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Road Accident in Malaysia.

I. Introduction

Accidents involving between all the types of wheeled transportation that


travels on the road, and then get an error due to a substance or human
factors that lead to a collision with the objects around to damage property
and threaten lives.

II. Body

A. There are two main factors of the accident. Among them are the
human factors or other factors such as the condition of the vehicle, the
road (Tarmin, 2012) or the environment.
1. Speeding and risky driving is the main factors for accidents in
Malaysia (Tarmin, 2012).
a. SPAD chairman Tan Sri Syed Hamid Syed Albar said, risky
driving is main factor contribution to 16.2% in highest statistic,
and follow by speeding factor are contributed to 12.2% (Tarmin,
2012).
b. Other human factors contributed accident rate is the physical
and mental state of drivers such as fatigue are contribution to
9.9% (Tarmin, 2012), neglectful behaviour and not completely
focused while driving.
2. The second factor that caused the crash is coming from other
elements such as the car and road (Tarmin, 2012).
a. Based on statistics from MIROS, another contributing factor is
the conspicuousness factor is 2.6%, overloading capacity for
heavy vehicles is 13%, road defect was 2.6%, tyre defect is
1.7%, brake damage is 3.3% and other factors was 13.3%
(Tarmin, 2012).
3. The last factor of crash is an environment of road such a heavy
rains and bad haze.

B. One of the main medium for reducing the rate road accidents is via law
enforcement by the government (Tarmin, 2012)
1. Through mastery of the law, the government may tighten the
procedures used to ensure the vehicle is safe and not harmful to
the driver.
a. Government via Department of Road Transport can inspect
every vehicle owner wants to update the vehicle road tax to be
paid once a year.
i. This helps to prevent the occurrence of such offenses
like illegal modified and damages failed in car.
b. The government can also strengthen the regulators such as
SPAD, JPJ, PDRM and other law enforcement units to locate
any offenders who fail to comply with regulations.
i. It includes the complete enforcement with more modern
tools to perform tasks more efficiently.

C. Other parties such as NGOs or the private could help reduce road
accidents by moving consumer awareness campaign.
1. The role of media in delivering messages and guidance about road
safety.
a. Recommend as ad awareness, documentation of road user or
service reminder messages are very helpful to increase
consumer awareness.
i. It can be delivered through television, radio, newspaper
or magazine writing.
b. In addition to the media, the private sector can also do an
activity for the success of the road safety campaign.
c. Some examples are:
i. Campaign to rest at gas stations and highway rest stops.
ii. Program free service vehicle at service center for every
festive season.
iii. Vouchers and discounts on any periodic vehicle repairs
such as changing a car tire.

III. Conclusion

In conclusion, to reduce the number of road accidents, the first thing driver
should do is change mind-set. In addition, we also need to constantly
inspect the vehicle and be responsive to whatever the problem. The
accident rate in our country today has become a nightmare for all
concerned, so the government and non-governmental organizations and
the private sector must play their respective roles. When driving,
remember the loved ones, and let slow driving as long as safely reach
their destination.

WRITTEN BY SHAHRIM TAMRIN, PUBLISHED ON DECEMBER 20,


2012 4:12 AM.
http://www.cbt.com.my/2012/12/20/speeding-reckless-main-causes-heavy-
vehicles/
Road Accident in Malaysia.
By Murshid Al-Hafiz

Every year, traffic accidents occur all over the world and have never stopped.
According to Professor Abdul Rahim Md. Noor (2012), in the world of statistics,
Malaysia topped with the highest total percentage of accidents, followed by
Cambodia and Argentina. In 2009, a report from the International Transport Forum
Paris, Malaysia recorded a share of 23.8 per cent per 100, 000 population and
accidents continued to rise despite a slight dip in 2010, 2012 and 2013 (Rahim,
2012). The death toll is still making Malaysia the top 10 countries with the highest
rate of road accidents, which lead to a variety of integrated operations of all law
enforcement agencies and NGOs.

