or at a A= radius of the pole at ground line in cm,
place where the diameter is equal to 1.5
times the diameter at the point of occurr- B= radius of the pole at tip support in cm, and
ante of the resultant load-which is usually L= length between points of support (a + b)
the load point at a distance of 60 cm from in cm.
the top of the pole.
Where a superimposed load is measured at ground
The modulus of elasticity in the cantilever method line the tip reaction, T, can be calculated from the
is given by: formula:
PL3Dg
E = 3&dD,
T = pbr
L

where
’ In the minbr tests from unstressed or least stressed
P = applied load at the top, portions of the pole (that is, butt) the following tests
L = corrected lever arm of the cantilever, only are done according to IS : 170% 1969 on small
clear specimens.
Dg = diameter of pole at the ground line,
a) Moisture content,
1, = moment of inertia at ground line,
b) Specific gravity,
d = deflection of load point in cm, and
c) Static bending,
D1 = diameter of pole at load point. d) Compression parallel to grain, and
In the machine method the maximum tibre stress
u> at the ground line is calculated by: e) Shear
At least one clear specimen from each pole is taken
f= CT+ t - w/Q for each test from each pole.
0.098 2 X D:
6.2.18.5 Where solid round wood poles are
where not available nail jointed timber poles can be made
T= tip reaction at maximum load due to from small dimensioned timber planks for overhead
super-imposed load in kg = p.b./ L, electric distribution lines for low voltages. In this
connection IS : 7683-1975 permits sawn timber
t= tip reaction due to the dead weight of the according to IS : 1331-1971 with defects permitted
pole, according to IS : 3629-1966. However, the
minimum thickness of planks is recommended to be
P’ maximum superimposed load on the pole
not less than 45 mm. The nails, as usual in all nail-
in kg,
jointed constructions, should conform to IS : 723-
b= distance from load point to butt support 1972. In designing, fabricating and erecting timber
in cm, posts according to IS : 7683-l 975, the following
aspects are required to be considered.
L= distance between the tip and butt support,
D, = diameter of the pole at load point in cm, 4 For overhead electric distribution at straight
line locations, the post is subjected to static
a= distance from load point to top support, bending caused by: (I) with load on the sur-
and face of the post above the ground, (2) wind

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 71


.

SP : 33(S&T)-1986

load on the conductors and ground wires act- factorily treatable heart wood, and (3) the
ing on the horizontal span. and (3) unbalan- third choice with moderately durable and
ced pull in the longitudinal direction due to not easily treatable species, and so pressure
breakage of wires. At angle locations, parti- processes are required to be employed.
cularly when guy rope stay is fixed. it is also Where sapwood is present it, no doubt,
subjected to a vertical downward load. For requires complete treatment and protection.
these reasons the posts are appropriately dcsi-
6.2.18.6 Design testing and recommended
gned in bending (as cantilever) and as a COI- species for pitprops are covered in IS : 6346-1971.
umn in accordance with IS : X83-1970. The
Chiefly, they are based on long usage and
wind pressure on posts and wires are to be in
experience and contain a high degree of factor of
accordance with IS : 802 (Part I)-1977.
safety as the conditions in mines are very
b) The joints are also to be designed for loads as unpredictable. They vary very much in humidity
above and shall conform to IS : 4983-1968. and temperature and the prop should be capable
The number ofjoints should be as less as pas- of taking compressive and bending loads suddenly
sible and some type designs for a maximum coming on them. Their erection and fixing are
height of 8.25 m above the ground level are also such that they can be easily altered or
available at the Forest Research Institute. replaced from time to time. Specification for use
of timber in coal mines is covered by IS : 4424-
C) The nail jointed timber posts, after having 1967 in which 20 species like babul, kokko,
been fabricated according to practices recom- benteak, bijasal and kindal have been recommen-
mended in 1S : 7683-1975 and adopting nail- ded. Round pitprops are usually 10 to I2 cm in
ing procedures recommended in IS : 2366- diameter and lengths vary from 100 to 500 cm.
1963, are erected well above ground level, rai- Rectangular bars vary in breadth from 5 to 10 cm,
sed over cement concrete dwarf pillar and width from 10 to 25 cm and lengths from 100 to
fixed by means of MS channels, bolts, or they 400 cm. In the recommended methods of tests for
are buried in ground, and encased with timber pitprops for mines the major tests
cement concrete foundation. The design and comprise the following:
construction of foundation for timber posts
may be in accordance with the provisions 4 compression parallel to grain from which
laid down in IS : 409 i-1979. Necessary anti- the compression strength is calculated by SP/
termite measures may also be carried out A, where S is the strength, P is the load and
according to IS : 6313 (Part 2)-1981. A is the cross-section;

4 In the process of fabrication of nail jointed b) moisture distribution through the prop;
timber posts, IS : 7683-1975 permits a devi-
ation of either 15 mm at the top in either c>weight of the prop;
direction, or I5 mm at centre in either 4 eccentricity of the prop which is defined as
direction measured from the straight line the percentage ratio of the deviation bet-
joining the end points of the post. Besides, ween neutral axis and the longitudinal axis
the specification also prescribes clauses for to the length of the prop, that is,
marking, stacking of posts before use and
the various stages and precautions to be e = dX 100
taken in the erection of the posts. The pres- ; and
cribed painting and maintenance clauses are L
also generally in accordance with 9. e) length/diameter (L/D) ratio of the prop.
Finally, one GI sheet cap is recommended to
be fitted at the top of the post for prevention From the clear specimens selected from props, the
of any rain water entering through the ends minor tests are done according to 1S : 1708-1969,
of the jointed pieces. on atleast 3 specimens_ for each test from each
prop. The minor tests are: (a) compression
e>Generally speaking, both coniferous and parallel to grain, (b) static bending, ’ and (c)
non-coniferous structural timbers are consi- moisture content. The data on major and minor
dered suitable for making of nail jointed tests help to decide the suitability of the species
timber posts, but owing to the fact that these and the safe dimensions, and the moisture content
posts are likely to be exposed to extreme required for the purposes. The above
vagaries of weather, careful choice of species specifications do not indicate the minimum of
with high durability, strength, and retention properties required.
of shape are recommended in IS : 7683-1975.
Based on these considerations and backed 6.2.18.7 Timber piles are covered in IS :
by proof tests on prototype designs with 291 I (Part 2)-1980. Depending on the use and size
various species, three choices of preferences of piles they are classified as Class A and Class B.
are recommended as follows: (I) the first is For Class A, intended for heavy bridges, docks,
based on naturally durable species with high and wharves, the butt diameter is recommended
durability of heart wood, (2) the second on to be not less than 30 cm. For Class B, which are
moderately or non-durable species but satis- generally used for temporary works and also used

78 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(5&T)-1986

for compaction of ground, are not to be less than 4 dimension of pile;


10 cm in diameter. The wood species recommen-
ded are same as given in IS : 883-1970 and now b) depth driven;
covered in Appendices G and H. The general Cl sequence of driving;
requirements are:
d) final set for the last ten blows or as may be
a) lengths less than 12 m have a tolerance of specified;
+ 30 cm, and lengths 12 m and more
have a tolerance f 60 cm; e) type and size of hammer and its stroke, or
with double acting hammers, the number of
b) circumferences (measured under bark) may blows per minute. and
be less by 5 cm only in 10 percent of the
piles. This condition relates only to bulk pur- r) type and condition of the packing on the
chase rather than design; pile head and the dolly in the helmet.
6.3 Timber Fasteners
c>ratio
butt
of heartwood diameter to the total
diameter of the pile should not be less 6.3.1 Generai- From the above discussions
than 0.8. This is a condition to safeguard on trusses and special constructions it has been
consequential deterioration of sapwood; and amply brought out that in all timber
constructions, the joints are the most important
4 both ends should be sawn at right angles to and require very careful consideration.
the length. This is a condition to ensure the
load axis to be well within the pile material Examination of some old timber structures and
and nearest to the pile axis only. analysis of causes of their failures or their
becoming unserviceable after some time have
The choice of the pile is governed by water confirmed the fact that more than ordinary
table condition and other aspects of the site. The attention is required at the design of the joints.
bearing capacity and spacing of piles is considered Failures at joints could be either due to
same as for RC piles covered in IS : 2911 (Part insequency of design itself not being based on well
l)-1979. When test data on load bearing capacity founded theories, test data, or also due to bad
is not available the load carried by the pile is fabrication an? fitting which develop unaccounted
determined by the following formulae : stresses and consequent slips. It has also been
observed in some cases that bad erection and
For piles driven by drop hammer: maintenance has also been responsible for failure
16WH of joints due to undue mechanical damages and
consequent decay of the material if not properly
’ = S + 2.5
protected. Differential moisture content and
For piles driven by single acting stPam hammer: consequent differential shrinkage and swelling
between the different components at the joint, can
16WH also be another reason of failures at the joint.
P= IJnder these experiences. it is obvious that the
s+ 0.25 design engineer must develop the overall concepts
where of all stages of timber construction right from the
material stage to the actual end use in practice.
P= safe load on pile in kg, Several R & D efforts have been made in the
W= weight of monkey in kg, direction of developing suitable fasteners for most
economical and efficient joints for different types
H= free fall of monkey in m, and of constructions to study the effects of variables
on such joints, and to derive the allowable stresses
S= penetration of pile in cm to be taken as
for the different types of fasteners. Some of the
average of three blows.
attempts made in India are given below and brief
In IS : 29 I I (Part I l-1979, it has been permitted mention has also been made to explain the
that the normal working stress may be exceeded practices in other countries.
by not more than 100 percent during driving
6.2.3 Nails, Spikes and Screws
because of impacts. Pro er precautions are also
suggested for handling o P.timber piles so as not to 6.3.2.1 These are the most commonly used
bruise or damage the wood, and necessary fasteners from times immemorial for jointing one
instructions have been provided in the specifica- member of the structure with another. However
tion for driving, selection of pile hammer, control collection of scientific data and comparative
of alignment and replacement of defective piles. It studies on these have been only of recent origin
has been mentioned in. the specification that and the conclusions drawn from various sources
foundation piles, when cut off below the ground are summarized below.
water level, apparently have an infinite life. How-
ever. when the conditions are not favourable, they 6.3.2.2 One of the earliest attempts in India
should be given suitable treatments. The following to obtain withdrawal resistance of’ nails and
factors have been considered important for record screws was published bv Forest Research
of data in timber piles: Institute, Debra Dun [Indian Forest Records

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 19


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

(TM) Vol. 1 No. 5 (1956) Nail and screw holding where


power of Indian timbers]. Systematic test in
withdrawal of nails and screws from wood were P= ultimate load per unit length of pene-
tration,
conducted on several samples from several trees
of different species grown in different localities K= constant depending upon the species and
and the results were published under four units chosen (separate values for nails and
conditions of testing as below. The values were screws),
obtained for withdrawal from side grain as well as
end grain: d= diameter of nail or spike as the case may
be,
4 Nails or screws driven in green condition
and pulled out immediately, P= specific gravity of the species, and

b) Nails or screws driven in green condition n = power constant of specific gravity equal to
and pulled out after the material has dried 2.5 for nails (including spikes) and 2 for
to about 12 percent moisture content, screws.

cl Nails or screws driven in the dry material at This equation shows that the withdrawal resis-
about 12 percent moisture content and pul- tance for unit length of penetration is propor-
led out immediately, and tional to the diameter and so can be suitably
extrapolated as desired.
d) Nails or screws driven in the dry material at
about 12 percent moisture content and pul- 6.3.2.3 In the actual timber constructions
led out after a lapse of about 4 months. the lateral resistance of nails and screws, some-
time referred to as shear values, are more
^ impor-
._
However, only one type of nail of 5 cm length X tant. In foretgn literature the values for SpeClflC
12 SWG diamond pointed at the end, and only species, or for groups of species are given and
one type of screw of 5 cm length X 8 SWG have these values generally take the form of
been used as standard for comparison of holding
power or withdrawal resistance of different P = kd”
species. Grouping the values of the above as -where
discussed in 3.1.4 by giving suitable weightage
p = lateral withdrawal load,
factors and adjusting factors, data on ‘composite
holding power’ of various species have been k = constant of timber (separate for nails and
published [stir? Sl No. 40, Appendix B), for separate for screws), and
making a ready comparison of different species in
terms of quantitative indices. Analyzing the data n = 1.5 for nails (including spikes) and 2 for
under condition (a), it has been inferred that nail screws.
and screw holding power roughly follows the However, in India a series of tests on different
following equations: species have been conducted and the standard
data of nermissible lateral strength published in
HA = 308 p’.65 for side grains and = 246 P’.~’
IS : 2366-1983 and IS : 4983-1968, and repro-
for end grain
duced in Table 26 and 27.
or Hi = 705 P’.~’ for side grain and = 440 p’.65
for end grain
6.3.3 Bolts
where
6.3.3.1 General- For medium and large
H= nail holding power (or nail withdrawal spans, such as those required for big sheds.
resistance) m kg, storage areas, industrial trusses, bolt jointing
H’ = screw holding power (or screw withdra- techniques are more useful than nailed jointed
wal resistance) in kg, and members because ease of working in shops, ease
of transport, and ease of reassembly and erection
P’ standard specific gravity (weight oven- at the site. Usually the bolts are of steel rods with
dry and volume green). either square or hexagonal heads on one side, and
.. . I\ . . threaded portion on the other side to take a
In the condition (c), the above values are threaded nut on the same. Washers are used
increased by 1.2 times for nails and 1.5 times for wherever necessary and particularly when no
screws. It has been further observed that as drying plates are used. The thickness of nut is usually
takes place after nailing, the strength generally equal to the diameter of the bolt. As bolt holes
reduces. It may be noted that the above values are are primarily necessary before inserting the bolts
obtained only for one diameter of nails or screws.
it is natural that such bolt hole diameters should
It has been established in USA that the with-
be about 1 mm oversize and any forcible driving
drawal resistance of nails (including spikes) driven
of the bolt may cause undue splitting or even
on side grain is given by
introduce unaccountable stress concentrations at
P = K p”d the tight points.

80 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP:33(S&T)-1986

TABLE 26 PERMISSIBLE LATERAL STRENGTHS (IN DOUBLE SHEAR) 3.55 mm DIA 80 mm


LONG IN TIMBER
SPECIESOF WOOD FOR PERMANENT FOR
k. CONSTRUCTIOKSTRENGTH TEMPORARY
PER NAIL CONSTRUCTION
STRENGTH
PER NAIL
Botanical Name Trade Name h
‘Lengthening Node ’ (For Both
joints Joints Laenndgt;;neg

joints)

*1. Abies uindrow Fir 80 20 120

::
4.
Ado& orobico
Albizzio lebbek
Albizzio odororissimo
Babul
Kokko
Kala siris
:z 110
70
1;
340
240
220

+6.
5. Anogei.r.ws lottfolio
Colophyllum tomentosum
Axle wood
Poon
:2 90 5:
*7.
*8.
Cedrelo toono
Cedrelo sp.
Toon
gendhalipoma
1:
100
100 180

*9. Cedrus deodoro deodar z 210


150
IO. Chukrosio tabularis chickrassy 2: 80 270
*II. Cinnomomum sp. Camphor (cinnammon 120 90 130
12. Cupressus rorulosa Cypress 60 :: 200
180
13. Dipterocorpus macrocorpus Hollong 170
14. Dipterocorpus sp. Curjan 90 190
IS. Eucalyptus cugeniodes Eucalyptus ;?I
ll6. Grewia tiliacfolia Dhaman 130 100
50 :z
17. Lagerstroemia parvtJlor0 Lendi
l18. Monglfero indica Mango ;z z: 260
160
19. Mesuo ferrea mesua 260
220. Michelia sp. champ 2 410
200
21. Uugeinio dalbergioides sandan 1; II0 I80
l22. Phoebe SD. Bonsum I20 60 130
*23. Pinus roiburghii Chir II0 100 I60
l24. Pinus wollichiano Kail
25. Pterocarpus dalbergioides Padauk 1: 1: 2;:
Pierocorpus marsupiun Bijasal 150 120 270
:;: Quercus sp. Oak I IO 1 IO 270
Schleichera trijuga Kusum 230 I60 400
:;. Shorea robusta Sal 50 190
30: Syzygium sp. Jamun 1: 120 250
31. Tectona nrondis Teak 1: 130
32. Terminali% bellirico Bahera %I
33. Terminolia bialota White chuglam I80 90 ::
*34. Terminolio manii Black chuglam 230 100 330
Terminolia myriocarpa Hollock 130 I: 290
190
:? Terminolia tomentosa Sain I60
37: Xylio xy!ocorpo lrul 230 60 330

NOTE - Nails of 3.55 mm diameter are mostly used. The above values can also be used in 4 mm diameter, 100 mm long
nails.

*Species requires no pre-boring for nail penetration.

6.3.3.2 Permissible stresses in bolted been invariably using the compressive stress on
joints - Several experiments indicated that there the projected area of the bolt on the timber
is some relationships between the average bearing (approximately length X diameter) either in
stress limit of the joint, and the ratio of length of perpendicular direction or in the parallel direction
the bolt to its diameter in the main member of the as the case my be and applying a percentage
joint. For this reason, different countries have reduction for different L/d ratios given in Table
published for the species of wood available in 28. Further, from some of the results on bolted
their respective countries the basic stresses, joints in perpendicular direction it has been
parallel and perpendicular-to-grain and proposed observed that in nlany cases the stress at propor-
modification factors for different L/d ratios of the tional limit is even more than 100 percent the
bolts. These stresses should not be confused with fibre stress at elastic limit obtained by standard
the working stresses of structural timbers but they test on specimens of clear wood, and it also
are to be used only with reference to design of depends on the diameter of the bolt. Table 29
bolted joints only. In India, the engineers have gives modification factor for different diameters

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 81


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

TABLE 27 SHEAR STRENGTH VALUE OF NAILS FOR DESlGN OF NAIL LAMINATED BEAMS

SI SWCIES
No. ) A
’ Trade Names Botanical Names \ ‘3.75 and 3 mm 5 mm dia \
dia nails, 75 nails. I25 and
and 100 mm 150 mm
I.ong Long

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


I. Aamari Anroora Wallichii 190 275
2. Axle wood (bakli) .4 /7opisscts latjfblia 200 290
3. Babul Ac,ac,ia arahic,a I55 255
4. Bahera Ttw~itlatia hrlliriur 100 145
5. Bi.jasal Plerorwprr.~ mar.wl,iwr I50 220
6. Birch &vu/a sp. I30 190
*7. Black chuglam Tw/)linalia nranii 225 325
8. Black sir-is Alhizzia odom/issima I40 205
*9. Bonsum Phoebe sp. I 20 I75
*10. Champ Michelia sp. I30 I90
*II. Camphor (Cinnamon) Cinnanwr~tm~ sp. I 20 I75
12. Chickrassy (Andaman) Chuiirmsia tahfrlari.s 245 35.5
13. Chilauni .%hima w~allic~fiii I75 255
*14. Chit Pinus roxhurghii I IO I60
15. cypress Cuprcs.su.s torulosa 60 90
*Iti. Deodar Ct~clr1r.Ydetittara I40 20.5
$17. Dhaman (M P) Grewia tiliac+)lia 280 105
IX. Dhaman (UP) Gren,ia wsrila I30 140
19. Eucalyptus Euca!,ptus engcrzi0rde.s I65 240
20. Fir Ahies pindrov~ X0 II5
21. Gamari Gmriinn arhorca 80 I IS
$22. Gendhalipoma (Assam) Gcdrrta sp. I IO I 60
23. Gurjan (Andaman) Dip~r0~~arpu.v sp. I85 270
24. Hollock Terminalia mjv?ocarpa I30 190
25. Hollong Dipwoc’arpuv macrocarpu.v 170 250
26. lrul X.bxlia .*-vlwarpa 235 340
27. Jaman Euxenia sp. 150 220
“28. Kail Pinus exwtsa 70 I 20
29. Karani Cullenia excelsa I15 165
30. Kokko Aihizia tehheck 200 290
31. Kusum Schleichera rrijuga 230 335
32. Lampati Duahanxa soutlnerariottL,s 150 220
33. Lendi Legrrsrrocmia pariflora 190 275
$34. Mango Mangif>ra indica 100 145
35. Mesua Mesua .f?na 260 375
36. Oak (Assam) Quercus sp. 280 405
37. Oak (UP) Quercus sp. I IO I 60
38. Padauk Prerorarpus dalbergioides 190 275
*39. Poon Calapt~vllum sp. I60 230
40. Sain Terminalia tomentosa I60 230
41. Salai Basw~ellia scrrata 120 I75
42. Sal (UP) Shorea rohusia 100 145x
43. Sandan Ougeinia dalher@des 170 250
44. Silver oak Grevitlea robusta 120 I75
45. Teak (UP) Tecrona grandis I40 205
*46. Toon Cedrela sp. I50 220
47. Uriam BischoJi’a javanira 130 190
48. White chuglam Taminalia hialara 180 260

NOTE ~ The shear strength values of I25 and 150 mm nails are tentatively based on limited tests, that is 45 percent above
those of 75 mm or 100 mm nails of 3.75 mm dia.

