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ECONOMIZER

F8 F7: Water to boiler


F8: Flue gas from boiler

F6 Economizer F7 F9: Flue gas to air preheater

F9

Material Balance

F6 = F7

F8 = F9

Energy Balance

F6 F7
Water from Water to boiler
pump
Bagasse Full Load
Condition Sat. liquid
Temperature, T (0C) 124 160
Pressure, P (bar) 120 82
Enthalpy*, h (kJ/kg) 528.996 680.0395
Specific volume, v (m3/kg) 0.00106
Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) 39.283 39.283
Mass flow rate, m (ton/h) 141.4 141.4
Energy Consumption
Energy balance (kJ/s) 20780.55 26713.99
Change (kJ/s) 5933.44
Bagasse one third Load
Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) 15.43 15.43
Mass flow rate, m (ton/h) 55.539 55.539
Energy Consumption
Energy balance (kJ/s) 8162.41 10493.009
E (kJ/s) 2330.60
Coal Full Load
Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) 33.489 33.4889
Mass flow rate, m (ton/h) 120.56 120.56
Energy Consumption
Energy balance (kJ/s) 17715.47 22773.7748
E (kJ/s) 5058.31
Coal one third Load
Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) 11.16 11.16
Mass flow rate, m (ton/h) 40.187 40.187
Energy Consumption
Energy balance (kJ/s) 5903.60 7589.24
E (kJ/s) 1685.64

Energy absorbed by water (kJ/s) = Energy loss of flue gas

Property Value Unit


medium : water, fluid
pressure : 120 [ bar ]
temperature : 124 [ Celsius ]
density : 945.71391138317 [ kg / m3 ]
dynamic viscosity : 0.00022707567492818 [ Pa s ]
kinematic viscosity : 0.24011032532668 [ 10-6 m2 / s]
specific inner energy : 516.31195526456 [ kJ / kg ]
specific enthalpy : 529.00078203929 [ kJ / kg ]
specific entropy : 1.5600067030869 [ kJ / kg K ]
specific isobar heat capacity : 4.2237660740283 [ kJ / kg K ]
cp
specific isochor heat capacity : 3.6351792369061 [ kJ / kg K ]
cv
thermal conductivity : 0.69057126221406 [W/mK]

FLUE GAS CALCULATION


Energy absorbed by water = Energy loss by flue gas; assuming no heat loss by radiation,
convection and radiation.

Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers


Kern method:
Does not take into account bypass and leakage streams.
Simple to apply and accurate enough for preliminary design calculations.
Restricted to a fixed baffle cut (25%).
The temperature of flue gas out was recalculated using the following equations:

Where :
Th,i : Temperature of flue gas in
Th,o: Temperature of Flue gas out
m: Mass flow rate of Flue gas
Cp: Specific Heat Capacity of Bagasse or Coal
“Sankalp Shrivastav and Ibrahim Hussain indicate in their article "Design of Bagasse Dryer to
Recover Energy of Water Tube Boiler in a Sugar Factory" International Journal of Science and
Research 2:8 (2013) that bagasse Cp is 0.46 kJ/kg K, though that seems low by at least a factor
of 2 to me. Bagasse has a large cellulose component, and cellulose Cp is 1.3 to 1.5 kJ/kg K. The
other major components, water and lignin, are comparable (lignin) or much higher still (water).
Subbituminous coal heat capacity is about 1.6 kJ/kg K at room temperature according to L.L.
Isaacs and E. Tsafantakis, HEAT CAPACITIES OF ARGONNE.PREMIUM COAL SAMPLES
(no date given)…” (Prof. L. Baxter 2016, pers.comm. 4 February)
The enthalpy of coal was calculated using an electronic calculator as follows:
Bagasse:
Component % by g/mol g/kg fuel Mol/kg Mol/kg O2 Flue gases Flue gases Mol %
Mass fuel composition (mol/kg)
Carbon 49.2 12.01 492 x 40965861 40965861.78 CO2 40965861. 64.20
106 .78 78
Hydrogen 4.6 1.01 46 x 106 45544554 11386138.62 H2O 22772277. 35.69
.46 23
Oxygen 43 16.00 43 x 107 26875000 -13437500 O2 - -
Nitrogen 0.18 14.01 18 x 105 128479.6 128479.6574 N2 64239.828 0.1
574 7
Sulfur 0.02 32.06 2 x 105 6238.303 6238.303182 SO2 6238.3031 0.01
182 82
Total 63808617. 100
14