*Species require no pre-boring for nail penetration.

a2 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

of bolts for design of bolted joints. This is the faces of adjacent structural members, and
sometimes referred in literature as ‘diameter used in combination with bolts of small
factor’ (see also Examples 3 and 4). diameters. At the Forest Research Institute,
several tests have been carried out on these type
of connectors and their behaviour. A few
TABLE 28 PERCENTAGE OF SAFE WORKING STRESS experimental structures have also been erected
FOR CALCULATING BEARING STRESS UNDER using these connectors. Some of these are
COMMON BOLTS
discussed below. It appears no final aspects of
L/d PEHCENTAGEOF PERCENTAGEFOR standardization on the use of connectors have
PARALIEI. TO GRAIN PERPENDIUIAR TO been developed so far. However, testing and
CONDITIONS GRAIN CONDITION evaluation of timber connectors has been
I .o 100 100 standardized as per IS : 4907-1968 from which a
1.5 100 96.2 general guidance may be taken for determining
2.0 too 88.0
2.5 I00 80.0
the sizes of connectors and their spacing also in a
3.0 IO0 72.5 timber joint. Some useful publications on the use
3.5 IO0 66.2 of connectors have been mentioned in the biblio-
4.0 96 60 0
graphy.
4.5 90 55.6
5.0 80 51.8
5.5 48.1 6.3.4.2 Wooden disc dowel connectors
6.0 z: 45.6
6.5 43.0 a) These are circular hardwood discs, slightly
7.0 :; 40.6 tapered each way from the mrddle so as to
7.5 46 39.0 have a shape of a double conical frustum.
X.0 40 37.5
8.5 36 36.2
This is tight fitted into a pre-bored circular
9.0 34 34.3 recess, half in each adjacent member of the
9.5 31.5 33.0 joint. The members and the disc between
10.0 30.0 31.2
them are held together by means of a bolt
10.5 30.6
I I .O’ 30.0 passing through their centres. The wood-
Il.5 29.5 working operations for preparing the discs
12.0 28.5 and making corresponding circular grooves
with appropriate bolt-holes are usually done
by specially designed tools. If done by hand
they require fair amount of skill to obtain a
proper fit of the dowels in the matched cir-
TABLE 29 MODIFICATION FACTOR FOR DIFFERENT cular grooves of the members of the joint. A
DIAMETERS OF COMMON BOLTS USED FOR DESIGN
OF BOI.TED JOINTS IN PERPENDICULAR TO
typical example of joint with dowel disc can
GRAIN CONDITIONS be seen in Fig. 15.
DIAMETER OF BOLT MODIFICATION FACTOR
IN ltlm (ALSO KNOWN AS DIAMETER FACTOR)
6 5.70
IO 3.60
I2 3.55
3.15 WOOOEW DISC
:: 3.05 DOWEL
22 3.00
25 2.90

6.3.4 Connectors
6.3.4.1 General - As pointed out already in
the earlier sections the timber joint is the most us 801,~ b4
important aspect of any timber construction if
(All Dimensions in mm)
transmission of stress from one member to
another is to be done efficiently. When the joints FIG. 15 TYPICAL EXAMPLE OF LENGTHENING
are heavily stressed, the joint ‘connectors’ have JOINT WITH DISC DOWELS
been found to be the most effective, and in fact
the development of these ‘connectors’ can be b) The chief characteristics of the wood for
claimed to be the single factor which has making dowels are:
revolutionized timber design and construction in
the recent decades. The ‘connectors’ increase the 1) high shear strength,
area of the joint stress, thereby making it possible
for full transmission and uniform distribution of 2) high compressive strength parallel to
grain,
stress around the joint area. Principally, they are
of two types: (a) the wooden disc type, and (b) the 3) good retention of shape under shrinkage
metal type which are embedded partly in each of and swelling forces,

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 83


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

4) low refractory characteristics, b) Because of the different nature of materials


of wood and metal which come in contact at
5) high durability-of heartwood, and the joint, it has not been possible to apply
6) straight grained and free from other simple laws of mechanics and theory of elas-
strength influencing defects like decay, ticity to obtain exact distribution of stress
splits, knots etc. Some of the Indian in a joint. Hence dependence of test results
species found suitable for the purpose are is often the criteria for designing the joints
babul, dhaman, irul, sissoo, sandan, axle- with metal connectors in wood members.
wood, pinkado and yon. The discs are cl In using the metal connectors in various
preferably made from quarter sawn structures some design considerations have
planks of about 25 to 35 cm thick and been recommended in Appendix C of
seasoned to about 12 percent moisture IS : 4907-1968. According to these, the
content. They should be free from sap- allowable load for any joint using connec-
wood. However,where preservative treat- tors should be calculated by multiplying
ment is required, this should be done the ‘connector-factor’, number of con-
properly. As the discs are generally hid- nectors in the contact faces and the working
den inside the structures, and not visible load for the species. The deviations from
from outside, the condition of the disc in
allowable loads can be in accordance with
the course of life of the structure will not the following:
be known or easily observable periodi-
cally. In storage, great care should be 1) When allowable load is reduced due to
taken to see that the discs do not in any edge, end or spacing distances, this
way deteriorate. Sometimes, finished should be determined separately for each
dowels are dipped in hot creosote for connector and the lowest allowable load
about an hour and stored for use. They so determined should be applicable for
should be well wiped and cleaned before all connectors resisting a common force
fitting. in a joint.
c) The wooden disc dowel in a joint is subjec- 2) Reduction in load due to the end, edge
ted to shearing at the mid-section and comp- and spacing distances are not additive
ression along the grain at .the bearing sur- but co-incident.
face. Hence equating the above forces:
3) Loads reduced because of thickness of
7rdas tcd 7~ ds members do not permit reduction in
-te or
4 2 2t=C edge, end and spacing distances without
further reduction of load, and conver-
where sely, loads reduced due to end distances,
etc, do not permit reduction of thickness
d= mid diameter of the dowel, of members.
r= thickness of the dowel,
4) when more than one connector is used in
s= safe working stress of wood in shear along the same contact face, they are to be
the grain, and placed symmetrically on the face of con-
tact, taking care to see that the minimum
c= safe working stress for compression along of edge, end and spacing distances are
grain. permitted duly within the maximum
space available. The ratio of connectors
6.3.4.3 Metal connectors actually used to connectors required
a) These have not made much advance as yet should not be more than 2. All connec-
in timber engineering fields in India. Only tors and bolts used should be of the same
some stray attempts seem to have been made size, shape and material throughout the
on ring type of metal connectors. Further design. It would be necessary to place
R & D efforts are still in progress in the the connectors so that the angle of re-
country. In the United States alone more sultant load-to-grain should be more
than sixty different types of metal connec- than 45” in order to get best perfor-
tors have been patented. Among the com- mance, and that all loads or components
monly used, the most popular ty es are s lit thereof should act in the same direction
rings, toothed rings, male and Pemale cPaw on all faces. The maximum allowable
plates, spike grids, shear plates and clamp- load in the case of multiple connectors is
ing plates. They are made of different sizes the summation of allowable loads for
to suit the different sizes of structural each connector used, provided there
members and their characteristics and pre- are not more than three connectors on
cautions to be taken in their use, etc, are each contact face. For each additional
usually published by the manufacturers connector, usually one-third of the
themselves for the designer to make a allowable load of the same should be
proper selection. acceptable for calculation of the total

84 HANDBOOKON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

load. ‘I he minimum connector spacing. developing field seems to throw immense


(K) at any angle of loading (0) is given opportunities for utilizing short dimensioned
by: stock for developing several types of timber
structural units, both laminated and solid. This
AB can well be one of the important directions for
R=
,/A2 sin28 + p cos2B reducing wastage and for rational utilization of
timber In engineering practices (.Tee Fig. 16).
where
A = minimum connector spacing for the 7. TEST METHODS FOR TIMBER’
0” loading, and STRUCTURES AND COMPONENTS

B,= minimum connector spacing for the 7.1 Introduction - Although in the application
90” loading. of strength data and design of a timber structure,
considerable amount of statistical considerations
The location of the connectors is determined by go in, and the data used has sometimes 95 to 99
the intercept of the diameter of the ellipse whose percent confidence limits. There are factors
axis in the direction of the grain is A and in the particularly in fabrication and erection, which
perpendicular direction is equal to B. In the case cannot be predicted at the time of design, to
of two connectors in the same face placed as per evaluate the exact chances that are being taken
the above formula the directions of the load and inspite of any codified rules and precautions.
connector axis, coincide with each other but in There are also factors of freak alignment of wood
case there are more than two, the axes of the cells inside the wood material, atmospheric
different connectors may make different angles weather and changes in sorrounding humidity and
with the direction of grain (see IS : 4907-1968) temperature, and unpredictable behaviour of
different types of components used in joints. etc,
6.3.5 Finger-Jointing
which may throw some elements of uncertainty.
6.3.5.1 These are essentially longitudinal In consideration of all these, and also in view of
joints which are slowly finding ,favour due to no adequate experience in India of any extensive
simultaneous development of strong, cold setting use of designed timber structures, the engineer
synthetic adhesives. The joints themselves have often wishes to rely on some types of actual tests,
proved much stronger than the wood itself. At the whether of full scale in open air or model tests in
ends of the timber members a set of uniform laboratories. Tests on structural sizes of timber,
tapered projections are made by machines to fit other than those on small clear specimen, have
into exactly corresponding V-shaped grooves in already been dealt with under 2.1 and are covered
the opposite member. The strength of the joint in IS : 2408-1963. Other tests on components, full
naturally depends on the geometry of projection sized trusses, etc, developed in this country are
and the corresponding groove but no systematic dealt with in the following paragraphs. The full
studies seem to have been published as yet, which size tests are usually of two types: (a) destructive
is a pre-requisite before any attempt on their test in which case the behavibur of the structure
stand.ardization is made. However, this newly as a whole is examined until it is loaded to failure,

FIG. 16 FINGER JOINTS

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 115


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

and (b) proof test in which the structure is loaded deflection measuring instruments may be
lightly in excess of the design load, and the placed at the centre of the bottom chord and
behaviour of the structure is examined over a also at lengthening joints to measure any
length of period under actual service conditions or slip in the same. These can also be placed at
simulated under accelerated conditions. other relevant points where the deflection is
to be particularly noted.
7.2 Destructive Tests
7.2.1 Objec!ives - The Forest Research b) After 24 hours, the truss is completely
unloaded and reloaded ‘again up to failure
Institute had conducted several destructive tests
by adding equal increments of loads with a
on various types of timber trusses and these have
time interval of five minutes to allow sett-
been reported in different publications (.vee
ing before noting the deflections. In case of
Appendix B). The methods of loading and
ceiling loads. the bottom chord of the truss
procedures of testing often varied depending on should be loaded up to design load. At each
the objectives and the specific design. However, observation, the loads at heel points and
the destructive tests on nail-jointed timber trusses at all node points, the deflection readings
has been standardized in IS : 4924 (Part I)-1968. and time intervals should be carefully
The general principles outlined in this noted. The initial, final and residual deflec-
specification can be adopted for other types of tions are to be calculated and the details of
trusses also. In this specification the main the failure should be clearly recorded. The
objectives of the tests have been identified as: ‘apparent’ and ‘actual’ ‘factors of safety’ are
to be calculated as mentioned above. The
a) To determine the strength of members and
allowable deflection. as calculated by the
joints under ‘simulated’ service conditions of
following formula, should be compared with
loading assumed in design.
the actual deflection observed
b) To measure maximum deflection of various
node points of the bottom chord under CY
loads of varying magnitudes and compare A = 7 [.cee 1s : 4924 (Parts 1 and 2)-19681
the same with the calculated and expected
deflections and to determine the overall
stiffness of the trusses. where

cl To evaluate ‘apparent’ and ‘actual’ factors of A = allowable deflection in cm.


safety. The apparent factor of safety is de-
x= N.F.U.L
fined in IS : 4924 (Part l)-1968, as the ‘averge
ultimate load taken by the truss at failure, A
divided by the total load for which the truss E = modulus of elasticity of timber in
is designed’, which for a nail-jointed timber
kg/cm’,
truss has been fixed somewhat arbitrarily to
be not less than 2.5. Similarly the actual N = number of planks in a member,
factor of safety at failure is defined as
‘maximum force produced at the point of F = force induced in a plank due to design
failure of the member due to total ultimate load in kg,
load divided by the force the actual section U = force induced in the members of the
can take at the point of failure’ which for truss due to unit loading in. kg placed
nail-jointed roof truss is somewhat where deflection is required to be
arbitrarily fixed to be not less than 2.0. found out,
7.2.2 Procedures L = Length of the member in cm, and
a) The trusses to be tested are to be fixed A = total sectional area of the member
firmly on timber pillars or masonry pillars in cm3.
with sufficient clearance under the bottom 7.3 Proof Tests
chord for observation, loading, etc. The
loads equivalent to 1.25 times the total 7.3.1 Objectives- In these type of tests
design loads are applied in equal increments known as proof tests, the main objectives are to
at all node points in the top and bottom observe the joint slips (instantaneous
chords, by means of hanging platforms to deformation) and creep in timber roof trusses
conform to the actually applied conditions under prolonged loadings, and under simulated
in constructions. Lateral stability of the truss service conditions. Thus the stiffness of members
may be secured by placing a similar truss at and joints is determined instantaneously, and over
suitable distance to simulate rigidity as in a long period as a whole. This would also help to
actual use through purlins, etc. Care should decide on the provision of initial camber in the
be taken to see that the truss under test bottom chord during fabrication stage. These
receives only lateral restraint and not studies will also provide studying the effects of
vertical restraints. Suitable dial guages or variables due to normal building openings.

86 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

7.3.2 Procedures - The general procedures The rate of load application should be uniform
required for supporting loading arrangements, and continuous at the rate of I mm: min until the
obtaining lateral stability, and measuring maximum load is reached. From the load-slip
deflections are, in general, same as described in curves, the slip at proportional limit also is noted.
7.2.2. The test loads are kept constant either until In each case the connector factor (CF) is
a permanent set is reached or for a period of one calculated as below and is used in determining the
year whichever is less. The deflections at the allowable load.
centre of the bottom chords (or at any other place
where it is specifically required) are recorded CFd!!!E_
everyday. A record should also be maintained of mn
diurnal and seasonal variations of atmospheric
conditions. In the end a graph is plotted between where
deformation and time. In IS : 4924 (Parts 1 and JF = joint factor. which is the ratio of percent-
2)-1968, an interpretation is given that the initial
age of load developed to the full load
instantaneous deflection, as usually observed in which the member may take without the
the ‘time-slip’ curves, is due to joints and further joint (The loads may be taken either at
deflections are due to creep of timber. This may the maximum load for failure, or it pro-
be taken only as general guidance and more portional limit of the slip, or at the
sophisticated methods of measurements at the specified slip, as required for compari-
joints and in timber members will indicate more son or design);
accurate picture. It can be possible that the initial
instantaneous deflection can be partly due to n = number of connectors, tested in each con-
mechanical slip at the joints and partly due to tact face when multtple connectors are
reversible elastic deformation of members. used for tests in specific designs; and
Further increase in deflection with time under the
m = number of contact faces,
same load is also to be interpreted in terms of its
recoverability whether the creep is primary or 7.4.3 Whenever special tests are required in
secondary, or whether it is a phenomena of connection with design of a particular timber
further s!ip in joints due to gradual realignments structure, additional information on minimum
in the’ force:; and members caused due to initial and maximum end-distances and edge-distances
instanteneous slip. Normally no creep, whether for the required working load both for tension
primary or secondary, should occur in any and compression loadings would be Irseful.
member in view of the fact that due care was Besides, if a chart is drawn between the
taken in deriving the working stresses. percentage of full load at various edge distances,
and for various inclinations of load-to-grain, then
7.4 Tests on Joints and Connectors it may be seen that the relationship between such
7.4.1 As the most significant advances in timber percentages of ful! load, and edge distances is
design have resulted through development of linear and separate for different angles. Similarly
metal connectors such as split rings and shear- separate charts for end distances would also be
connectors, it has become necessary to know the useful to decide on final placing of the connectors
detailed functional aspects of these connectors. with reference to the sizes of members, their
For this purpose, in order to evaluate the main inclinations and loads. Where multiple connectors
characteristics of such connectors, IS : 4907-1968 are used, the relative spacing between the
has been prepared to standardize the conditions connectors would also be required. Necessary
and procedures for testing these connectors so precautions in the use cf such connectors have
that their characteristics are comparable. These already been described in 6.3.4.3(c).
tests have also served as a basis for developing
design criteria for their use, and also for
8. FABRICATION, CONSTRUCTION
determining the effects of various influencing
METHODS AND PRECAUTIONS
factors, such as species of wood, thicknesses and
widths of members, end margins, spacing, and 8.1 General
moisture content of wood.
8.1.1 It has been amply brought out in earlier
7.4.2 For purposes of the above tests, three sections that the safety of timber structures
groups of species are chosen; Group A species depends not on merely safe design or selection of
which differ in compressive strength from that of careful material but equally on the care taken in
‘Sal’ by + 30 percent, Group 0 species which differ fabrication, construction and erections. There are
from compressive strength of ‘teak’ by f. 30 no separate standards on the subject but relevant
percent and Group C species which differ in clauses are available in respective standards.
compressive strength from ‘chir’ by f 30 percent. Some of essential features of fabrication have
All species are to be used in green condition and already been discussed under 6.2 and 6.3.
also at 12 + I percent moisture content. The Sometimes the design takes care of the fabrication
dimensions and the distances of connectors from and construction difficulties, though it is not
edges and ends of test pieces in the tests parallel always possible to do so. In the foregoing
and perpendicular to grain are required to be as paragraphs, only some of the general methods
given in Fig. 17. employed for fabrication and erection of different

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 87


SP : 33(S&T)-l!M

CONNECTU?-

* t m

a=3c, bd2x, cd1.75x, d=2e, edt

17A Strength Test Parallel to Grain

a=3b, bd2x, c= I.lb, d=2e and edt


176 Strength Test Perpendicular to Grain
FIG. 17 STRENGTH TESTS OF CONNECTORS PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR TO GRAINS

88 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

types of structures are briefly discussed. In the being made at least to rationalize the above
country, some claims are often made that timber dimensions into standard metric equivalents.
fabrication does not need highly skilled labour Usually the various components, such as timber
and simple tools are normally sufficient which cleats, splicing plates, boards and required
reduce the cost of labour. These may be true as notches in beams are first prepared in workshops
compared with workers dealing with other according to relevant drawings and given the
materials of construction. However, within the necessary treatments also. Other hardware like
same field, the wood worker employed on nails, bolts, clips, fasteners and corresponding
fabrication of timber structures, though working drill bits and chisels for pre-boring and chipping
with somewhat similar tools should be one who operations are kept ready for different stages of
can understand some of the implications of wood fabrication and assembly. Bolt lengths should be
working particularly if he goes beyond the such that extra threads would be available for
permissible tolerances of working. He should also tightening to compensate for permissible
be familiar with behaviour of timber in question variations in the sizes of members and for
under the action of different tools he employes, tightening after any shrinkage occurs. If
and how best to get the finish nearest to the fabrication is accurate, assembly becomes
constructional design. That is, he should be well comparatively simpler. Usually assembly is
acquainted with the working qualities of the recommended as near as possible to the erection
species. He should know, for example, how the site.
several deviations of grain in a long member may 8,2.2 Fabrication Machines and Tools
create any eccentricity and deviate from the
assumption that the central line of force passes 8.2.2.1
Normally an ordinary saw mill,
through the axis of the member. Thus, even if woodworkshop and wood working tools form the
semi-skilled labour is occasionally employed, a major part of the equipment for fabricating
perfect supervision is essentially called for to timber structural units. These are the band saws,
coordinate the different operations carefully and the circular saws for ripping and cross-cutting,
accurately. At all stages of production of jointers, planners, moulding machines, boring
structural units, their fabrication, etc, it is machines including mortizing and tennoning
essential that due care is taken to stack the timber machines. Among the hand tools, the hand
neatly and properly to avoid contamination or planes, chisels, augers, borers and mallets are
damage by exposure. required. In addition to these, appropriate glueing
and pressing equipment also would be needed,
8.2 Fabrication and Assembly where necessary. However, where special joints
8.2.1 At present there is no organized are to be made like, dowel disc connectors and
production of structural units in any factory for finger joints, special types of machines may be
mass supply in India. Whenever a large number of sigged up, or some of the above machines may be
units of the same type are required, stray efforts suitably modified for the needed accuracy in
are made for labour saving methods locally and fabrication. The Forest Research Institute has
introduce some economy. However, in the timber developed a few of them as described below.
engineering practices there is some awareness for 8.2.2.2 A finger jointing machine has been
developing modular systems for introducing developed consisting of high speed steel cutters,
coordinated economy m handling, transport, mounted on a horizontal spindle. It rotates at a
fabrication and erection as is very common in very high speed as are most of the other wood-
other developed countries. It is recognized that working machines. When the plants are fed, end
conventional timber structural designs and on, through a sliding platform, the V-shaped
constructions are not found suitable for pre- finger grooves of desired dimensions are made.
fabricated modular design. Instead of using long Two members are then joined end to end by
length and thick sections of timber, as in earlier interlocking, glueing in the grooves, and applying
days, new tendency is developing to use shorter the required pressure. In some foreign countries,
lengths with appropriate fasteners and simple all the above processes are automatically done
jointing devices such as nail-jointing techniques. continuously and in proper sequence so that
The modular coordination contemplated is on the production costs are kept at a minimum.
basis of basic module 1M equal to lOOmm,
corresponding to NBC (Part VI). Other 8.2.2.3 A modified drilling machine which
recommendations therein, are also easily can cut circular recesses in timber and which can
applicable to timber structures. Accordingly, the prepare the required disc dowels with tapers has
dimensions of modular door apertures are of 20, been developed at the Forest Research Institute,
22 and 24 m in height, and 7, 8 and 9 m in width. Dehra Dun, for 76 mm diameter and 25 mm
Similarly for window apertures I2 and 22 m are thickness. This has been successfully used for
the heights, and 9 m is the width. However, the fabricating trusses of different spans.
panel products sold in this country, having been
largely produced on imported machinery, are still 8.3 Light and Heavy Constructions
sold and demanded in the market on the basis of 8.3.1 Althou h, in India, examples exist of
8’ X 4’. Continuous and rigorous efforts are still several types o f timber constructions, such as

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-I986

timber trusses for a variety of roofs, lamella obtained on the basis of the loads to be lifted to
constructions, bridges towers, poles and posts, the heights, and the working spaces for erection.
there has been no specific effort to standardize Roof-framings often present some hazards after
what may be classified as light constructions and erection has commenced, and as the joists, etc, get
to draw a distinction between them. As already installed in the respective places. Adequate
discussed under 6.2 and 6.3, the different types bracing of ballies, etc, are recommended for
chosen to meet the heavier loads and increased keeping all the columns firmly in position, In all
spans as per the needs of the design may fall erection stages, it should be ensured that the
under the definition of heavy constructions. minimum of erection stresses come into play as
Sometimes multi-planner constructions (that is, usually these are not provided at the time of
with two or more solid members) are preferred for design. After erection and fixing, all joints should
heavy loads and longer spans as compared to be carefully checked and bolts tightened, wherever
mono-planer constructions (That is, with single necessary. The structure should be periodically
solid members), as the former are stiffer than the inspected and its stability should be ensured under
latter. They allow greater stresses in multiple the varying environmental conditions.
shear as against the spice plates in mono-planer
8.4.2 If any member gets damaged either in
constructions. However, in some of the western
erection and fixing or in subsequent use, it should
countries the light constructions treated slightly
be comparatively easier to replace or reinforce in
different from heavy constructions, as in the latter
timber structures than in other types of structures.
the options are less compared to the form.er.
Consistent with the economy, adequate facilities
In light framing, generally it is not necessary to should be readily available for all such
develop the full strength of all members at the eventualities.
joints as it is felt that the load bearing members
are seldom stressed to maximum capacity. 9. WOOD FINISHES, PROTECTION
However, it is essential that the joints must be AND MAINTENANCE
amply strong and rigid to transmit all the loads.
The assembly and fabrication aspects become 9.1 Wood Finishes
somewhat simpler. In heavy timber framing the 9.1.1 Like any other material of construction
weakest point is always identified, and it is often wood also requires to be appropriately surface
recognized as the joint, and so its design and coated and periodically maintenance measures are
fabrication is such as to develop the full strength taken in order to obtain the best life from the
of the connecting members. To a large extent the same. The process commonly known as ‘wood
framing carpenter should be fully aware of any finishing’ consists of first preparing the surface
shortcomings in fabrication that may reduce the and then application of a continuous layer of a
effectiveness of the joint. In general, where it is coating on the surface of wood. The principal
possible to secure chords of full lengths and avoid objectives in this are:
joints, it may be better to use long timbers even at
the expense of increased costs. Light construction a) protection to the surface of wood against
material has greater suceptibality to weather some damages; and
conditions than those intended for heavier
constructions. Particularly the angles between b) Obtaining the required appearance or
various members may get distorted under
unfavourable circumstances such as bad weather Sometimes both the above would be needed, and
and over hanging loads if not properly stacked. sometimes the main emphasis would be on one or
Care should be taken to avoid these situations. the other of the two mentioned above. Sometimes
8.3.2 for making trusses and nail joints it is the surface properties like abrasion, hardness, etc,
the usual practice to make the layout of the also are intended to be improved which can also
structural unit on a level platform ground, be classified under ‘protection’ against possible
marking clearly the widths of various members. mechanical damages.
Hardboard or plywood templates of various sizes, It should, however, be remembered that wood
as required in the drawings, must be prepared first finishing is not a preservation technique as wood
to indicate the nail or bolt positions. These can be preservation against biological damage is
used to transfer the markings to splice plates of commonly understood. Although wood finishing
the members, and then necessary pre-boring is has been in practice from times immemorial, the
done on them as required. First a few nails are exact mechanism of adhesion of the coated film to
driven partly and temporarily at various points to the wood, is still a matter of considerable
form a complete skeleton and check the profile. theoretical discussions. Rut mainly, two aspects of
Finally, the nails or bolts are carefully fixed from the mechanism are recognized:
both the faces as per the drawings.
a) ‘mechanical adhession’ by which the applied
coating enters the minute cavities on the sur-
8.4 Erection and Fixing
face of woods, gets dried and hardened and
8.4-p Erection equipment are either locally provides a strong layer of film on the top;
improvized by pulleys or special equipment and

90 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

b) ‘specific adhesion’ by which there are inter- many synthetic lacquers are available. These
acting chemical forces between the surface are obtained by dissolving resins and cellu-
of wood and the chemical constituents of lose esters (nitrates) in different solvents.
the applied coating resulting in a smooth They are very quick in drying clearly trans-
continuous film on the surface of wood. parent, glossy, and generally unaffected by
temperature or mild acids and alkalis.
Thus the former is dependent somewhat on the
physical nature of wood surface and the latter d) Paints - These are purely mechanical
depends somewhat on the chemical nature of mixtures of pigments and vehicles, thinners,
wood surface . For these reasons, preparation of driers and varnishes, etc. The required
wood, surface (such as a sanding or applying colours may be obtained from some inor-
suitable pre-coats) becomes an important ganic salts as zinc oxide or lead carbonate
for white; lead chromite or ferrous oxide
operation before any surface coating is applied,
for yellow; lead oxide for orange; ferric
and the degree of such a finish varies from species
oxide, lead-oxide, some mercuric com-
to species.
pounds for red; chromic oxide for green,
9.1.2 Type qf Wood Finishes and Basic lead sulphide for black, etc. In earlier
Materials - From the point of drying there are years organic colouring materials of natural
principally two types of coatings: origin have also been used such as blues
from indigo, etc. For various IS colours, a
a) which dry through irreversible chemical reference may be made to IS : 86-1950 and
reaction, and as such cannot be brought correspondingly relevant standards for
back to the original condition; and obtaining such colours.
b) which dry by evaporation of the solvent and e) Enamels-These are various types of var-
so can be brought back to the original con- nishes or lacquers together with some
dition by the same solvent. opaque pigments for colour in order to
obtain improved wearing properties of the
Sometimes a combination of (a) and (b) occurs
in which the evaporation of solvent causes the coated film. They give smooth and tough
initial set, and then the oxidation of oils or surfaces.
polymerization of resins set in. As the nature of f-l Fillers and sealers -These can be either
oil or resin is thus altered, so the reaction is coloured or uncoloured as desired. They are
irreversible. The primary basic materials used in used primarily as base material to prevent
wood finishes and their functions are the drying excessive penetration of subsequent coating
oils and resins (which provide the continuity in and provide for its easy spread.
the film), the pigments (which provide the desired
colour and ensure capacity), and the volatile A number of commercial wood finishes are now
solvents (which regulate the consistency). Some of available in Indian markets. Before applying the
the secondary materials are plasticisers and driers same on any wood surface, unless their
which are employed. when necessary, to impart ingredients and their effects are well known, it
special properties like removing of brittleness, would be useful to check in each case the relative
increasing hardness, etc. The principal classes of claims of various commercial wood finishes by
wood finishes are the following: actual field trials, and wherever possible, by
accelerated weathering tests in laboratories with
4 Shellac-This is made by dissolving the requisite facilities. Some similar tests may @so be
oxidation of lac insect (Tacherdia Zacca) in done at site on small sample surfaces. However, a
alcohol or alkaline water. It forms a quick knowledge of various factors which influence
drying permanent film of low strength. wood finishes would help the selection of the
b) Varnishes-These are large groups of appropriate wood finish in relation to the species
somewhat transparent finishes with varying of timber actually in use. There are also a number
properties. They are usually prepared from of Indian Standards available for different types
natural or synthetic resins, mixed with dry- of wood finishes as mentioned in 9.1.4.
ing oils and volatile thinners. Other chemi- 9.1.3 Factors which influence wood finishes
cals are also added, sometimes to achieve are as follows:
the keeping qualities and easy spread. They
dry quickly by evaporation of thinners, a) Nature of wood - A coating which is pro-
oxidation of oils or polymerization of resins. perly and uniformly done, is not generally
affected in its early life by the kind of wood:
c) Lacquers - These are the surface coatings but after some ageing under different types of
used whenever shining appearances are exposures, etc, the nature of wood deter-
_
required, and so they are often used for art mmes the rate of disintegration of the
objects and some types of decorative panels. coating. In soft woods, particularly where
Formerly these were obtained from plant its resin content is high and in which for-
origin (Rhus verniciflua trees grown in Japan mation of earlv wood and late wood are
and China) and were sometimes refired distinct, there &II be some cracking of the
to as ‘oriental lacquers’. Presently many coating and damages, particularly in such

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP 33( S&T)-1 986

coatings which have lost their toughness IS : 349-1981 Lacquer cellulose, nitrate, clear,
due to ageing, they adhere only mechanically finishing, glossy for metal
to the late wood on account of its compara- (first revision)
tively better dimensional stability. In hard- IS : 524-1968 Varnish, finishing, exterior,
woods, coatings remain stable comparatively synthetic mrst revision)
for longer periods in lighter woods than in IS : 3536-1966 Ready mixed paint, brushing,
heavy and harder woods. Diffused porous wood primer, pink
woods are said to hold paints better than IS : 3585-1966 Ready mixed paint, aluminium,
ring porous woods, and so also sapwoods brushing, priming, water
provides better mechanical adhesion than resistant, for woodwork
the heartwood.
The important standard which is often referred,
b) Extractives in wood - Leaching of extrac- where wood finishing is to be done in a standard
tives may sometimes have an adverse in- way is IS : 2338 (Parts 1 and 2)-1967. Part 1 deals
fluence on surface coatings, but otherwise with operation and workmanship; and Part 2 with
their presence as such in the wood itself schedules for different types of final finish
is not always unfavourable. It is the nature required, such as enamel, oil gloss, flat, varnish or
of extractives that is more important than grained work separately for exterior and interior
the amount of extractives because of their new wood work. The operations and
chemical behaviour. workmanship are discussed below.

c) Physical properties - Unless properties like


thermal expansion, water absorption of the
9.2 Application Methods
films, etc, match also with similar properties
of wood, certain amount of incompatability, 9.2.1 Before applying any coating of wood finish
may arise. Any action of ultraviolet radia- on the surface of wood, the same must be
tion may disintegrate some of the paints. properly seasoned and sanded to the requisite
Commercial paints are therefore generally moisture content and smoothness, and cleaned
prepared for wide spectrum of variations of well. Whenever necessary a primary coating is
physical properties. The moisture protective given and when it becomes dry the main wood
effectiveness of the film is calculated by: finish is then given in one or two coatings as may
be required. Generally the prime coating and
E = (A-B) X 100 subsequent coatings are applied by brush for all
B wood works in position in various buildings and
structures. When spraying is adopted care should
where be taken to see that the spray does not fall on
unwanted areas. While careful spraying gives
E = moisture protective effectiveness,
compartively fine and thin uniform coatings, there
A = gain in the weight of specimen without may be some wastage caused due to the spray
the finish, and falling beyond the required area of the wood
work. But spraying is comparatively quicker
B = gain in the weight of specimen with method of application than brushing for the same
finish when both the samples are area and for the same finish required. Spraying is
exposed to dampness under identical invariably adopted when finishin is done on
conditions initially as well as during wood work components individua Bly in the pre-
the experiment. fabrication workshops. For greater details on
9.1.4 Relevant Indian Standards available for selection of coating materials, priming stopping,
some types of wood finishes are indicated below. filling and application of undercoats, reference
It is not mentioned clearly whether the may be made to IS : 2338 (Parts 1 and 2)-1967.
recommendations made in the specifications are
applicable uniformly to all species of wood and, if 9.3 Maintenance
not, the species characteristics may sometimes
introduce relevant changes. 9.3.1 Maintenance of wood work in any
building or structure is as important as design,
IS : 75-1973 Linseed oil? . raw and refined fabrication and erection. Inspite of many
(second revuzon) precautions taken for increasing the dimensional
IS : 155-1950 Ready mixed paint, matt-black, stability of wood and decreasing the causes of
for use on wood decay, there may still be some factors, particularly
IS : 162-1950 Ready mixed paint, brushing, in the structure of wood, which have not received
fire resisting, sillicate type for use full attention. These are mainly the differential
on wood, colour as required physical properties arising out of non-
IS : 337-1975 Varnish finishing, interior homogeneity of wood structure. Some type of
(first revision) deterioration is also attributable to inadequate
IS : 347-1975 Varnish, shellac, for general pur- treatment processes in the initial stage or even due
poses (first revision) to inadequate measures provided for proper

92 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(5&T)-1986

maintenance. As such, atleast for some years in mound should be destroyed, and the soil properly
the initial stage, periodical observations are treated with chemicals. The soil, or the floor
necessary and the appropriate remedial measures around which wood is embedded, should be
are to be taken. periodically treated with suitable preservatives.
Sometimes fumigation would help killing of any
9.3.2 One of the common observations in existing infestation and prevent its spread but this
wood work in buildings anu other structures is should not be considered as a permanent way of
loosening of joints caused due to shrinkage. preventing any future infestations. In India, a
Swelling of wood also may cause enormous number of pest control organisations have
stresses at the joints resulting in some distortions. recently come up to undertake these jobs as
For this, appropriate measures to tighten the required.
joints or remove the excess material under
swelling should be undertaken. If any excessive 10. FUTIJRE POSSIBILITIES
deflection or twisting or bowing of members is
observed, or the alignment of wood work is 10.1 Introduction - At several places, in earlier
distorted, necessary repairs should be done at the sections, it has been brought out how, in several
earliest unless they are not of immediate danger areas, there is lack of adequate experimental data,
and there is a possibility of the defects getting and there is no development of accurate theory,
removed naturally in course of time. Timber resulting in extra safety measures that are
structures are usually easy to repair. The repairs required to be taken in design and construction of
are generally of the type of reinforcing the joint or timber structure. Also owing to inadequate supply
any weakened member. Sometimes there can be of conventional and well known timbers, a need
also replacement of decayed portion of wood. has arisen for use of not only alternate species but
Consistent with the costs involved all outside improved products of the same and for which
pieces, if damaged, can be easily removed and considerable developmental activity is still in
replaced, but all the interior pieces should progress. With rapid strides in trade, and
invariably and preferably be reinforced only. industrial patterns of the country, a need has been
felt for increasing use of timber and timber
9.3.3 ‘Much of the wood work in the interior products inspite of many competitive materials
of buildings does not require recoating with wood coming up. Here it is proposed to review some of
finishes as periodically as the exterior and the trends and developments, and project future
exposed wood surfaces require. All such exposed potentialities in timber engineering.
surfaces, require every year repetition of the
surface coatings as originally done. When the 10.2 Glue-lam Engineering
coating becomes too thick, and scales start
coming off, or when a differently coloured coating 10.2.1 Of the several directions in which
is required, it may be necessary to first remove the developments are taking place, glue-lam
original coatings either by controlled flame, or by structures in timber engineering is the most
boiling the pieces of wood work (like door and promising with a high economic and technical
window shutters) in alkaline water, cleaning the potential. Laminating planks of wood up to
surface thoroughly thereafter, and repainting all generally 5 cm thick with the grain of all planks of
over again. Normally all exposed wood surfaces wood running in the same direction and with the
should be given water repellent paints and help of newly available cold setting commercial
repeated every few years. There are examples in adhesives, almost any shape and size of structural
India of linseed oil treatment alone having component can be developed. This has been
protected timber for quite a long time. particularly useful in arches and curves in
members. In this process it has been possible to
IS : 2338 (Part 2)-1967 gives in a tabular form utilise low grade timber in areas of lower stresses
recommended practices for cleaning and painting like the neutral axis region of beams and high
periodically when the condition of the original grade timber in areas of higher stresses like the
painted surface shows blistering, cracking, extreme zones of beams. The rigidity obtained
checking or chalking. Whenever blistering or due to interlayer of glue lines (which is always
cracking is heavy and deep, it is recommended stronger than timber) between the planks, and at
that the paint should be removed completely to various joints is highiy desired factor in timber
base wood, and entire schedule should be structures. However, considerable amount of
followed again. research work seems necessary particularly in the
glueability characteristics of several ‘Indian species
9.3.4 If inspite of all precautions, insect attack is used for structural purposes. Engineering tests on
detected in its early stages, immediate corrective different types of glue-lam structural units would
steps should be taken to clean the infested portion help development of working stresses for the
and give liberal coating of paints or polish with same. It would also be ossible to develop the
preservatives. If necessary, slanting holes can be necessary modification Pactors for permissible
drilled in the wood to fill them up completely with stresses depending on the number and nature of
the preservative. Simultaneously care should be laminations and their direction (that is, grain
taken to eradicate the sources where insects are orientation) to the induced loads. When once a
breeding. In the case of termites, the termite- structural unit like a beam or column is

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 93


SP : 33(&T)-1986

developed, and its overall strength is determined, many other South East Asian countries. Bamboos
it can be used in the structures by the same design have also been used for developing variety of
methods as in normal cases. However, it should building boards. Recently considerable
be possible for designing and preparing a developments have taken place in using bamboo
laminated unit of required properties, from the for reinforced concrete as an alternate to steel at a
properties of individual laminations which may be lower cost. This has been particularly useful in
required to be determined. The mechanical low cost structures. The averge tensile strength of
behaviour of the composite material can be bamboos varies from 1 400 to 2 900 kg/cm* and
computed from the strength and geometry of this high strength value has naturally attracted its
individual laminations. use for reinformcement in concrete. At present the
same prinCipk, as for Std reinforced COnCrete, iS
10.3 Plywood Engineering employed for design of bamboo reinforced
concrete structural units, but a setback is
10.3.1 Unlike in glue-lam product the grain of
observed due to shrinkage and swelling of
timber in alternate layers of plywood runs in
bamboo resulting in weakening of bonds and
directions perpendicular to each other. Varieties
development of cracks. Split bamboo with surface
of plywood are produced in India, and already a
treatment for increasing the bond, and with
fair amount of progress is made in the application
properly designed meshwork for reinforcement
of plywood for structural engineering purposes.
seem to give good hopes of increased use of these
As in this Handbook only solid timber was
techniques (see Fig. 18). Considerable amount of
intended to be covered, the development in the
labortory and field data seem to be required
field of plywood engineering (that is, structural
before standardization can be attempted and
application of plywood) has not been covered.
regular engineering practices can be codified.
Plywood has been used as stressed skin panels for
walls and ceilings web beams, arches, panels,
portal frames and gussets. Plywood has also been
used in builtup beams such as l-beams and box
type ‘beams. Some attempts are also made for
developing shell roofs and domes and folded plate
roofings with plywood because of its uniform
strength in perpendicular directions, and its light
weight. The use of plywood in big drums, grain
silos, farm houses, etc, are well known. However,
it appears that some systematic studies on
computation and evaluation of strength of
plywood on the basis of strength and thickness of
individual veneers is still required to be pursued in REINFORCEMEN
NODAL LUGS
India. Although rigorous tests are available [see
IS : 1734 (Parts 1 to 2)-19721 for determining
strength of plywood, evaluation of appropriate
working stesses and standardization of plywood FIG. 18 DETAILS OF BAMBOO REINFORCEMENT
constructions would further help rapid
developments in plywood engineering. Studies are
required to be undertaken on the efficacy of 10.4.2 Besides making plywood with wood
various types of joints with plywood. Use of veeners a variety of panel products have come in
special types of fastening hardware, such as nails, the market like hardboards, particle boards and
staples, screws, bolts and clips are currently under bamboo boards. Some of the grasses and reeds,
investigation. It is known that plywood has shown bagasse, cereal stalks, pine needles, and a variety
very good holding power with these in a direction of raw materials have also been used for
perpendicular to its surface. Edgewise resistance preparing different sorts of panels and boards for
to withdrawal of nails is somewhat lower but still building purposes. In some of the westerr.
comparable to that of solid wood. For this countries, some of these boards have been widely
purpose’ special types of fasterners like grooved used in standard building constructions. In some
nails and special type of screws are coming into countries particle boards of different thicknesses
gradual use. have already come into structural use in buildings.