An electronic calculator is used to obtain the following:

(Source: http://www.increase-performance.com/calc-flue-gas-prop.html)
Specific heat capacity of bagasse wet flue gas = 1.388 kJ/kg.K
Coal:
Component % g/mol g/kg Mol/kg Mol/kg O2 Flue gases Flue gases Mol
by fuel fuel composition (mol/kg) %
Mass
Carbon 85 12.01 850000 70774.35 70774.3547 CO2 70774.3547 82.2
Hydrogen 3 1.01 30000 29702.97 7425.742574 H2O 14851.48515 17.2
Oxygen 2.5 16 25000 1562.5 -781.25 O2 - -
Nitrogen 1 14.01 10000 713.7759 713.7758744 N2 356.8879372 0.4
Sulfur 0.5 32.06 5000 155.9576 155.9575795 SO2 155.9575795 0.2
Total 86138.68537 100

An electronic calculator is used to obtain the following:

Specific heat capacity of coal wet flue gas = 1.109 kJ/kg.K


Hence Cp for bagasse is assumed to be 1.3 kJ/kg K and that of coal 1.109 kJ/kg K.
Th,0= Th,i - [(energy absorbed by water)/(mass flue gas x Cp)]
Flue gas from Bagasse Coal
boiler, F8
Full load One third Full One third
load load load
Temperature 384.2 384.2 384.2 384.2
Pressure 113 113 113 113
Enthalpy 4763.924 2382.182 1969.85 1971.362
Mass(kg/s) 47.04 18.472 48.49 16.151
Tonne/h 169.344 66.498 174.564 58.144
Energy(kg/s) 224094.985 44003.6659 95517.8 31839.46766
Enthalpy of flue gas, F8 = heat supplied by furnace/mass flowrate of flue gas (from preliminary
design)
Using an average value of Cp for coal 1.109
Bagasse Coal
Full load One third load Full load One third load
Energy absorbed, q (kJ/s) 5933.44 2330.6 5058.31 1685.64
Energy absorbed, q (kJ/h) 21,360,384 8,390,160 18,209,916 6,068,304
m (kg/s) 47.04 18.472 48.49 16.151
m (kg/h) 169,344 66,499.2 174,564 58,143.6
Cp (kJ/kgK) 1.388 1.388 1.109 1.109
Th,i (K) 657.35 657.35 657.35 657.35
Th,o (K) 566.47388 566.449901 563.286375 563.2404135
01

Th,o (0C) 293.32388 293.299901 290.136375 290.0904135


01

The appropriate average temperature difference is a log mean temperature difference, ΔTlm.
Considering a counter flow heat exchanger,

and
Q: energy absorbed
A: surface area

U: overall heat transfer coefficient (30-100 W/m2 °C) (Coulson p.637)


T h,i = Temperature of flue gas in the economizer
T h,o= Temperature of flue gas out of the economizer
T c,i = Temperature of water in the economizer
T c,o = Temperature of water out of the economizer

Assumptions:
1. Negligible heat loss to the surroundings.
2. Negligible kinetic and potential energy changes.
3. Constant properties.
4. Negligible tube wall thermal resistance and fouling factors.
5. Fully developed conditions for the water and flue gas (incropera et al. 2011).

Bagasse Coal
Full load One third Full load One third
load load
Th,i(oC) 384.2 384.2 384.2 384.2
Th,o (0C) 293.3238801 293.299901 290.136375 290.0904135
Tci (oC) 124 124 124 124
Tco(oC) 160 160 160 160
T1(oC) 224.2 224.2 224.2 224.2
T2 169.3238801 169.299901 166.136375 166.0904135
ΔTlm (oC) 54.8761199 54.90009897 58.06362499 58.10958649
(Coulson)

The following assumptions are made in the derivation of the temperature correction factor Ft, in
addition to those made for the calculation of the log mean temperature difference:
1. Equal heat transfer areas in each pass.
2. A constant overall heat-transfer coefficient in each pass.
3. The temperature of the shell-side fluid in any pass is constant across any crosssection.
4. There is no leakage of fluid between shell passes.
Bagasse Coal
Full Load One third Load Full Load One third Load
R 2.524336664 2.525002749 2.612878472 2.61415518
S 0.138355111 0.138355111 0.138355111 0.138355111
Ft (0C) 0.985506 0.98550009 0.98470536 0.984693589
Tm (0C) 54.08074542 54.1040525 57.17556274 57.22013726