10.4 Other Forest Based and Biological


Materials However, standards do exist at present for
producing some of the above materials for non-
10.4.1 Besides timber which is a major structural end use purposes. Considerable amount
product from forests, other minor forest products of efforts in data collection and development of
like bamboos and canes are also available for structliral designs are required in the country
structural and non-structural purposes in building before attempting standardization. However,
construction. The use of bamboos, as an wood wool building slabs according to IS : 3308-
important constructional material for rural 1981 have come into prominent use for ceiling
dwellings, is well known in India, Japan and and acoustic purposes.

94 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

10.5 Prefah Techniques 10.6 Computer Techniques


10.51 If timber engineering is to remain
economical, in the face of increasing labour costs 10.6.1 Just as in many other fields of science
and specialized hardware, adhesives, etc, and technology, computation of data and
importance of prefabrication in workshops cannot rogramming a series of mathematical operations
be overlooked. As already explained in earlier For obtaining the solutions are required, so also in
sections, there are at present no special prefab the field of timber industries. Also in structural
techniques developed in India for mass uses of timber, it has now become possible to
production of timber structural units, but only the introduce computerization. Some of the
normal wood workshop facilities are utilized for conversion and saw-milling operations, grading,
production of similar structural components all etc, are now being done in other countries by
together at a stretch. However, it is required that computer techniques so that a log fed at one end
for mass production of any standardized automatically comes out at the other end in the
structural units such as trusses, or built up form of appropriately sized and graded converted
columns for ready use, there is a need of special material for ready use in structures. Either by
types of jigs, fixtures, boring machines, nailing colour indication or by actual printing
machines, glueing machines, etc. Such types of arrangement on the member, the material at the
machines for multiple borings for connectors, or other end will be classified into use within specific
quick insertion of gangnails (multiple nails in one range of working stresses for beams or columns or
plate) are in common use in other countries. To boards, etc, as the case may be, although it
develop these machines and techniques, not only a appears a need of this type would arise in India
demand for standard timber structural units is only when timber structures become popular
required to be built up but considerable R&D manifold than what it is at present. R&D efforts
efforts are required to be put in for optimum in this direction may start to keep pace on one
working conditions. There appears to be hand with the developments in other countries
considerable potential for development in this and on the other to evolve indigenous systems by
field in view of the present tempo in rural which unknown factors in timber utilization may
develo’pment schemes and urban housing fall beyond the judgement and discretion of
programmes on a large scale. individuals.

APPENDIX A
(Clause I .6)

INDIAN STANDARDS USEFUL FOR TIMBER ENGINEERING

IS : 190-1974 Specification for coniferous sawn (non-structural) in wood (j+st


timber baulks and scantling revision)
(rhird revision)
IS : 852-1969 Specification fos, animal glue for
IS : 218-1983 Specification for creosote and general wood working purposes
anthracene oil for use as wood first revision)
preservatives (second revision)
IS : 876-1970 Specification for wood poles for
IS : 287-1973 Recommendations for maximum overhead power and telecommu-
permissible moisture content nication lines (second revision)
of timber used for different
IS : 883-1970 Code of practice for design of
purposes (second revision)
structural timber in buildings
IS : 399-1963 Classification of commercial (third revision)
timber and their zonal distribu-
tion (revised IS : 1003 Specification for timber parielled
(Part I)-1977 and glazed shutters: Part I
IS : 401-1982 Code of practice for preservation Door shutters (second revision)
of timber (third revision)
IS : 1003 Specification for timber panelled
IS : 707-1976 Glossary of terms applicable to (Part 2)-1983 and glazed shutters: Part 2 Win-
timber technology and utilization dow and ventilator shutters
(second revision) (second revision)
IS : 851-1978 Specification for synthetic resin IS : 1141-1973 Code of practice for seasoning
adhesives for construction work of timber (first revision)

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 95


.

SP : 33(S&T)-1986

IS : 1150- 976 Trade names and abbreviated IS : 2377-1967 Tables for volume of cut-sizes
symbols for timber species of timber (fir.st revision)
(second revision)
IS : 2408-1963 Methods of static tests of timber
IS : 1326- 976 Specification for non-coniferous in structural sizes
sawn timber (baulks and scant-
lings) f$rst revision) IS : 24551974 Methods of sampling of model
trees and logs for timber testing
IS : 1331- 971 Specification for cut-sizes of and their conversion (first
timber (second revision) revision)
IS : 1609- 975 Code of practice for laying damp IS : 2700-1964 Code of practice for roofing with
proof treatment using bitumen wooden shingles
felts (second revision)
IS : 3037-1965 Specification for bitumen mastic
IS : 1634- 973 Code of practice for design and for use in water-proofing of roofs
construction of wood stairs in
houses. (i2r.a revision) IS : 3337-1978 Specification for ballies for
general purpose (first revision)
1s : I642- 960 Code of practice for fire safety of
buildings (general) : Materials IS : 3364 Methods of measurement and
and details of construction (Part I)-1976 evaluation of defects in timber:
Part 1 Logs (f?rst revision)
IS : 1643-1960 Code of practice for fire safety of
buildings (general) : Exposure IS : 3364 Methods of measurement and
hazard (Part 2)-1976 evaluation of defects in timber:
Part 2 Converted timber (first
IS : 1708-1969 Methods of testing small clear revision)
specimen of timber wrst revision)
IS : 3629-1966 Specification for structural
IS : 1900-1974 Methods of test for wood poles timber in building
(first revision)
IS : 3670-1966 Code of practice for construction
IS : 1902-1961 Code of practice for preservation of timber floors
of bamboo and cane for non-
IS : 3731-1985 Specification for teak squares
structural purposes
Cfirst revision)
IS : 2191 Specification for wooden flush
IS : 4020-1967 Methods of tests for wooden
(Part I)-1983 door shutters (cellular and
flush doors: Type tests
hollow core type): Part I Ply-
wood face panels Vourth revision) IS : 4021-1983 Specification for timber door,
window and ventilator frames
IS : 2191 Specification for wooden flush
(second revision)
(Part 2)-1983 door shutters (cellular and hollow
core type): Part 2 Particle board IS : 4423-1967 Guide for hand-sawing of timber.
and hardboard face panels (third
revision) IS : 4891-1968 Preferred cut-sizes of structural
timbers.
IS : 2202 Specification for wooden flush
(Part I)-1983 door shutters (solid core type): IS : 4895-1985 Specification for teak logs (first
Part I Plywood face panels revision)
(fourth rev&on) IS : 4907-1968 Methods of testing timber
IS : 2202 Specification for wooden flush connectors.
(Part 2 -1983 door shutters (solid core type):
Part 2 Particle board and hard- IS : 4913-1968 Code of practice for selection,
board face panels (third revision) installation and maintenance of
timber doors and windows.
IS : 2203- 976 Specification for wooden cross
arms (first revision) IS : 4924 Method of test for nail-jointed
(Part I)-1968 timber trusses: Part I Destructive
IS : 2338 Code of practice for finishing of A__.
(Part l)- 196: wood and wood based materials:
Part I Operations and work-
IS : 4924 Method of test for nail-jointed
manship (Part 2)-1968 timber trusses: Part 2 Proof test
IS : 2338 Code of practice for finishing of
(Part 2)- 1967 wood and wood based materials: IS : 4962-1968 Specification for \-Tooden side
Part 2 Schedules sliding doors

IS : 2366-1983 Codce of practice for nail-jointed IS : 4970-1973 Key for identification of com-
timber construction (fi-ist revision) mercial timbers Qkst revision)

96 ON TIMBER ENGINEERING ,
SP : 33(S&T)-1986

IS : 4983-1968 Code of practice for design and Treatment for existing buildings
construction of nailed laminated yirst revision)
timber beams IS : 6346-1971 Methods of test for timber props
IS : 5119 Code of practice for laying and for mines
(Part I)- I968 fixing of sloped roof coverings:
IS : 6534-1971 Guiding principles for grading
Part I slating and inspection of timber
IS : 5246-1969 Specification for coniferous logs IS : 671 l-1972 Code of practice for maintenance
IS : 5389-1969 Code of practice for laying of of wood poles for overhead
hardwood parquet and wood power and telecommunication
block floors. lines

IS : 5390-1984 Code of practice for construction IS : 6874-1973 Methods of test for round
of timber ceiling (j?rst revision) bamboos

IS : 5966-1970 Specification for non-coniferous IS : 7308-1973 Specification for non-coniferous


timber in converted form for logs
general purposes
IS : 7315-1974 Guidelines for design, installation
IS : 5978-1970 Code of practice for design of and testing of timber seasoning
wood poles for overhead power kilns
and telecommunication lines
IS : 7638-1975 Methods of sampling of plywood
IS : 6056-1970 Specification for jointed wood
poles for overhead power and IS : 7683-1975 Code of practice for design, fabri-
telecommunication lines. cation and maintenance of nail-
jointed timber posts from small
IS : 6198-1988 Specification for ledged braced dimensional timber for overhead
and battened timber door shut- electric distribution lines for low
ters yirst revision) voltages
IS : 6313 Code of practice for anti-termite
IS : 8720-1978 Methods of sampling of timber
(Part I)-1981 measures in buildings: Part I
scantlings from depots and their
Constructional measures (first conversion for testing
revision)
IS : 8745-1978 Methods of presentation of data
IS : 6313 Code of practice for anti-termite
of physical and mechanical oro-
(Part 2)-1981 measures in buildings: Part 2
Pre-constructional chemical perties of timber
treatment measures (fkt revision)
National Build-Part VI Structural design,
IS : 6313 Code of practice for anti-termite Sectioning Code of 3 Wood India 1983
(Part 3)-1981 measures in buildings: Part 3

APPENDIX B
(Clauses 4.1 and 4.3.1)

IMPORTANT INDIAN PUBLICATIONS IN TIMBER ENGINEERING

(Some of these have been referred in the text by appropriate reference).

Research Papers
1) Guha (SRD), Mathur (CM), Gupta (VK) and 3) Masani (MJ) and Gupta (RK). Proof test on
Sekhar (AC). Insulating boards from rice full sizes nail-jointed timber trusses for
straw. Indian Pulp and Paper. Vol. 19, April residential buildings (Part II). ZFL. 183. 1963.
1965.
4) Masani (NJ). Economics of timber structures
2) Gupta (RC), Chauhan (BPS), Tandon (RC), with reference to roof trusses, IFL. 169. 1964.
Tiwari (MC) and Jain (NC). Studies on
5, Masani (NJ), Pruthi
(KS) and Agarwal (SK).
glued laminated constructions. Preliminary
studies on the effect of preservatives on Bolted joints for timber structures (bolt
bending of Pinus Rexhurghii. JTDA.’ 20(4), bearing strength of wood parallel to grain)
1974. (Part I). ZFL. 180. 1964.

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

6) Masani (NJ) and Gupta (RK). Mechanically 20) Purushotham (A). Instructions for treatment
aminated timber construction: Test results of timber bamboo, etc, where facilities for
md recommendations on design of mechani- treatment are not available. JTDA. 9 (4).
:ally laminated beams. /FL. 186. 1966. 1963.
21) Purushotham (A). Fire resistive compressed
7) Masani (NJ) and Pruthi (KS). A study of thatch hoards. JTDA. 12 (4). 1966.
:ffective lever arm in spliced nail-jointed
Deams (lengthening (joints, their efficiency 22) Rehman (MA), Ghosh (DP) and Mchra (M L).
2nd economy) (Part I). /FL. 184. 1966. Design and operation of an improved type
of indirect-heat thermal circulation furnaces
8) Masani (NJ), Gupta (RK). Bahuguna (JP) kiln. IFB. 226. WS Branch, Forest Research
snd Bachan Singh. Theory and practice of Institute. Dehra Dun. 1966.
jolid web-ty.pe nail-jointed timber girder
T.E. Manual (Part II). FRI. 123. (r~\~i.vrd. 23) Sekhar (AC) and Rana (RS). Nail and screw
1966. holding power of Indian timbers. IFR (TM).
5. 1956.
9) Masani (NJ) and Pruthi (KS). A note on
comparative strength of wood disc dowel 24) Sekhar (AC). Notes on grading of timbers in
joints with different joints in timber framed India. Sot. Ind. Fores. II (I) 1962.
structures. IFL. 185. 1967.
25) Sekhar (AC) and Nagi (GS). A note on co-
10) Masani (NJ) and Gupta (RK). Test results efficients of variation for mechanical pro-
and recommendations on strength of nail- perties of Indian woods. Journal qj’NB0. 1V
jointed timber roof trusses for residential (2), 1959.
buildings (Part I). /FL. 182. 1961.
26) Sekhar (AC) and Rawat (BS). Studies on
ll) Masani (NJ), Gupta (RK) and Bachan Singh. effect of the specific gravity on strength con-
Overhead electric distribution posts from sideration of Indian timbers. J. Insr. .&gin
small dimensioned timbers, /FL. 192. 1972. (India). 39. (I) (Part I), 1959.
12) Masani (NJ) and Pruthi (KS). Overhead elec- 27) Sekhar (AC) and Nagi (GS). Studies on vari-
tric distribution posts from small dimen- ation of strength properties of Indian timber.
sioned timbers. IFL. 192. 1972. Paper presented at the Symposium on
Timber and Allied Products. NBO. New
13) Masani (NJ) and Bajaj (AN). Timber re-
Delhi. 1959.
sources in India and their utility for struc-
tural purposes with emphasis on quality 28) Sekhar (AC) and Bhatnagar (NS). Prelimi-
construction and cost of secondary species. nary observations on creep and fatigue pro-
Paper presented at the Seminar on Qualit) perties of some Indian timbers. Paper pre-
Construction and Cost Aspects of Building sented at the Symposium on Timber and
Timber and Timber‘ Structures, Dehra Dun. Allied Products. NBO, New Delhi. 1959.
1972.
29) Sekhar (AC) and Tarlok Singh. A note on a
14) Masani (NJ) and Pruthi (KS). Effects of grain survey of timber structure in India. Paper
alignments of wooden disc dowels made from presented at the Symposium on Timber and
radial and tangential plains on the strength Allied Products. NBO New Delhi. 1959.
of structural .joints. 1974.
30) Sekhar (AC) and Bhatnagar (NS). Studies on
15) Masani (NJ) and Bajaj (AN). Theory and creep behaviour of wood in bending. Journal
practice of three hinged arch nail-jointed qf NBO. VI (3). 1961.
timber truss. T.E. Manual (Part I). FRI. 101.
31) Sekhar (AC) and Bhatnagar (NS). Analysis
16) Masani (NJ) and Pruthi (KS). Some funda- of stress in wooden beams under creep. Blue-
mental aspects regarding lateral strength of tinul lnstitului Politechnic Bin lasi Serie
ordinary wire nails used as connectors in tim- Noua, Tomul VII (Xl), Fase l-2. 1961.
ber construction. IFL, Vol. 1.
32) Sekhar (AC). Structural utilization’of wood
17) Narayanamurti (D) and Bist (BS). Building in India, J. Sot. Ind. Forest. IV. (I), 1964.
boards from bamboos. IFR. Vol. I. No. 2.
CW Branch, Forest Research Institute, Dehra 33) Sekhar (AC) and Rajput (SS). Some obser-
Dun. 1963. vations on the effect of size and shape of
test specimen and direction of load on
18) Purushotham (A). Low cost structures. some mechanical properties of wood. Mareri-
TDPA J. 9 (3). 2-26, 1963. allprqfung. 7 (9), 1965.
19) Purushotham (A). Pande (JN) and Sood (JS). 34) Sekhar (AC) and Rajput (SS). Comparison of
A note on fire-resistive-currl-antiseptic com- central and two-point loading standard tests
position and fire resistive paint. TDPA J. 9 of wood under bending. ISI Bul. I7 (9), 1965.
(3), 27-28. 1963. P 363.

98 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

35) Sekhar (AC), Ranga (RS) and Singh (MM). Usqful &/tit-etrce Books
Pressed board from Ullah grass. hdian Pulp
and Paper. 19 (7), 1965. 46) Booth (LG) and Reece (PO). Structural use
of timber. London. E and FN Spon Ltd.
36) Sekhar (AC) and Sukla (NK). Creep of wood 1967.
beams under central load and its effect on
basic strength. Journal qf NBO. XI (2) 47) Findlay (WPK). Timber properties and uses.
Cresby Lockwood Staples, London. 1975.
1966.
48) Forest Research Institute. Indian Forest
37) Sekhar (AC) and Rajput (SS). A note on Utilisation, Vol. 1 and II. 1972.
strength adjustment for moisture content
in wood. Indian Foresrer. 94 (3). 1968. 49) FPRL (USA). Wood Handbook (Wood as
Engineering Material). 1974.
38) Sekhar (AC), Rajput (SS) and Gupta (VK).
Some preliminary observations in non-des- 50) Hanson (HJ). Modern timber design. John
tructive testing of timber. lndiun Forester. 95 Wiley and Sons. 1962.
(9), 1969.
51) Holtman (DF). Wood construction, princi-
39) Sekhar (AC). Recent develo.pments in stress ples, practice and details, McGraw Hill Book
grading. I/‘rrrz VigJvm VII (4), 1969. Co, New York. 1929.
40) Sekhar (AC) and Gulati (AS). Suitability 52) Ian Lenglands and Thomas (AJ). Handbook
indices of Indian grading of timbers for of structural timber design. Tech. Pub.
industrial and engineering uses. IFR, 2 (1). N-0. 32; CSIR (Australia). 1939.
T.M. Branch, Forest Research Institute,
Dehra Dun. 1972. 53) Kamesam (S). Special factors affecting timber
design. Timber Development Series No. 9.
41) Sekhar (AC) and Rajput (SS). Safe working FRI, Dehra Dun. 1937. Better and cheaper
stress of Indian timbers (revised). Indiun highway bridges. Centuary Wood Industries
Fores1 Records. 2 (2) T.M. Branch, Forest & Co, Bangalore. 1943.
Research Institute, Dehra Dun. 1972.
54) Ozelton (EC) and Baird (JA). Timber Desig-
421 Sharma (SN), Premanath and Bali (BI). A ners Manual. Corsby Lockwood Staples,
solar timber seasoning kiln. TDA J. XVII (2) London. 1976.
1972.
55) Sekhar (AC) and Bajaj (AN). Timber and
43) Sharma (SN), Premanath and Badoni (SP). timber products in building technology. Basic
Tests on evaluation of the performance of document for the Seminar for Architects,
end-coatings on green wood. Proceedings Engineers and Builders. 1976.
of Forest Products Conference, Dehra Dun.
1973. 56) Timber Engineering Co, USA. Timber Design
and Construction Handbook. F.W. Dodge
Corporation, New York. 1956.
44) Shukla (KS) and Kambo (AS). Treatment of
green chit+ poles by high pressure sap dis-
57) American Institute of Timber Construction.
placement techniques. JTDA. 22(3). 1976. Timber Construction Manual. John Wiley
& Sons Inc., New York. 1966.
45) Sud (JS), Pande (JN) and Purushotham (A).
y&e6n tank plants, JTDA. (Indra). 12 (I). 58) Canadian Institute of Timber Construction.
Timber Construction. CITC, Ottawa. 1963.

APPENDIX C
(Clalrse 2.4.2)
A DICHOTOMOUS KEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF 25 COMMERCIAL
TIMBERS OF INDIA
1 a) Wood non-porous ?
L

b) Wood porous 7
2 a) Resin canals absent 3
b) Resin canals present 4
3 a) Wood without any odour, white and very soft, no colour
distinction between sapwood and heartwood, fir (Abiespindrow) J

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 99


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

b) Wood with pungent odour, light yellowish-brown, moderately


hard, sapwood and heartwood distinct, deodar (Cedrus
deodur)
4 a) Resin canals scattered 5

b) Resin canals in long, tangential bands wood with Deodar (Cedrus deodara)
pungent odour

5 a) Resin canals minute appearing as white dots, visible Spruce (Picea smirhiana)
only under the lens, wood without any odour

b) Resin canals large, distinctly visible to the eye, wood 6


with strong resinous odour

6 a) Transition from early wood to late wood abrupt, wood Chir (Pinus rexburghii)
yellowish to pale reddish-brown, moderately hard, medium
coarse-textured

b) Transition from early wood to late wood gradual, wood Kail (Pinus wallichidna)
light pinkish-red to light red, rather soft, fine-textured

7 a) Wood ring-porous to semi-ring-porpous 8

b) Wood diffuse-porous 12

8 d Early wood pore-zone broad changing abruptly to late Mulberry


wood;extreme late wood pores in clusters often arranged in (Morus alba)
zigzag fashion,;‘wood golden yellow turning brown on exposure

b) Early wood pore-zone narrow, showing gradual transition to 9


late wood, late wood pores mostly solitary or in short
radial multiples

9 a) Parenchyma round the pores abundant and conspicuous, 10


predominantly aliform to confluent, often forming numerous
wavy bands

b) Parenchyma round the pores scanty and inconspicuous, II


mostly vasicentric
i10 a) Ripple marks present, wood yellowish brown to golden Bijasal (Pterocarpus
brown with yellow water extract giving strong fluorescence marsupium)

b) Ripple marks absent, wood usually greyish to light Benteak (Lagerslrocmia


reddish or walnut-brown, water extract of wood without lanceolata)
any fhtorescence
II a) Wood pinkish OT reddish-brown with cedary smell, rather Toon (Toona ciliata)
lustrous, pores often filled with dark reddish-brown
gummy deposits

b) Wood golden-brown with characteristic smell of old Teak ( Tectona grundis)


leather, dull, pores partly filled with tyloses
12 a) Vertical gum ducts present 13

b) Vertical gum ducts absent 14


13 a) Gum ducts scattered singly or in short tangential groups Gurjan (Dipzerocarpus)
of 2-4, sometimes more, pores partly filled with tyloses

b) Gum ducts in long tangential lines, pores heavily plugged Sal (Shorea robusta)
with tyloses
14 a) Ripple marks present 15

b) Ripple marks absent 18


15 a) Soft tissues predominantly banded, water extract of Bijasal (Pterocarpus
wood with characteristic fluorescence marsupium)

b) Soft tissues prodominantly aliform confluent, water 16


extract of wood without any fluorescence

100 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEEBINC


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

16 a) Wood light yellow or yellowish grey, pores often filled Kanju (Holoptelea
with white chalky deposits integrlfblia)

b) Wood golden brown or purplish-brown, pores often 17


filled with gummy deposits
17 a) Wood golden brown with darker streaks and without Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo)
any sweet smell
b) Wood purpish brown to deep purple with sweet smell Rosewood (Dafbergia
latifolia)
18 a) Pores in long radial chains or oblique groups 19

b) Pores not in long radial or oblique groups 20


19 a) Soft tissues in diffuse-in-aggregates or fine lines Pali (Palaquium ellipticurn)

b) Soft tissues in narrow concentric bands ending abruptly Poon (Calophyllum sp.)
20 a) Pores small, visible only under the lens 21

b) Pores mostly medium-sized to large or very large, visible 23


to the eye
21 a) Growth rings delimited by distinct band or a line of Champ (Michelia
parenchyma champaca)

b) Growth rings not delimited by a band of parenchyma 22


22 a) Parenchyma paratracheal, forming thin sheaths or euelets Axewood (Anogeissus
round the pores, often confluent connecting adjacent latifolia)
pores, wood olive grey or pale yellowish-brown, hard

b) Parenchyma apotracheal, rather inconspicuous under Haldu (Adina cord{folia)


the lens, mostly diffuse, wood yellowish, moderately hard
23 a) Rays broad distinctly visible to the eye conspicuous under 24
the lens

b) Rays fine, distinct only under the lens 25


24 a) Soft tissues round the pores vasicentric wood hard, Babul (Acacia nilotica)
heavy light reddish-brown

b) Soft tissues in fine, closely spaced, somewhat broken Semul (Bombax ceiba)
tangential lines forming reticulam, wood light, creamy
white to pale yellow or buff
25 a) Parenchyma round the pores mostly vasicentric to aliform 26

b) Parenchyma round to pores predominantly confluent 28

26 a) Wood usually dark coloured, usually yellowish white or Mango (Mangifera indica)
pinkish-brown
b) Wood usually dark coloured, usually a dark shade of 27
brown often with dark streaks.
27 a) Initial or terminal parenchyma always present prominent Laurel (Terminalia
under the lens forming a continuous line delimiting tomentosa)
growth rings
b) Initial or terminal parenchyma absent, if present, Kokko (Albizia lebbeck)
discontinuous and inconspicuous even under hand lens
28. Wood golden brown with darker streaks and without any Sissoo (Dalbergia
sweet smell sissoo)
29. Wood purplish brown to deep purple with sweet smell Rosewood (Dalbergia
latifolia)

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 101


APPENDIX D
(Clause 3.1.1)
D-l SUMMARY OF SCHEME OF TESTS ON SMALL CLEAR SPECIMENS OF TIMBER

SI Mechanical Size qf Specimen Speed qf Testing Swface on which Properties Delrrnrinrd


No. Test in mm Load is Applied

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

i) Static bending 50 X 50 X 750 on Movable head travels Tangential surface FS at LP; M of R; M. of E;


span of 700 mm at 2.5 mm/min nearer to the heart work to EL; work-to Max
load; total work; HS at PL;
HS at ML
ii) Impact bending do Increment in steps of do FS at LP; M of E; work to
25 mm up to 250 mm EL; Max_, height of drop;
and 50 mm beyond height of drop at limit of
250 mm, until complete proportionality
failure or deflection of
150 mm is reached
iii) Compression 50 x 50 x 200 Movable head travels Cross-section CS at LP; CS at ML; M
parallel to E; ;50ga;g length 0.6 mm/min of E in compression
grain parallel to grain
iv) Compression 50X50X 150 Movable head travels Radial surface CS at LP; compressive
perpendicular 0.6 mm/mm stress at compression of
to grain 2.5 mm; CS at ML; M of
E in compsersion per-
Dendicular
F.S. = Fibre stress; L.P. = Limit of ,prqportionality; M of R = Modulus of rupture; M of E = Modulus of elasticity;
H.S. = Horizontal shear; C.S. = Crushmg stress; M.L. = Maximum load; E.L. = Elastic limit.
Sl Mechanical Size of Specimen Speed of Testing. Surface on which Properties Determined
No. Test in mm Load is Applied

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

v) Indentation test 50x 50x 150 Movable head travels Two penetrations Max. load to embed a steel
(hardness) 6 mm/min on radial, two on ball of 11.3 mm dia to
tangential surface half its dia
and one on each
end
vi) Shear 50 X 50 X 62.5 with 0.4 mm/min One for radial and MSS maximum load/
a corner notch one for tangential shearing area
to produce failure
on 50 X 50 mm
surface
vii) Tension perpendi- 50 X.50 X 56 Movable head travels One for radial and Max load/tension area
cular to grain with semi-circular at a constant rate of one for tangential
group for gripping 2.5 mm/min until
so as to produce max load is reached
a failure on a
50 X 20 mm area in
the radial or tan-
gential plane
viii) Tension parallel on 7 X 7 mm cross- Movable head travels Cross-section TS at PL; TS at ML; and
grain. section, 50 mm 1 mm/min M of E in tension
gauge length, and
wide surface for
gripping
ix) Torsion Cylindrical speci- Torque is applied at Cross-sectional Torsional shear stress at
men of 25 mm dia- the uniform rate of rotation proportional limit (TSS at
meter gauge length 600 cm. kg/min PL), torsional shear stress
15 mm suitable at ‘max torque (TSS at
grips MT); and torsional modulus
of rigidity

T.S. = Tensile stress: P.L. = Same as L.P - Limit of proportionality; M.L. = Maximum load.
H
i

SI Mechanical Size of Specimen Speed of Testing Surface on which Properties Determined


No. Test in mm Load is Applied

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)


.- _ .-
x) Nail and screw 50X50X 150 Movable head travels One nail and one Maximum withdrawal load
pulling test at the speed of screw on each of under three conditions:
2mm/ min radial and tangen- (a) nails and screws driven
tial surfaces and in green condition and
one each on end pulled out at once,
surfaces (b) driven in green and
pulled in dry condition,
and (c) driven in dry and
pulled in dry condition
xi) Brittleness test. (a) Load test The impact blow shall 22 X 12 mm cross- Energy absorbed in
20X22X 125 to be given by releasing section at a distance breaking the specimen
150 mm with key- the pendulum and 75 mm from one on a single below, expres-
note (b) Charpyatesf allowing the same to end on the tangen- sed in units of cm.kg
12.5 X 12.5 X fall freely tial side of load test
125 mm with notch and 10 X 12.5 mm at
the centre on the
reverse side in case
of Charpy test
SP : 33(S&T)-1986

D-2 FORMULAE BASED ON IS : 1708-1969


Some important formulae for deriving ultimate stresses in various tests on small clear specimen,
see 3.1.1. For other properties derived as a routine see IS : 1708-1969.
Propert_v Units Formula
a) Static Bending

kg/ cm? 3Pl


1) Fibre stress at limit of proportionality 2z

2) Equivalent fibre stress at maximum load kg/ cm?

3) Modulus of elasticity in static bending 1000 kg/cm? or p13 I


metric tonnes
ZGPX 1000
per cm2

4) Horizontal shear stress at maximum load kg/ cm? 2p’


4 bh
b) Impact Bending
3 WHI
1) Fibre stress at limit of proportionality kg/ cm?
bh2A

2) Maximum height of drop cm H’

3) Modulus of elasticity in impact bending 1000 kg/cm* WH13


or ___ - 1
* tonnes/cm? 2bh3A2 x 1000

c) Compression Parullel and Perpendicular to Grain


Tension and Shear Tests
P
1) Compressive or tensile stress at limit of kg/cm?
proportionality 7i

2) Compressive stress or tensile stress at kg! cm2 P’


maximum load (or at 2.5 mm compression In the
case of compression perpendecular to grain if the
same in reached before maximum load)

3) Modulus of elasticity in compression (parallel 1000 kg/cm’ ~Pl(or h) x - 1


or perpendicular as the case may be) or AA 1 000
tonnes/cm’
Max. load
4) Maximum shear stress kg/ cm2 Area of shear
failure
In the above formulae, the notations are as follows:
I= span of the test specimen in cm in bending or guage length in compression and tension tests;
b= breadth of the specimen in cm (sometimes known as width);
h= depth of the specimen in cm (or sometimes known as height);

P= load in kg at limit of proportionality (commonly known as elastic limit);


p’ = maximum load in kg (in the case of compression perpendicular to grain the load at 2.5 mm
if the same is reached before the maximum load);
A= total deflection at the limit of propo’rtionality in bending or total compression in com-
pression tests or elongation in tension tests;
H= height of drop of hammer at a limit of proportionality in the impact bending test on a
Hatt-Turner machine, and
A= area in cm2 of the section of the specimen on which load is applied.

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 105


I
SP : 33(S&T)-1986

A I’ I’ E N D I X E
(Clause 3. I .2)

SUMMARY OF SCHEME OF TESTS ON STRUCTURAL SIZES OFTIMBER


BASED ON IS : 2408-1963

For more detailed description of procedures for Fibre stress at limit of proportionality
layout and general precautions to be taken,
reference should be made to IS : 24081963. = (P’+“‘75w)L kg,cm2

The following is only a summary of some bh2


important considerations in the tests. Modulus of elasticity (M of E)
4 Measurement of dimensions are to be p’L3
correct to the nearest millimetre. = m kg/cm*
b) Weights of the.specimens are to be taken to
an accuracy of 0.1 kg. f) Compression perpendicular to grain

cl The origin of the test piece, and all defects 1) Size: 15X20X70 cm.
on the specimen are to be accurately
recorded. 2) Loading : on the entire width of the
specimen at its centre through a thick
4 The failure of the specimen is carefully metal plate of 15 cm width and 1 cm
sketched out for analysis, and the average thick under uniform motion of move-
moisture content of the piece, preferably able head speed calculated by the
near the areas of failure, are determined as formula N = 0.0291 p4j9
usual by the even-dry method. Average
moisture content of all zones of cross- 3) Compression readings : correct to 0.002
sectional area are to be determined as cm at suitable load intervals until l/5 of
described in IS : 2408-1963. the depth of the specimen or failure which-
ever is reached earlier.
e) The detail of static bending test are as given
below: :
4) Formulae
1) Size: 15X20X350 cm Crushing strength at maximum load, if
2) Spun of test : 14 times the height of any (CS at ML) or as above
specimen
= $ kg/cm’
3) Loading : At two points at a distance
of one-third of the span. Load is applied
continuously with a uniform motion of Crushing
1-- - stress
-. at limit of proportionality
moveable head at a speed (CS at LPI

= f kg/cm’
N = g (3L - 4~) = 3.5 Z X L
for the above g) Compression parallel to grain:

1) Size : 15 X 15 X 60 cm
4) Deflection : measured at mid-span, mid-
height at convenient load intervals say, 2) Loading : on the entire cross-section,
2 000 kg. vertically at a uniform speed given by
N=ZL
5) Formulae :
3) Compression readings : Correct to 0.002
Maximum horizontal shear, that is, at over a centre guage length of 5/4 of the
maximum load length of the specimen until the specimen
fails.
= & kg/cm’
4) Formulae :
Modulus of rapture (M of R) Compressive strength at maximum load
(CS at ML)
=
(P + o*75w)L kg,cm2
bh2 = ;kg/cm’

106 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

Compressive stress at limit of pro- P = maximum load in kg,


portionality
p’ = load at limit of proportionality (elastic limit)
in kg,
= % kg/cm’
b = width of the specimen in cm,
Modulus of elasticity in compres- h = height of the specimen in cm (or also known
sion parallel to grain as depth),

= f-$ kg/cm’ L = length of the span in bending and length


of the specimen in compression parallel to
grain,

where d’ = distance between guage points in com-


pression parallel to grain in cm,
N = head speed in cm per minute,
w = weight of the specimen in kg,
Z = unit rate of strain of outer film (Z = 0.0007
for large beams and equal to 0.0015 for A = area or cross-section of specimen (cm*)
I
compression, under load, and
a = distance from support to nearest load in A = deflection (in bending) or compression in
cm. compression test at limit of proportionality.

APPENDIX F
(Clause 6.1.1)

LISTOF TIMBER DESIGNS DEVELOPED AT THE FOREST


RESEARCH INSTITUTE, DEHRADUN

(Some of these would be available with Forest Research Institute and some have been published
in different publication)

1. Nail jointed roof trusses for residential 10. Leanto-type trusses (6 to IO metres in light,
buildings (3 to 6 metres in light, medium and medium and heavy weight roofing material)
heavy weight roofing material)
11. Aeroplane type trusses (4 and 12 metres for
2. Nail-jointed roof-trusses for industrial sheds light and heavy weight roofing material)
(7 to 16 metres, in light medium and heavy 12,
Bow string type arch trusses (20 and 30 metres
weight roofing material) for light weight roofing material)
3. Bolt-jointed timber trusses (3 to 8 metres l3 Timber bridges (3 to 18 metres for Class B
in light, medium and heavy weight roofing ’
loading)
material)
14. Electric transmission posts in timber (6.25 and
4. Cantilever timber trusses (3 to 6 metres in 9.25 metres high for low voltage line)
light, medium and heavy weight roofing
material) 15. Grain silos and storage sheds:
5. Dowel jointed trusses for chemical shed a) Storage shed in timber
(14 metres in medium weight roofing material) (100, 300 and 1 000 M.T. capacity)
6. Three-hinged arch timber trusses (7 to 24 b) Grain silo in timber
metres in light and. medium weight roofing (2.5, 5 and 20 M.T. capacity)
material)
cl Grain silo using bamboo reinforced cement
7. Timber lamella arches (6 to 19 metres in light concrete (2.5 and 5 M.T. capacity)
and heavy weight roofing material)
16. Anti-termite-cum-damp-proof constructional
8. Solid web type timber girders and purlins (3 to gadgets.
6 metres in light and medium weight roofing l7
Type designs and drawings of typical buildings:
material)
a) Residential houses for types I, 11, III and IV
9. North light timber trusses (8 to 12 metres for
medium weight roofing material) b) Various types of farm houses in timber

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

c) Model houses for different regions n) Children park sheds


d) Tree-top tourist huts in timber p) Forest rest houses
e) Mini bus stands in timber q) Tourist huts in timber
f) Storage godowns for different capacities r) Tourist bunglows
g) Chowkidar-cum-check post hut in bam- s) Workshop buildings
boo-concrete roof
t) Assembly halls
h) Deer park shed
u) Cheap poultry houses
j) Two ways bus stoppage shed
w) Community halls
k) Sports pavilions
x) Cycle. car and scooter sheds
m) Hostel blocks
y) Airport buildings, etc

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


APPENDIX G
(Clauses 2.3.3, 2.3.6.3, 2.3.7, 5.2.5.3 and 5.2.6.2)
STRUCTURAL SPECIES OF DIFFERENT GROUPS, THEIR TRADE NAMES, OTHER INDIAN NAMES,
AVAILABILITY, DURABILITY, TREATABILITY. AND REFRACTORINESS

Sl Boranical Locations Standard Names in some Approxi- Durabi- Treatabi- Rqfrac-


No. Name where Trade other Languages mate lit) lity toriness
Grown Name Quantit.1,
(IS : 1150) A available
per Year

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

GROUP A
I. Acacia catechu UP, Bihar, Khair Khaira (As) Khaih (0) U I H
Gujarat, Kath (K)
Karnatka and
Maharashtra
2. Acacia chundra MP Red kutch - - H
Lal khair
3. Agalai edulis Assam Agalai Latakh (As) Kanangal (Ml) - - - H
and other spp. Chokkala (Tm)
4. Albizzia odora- MP, Assam, Kalasiris Hilanid (As) karoi (B) V 1 e M
rissima TN, Mahara- Karumuru (p) Srisi (Mr)
shtra, UP, Chictwa (M P) Kaloisiras
Orissa, Naga- (G) Bilkambi, Godtunchi
land, Kerala, (K) Eldavagai (K) Kasu-
Gujarat, Kar- baka (Ml) Karuvagai (Tm)
nataka and Chindugu (Tl)
Arunachal
Pradesh
5. Balanocarpus TN Karung Karun (Tm) Kongu
utilis (Hopea
utilis)
6. Bruguiera spp. Andaman Mangrove -
7. Cjwometra Assam Ping (As) W 111 b H
polvandra
(Mamitoa
Polyandra)
(Continued)
SI Boranical Locations Standard Names in some Approxi- Durabi- Treatabi- Rqfrac-
No. Name where Trade other Languages mate Iit? lit.! toriness
Grown Name Quantity
(IS : 1150) Available
per Year

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

8. Dipterocarpus Assam and Hollong (As) - V 111 a M


mticrocarpus Arunachal
Pradesh
9. Eucalyptus South India Eucalyptus Karpooramaram (Tm) - I e H
globulus
IO. Grewia tiliae- South India Dhaman Phalsa (p) (MP) Gonya V II d M
folia (Kol) Dedsal, Thadsal (K)
Chdachi (M R) Thadachi
(Tm) Peddajana (Tl)
1 I. Hopea glabra West Bengal, Hopea Kiralobigi (K) Kalhori - - -
(and other Karnataka, (Mr) Bogina (K) Irum-
species except Nagaland, bogam (Ml) Vellai-
H. odorata) Arunachal gonge (Tm)
Pradesh,
Kerala and
TN
I 2. Hopea South India Hopea do W 1 e H
parviflora
13. Messua ferrea Assam, Anda- Messua Nagasampigi (K) Churuli - 1 e H
mans and TN (MI) Nangal, Nangu (Tm)
Nagakesari (Tl) Gangana
(And) Nahor (As) Nages-
war, Nagkesar, (B) Nagwar
(0) *
14. Mimusops Andamans Bulletwood Khirni (M P) Borsali- W 1 H
littoralis Rajan (G) Mugali (K)
(Manilkara Elingi (Ml) Ranjana
littoralia) (and Wovali (Mr) Bakula (K)
other sp.) Nampala (Tm) Pala (Tl)
15. Poeciloneuron TN,Karnataka, Ballagi Balige, Balagi (K) Vayal - II e H
indicum and Kerala (Ml) Puttangali (Tm)
16. Pterocarpus ‘TN and AP Red sanders Raktachandanam (K) (Ml) W - -
santalinus Yerrasandanam (Tl)
Chemmaram (Tm)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

17. Sageraea ellip- South Chooi H


tica Andamans
18. Schleichera MP, Bihar, Kusum Beru (Kol) Kusuma (0) V 111 a 1-I
trijuga (Schei- Orissa, UP, Sagada Sagodi (K)
chera eleosa) Kerala and Hosimlim Kusumb (Mm)
Karnataka Puvam (Ml) (Tm)
Pulusari (Tl)
19. Shorea rohu.rta’ Bihar, MP, Sal Sakhma (Him) Sangam U I e H
Assam, WB, (Kol) Raigabu. Sangi (0)
Orissa and UP
20. Shorea talura - W
2 1. Vitex altissima Maharashtra, Milla Naviladi, Nevaladi, Nevole. - 1 H
(and other spp:TN, Kerala and (K) Myladi (Ml) (Tm)
’ Karnataka Nagod (G) Nemiliyadugu
(TJ)
GROUP ,B
22. Acacia arabica MP. UP. TN. Babul (H) Kikkar (P) Babla (B) u 111 b
(Acacia nileti- AP, Bihar and (M.) ’ ’ Baval (G) Fali, Jali,
ca) Karnataka Mashwel, Kanjali (K)
Karuvelam (Ml) Karuvai
(Tm) Nallatunma (Tl)
23. Acacia
kerruginea
24. Acrocarpus Karnataka, Mundani Mundane (N) Belanji (K) W 111 C M
,fraxiniTfolius MP, WB and Kuranyam. Malareppu
Nagaland (Ml) Malamkomnai (Tm)
25. Albizia Adaman, WB, Kokko Siris (H) (0) Sarin, Shrin V I C M
lebbeck Maharashtra, (P) Hirih (As) Sirish (B)
MP, Assam, Chichola, Sirias (Mr)
TN, AP, Kerala Baka (MI) Sirsul, Bage
and Karnataka (K) Vagai (Tm) Dirisinum
(TI)
(Con/inued)
SI Botanical Locations Standard Names in some Approxi- Durahi- Treatahi- Rqfiac-
E No. Name HIhere Trade other Languages mate lit!> lit!! toriness
GroMtn Name Quantit),
(IS : IIyl) Available
per Year

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

26. Altingia Assam, Aru- Jutili (As) W 11 e H


excelsa nachal Pradesh.
TN, MP and
Maharashtra
27. Amoora rohi- Assam Pitraj Bogaamali (As) Lochumi W 1 M
tuka,, (Apha- (B) salvagai .(K) Raktaro-
namtx is hida (Mr) Bellabakka (Ml)
polystachya) Velragai (Tm) Tellachin-
duga (TI)
28. Anogeissus Orissa Yon Garalessal (Kol) Phansi (0) I C
acuminata
29. AnogeBsus UP, MP, AP. Dhaura (H) Bakli (H) Chal (HP) Dhao I C
lat(folia TN, Bihar, (axlewood) (P) Hessel (Kol) Banghi
Orissa and (N) Bhaw (0) Dividal
Maharashtra Dinduga, Begjal (K) Bella-
nava (Ml) Vellanagai (Tm)
Chirumanu (TI) Bhavdo,
Bhavro (Mr) (G)
30. Anogei.wus - Kardhai Dhao, Ratdahi (H) 111 _.
endula Kardahi (M P)
3 1. Artocarpus TN, Karnataka Aini Hobulsina, Hebbalusu (K) 111
hirsutus and Maha- Ainipilavu (Ml) An.jali.
rashtra Ainipila (Tm) Patupanas
(Mr) Junglinimb (H)
32. Atlantia
monoph.lVla -

33. Bassia butllra- Andaman and Hill mahua Mahuda (G) Mohwa (Mr)
tea) (Diplo- UP or mahua lppa (TI) Ippi, Sannaippe
knema buty- (K) Nattuillupai (Tm)
rucea) (Ma-
dhuk sp.)
34. Buchlandia Pipli (B) - -
(Exbuchlandia)
populnea,

I
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

35. Calloph~~ll~ml TN, WB, Poona Sushoni, Goja, Salhonne -- II e M


tenientosi4nl Karnataka (K) Punna (Mr)
and spp. and Maha- Kathupinnai (Tm)
rashtra
36. Canariunl TN and Dhup or Raldhup (K) Gugul (Mr) - III L
strictum Maharashtra white dhup Kunthinikka, Payin (Ml)
and sp. Karumkungiliam, Karapu
(Tm)
37. Carallia lucida Assam, Bihar Maniawga or
(carallia and Gujarat carallia
.brachiata)

38. Carapa rnoluc- - Pussar -


censi.s (x.~~lo-
carpus, niolu-
ccensis) and sp.