12.4. FOULING FACTORS (DIRT FACTORS)


Most process and service fluids will foul the heat-transfer surfaces in an exchanger to a greater or lesser
extent. The deposited material will normally have a relatively low thermal conductivity and will reduce
the overall coefficient. It is therefore necessary to oversize an exchanger to allow for the reduction in
performance during operation. Fouling factors are usually quoted as heat-transfer resistances, rather than
coefficients. They are difficult to predict and are usually based on past experience. (Coulson p.638). The
Overall Heat Transfer coefficient is determined and is found to be in the range of (30- 100 W/m2oC) when
the hot fluid is Flue gases and the coal fluid is steam. This range of Overall heat transfer coefficient includes
fouling factors. An average value of the mean Overall Heat Transfer coefficient is taken: 65 W/m2.oC

Area
Bagasse Coal
Full Load One third Load Full Load One third Load
q 5933.44 2330.6 5058.31 1685.64
Tm 54.08074542 54.1040525 57.17556274 57.22013726
u 0.065 0.065 0.065 0.065
A(m2) 1687.914832 662.7116262 1361.073685 453.2132273
Tube Length
Shell-diameter-to-tube-length ratio should be within limits of 1/5 to 1/15 (Subbarao n.d; Kakaç
1991). In his article Design and Rating of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers John E. Edwards
(2008) mentions that the preferred tube length to shell diameter ratio is in the range 5 to 10.
Normally the shell diameter is taken to be within the range 150mm to 1067mm (Coulson). For
this design of the heat exchanger the initial shell diameter is taken to be 1067 mm and the ratio
of L: Ds are taken to be 10.
Tube length = (10 x diameter of shell) = 10 x 1.067 = 10.67 m

Area of one tube


Assumption: Tube outside diameter = 20 mm
Wall thickness = 2.6 mm (Coulson)
Inner diameter = 16 mm = 0.016 m
Area = pie x Do x L
Area = pie x 0.02 x 10.67 = 0.67041587 m2

Number of tube
n = A/(pie x Do x L)
= 1687.914832/ (pie x 0.02 x 10.67)
= 2517.7
= 2518

Bundle diameter

For 1 shell two pass Ki = 0.156 and n =2.291 (Coulson, 2011)


Db = 0.02 x (2518/0.156)^(1/2.291)
= 1.373259 m
= 1.37 m
Tube arrangement and Tube pitch
Tube pitch, Tp = 1.25 Do = 1.25 x 0.02 = 0.025 m
Tubes in the middle
= Db/Tp = 1.373259 /0.025 = 54.93036 = 55

Mean temperature of water

= (124+160)/2 = 142oC
Tube cross section area

= (pie x 0.01982)/4 = 0.0003079075 m2


Tube per pass

= 2518/2 = 1259
Total flow area

= 1259 x 0.0003079075 = 0.387655543 m2


Water mass velocity

= 39.283 (kg/s) /0.387655543 m2 = 101.3348079 kg/s.m2


Water linear velocity

101.3348079/945.7139 = 0.107151653 m/s

Tube side coefficient

Where,
hi: The tube side coefficient
di: The inside diameter
Re: Reynold’s number
Pr: Prandlt Number
μ: Viscosity of water

Reynold’s Number

= (945.71391138317 x 0.107151653 x 0.0198)/ 0.8 x 10-3


= 2508.03652
Where: ρ: density of water
u: water linear velocity
di: inner diameter of tube
μ: Viscosity of water

Prandlt number

Where;
Cp: The specific heat of water (4.2 KJ/ kg oC)
Kf: Thermal conductivity of water
Pr = (4.2 x 103 x 0.8 x 10-3)/ 0.59
=5.7

Viscosity correction is neglected. The L/ Di ratio is calculated to be 666.875. Jh is


read from figure 12.23 from Richardson and Coulson Volume 6 and is read to be 0.0018.
hi = jhRePr0.33 kf / di
= 0.0018 x 2508.03652 x 5.70.33 x 0.59/0.016
= 295.6494616 W/m2 oC