39. Cassia ,fi.vtrrla Am and Kaniyar (P) Sanaru (As) - 11 H


ahas Bandarlatti (B) Hani (Kol)
Sonalu (N) Mahalimbo
(0) Bahaiyar, Bhava (Mr)
Gurmala Gumalo (G)
Kakke (K)
40. Cassia .siamea
4 1. Casurirla TN, Mahara- Casuarina Jhaw (B) Jhawn (0) Saru V 111 C H
eqitisetjfolia shtra. Kerala, (G) (Mr) Savaku (Tm)
Karnataka. Galimaru, Kasarika (K)
Gujarat and Saru (Mr) Chulamaram
Nagaland (Mr) Saravu, Chavaku (Tl)
42. ChloU~.v,~~loll Satinwood Bherul (H) Bheru (0) - ill H
.scclieterlia Ghiria (Bhopal) Behra.
Bhirra (Mr) (MP) Billa
(Mr) Muragalu, Mashwal
(K) Porasu (Tm) Bilga,
Billa (Tl)
(Conrinud)
SI Botanical Locations Standard Names in some Approxi- Durabi- Treatabi- Refrac-
No. Name Mthere Trade other Languages mate lit)? lit? toriness
Grown Name Quantity
(IS : 1150) Available
per Year

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

43. Chukrasia Assam, Karna- Chikrassy Yinmabin (And) Bogo- W Ill C M


tabularis taka, Aruna- poma (As) Urulu (K)
(Chukrasia chal Pradesh Malaveppa (Ml) Mada-
velutina) and Nagaland girivembu (Tm) Lalde-
vdari (Mr)
44. Cullenia TN and Karani Mullachekka (Ml) Aini- W Ill b L
rosayroana Kerala pila, Vedipila (Tm)
( Cullenia
excelsa)

45. Dichopsis Assam and Pali Hadasale (K) Palvadinjan W II e M


elliptica South India (Tm)
( Pallaquiem
ellipticum

46. Dichopsis Tali Hadasale (K) Palvadinjan W


(Palaquium (Tm)
Ass.) Polvantha
(Polvanthum)

47. Dio.spp?yro.s - Ebony Tupra (K) Thumbi (Tm) - 111 M


microph!~lla Tukki, Tumiki (Tl)
and sp. except
D. marmorata

48. Dio.spyri.s Ebony Tupra (K) Thumbi (Tm) -


pyrrhocarpa Tukki, Tumiki (Tl)
49. Dipterocarpus Andaman Gurjan Garjan (As) -
bourdilloni

50. Dipterocarpus W.B., Assam, Gurjan Garjan (As) Ill b M


grand{floru.s TN and
and sp. except Karnataka
D. macrocarpus
51. Dipterocarpus - Gurjan Garjan (As) -
indicus
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

52.. Dysoxylum Kerala, Aruna- White cedar Bilidevdari (K) Vellagil W I - M


malabaricum chal Pradesh, (Ml) (Tm)
TN and
Karnataka
53. Euca!,jptus TN Eucalyptus W
eugenoides
54. Eugenia sp. UP Jaman Jamun (H) Jamuk (As) U 11 e H
(gardnery) Jam (B) Kude (Kol) Jamu
Syz.r~giurn sp (0) Jambu (G) Nerlu (K)
Jambul (Mr) Jamun (MP)
Neral (Tm) Neredu (Tl)
55. Eugenia jam- UP, WB, Jaman Jamun (H) Jamuk (As)
bolana ( S.VZ\~- Assam, Orissa, Jam (B) Kude (Kol) Kamu U - - -
gium cumik) Nagaland, (0) Jambu (G) Nerlu (K)
Karnataka, Jambul (Mr) Jamun (MP)
Bihar, Kerala Nerak (Tm) (Ml) Neredu
and Arunachal (Tl)
Pradesh
56. Fraxinus HP and UP Ash Hum (Kashi) Sum (p) II1 M
excelsior and
SP.
57. Eraxinus HP and UP Ash - - -
macrantha
58. Garuga UP, MP, TN Garuca Ghoghar, Kaikar, Karapat - III e M
pinnata and Mahara- (H) Kharpat (0) Armu
shtra (Kol) Kathkusum, Rajmoir
(0) Kakad (Mr) Ghoghar
(MP) Kakad Karapti (G)
Kurak, Holabolagi,
Godda (K) Amakera (Ml)
Kanuvembu (Tm)
59. Gluta tra- Kerala and TN Gluta Devdari (K) Chenkaranchi W I - H
vancorica (Ml) Senkuranji (Tm)
60. Grewia vestita Maharashtra, Dhaman Phalsa (P) (Mp) Gonyar V II d M
(GreM,ia tili- TN, UP, MP, (Kol) Dadsal Tadsal (G)
,fdia) Orissa, Kerala (K) Chadachi (Ml)
and Karnataka Thadachi (Tm) Pedde-
jana (Ti)
SI Botanical Locations Standard Names m some Approxi- Durabi- Treatabi- Refrac-
No. Name M!here Trade other Languages mate lit? lit) toriness
Grown Name Quantity
(IS : 1150) Available
per Year

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

6I Hardlz~ickia TN, AP and Piney Yennamaru (K) Chukana- W 1 e M


pinnata (Kin- Karnataka payini (Ml) Kolavu (Tm)
giodendron
pinantum) .
62. tleritiera spp. Sundri -

63. Ka.,va jlori- Assam Karal -


bunda ( Messua
Joribunda)
64. Lagerstroemia UP, Maha- Benteak Nana (G) (Mr) Nandi (K) V I e M
lanceolata rashtra, Karna- Bendekku (K) Venteak
taka, Kerala (Ml) Bethekku, Venthekku
and Nagaland (Tm)
65. Lagerstroemia _ Lendi Bondam (G) Asidh, 111 e H
parvifora Dhauri, Sida (H)
Machi (As) Sidha (B) (0)
Garasekre (Kol) Bun-
dhameru (N) Lendiasenha
(Mr) Kehisaja, Lendia
(MP) Chennangi (K) (Tl)
Nanagu (Ml) Peikudukkai
(Tm)
66. Machilus odo- WB and Aru- Machilus Kawala (N) Gulmaru, - I - L
ratissima and nachal Pradesh Gulum, Gulmao (K)
SPP. Poswa (Mr) Unavu (Ml)
Kolumavu (Tm)
67. Mimusops Buljetwood Khirni (MP) Borsali, W -
ellingi (bakul) Rayan (G) Mugali, Bakula
(Manilkera sp.) (K) Ranjana, Wovali,
(Mr) Elingi (Ml) Nanu-
pala (T) Pala (Tl)
68. Palaquium elli- Assam Pali tali Hadasule (K) Pal-
pticum (Dic- vadinjan (Tm)
hopsos ellipti-
cum)
(2) (3) (41 (5) (6) (7) w- (9)

- III -
69. Planchonia Red
addamanica Bombway
valida
70. Pterocarpus Padhuk V I C M
dalbergiodes
11. Pterocarpus MP, AP, TN, Bijasal Pigasal (B) (0) Hid (Kol) U I C M
marsupium UP, Gujarat, Bija (MP) Beo (G) Nonna
Bihar and (K) Bibla (Mr) Venga (Ml)
Karnataka Vengai (Tm) Yegi (Tl)
72. Quercus Punjab, UP, Oak Balk (B) Phalant (N) W II - H
Assam, J & K Mohru, Moru (H) Tilanj,
and WB Phanant (H) Bami (P)
Ban, Bhani, Rianj, (H)
Kharasu (H)
73. Saecopetalum Hoom Humb (G) (Mr) Womb (K) III M
tomentosum
( Miliusa
tomentoseum
74. Soyimeda UP, Karnataka Rohini Rohina (B) Rohan (H) w - -
febrifuga and Gujarat (Indian Rohini (Kol) (0) Sohan.
redwood) Swan (0)
75. Sterculia alata - Narikei Labkoh (And) Pahari -
(As) Tula (B) Anathondi,
Pithondi (Ml) Annait-
hondi (Tm)
76. Swintonia Assam, TN Civit - -
jloribunda and Kerala
77. Tecrona TN, MP, Teak Sagon (As) Shegun (B) 11 I e M
grandis Maharashtra, Sagwan (H) (0) Sagon
Orissa, W B, (MP) Sag (G) (Mr) Tegu
Bihar, Gujarat, (K) Teku (Tl)
UP, AP and
Karnataka
Sl Botanical Locations Standard Names in some Approxi- Durabi- Treatabi- Rqfiac-
No. Name where Trade other Languages mate lit? lit? foriness
Grown Name Quantit?
(IS : 1150) Available
per Year

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

78. Terminalia UP, MP, Bahera (H) Bhaira (P) Bhomora (As) U III b M
bellirica Maharashtra, (Mr) Lupung (Kol) Bahada (0)
Kerala, Aru- Baheda (G) Thare, Tari
nachal Pradesh, (K) Vehela (Mr) Tham
Bihar and (Ml) Tani (Tm) (Tl)
Karnataka
79. Teminalia Andamans White chug- Safed chuglam (And) - III e M
bialata lam (silver
gray wood)
80. Terminalia Maharashtra, Harda Hararh, Harr (H) Harar V III C H
chebula MP, TN, (myrob- (P) Allale (K) Pulinc-
Nagaland, alan) akku (Ml) Cola ippakku,
Kerala, Bihar, Illagukan Kadukkai (Tm)
Karnataka and Karakkai (Tl)
Arunachal
Pradesh
8 1. Terminalia Andamans Black Kalachuglam (And) V 111 a M
manii chuglam
82. Teminallia Karnataka, Kindal (Mr) Honal, Hunol (K) Kindal V II c H
paniculata Kerala and TN (Mr) Honagalu (K) Pilla-
marudu (Tm) (Ml)
Nallapulaga (Tl)
83. Terminalia Bihar, UP, Laurel Asan, Asna, Sain (H) U 11 b H
tomentosa (1 Maharashtra, Aisan (P) Latana (Kol)
crenulata, T. AP, Kerala, Puccasaj (N) Sahaja (0)
Coriacea, T. Karnataka and Ain, Sadan, Saj (MP)
alata) Gujarat Malli, Karimathi, Bana-
pu (K) Mathi (Tm)
Karimarudu (Ml) Nalla-
maddi (Tl) Sajad, Ain (Mr)
84. Thespesia Maharashtra Bhendi (Mr) Hoovarasu (K) Bhendi - -
populnea and Karnataka (Mr)
85. Xylia Maharashtra, Irul Kongra, Thangan (0) V I e H
xylocarpa TN, AP, Suria (Mr) Sauriya (MP)
Kerala, Guj- Tirwa, Jambe (K) Jamba
arat and (Mr) Irul (Tm) Konda-
Karnataka tangedri (Tl)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

86. Zanthoxylum AP and TN Mullilam Bujarsali (As) Badrang W II M


bundranga (Tn-4 Timur (B) Morai (0)
(Fagara Jamin (K) Tirphul (Mr)
bundrunga) Mullilam (Tm) Rhetsa (Tl)
87. Zanthoylum AP Mullilam Bujarnali (As) Badrang W -
rhetsa (Fagara (Tm) Timur (B) Morai (0)
bundrunga) Jamin (K) Tirphul (Mr)
Mullilam (Tm) Rhetsa (Tl)
GROUP C
88. Acacia leuco- - Hiwar (H) Hiwar, Nimbar (H) H
phloea Gohira, Gwaria, Johira (0)
89. Acer spp. HP and J&K Mapie Kanjula (Garhwali) 111 M
Kainju Jaunsari Kulu
(Kumaon) Kengel Mandar
(P) Kapasi (B) Kapashi (N)
90. Adina Maharashtra, Haldu (H) Taraksopa (As) Ranyaket V 111 a M
cordlfolia Karnataka, (Mr) (B) Karam (H) Kumbha
TN, Assam, (Kol) Kuruma (0) Karani
Bihar, MP, (M P) Yellaga, Heddi,
Nagaland, Yetagal (K) Haldwar
Kerala and UP (G) Kuranyan, Malave-
ppur (Ml) Malam Kommai
(Tm) Hedu (Mr)
91. Aegle - Hel 111
marmelos
92. Afzolia bjjuga - -
(In fsia b [juga)
93. Albizzia UP, WB, White siris Safedsiris, (H) Sit (And) V 11 e M
procera Assam, MP, (safed siris) Korois (As) (B) Tentura
Bihar, Gujarat, (Kol) Dhalasirish (0)
Kerala, Maha- Kinhai (Mr) Gurer (MP)
rashtra and Karangro (G) Ballati kirai,
Arunachal Sabragai (K) Vellavakka
Pradesh (MI) Vellavagai (Tm)
Tellachindugu (Tl)
4
SI Botanical Locations Standard Names in some Approxi- Durabi- Treatabi- Refrac-
No. Name where Trade other Languages mate lity lity toriness
Grown Name Quantity
(IS : 1150) Available
per Year

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

94. Anthocephalus Assam, WB, Kadam Sanko (Kol) Kadamba (0) V III a L
cadam ba Andamans, Attutekku kadambam
(Anthocepha- and Nagaland (Ml) Kalaaiyila,
lus chinensis) Vellakadam (Tm)

95. Arecanut -
(Areca sp.)

96. Artocarpus Assam, WB, Chaplash Tangupeina (And) Cham, V II d M


chaplasha Andamans Sam (As) Chaplash (B)
and Arunachal Latore (N)
Pradesh
97. Artocarpus TN, Maha- Jack kathal Rukkatar (N) Kunthal V 1 M
integr~folius rashtra, (H) (H) Panas (0) (Mr) (G)
(Artocarpus Kerala, Bihar, Pila (Tm) Panasa (Tl)
laterophy~lus) AP and Halsin, Alasna (K)
Karnataka
98. Artrocarpus UP and Lakooch Das (Kol) Dahua (B)
lakoocha Karnataka (And) Vata (K)
99. Azadirachta UP, MP, Neem
indica (Melia Arunachal
indica) Pradesh, Guja-
rat and
Karnataka
100. Bassia lati- MP, Maha- Mahua Mohwa (H) (M.P.) Mad- V I e H
folia (Mad- rashtra, TN, (Mr) kam (Kol) Mahula (0)
huka latlfolia) UP, Gujarat, Mahuda (G) Mohwa (Mr)
Madhuka WB and Nathuillupai (Tm) Ippi,
indica, M. Karnataka Sonnaippi (K) lppa (Tl)
langtfolia

101. Betula alnoides - Birch Bhojapatra, Bhuj (H) M


(SPP.) Sheori (HP) Burza (Kesh)
Sarr (N) Diengling (Kasi)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

102. Bischqfia Assam, WB, Bishop Yepadauk (And) Kanjel - 111 e H


javanica TN and wood (B) (N) Bok (Mr)
Maharashtra upiam Nalimara (K) Cholavenga
(Ml) Cholavengai, Mala-
chadayan (Tm)
103. Bowelha Salai (H) Shala (P) Salga (H) Salia V/R 111 e L
serratd (Mr) (MP) Saledi (G)
104. Bridelia Bihar, Orissa, Kasi Gondini, Khaja, Khajo V II e M
retusa and spp. UP, WB, (Him) Ghaj (H.P) Kulir
Karnataka and (As) Kaka (Kol) Goya (N)
Maharashtra Kosi (0) Guji, Komangi
(K) Mulluvenga (Ml)
Mulvengai (Tm) Karra-
manu (Tl)
I 05. Bursera Orissa and M urtenga Gutgotia (B) Kaka, Kander W M
serrata AP (Kol) Nimburamoi (0)
(Protium
.serratum)
106. Callophyllum TN, WB, Poon Goja, Salhoma (K) Punna W M
wigtianum Karnataka (Ml) Katupinnai (Tm)
and sp. and Mahara- Surhonni (K)
shtra
I 07. Careya Maharashtra, Kumbi Kimbbi (As) (B) (Mr) V H
arboria TN, UP, MP, Kambi (H) Kaval (K)
Kerala, Naga- Kumbia (Mr)
land and Aru-
nachal Pradesh
108. Castonopsis WB, Assam, Indian Hingori (As) W II b M
hystrix Nagaland, chestnut
and sp. and Arunachal
Pradesh
109. Cedrela toona UP, W B, Toon Tun (H) Jatipoma (As) V III C M
(Toona ciliata) Assam, Kerala, Katangai (Kol) Tuni (N)
Bihar, Gujarat, Mahalimbo (0) Gandha-
Nagaland and garige (K) Chuvannagil
Karnataka (Ml) Malavemba (Tm)
Galimanu (Tl) Hiligandha-
4 giri (K) Devdari (Mr)
Sl Botanical Locations Standard Names in some Approxi- Durahi- Treagbi- &PC-
No. Name uyhere Trade other Languages mate lit.\3 tormess
Grown Name Quantit!,
(IS : 1150) Available
per Yea,

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

I 10. Cedrus Punjab, UP Deodar (H) Kelo, Kelon (H.P) Diar (P) v I C L
deodara and Tehri
Garhwal
111. Chlorophora - _ -
excelsa
I 12. Cocunut - -.