Shell diameter
Given that the economizer is a u-tube with a shell bundle diameter of 1.37 m, the bundle
diametrical clearance is read on the Figure 12.10 of Richardson and Coulson and is found to be
18 mm.
Ds = 1.37 + 0.018
= 1.388 m
The shell diameter was also calculated using the excel flowsheet designed by Mr Prem Baboo
and was found to be 1.445 m.
HEAT EXCHANGER SHELL ID CALCULATIONS
Table1

Shell ID according to Table 1 Triangular pitch

Number of Tubes 2518 Number of Passes 1 2 4 6 8

Tube OD mm 20 0.02 meter K1 0.319 0.249 0.175 0.0743 0.0365

n 2.14 2.207 2.285 2.499 2.675

For Triangular Pitch 1/n 0.46729 0.453104 0.437637 0.40016 0.373832

Bundle Diameter(ID) 1.325 meter Squar pitch

Shell ID 1.375 meter Number of Passes 1 2 4 6 8

For Squar Pitch K1 0.215 0.156 0.158 0.0402 0.0331

Bundle Diameter(ID) 1.395 meter n 2.207 2.291 2.263 2.617 2.643

Shell ID 1.445 meter 1/n 0.453104 0.436491 0.441891 0.382117 0.378358

By Simple geometry
Triangular Pitch 0.031 Meter
Area of the Pitch 0.001 Meter2
Total Area 2.129 Meter2
Bundle ID 1.647 Meter
Shell Id 1.697 Meter

Prem Baboo

(Source: Mr Prem Baboo 2016, pers. comm., 7 February)


An average value for shell diameter Ds was hence taken to be 1.4 m for square pitch.

Baffle spacing
= Ds/5 =1.4/5 = 0.28 m
Cross-flow area

= (0.025 – 0.02)/ 0.025 x 1.4 x 0.28 = 0.0784 m2


Maximum Mass Flow rate of Flue gas

= (47.04 kg/s)/ 0.0784 m2 = 600 kg/s.m2


Density of flue gas was previously calculated as 0.0298 lb/ft3 = 0.4773485 kg/m3
= 600 / 0.4773485 = 1256.943 m/s
Equivalent diameter

= (1.27/0.02) x (0.025^2 - 0.785 x 0.02^2)


= 0.0197 m
Re

Where
Gs: the Mass velocity of the flue gas
De: Equivalent Diameter
Mu: Viscosity of Flue gas
0.0248 centipoise = 0.0000248 Ns/m2
Re= (600 x 0.01097)/ 0.0000248 = 265,403.2258
Prandlt number

0.021 btu/h∙ft∙°F=0.0363211 W/moC


= (1.388 x 0.0000248)/ 0.0363211 = 9.477246 x 10^-4

A baffle cut of 25% is chosen; the value of jh is calculated by extrapolation from the following
graph and is found to be 0.13.

Neglecting the viscosity correction, the shell side coefficient, hs is calculated to be 88,910.54778
W/m2 oC using the Eq. below:

Overall transfer coefficient


hs = 103,882.0343W/m2 oC
hi = 295.6494616 W/m2 oC
Do = 0.02m
Di = 0.016m
hod, Fouling factor of flue gases = 2000 W/m2 oC
hid, Fouling factor of river water = 3000 W/m2 oC (Coulson p.640)
Thermal conductivity of material = 50 W/mK (stainless steel)
1/Uo= 5.1989 x 10-3 W/m2 oC
Uo= 192.3 W/m2 oC
(Coulson p.638)
https://books.google.mu/books?id=qKGLDKgav8UC&pg=PA157&lpg=PA157&dq=ratio+of+tu
be+length+to+shell+diameter&source=bl&ots=uYNrkHhLeM&sig=V5UMsB4D3Vsu3hjzcsViZ
SuwjIQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi3vfDJiODKAhXEWBQKHTcmBnAQ6AEINjAE#v=o
nepage&q=ratio%20of%20tube%20length%20to%20shell%20diameter&f=false
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~doster/NE400/Text/HeatExchangers/HeatExchangers.PDF
http://web2.clarkson.edu/projects/subramanian/ch302/notes/shelltube.pdf
http://eleceng.dit.ie/gavin/DT275/Shell%20and%20Tube%20Manual.pdf
http://www.slideshare.net/gopichand155/design-of-air-pre-heater-and-economizer
http://www.energy.kth.se/compedu/webcompedu/ManualCopy/Steam_Boiler_Technology/Heat_
exchangers/thermal_design_of_heat_exchangers.pdf
http://www.chemstations.com/content/documents/Technical_Articles/shell.pdf