I I 3. Cupressus UP and Cypress Devidayar, Leuri (H) W I e L


torulosa Punjab Saro (HP) Surai
(Kumaon)
114. Dalberia Punjab, UP, Sissoo Tahli (P) Shishum (H) V I1 e M
sissoo WB, Assam,
Bihar and
Bihar and
Coorg.
I 15. Dillenia WB, Assam, Dillenia Zinbyun (And) Otenga (As) V 111 M
indica and Spp. Nagaland, Chatta Tartari (B)
Kerala, Kar- Punchpal (N) Rai (0)
nataka and Kanagole (K) Karma1 (Mr)
Arunachal
Pradesh
l 16. Dillenia Dillenta Zinbyun (And) Otenga V -
pen tagyna (As) Chatter Tertari (B)
Panchpal (N) Rai (0)
Kanagole (K) Karma1 (Mr)
I 17. Dispyros MP Ebony Kendu, Abnos (H) Kend 111 M
melanoxylon (B) Tiril (Kol) Tendu,
and sp. Tumri (MP) Tamronj,
Timberovo, Timmu (G)
Balai (K) Temburni (Mr)
I 18. Duabanga WB, Assam andLampati Myauk-Myo (And) 111 c L
sonneratioides Andamans Khodam (As)
(grandiflora)
SP : 33( S& T)-1986
I
; ,
s
>
> >
---- .-
.
--
i+ i--; *“
!-! N m
123
HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING
Sl Botanical Locations Standard Names in .sonte Appro.ri- lkrahi- Trearahi- Kqfiac-
No. Name where Trade other LctnguaCges ma/e lit.13 lit.], lositie.s.s
Groww Name Quantit!!
(IS : 1150) A vailable
per Year

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

127. H,,tmenodic- Assam, Kuthan Bhorkundi (As) Baurang, III C L


t?‘on excel.vum Central India. Bhurkal. (H) Lathikaram
and South (N) Bausa (0) Bathura (P)
India Bhonsal (Mr) (MP)
Bhowarmal, Bhuskar
(M P) Bhoga (Mr) Bogi,
Doddothopa (K) Vel-
lakadamba (Ml) Para-
njothi. Sagapu (Tm)
128. Juglatts spp. HP and J&K Walnut Akhor. Akror. Khor (H) .~ Ill M

129. Lagerstroemia Assam, WB, Jarul Ajhar (As) Garasekre W II e M


,flosreginae TN, Andamans (pyinma) (Kol) Panipatuti (0)
(Lagerstroemia and Arunachal (in Holadasal (K) Bandara
.specioxa) Pradesh Andmns) taman (Mr) Nimmaruthu
(Lagerstroemia (Ml) Poomaruthu,
h.vpoleuca) Pumarudu (Tm) Pyinma
(And)
130. Lannea All over India Jhingan (H) Jhingan. Moyen (H) III e M
coromandelica Kembal (P) Nabe (And)
( Odina Ruhimala, Kuhimala (As)
br.odiere) Jial, Jiga (B) Dokan (Kol)
Jeol (N) Moi (0) Moyal
(MP) Modhal Monia (G)
Gojjal, Peru (K) Moyen
Model. Moyee (Mr)
Annallara. llthi (Ml)
Kalesan, Odiyamaram
(1-m) Cumpini (Tl)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

131. Lannea grandis - Jhingan Jhingan, Moyen (H)


(Odina Kembal (P) Nabe (And)
wodiere) Ruhimala, Kubimala (As)
Jial, Jiga (B) Dokan (Kol)
Jeol (N) Moi (0) Moyal
(MP) Modhal Monia (G)
Gojjal, Geru (K) Moyen
Model, Moyee (Mr) Geru
(K) Moyen Uthi (Ml) Kale-
san, Odiyamaram (Tm)
Gumpini (Tl)
132. Laphopetalum Karnataka, Banati Balpala, Binete (K) V/R 111 L
wightianum TN and Karuka, Venkatevu (Ml)
Maharashtra Vengothai (Tm)
133. Machilus WB and Machilus Gulmar, Gulum, Gulmas, I L
macranthG Arunachal Gulmavo (K) Paswa (Mr)
and other sp. Pradesh
134. Mallotus Kaini _
philippinensis
135. Ma@fera Throughout Aam Am (H) (As) Amb (P) Uli U Ill a 1.
in dica India (mango) (Kol) Amba (0) (Mr) Mavu
(K) Mamaram (Tm)
Mamidi (Tl)
136. Manglietia
isignis
137. Melia Indica UP Dersian Bakain, Daree (H) __ 111 M
(azadarach) lilac neem
poplar
bakain (H)
138. Michelia WB and Champ Titasopa (As) Champak. III M
champaca Assam Chempaca (B) Champa (H)
(0) Sampige (K) Chambe-
gam (I‘m) Champakam
(l-1)
W 13 and Sopa (A<;) Champ;1 (B) (0)
Asxml

(Conlimed)
SI Botanical Locations Standard Names in some Approxi- Durabi- Treatabi- Rqfrac-
No. Name where Trade other Languages mate litl? lit? toriness
Grown Name Quantit?)
(IS : 1rso> A vailable
per Year

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

I4 1. Michelia WB and Champ Sopa (As) Chempa (B) (0)


montana Assam
142. Miliusa UP Domsal
velutina

143. Mitragyna MP, UP, Kaim Kalam, Phaldu (H) Kalam, u 111 b M
parvlfolia Orissa, TN, Guri (H) Hamsabeti (Kol)
(Stephegyna Maharashtra Mitukuniya (0) Kalam
parvlflora) and Karnataka (MP) (G) Kadever (K)
Kadam, Kalmb (M r)

144. Morus alba Punjab, WB. Mulberry Shahatut (H) (P) Tut (P) Ill M
and sp. other Assam and
than laevigata UP
145. Morus Assam Bola Bhola (As) Kimbu (B) (0)
laevigata
146. Morus Assam Tooli Shehatoot (H) (P) Tut (P) __~
.serrata
147. Ougenia MP, Maha- Sandan (H) Pandhan. Bandhan. Panan V I M
dalbergiodes rashtra, AP, Tinnas, Tinsa (H)
( Ougenia UP. Gujarat Sannam (P) Ruta (Kol)
oqjeinensis) and Karnataka Tinse, Tiwas (M P)
148. Porrotia Parrotia Kilar, Pasir, PO, Pohu (P) M
jacquemon f iana pohu
(Parrotiopsis
,jacquemontiana)

149. Phoebe Assam, Naga- Bonsum Angari (N) W 111 C M


goalparansis land, WB and
and spp. Arunachal
Pradesh
150. Phoebe Assam, Naga- Bonsum Angari (N) W
1
hainesiana land, WB and
and other spp. Arunachal
Pradesh
(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

I 5 I . Pinus Khasi pine Diengse, Diengsa (As) Ill L


insularis Saval (B) Vehal (Manipur)
(Pinus khe.si.va)

152. Pinus longi- LJP, Punjab, Chir (H) Chil (P) Ill b L
,folia J&K and
( Pinus rox- Nagaland
hurghii)
153. Pinus M,alli- Punjab and Kail (H) Kail (H) V Ill c L
chiana UP
( Pinus excelsa)
154. Pi.sracia - __
integerritna

155. Podocarpus Andamans Thitmin II


nerr ffolia
and spp.
156. Poivalrhia Debdaru Kutheria (0) Gauri Mur- Ill M
cerasoides (nedunar) gausi (K) Nareila (M I)
and spp. Nedunaria (Tm)
157. Poij,arhia TN and Nedunar
jiiagrans Maharashtra
and spp.
I 58. Ptero.spurt~lun~ U P, W B, Hattipalla W III C M
arvrjfoliutn Nagaland,
Arunachal
Pradesh and
Karnataka
159. Shinra Assam Chilauni Gogra, Makrisal (As) III d M
~t~allichii

160. Shorea Assam, WB Makai Makai (As) Ill e M


a.s.sant ica

16 I. Sonneratia Keora Keowra (B) M


apetala
(Coflri!?ued)
Sl Botanical Locations Standard Names in some Approxi- Durahi- Treatahi- Rqfiac-
No. Name Mhere Trade other Languages mate lit.13 lit.!? toriness
Grown Name Quantit.1’
(15 : 1150) A Llailable
per Year
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

162. Stereospermum W B, Assam, Pad ri Padel, Pare1 (H) Paroli V I11 M


chelonoides Nagaland. (As) Husi (Kol) Parari (N)
(Slereosper- Kerala, Kar- Patuli (0) Padar (M P)
mum perso- nataka and Kandol (G) Genersing,
natunl and sp.) Arunachal Mukanti (K) Kursing
Pradesh Pindoli (Mr) Kaladri,
Pathiri (K) Padiri (Ml)
(1-m) Isikirasi (-rl)
163. Stereosper- WB, Assam, Pad ri Padel, Pare1 (H) Paroli V _.
mum .suaveo- Nagaland, (As) Husi (Kol) Parari (N)
lens Kerala, Kar- Patuli (0) Padar (MP)
nataka and Kandol (G) Genesing
Arunachal Mukanti (K) Kursing,
Pradesh Pindoli (Mr) Kaladri,
Pathiri (K) Padiri (Ml)
(I‘m) lsikirasi (7‘1)
1.64. Ster.eo.vpe,nlrrrll Vedon- Padel. Pare1 (H) Paroli _ -.
.~~~locarpu.v konnai (As) Husi (Kol) Parari (N)
Patuli (0) Padar (MI)
Kandol (G) Genesing
Mukanti (K) Kursing,
Pindoli (MI-) Kaladri,
Pathiri (K) Padiri (Ml)
(Tm) lsikriasi (TI)
165. Tamarindus lmli (H) Jogo (Kol) Tenthuli (0)
indica (Mr) Hunse (K) Puli (Tm) _ I M
Chintamanu (Tl)
166. Terminalia MP, WB, Arjun Kowa (Kol) Arjuna (0) IJ II b M
arjuna Maharashtra, Koha (Mr) Kohu. Kowa
TN, Gujarat (M P) Billimaddi Thora-
and Karnataka mathi (K) Vellilava (Ml)
Vellamaruthu (7-m) Tella-
maddi (Tl)
167. Terminalia Assam, WB, Hollock Panisaj (N) V III a M
myriocarpa Nagaland and
Arunachal
Pradesh
3) (2) (3) (4) (3 (6) (7) (8) (9)

168. Terminalia Andamans White Badam (And) 111 b M


procera bombway
(badam)
169. Vateria TN, Karnataka Vellapine Gugle, Maddidhupa, Paini, - 111 e L
indica and Dhun. Kaidhuna f K) Pavan.
Maharashtra Vella’kunthinikam (Ml) d
Vellaikundrikam,
Vellapayini (Tm)
Language Approx A vailabilit~~

= Andamanese U = More than 2500 tonnes per annum (3500 m’)


= Telugu
V = Between 1000 and 2500 tonnes per annum
= Assamese (that is between 1400 and 3500 m3)
= Hindi
= Gujarathi W = Less than 1000 tonnes per annum, that is,
= Himachali less than 1400 m
= Kashmiri
= Malayalam R = The species is heavily demanded by
= Kanarese other industries also.
= Marathi
= Hindi
= Nepalese
= Oriya
= Punjabi
= Tamil
= Hindi
= Bengali

NOTEI -- Where the trade name is the popular Hindi name, or derived from a local name the abbreviation of the corresponding language is indicated in
brackets along with the trade name.

NOTE2 ~ ‘-’ indicates that information was not readily available but will be included later when available.

NOTE3 - For the legend under durability, treatability and refractoriness .SCP2.3.8; 2.3.9 and 2.3.10 (H = high. M = moderate. L = low)
APPENDIX iI
(Clauses 2.3.3, 2.3.6.3, 2.3.7, 5.2, 5.3 and 5.2.6.3)
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS STRUCTURAL SPECIES
( Safe working stresses, Standard Grade (Grade I)-Inside location )

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (1 I) (12)

1. Acacia arabica B UP 0.670 97.7 155 14.4 20.6 89 52 797


Acacia catechu A UP 0.875 134.4 201 15.5 22.1 138 77 1009
:* Acacia chundra A MP 0.976 167.9 265 22.4 32.0 179 109 1086
4: Acacia forruginea B Maharashtra 0.876 122.8 230 16.5 23.5 139 99 993
5. Acacia loucophloca C MP 0.660 78.5 134 10.3 14.7 75 45 737
Acwe sp. c UP 0.499 77.2 107 9.9 14.7 60 23 615
4. Acer sp. C Punjab 73.7 99 12.5 55 21 551
8: Acrocarpus fraxintfolins B South India 0.587 125.9 161 182.83 17.6 105 46 690
9. Adina cordtfolia c UP 0.598 85.4 133 9:6 13.6 87 663
10. Adina cord$olia C South India 89.3 131 9.0 12.9 80 ; 687
11. Aama cordtfolia B Bihar 99.3 147 13.7 88 681
12. Aegle marmelos c UP 0.754 88.1 135 1z.z 20.0 88 :z 890
13. A fzelia b ujuga C Andamans 0.606 91.6 132 10:s 15.4 79 40 705
14. Aglaia edulis A Assam 0.702 125.6 182 14.1 20.2 101 44 815
15. Albizzia lebbeck B S. Andaman 0.549 111.7 !34 10.8 15.4 90 44 642
16. Albizria orderatissima A S. India 0.632 135.4 187 15.3 21.9 133 73 737
17. Albizzia procera c UP 0.579 90.2 134 14.0 85 43 643
Altingia excelsa B Assam 0.667 113.7 171 1E 18.1 110 795
!!: Amoora rohituka B Assam 0.576 103.6 147 10:3 14.8 89 ;: 703
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
- -
Anogeissus acuminate B Orissa 0.712 116.7 176 12.7 18.0 I08 51 844
Anogeissus latifolia B UP 0.793 105.5 161 I I.1 15.9 91 47 892
Anogeissus latifolia B S. India 122.1 179 12.1 17.2 IO1 63 967
Anogeissus pendula B UP 0.776 97.5 170 12.8 18.4 98 929
$ 24. Anthocephalus cadamba C Burma 82 97 7.0 10.0 59 :; 485
Arecanut C Kerala 94.8 152 12.2 15.9 108 833
% Artocarpus chaplasha C Assam 0.447 91.1 132 86 ::, 515
Artocarpus hirsuta B S. India 0.516 104.5 150 10.5
12.2 1:: 33 600
9
d :87: Artocarpus integrtfolia C S. India 0:505 94.6 139 1::: 14.8 93 45 617
2 Artocarpus lakoocha c UP 0.530 61.4 100 14.1 28 647
E Z: Atlantia monophylla B Orissa 0.786 103. I 167 1::; 21.0 I:: 63 897
E Azdarichta indica c -
2 31.
32. Balanocarpus utilis A S. India 0.8; 169.1 251 15.1 21.6 I64 93 987
Bassia butyracea B S. Andaman 0.632 106.4 153 10.3 14.8 99 66 780
Bassia latlfolia C MP 0.737 88.2 130 IO.1 14.4 75 63 936
Betula alnoides C WB 0.553 92.3 96 7.6 10.8 57 22 625
36. Bischyfia ,javanica C S. India 0.551 88.4 98 7.9 II.2 59 769
37. BosMlellia serrata C Bihar 0.498 72. I 7.3 10.5 55 :: 551
38. Bridelia retusa C Bihar 0.499 94.2 1;: 12.6 71 40 584
39. Bruguiera sp. A Andamans 0.797 176.8 219 17.: 16.9 143 55 897
40. Buchlandia polulnea B WB 0.552 98.9 I28 10:5 14.9 79 35 672
41. Buchlandia polulnea B NEFA 103.8 I 23 9.1 13.0 78 30 641
42. Bussera serrata c -
43. Caloph.vllum tomentosum C Assam 0.532 9c3 I 28 9.6 13.8 84 36 626
44. Calophyllum tomentosum B S. India 0.53 I 102.2 I 33 9.1 13.0 90 28 610
45. Calophyllum tomentosum B Maharashtra 97.7 I 34 7.9 II.2 86 28 657
46. Calophyllum wightianum C Maharashtra 0.569 86.8 35 9.5 13.6 87 40 689
47. Canarium strictum B S. India 0.532 118.6 133 12.3 81 28 655
48. Carallia lucida B Assam 0.624 126.0 I 84 182:: 17.4 I I4 59 748
49. Carapa moluccusis B Burma 104.0 I 56 9 I2 100 46 786
50. Careya arborea c UP 0.6; 83.7 I 31 10.3 14.8 77 53 889
51. Cassia fistula B UP 0.746 118.0 I 92 14.3 20.4 123 72 865
Cassia siamea B MP 0.697 105.0 154 9.8 13.9 I08 820
::: Castanopsis hystrix C WB 0.515 98.5 I 06 8.2 Il.7 64 ;: 624
Casuarina equisettfolia B Orissa 0.693 I 14.4 146 12.7 18.1 769
34: Cedrela toona c UP 0.424 64.0 87 7.0 10.0 :: 487
(Continued)
,’
,
.,,
,,!
:
.)
\ *“.
i!,
I
I I . ,
r
t
~-~lr-,<
t -l-, t-lr.JP-
r
I
V<x=t —-’
t-w &+-r.i-
U+ci ---- —
.4C.464F,GG ao -
>ox r’-- Xlcn
-----
r-
F,
v,
c
HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING
132
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

91. Fraxinu excelsior Punjab 0.600 104.1 148 II.7 33 719


92. Frasinus macrantha ; UP 0.605 106.9 I50 12.2 16.7
17.4 :: 43 712
93. Frenela rhonlhioidea S. India 0.516 64.8 92 7.0 0.0 69 40 607
94.
95.
Gardenia lal(fi,lia
Garuga pinnata
E:
B
MP
UP
0.635
0.5 I 1
71.3
75.8
41
17
12.9
IO.1 ::! 72
84
46
34
705
571
96. Gluta travancorica S. India 0.62 1 127.3 I 35 9. I 726
Gmelina arboria : UP 0.445 70.2 8.4 :.‘: 90
57 t: 501
8;. GreMlia tilliaqfolia A S. India 0.665 148.2 ;L: 13.1 8:7 120 60 788
99: Grel\-ia \vestita WB 0.606 20.0 54 13.7 9.5 91 41 758
100. Hard,c*ickia binata E MP 0.733 66.4 41 12.9 8.4 90 74 852
101. HardMkkia pinnata B S. India 0.528 06.2 32 8.8 2.6 82 29 617
102. Heritiera sp. Assam 0.694 33.7 79 12.7 8.1 I IO 65 872
103. Heterophragma roxburghii : MP 0.525 86.9 6.7 9.6 79 34 616
104. Holoptelea integrlfolia C UP 0.498 74.6 I ;:, 8.9 2.8 67 28 592
105. Hopea glabra A S. India 0.869 147.9 213 15.3 21.9 I45 99 1081
106. Hopea parvtflora A S. India 0.794 130.3 186 12.9 18.4 132 92 923
107. H!?menodictyon excelsum C UP 0.418 64.3 79 7.0 9.9 47 494
108. Juglans fallax B Kashmir (low) 0.490 101.9 130 8.4 12.1 75 :I: 573
109. Juglans ,fallax C Kashmir (high) 0.452 93.0 I I4 7.9 Il.2 66 544
110. Juglans sp. CHP -- 0.529 93.5 II4 9.3 13.3 65 ;4 614
III. Juglans sp. C Punjab 97.2 I31 9.6 13.7 77 24 561
112. Juglans sp. c UP 0.530 90.0 99 8.5 12.2 58 22 565
113. Kayca ,floribunda B Assam 0.665 108.8 168 I I.0 15.7 IO1 44 813
114. Legersrroemia .f;losreginae C N. Andaman 0.517 85.3 I21 8.2 II.7 77 34 622
Lagerstroemia hypoleuca
)
115. Legerstroemia lanceolato B S. India 0.554 107.6 127 8.4 12.0 82 34 617
116. Legerstroemia lanceolato B Maharashtra 113.4 I45 9.9 14.1 93 48 732
117. Lkgerstroemia parviflora B UP 0.620 109.7 143 10.9 15.5 87 37 734
118. Lannea coromandehca C Rajasthan 0.497 55.5 92 8.9 12.7 58 577
119. Lannea grandis c UP 56.3 85 6.4 9. I 49 ?;: 557
120. Lophopatalum KYghtianum C S. lndia 0.374 73.3 85 5.3 8.3 53 I8 460
121. Machilus marcantha C S. India 0.445 76.3 102 7.1 10.2 63 521
122. Machilus odoratissima B WB 0.570 100 124 10.3 14.7 82 692
123. Mallotus philippinensis c UP 0.57 I 75. I 108 9.6 13.6 60 662
124. Mangtfera indica C Orissa 0.588 91.2 122 9.6 13.7 73 661
125. Manglietia insignia C Assam 0.409 103.7 109 6.8 9.8 80 449
E
E
(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

126. Melia indica c UP 85.2. 146 12.9 18.4 100 836


127. Mesua .ferrea A Assam 0.862 163.0 233 12.3 17.6 155 :8 965
128. Mesua ,ferrea A S. India - 172.9 243 16.7 23.9 158 93 1335
129. Michelia catheartii C WB 103.6 104 7.8 11.2 62 524
130. Michelia champaca C WB 0.426 83.9 113 7.5 10.3 71 :z 494
131. Michelia excelsa C WB 0.441 101.2 108 6.0 8.5 67 22 507
132. Michefia excelsa C NEFA 101.2 98 10.3 513
133. Michelia montana C WB 0.437 82.5 109 ::: 10.2 z:, 1: 512
134. Milliusa belutina c UP 0.625 79.2 117 11.4 16.3 70 37 747
135. Mismsops elingi B S. India 0.740 123.9 173 12.7 18.1 110 56 885
136. Mimusops littoralis A S. Andaman 0.902 173.9 227 14.7 21.0 142 113 1103
137. Mitragvna parv(folia c UP 0.558 78.2 126 10.4 14.9 79 37 651
138. Morus alba c UP 0.603 82.0 118 10.0 14.3 38 743
139. Morus iaevigata B Assam 0.541 121.2 165 11.2 16.0 z: 41 651
140. Morus laevigata C Andamans 86.1 123 10.2 14.6 72 33 588
141. Morus serrata C HP 0.577 70.3 102 9.1 13.0 26 657
142. Ougeinia dalborgioides C MP 0.704 85.4 133 12.1 17.2 ;; 784
143. Ougeinia dalbergioides c UP 95.5 166 13.8 19.7 92 2: 785
144. Parrotia jacqucmontiana C HP 0.680 57.7 125 11.5 16.5 68 40 761
145. Phoebe goalparensis C Assam 0.422 76.5 97 7.0 10.1 66 22 511
I45 A. Phwbe hainensiana C Assam 0.75 95.0 132 8.4 12.1 88 28 566
146. Pinus insularis C NEFA 0.43 1 73.8 89 5.7 7.4 58 15 513
Pinus roxburghii c UP 0.448 98.2 85 6.2 8.8 60 20 525
!tS. Pinus wallichiana C Pakistan 68.0 66 6.0 8.0 17 515
149: Pistacia integerrima C J&K 0.433 73.2 131 12.0 17.1 ?i 43 881
150. Planchonia a ndamanica B S. Andaman 0.693 131.0 161 9.5 13.6 108 49 913
151. Podocarpus nerijfolia C S. Andaman 0.463 94.1 125 6.1 8.6 80 533
152. Poeciloneuron indicum A S. India 0.902 162.9 224 16.3 21.8 147 1139
153. Polvalthia cerasoides C MP 0.586 92.9 132 9.7 13.9 71 700
154. Polvalthia ,fragrans C Maharashtra 0.445 91.5 119 8.3 11.9 67 752
155. Pterocarpus dalbergioides B N. Andaman 0.620 112.4 171 10.2 14.6 120 721
156. Pterocarpus marsuipium B Maharashtra 0.67 1 102.5 149 9.4 13.4 91 41 803
157. Pterocarpus santalinus A S. India 127.3 250 17.4 24.8 181 118 1121
158. Pterospermum acer[folium C WB 0.507 95.5 135 8.5 12.2 87 32 607
159. Quereus incana B Punjab 0.826 108.2 158 12.2 17.5 87 50 1008
160. Quereus lamellosa B WB 0.609 124.4 145 11.5 16.5 87 38 870
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

161. Quereus licnea ta B WB 0.681 126.3 152 12.1 17.3 96 874


162. Quereus semeoarpifolia B Punjab 0.692 115.8 158 12.7 18.1 83 834
163. Quereus sp. B NEFA 116.5 114 10.4 Il.9 67 657
164. Saccopetalum tomentosum B Maharashtra 110.6 148 9.3 13.2 97 745
165. Sageraea elliptica A S. Andaman 150.6 215 I 0.5 15.0 25 869
166. Schima wallichii C WB 95.7 III 8.9 12.8 66 23 693
167. Schleichera trijuga A Burma 130 225 1 23.0 52 942
168. Shorea assam&-a C Assam 92.7 111 ::: 12.9 ;; 548
169. Shorea robusta B MP 126.7 169 13.4 ;:, 46 805
170. Shorea robusta A WB 150.1 196 ;::: 14.6 23 59 895
171. Shorea robusta A UP 127.9 196 2.6 17.9 80 886
172. Shorea robusta A Bihar 144.3 191 3.9 19.9 887
173. Shorea robusta A Assam - 133.8 191 4.4 20.6 ;: 837
174. Shorea talura A Maharashtra 122.0 168 1.0 15.6 68 721
175. Soneratia apetala C WB 0.521 86.3 128 9.2 13.2 48 617
176. Sovmida ,febr[figa B S. India 0.965 122.2 215 16.2 23.2 150 129 1116
177. Sterculia alata B Assam 109.5 134 8.4 12.0 82 27 593
178. Stereospermum chelonoides C WB 0.6% 92.2 138 11.9 17.0 89 40 717
179. Stereospermum chelonoides C S. India 129.4 190 Il.2 16.0 119 40 731
180. Stereospermum suaveolens c UP 0.6; 88.6 133 9.0 12.9 78 35 721
181. Stereospermum xyocarpum C S. India 85.2 132 10.6 15.2 90 43 696
182. Swintonia Joribanda B Burma 115.0 123 9 13.0 70 22 640
183. Tamarindus indica C S. India 0.747 56.3 114 12.0 17.1 70 53 913
183A. Texus bacata C WB 0.612 77.9 143 12.2 17.4 47 705
184. Tectona grandis B S. India 0.596 110.2 151 9.4 13.5 ;: 47 699
185. Tectona grandis C MP 84.9 128 8.4 13.0 79 40 617
186. Tectona grandis C Orissa 89.3 139 9.8 13.9 86 604
187. Tectona grandis B WB 116.1 162 10.8 15.3 107 ::, 617
188. Tectona grandis B Maharashtra 99.7 147 10.4 14.9 90 623
189. Tectona grandis B UP 99.7 155 11.5 16.4 94 t: 660
190. Terminalia arjuna C Bihar 77.1 122 11.2 16.0 74 52 794
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

I9 1. Terminalia bellirica B UP 0.628 101.9 136 9.6 13.7 84 37 329


192. Terminalia bilata B S. Andaman 0.578 123.8 155 8.7 12.4 98 36 690
193. Terminalia chebula B Burma 124 171 9 13 70 22 640
194. Terminalia manii B S. Andaman 0.665 126.6 168 Il.2 16.0 103 51 822
195. Terminalia myroecarpa C Assam 0.568 96.2 19 8.5 2.1 76 29 615
196. Terminalia paniculata B S. India 0.646 32.2
197. Terminalia paniculata B Maharashtra - 05.7 :Y 9.1
9.2 ::: 109
86 45
36 765
787
198. Terminalia procera C N. Andaman 0.520 89.9 18 8.9
199. Terminalia tomentosa B UP 0.727 16.8 E 72, 30 842
626
200. Terminalia tomentosa B S India 05.4 :Y 1;:: 5:s 8: :; 906
20 1. Terminalia tomentosa B Maharashtra - 30.7
202. Thespesia ponulnea B Maharashtra 0.647 11
03.6 :; 13.2
10.9 18.8
15.6 113
104 44
59 766
795
203. Vateria indica C S. lndia 0.483 09.5
11
204.
_I _ Vitex
_. . altissima A Maharashtra 0.771 130.1 :: 11.7
7.3 10.5
16.7 126
75 23
95 535
937
ZU5. Xylia xylocurpa B Maharashtra 0.715 116.3 162 12.8 18.3 109 78 839
206. Zanthoxylum budranga B WB 0.496 106.5 147 8.7 12.4 95 3’: 587
207. Zanthoxylum rhetsa B Maharashtra 0.609 130.2 155 10.9 15.5 92 609
SP : 33(-T)-1986

APPENDIX J
(Clause 3. I .4)

TYPICAL NUMERICAL EXAMPLE FOR CALCULATING THE COMPARATIVE


SUITARILITY INDEX FROM THE BASIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
a) Property desired : Strength as a beam
b) Species : Dalbergiu Sissoo (sissoo or shisham)
(1) Green condition properties grouped:

Proper, Adjusting Weigh tage Product


Value Factor Factor
M or R (static bending) 721 X 1 X 2 = 1442.0
FS at EL (static bending) 390 X 1.69 X 1 = 659.1
FS at EL (impact bending) 1104 X 0.69 X 1 = 761.8
Total 2862.9

Total value 2862.9


Group average for green condition (l), SA = = ~ = 715.7
Sum of weightage factor 4
(2) Dry condition moisture content at 12 percent properties grouped:

Prw&Y Adjusting Weigh tage .Produc t


Factor X factor 4
M or R (static bending) 1056. X 1.00 x 2 = 2112.0
FS at EL (static bending) 659 X 1.73 x 1 = 1140.1
FS at EL (impact bending) 1087 X 0.83 X 1 = 880.5
Total 4132.6

Group average for dry condition (2) SB For evaluation of similar properties like
suitability as a post, shock resisting ability, nail
Total value 4132.6
= =-= 1033.1 and screw holding power, refractoriness,
Sum of weightage 4 hardness, etc (reference may be made to
factor ‘Suitability indices of Indian timbers for industrial
Combining group averages for all conditions and and engineering uses’, by A. C. Sekhar and A. S.
giving a relative weightage of 2 for green Gulati, Indian Forest Records, Vol. 2, No. 1,
1972). Suitability indices for a few selected species
condition values as usual:
arid some important properties are given in
2s* + s* Table 8. .
S=
3
= 2 X 715.7 X 1033.1
= 822 NOTE ~ X = Adjusting factors are the average ratios of
3 principal property chosen (that is. the first property
mentioned above for grouping) to the auxillary properties
Similarly value for teak, S’ = 878
chosen (that is. subsequent properties mentioned above for
grouping) for each condition, taking data of all species into
CZ;oyF;rative suitability index for the property
consideration. Hence this is a constant factor and is used to
bring the values of concerned properties to the same order
and level of considcrtion before multiplying and adding the
=;x 100 same.
C$= Weightage factors are given to indicate relative
importance of the property or condition chosen as
compared to other properties and conditions. Usually the
=gx loo=95 principal property and green conditions values are givkn
weightage 2 as compared to others for which the weightage
( rounded off to the nearest 5.) is only I.

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING 137


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

APPENDIX K

WORKED EXAMPLES

Consider a beam of teak of standard grade is By substitution of W, L, E, b and d3, the


required for a span of 5 metres for inside location. deflection will work out to 1.04 and this being less
Then, from Appendix H. than 1.4, the cross-sections chosen are permissible
for the span and load.
the permissible stress, j’= 151 kg/cm2
Horizontal shear = 9.4 Since the depth of the beam is less than 30 cm,
no form factor is required as in 5.2.4. For
Modulus of eIa%icity = 110 X 1000 kg/cm* modification factors for duration of loading and
Let the beam carry a uniform loading of 100 kg slope of grain, reference may be made to Table I7
per’ metre. Since from 5.2.3 and Fig. 6 and 18. For other types of loads, and fixings,
appropriate values of M may be taken from Fig.
WL d 12 6.
.bbJ
If a beam of 10 cm width (V) is chosen, then from The shear stress in the above beam is computed
the above equation d will work at 11.2 cm or say by the formula (see 5.2.5.1):
12 cm. It should now be checked f?r deflection, n
3v
of the span, - when V=T= 250
that it should not be more than -z$ H= 2bd
that ‘is -5E = I .4 Substituting b = 10 cm and d = 12 cm, we get
.* 360 H = 3.1 which is less than permissible shear stress
The deflection is given by 4 = &- .F . -$- 9.4 for teak as mentioned above. Hence the cross-
section is acceptable.

Example 2
If Since this is less than permissible, it can be used.
. a column of 3 metres of teak of standard grade
1s required for inside location to carry a load of If we take 10 X 10 cm cross-section then actual
6000 kg: stress = 60 and permissible stress
For teak E (from Appendix H) = 1 IO, 200 kg/m’
and fCp * 86 k&/cm2 l - +( 243?lO)’ ]
= 19.2
-
... KS = 0.702 .& * 23.8 or My 24
J fc Hence 10 X 10 cm cross-section cannot be used
This is more than 11 and htre the formula for If the length of the column is 500 cm then a cross-
intermediate column may be considered with S=3
section of 15 X 15 cm would give $ = 33.3 which
metres, if we take d BS 12.5 cm ur more so that -$ is more than 24. Hence the formula for long
does not exceed 23.0 tkm the perrrrissible stress is column should be used under which the permis-
only sibk stress = 02 El,($)’ = 33.4. But the act-

~1 stress = = 26.6. Hence this may be


15 X 15
96 [l - $24 :“,2.,,’ ] = 64 allowed. (For considering duration factors see
Table 17 and for slope of grain in the column see
p3bFIi8. For end fixings and tapered columns see
Actually stress = 1~ 5y12 5 = 38.5 . . . .

138 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEEtiINC


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

Example 3

1
Suppose a square box column of length 3004
3 metres is required of teak planks of 2.5 cm = 72 kg/cm*
1 x 96 [ l - 3 x 224 x (212.5)2
thickness in inside location to carry a load of
6000 kg.
But actual load distributed on the cross-section
Then from Table 23 q = 1.00; and U = 0.80
of the box structure of column
From Appendix H, E = 110.2 X 1000 kg/cm’ and
= 6000/(4 X 10 X 2.5) = 60
fc = 96
UE
Hence KS = F - As this is less than permissible value obtained
J- 5qf, above the column is acceptable. In fact from the
= 22 above considerations the column can safely take
load up to even 7200 kg.
If b, the width of the plank is taken as 10 cm,
which is not more than 5 times the thickness of
2.5 cm as required, then dl = 12.5 and d2 = 7.5, If on the other hand 8 X 2.5 cm planks are taken
and 4 + d: = 212.5 S
forthe box column then will work out
S
works out as 20.7 which is less than @Wz
.*.Jm to 25 and so long column formula of 5.3.4(c)
should be applied. Accordingly permissible stress
the above value of KC. Hence it should be treated fC will work at only 41.3 kg/cm This being less
as an intermediate column for which permissible than the stress due to actual load, this section is
stress according to 5.3.4 (b) is: not acceptable.

Let is be required to analyze stresses in a simple Similarly working at the joint Jr


truss as indicated in Fig. 10. The trigonometric
method is employed. In Fig. IO the various joints C V = Q, cos 60 -P + Q., + QL cos 60 = 0
are represented by J, Jz .I?, etc, and the forces in I: H = Q, cos 30 + Ql cos 30 = 0
corresponding members between the joints as Qi
Qz,Q3, etc. From Fig. 10, if L is the span, it is From these equations, Q: = 5P and Q., = P
evident that each segment of bottom chord a is
equal to L/6. Let P be the total worked out load Similarly working out at joint .Jd
at each joint as indicated. As the extreme angle I: l’=-Q4+ QS sin 49=0
indicated is 30”, from simple trigonometrical cal-
culations Jo J, = a/cos 30” = 1.18a. Similarly it and C H = -Q9 + QS cos 49 + Q10 = 0
can be shown that Substituting known values of QS, we get
Qs = 1.32 P (in tension) and QiO = 3.5P
Jd, = J,J, = JzJs = 1.18. a (also in tension)
JlJ4 = 0.59 a
JsJ, = 1.52 a Thus working successively at each joint a table as
J,Js = 1.77 a shown below can be prepared for lengths of each
J5J3 = 2.00 a member and forces on the same.
and J0J4 = JJJT = J5J6 =a
Designa- Force Length in
Now for calculation of the forces, let the first joint lion of A Terms of
r
JO be considered member 0,. . Value in ’ a
Terms of
Here C V = 3.5P - P + Qi cos 60 = 0 . ..(I) P
C H = Ql cos 30 + Q, = 0 . ..(2)
From Equation (l), Qi = -5 P and substituting
JOJI Ql -5P 1.18a

in equation (2), 5152 Q2 -5P 1.18a

JzJ3 -4P 1.18a


5P x 1.7 = 4 3 p Q3
Q9= 2 .
5154 Q4 -1.OP 0.59a

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

Designa- Force Length in The forces and lengths on the right half of the
tion sf Value in ’
Terms of truss will be symmetrical to the left half. By
member ‘Qi a knowing the length of each member and forces
Terms of acting on the same, taking negative values for
P compression and positive values for tension, and
5254 Q5 1.32P 1.52a keeping in view the required uniformity and
JzJs Q6 -1SP 1.18a constructional details, the cross-sections of
members can be worked out as columns or beams,
J3Js Q7 1.73P 2.OOa etc, as the case may be.
JsJci Q8 0 1.77a
JoJs Q9 4.33P a
J4J5 QIO 3.5P a
JsJs QII 2.63P a

Example 5

Problem To find the number of nails for a Length of the nails required
nailed joint in a timber frame. = 3 + (2 X 2.25) = 7.5 cm
Given 1) Teak species For lengthening joints
Let maximum stress be = 750 kg
2) Thickness of member as evaluted
by usual design calculation: No. of nails required = g
3 X 8 cm
3) Lateral strength of 3.5 mm = approximately 6 nails on either side of
the joint.
diameter of 9 S.W.G. in double
shear (see Table 26) for These are to be distributed uniformly keeping
Teak timber = 140 kg for in view the recommendation on spacing, edge
= lengthening joint distances and end distances (see 6.2.11.2). The
= 80 kg for modal length of the plates works out to be 21 cm.
joint Nodal joint ar right angles
= 130 kg for temp-
erate construction Let the maximum stress be = 450 kg
Solution 450
No. of nails required =-
8n
.,_
Total thickness of plates required
= 1.5 X 3 = 4.5 cm = approximately 6 nails
Hence thickness of each plate These nails are to be distributed uniformly as
= 4.512 = 2.25 cm per the scheme recommended in 6.2.J 1.2.

Example 6
Problem Find the number of nails and the Solution
dimensions of the plates in a length-
ening joint in a beam. Taking lever arm as 213 = 213 X 15 = 10 cm
of indepth of the beam
Given Species of Group A: Grade I
Service condition: Inside location BM at the joint
The force in the member =
Span of the beam: 400 cm lever arm
Section of the beam: 15 X 6 cm _ 12770
Maximum bending moment:
38310 cm kg 10
Bending moment (BM) for which = 1277 kg
joint is designed, say,
= l/3 of maximum bending moment Thickness of plates = 612 + 312 = 4.5
= 12770 cm kg Total thickness at the joint = (2 X 4.5) + 6 = 15 cm

140 HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

Lateral strength of nail of 5 mm dia and 150 mm faces. The distances between nails are to be
long is assumed to be 200 kg for the given checked for conformation to be requirements.
species
The general design consideration for stresses
No. of nails required on either side of the joint and deflections of nail jointed beams are the same
in each of tension and compression zones of.the as of solid beams (IS : 883-1970) and the shear
beam strength for nails for 3.75, 4 and 5 mm diameters
and for length of 75, 100, 125 and I50 mm for
1277
= - = Approx. 6 nails various species as given in IS : 4983-1968 (see a/so
200 6.3.2.3). For some of the light and softer species
With six nails in each zone on either side of the no pre-boring is recommended but in other cases
joint, 24 nails are required. If the distance bet- pre-boring is considered necessary. In such cases
ween the centroids of nail groups on either,side is the diameter of pre-bore should be lesser than the
kept at 5 times the lever arm, then it 1s 5 X nominal diameter of the nail by atleast 0.5, I and
2/ 3 X 15 = 50 cm. Hence keeping in view the 1.5 mm depending on hardness of the species. But
edge distances and end distance, and adjusting it appears, for convenience of design, the
the position of nails in between, the length of the presently recommended forty eight species in
plates will work out to be 100 cm. Care should be IS : 883-1970 can be suitably grouped according
taken that adjacent nails are driven from opposite to their specific gravity or hardness.

Example 7
:. Safe working
Problem To find the number of bolts of stress of timber
10 mm diameter required for a for bolted joint 120 X 100 percent
lengthening joint of a truss member = 120 kg/cmL
in compression.
Given Species-Teak for which working Safe load per bolt, f = 120 X 3.5
stress in green condition is 104 kg/cm* = 420 kg
and hence for dry condition 15 percent Force experienced
.: No. of bolts
be added = 120 kg/cm* by member
required
Thickness of member: 3.5 cm = Safe load per bolt
Force on the member : 1200 kg
Service condition : Inside location 1200
=-
420
Solution
= approximately 3
Length of the bolt :35 mm bolts on either
in the main side of the joint.
member
Diameter of bolt :lO mm These bolts are to be distributed symmetrically on
either side of the joint
.*. Bolt L/d ratio :3.5
Projected area of :3.5 X 1.0 = 3.5 cm2 Thickness of the plate = l/2 the size of main
the bolt member
Percentage safe ‘100 = l/2 X 3.5 = 1.75 cm
working stress
(from Table 28) for Length of the plate =2 (7d+4d+76)
L/d ratio of 3.5 = 36 cm

DOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING


SP : 33(S&T)-1986

Example 8
Problem To calculate the safe load at a node Percentage of safe stress (from
joint at the bottom chord of a roof- Table 28 ) for L/d ratio of 3.5,
struss if bolts of 10 mm are provided. r = 66.2 percent
Given Thickness of middle member at the .*. Modification factor for bolt of
joint = 3.5 cm. Each side member 10 mm dia, K = 3.60 (from Table 29)
= l/2 thickness of main member
Species-Teak, seasoned, Grade I :. Safe working stress of timber for
Service condition: Inside location bolted joint : S =J r. k
No. of bolts: 4 = 57 X 66.2 X 3.6
Solut fan 100
Safe working stress in compression = say 136 kg/cm3
perpendicular to grain in green
condition of teak = 49 kg/cm* Projected area of bolt, L X d = 3.5 cm’
Safe load per bolt = 136 X 3.51476 kg
Adding 15 percent for seasoned condi-
tion, f = 57 kg/cm* :. Safe load for all bolts = 476 X 4
Bolt L/d ratio = 35110 = 3.5 = 1904kg

Example. 9
If a wooden disc dowel of babul is required and rrX 5 X 20.6 :
from consideration of members of the joint the Then t = m \, or\ = 1.8 cm or
diameter of the disc should not exceed 5-cm then L A UY
the thickness r of the disc is worked out as below:
From Appendix H, for babul, s = 20.6
or to be on the safe side 2 cm such that one cm
and c = 89 is embedded in each member.

HANDBOOK ON TIMBER ENGINEERING