Accidents happen when there are a number of factors from human or environmental
conditions that influence human behaviour while driving a vehicle. With a small
mistake, it will result in a collision between vehicles with objects around it. If the
victim is lucky, it will cause injury, disability or death of the offender or victim of
circumstances. Based on the studies undertaken by the Road Transport Department
of Malaysia, there are two main causes of road accidents, from human factors and
environment factors (Tamrin. 2012).

Human factors are related with drivers' attitudes own road, whether of speeding or
dangerous driving skill. Each area has a different road speed limit according to risk
of their own each area. For example, for the federal highway or road, the speed limit
is 110km / h, while other areas such as faced with the school, the village, the harmful
road, winding road conditions, narrow and rugged will have a lower speed limit of
80km / h or lower than that’s. But for a heavy vehicle was like a trailer, truck or bus,
have a lower speed limit at 80km / h in roads or highways. If the driver fails to comply
with these regulations, any errors have potential crash will risk of injury or death
because this speed limit has been categorized as a safe speed.

This is because all categories of vehicles be tested in the New Car Assessment
Programme (NCAP) crash lab, the vehicle only be tested at an impact speed of
62km / h. This means that, if the vehicle is driven exceeding of these limits, the
mainframe of that’s vehicle will be crumple and will kill all the victims in a vehicle
even if that’s vehicle is equipped with safety devices such as air bags and seat
belts. These was proven by the analyst’s vehicle, Richard Harmood (2013) when the
vehicle gets up to 4-star rating in NCAP crash lab are tested in crash impact was
crumple over 50% and kill all the passengers. While the average vehicle in Malaysia
just passed the test in 2 star rating and the rest are failed in the test of infringement.

Apart from the attitude of the driver, other factors that contribute is not as to
concentrate or negligent while driving, driver fitness level is unhealthy, state driver
fatigue, driving while using a cell phone and so on (Tarmin, 2012). It happened due
to drivers not concerned in road safety and less attention to the preparation before
driving any vehicle. Such complacency would have more impact, but even would
endanger the lives of innocent victims. Normally, the driver did not take a lesson of
road accidents occurring on other parties, and will only regret it when the accident
involving themselves or their close family members.

Apart human factors, accident also affected by factors surrounding the vehicle or the
road. For vehicles such as cars, buses, or trucks should be in good condition when
being driven on the road. The vehicle should be serviced at regular intervals as the
tire, brake and other vehicle systems. And before driver’s start traveling, their car
should be checked to detect any damage or defect. If it fails to be checked properly,
it will result in an unexpected accident even the driver drive prudently. Factors
arising from vehicle accidents usually come from problems such as bald tires, brake
system malfunction, or operating system problems that damaged the car when the
vehicle is being driven.

While road conditions are among the last factors contributing cause of the road
accident (Tarmin, 2012). Some road conditions is very dangerous to users through
the consequences of the damaged surface tar and potholes, traffic lights malfunction
and all the signs that are damaged or not installed correctly. When in the rainy
conditions, road conditions smoothly also the inevitable happened and the other is
an isolated case as the damage caused by fallen trees or dangerous objects found
on road such as garbage and nails in the path of the road.

To reduce the rate of road accidents, there are two parties may perform their
respective roles and they are government and non-governmental organizations or
private sector. Government through legal enactment road (Tarmin, 2012) is able to
change any necessary policy to improve road safety. It can be done in a more
efficient at enforcement agency such as the Road Transport Department, Police and
others agency. For example, to reduce the offense of illegal vehicle modification,
every vehicle that want get vehicle tax should undergo inspection to detect any
illegal modifier, or detect any damage to the car.

To enforce the existing laws as well, the security agencies should also improve
operations to detect violators who fail to comply with the road laws. Security
agencies also need to have assets of more patrol vehicles and high-tech to ensure
smooth task. The use of equipment such as closed circuit cameras, speed trap, and
online registration inspection system is example technologies that will help
authorities to carry out their tasks easier. And the government should improve the
financial funds to ensure that the roads used by the driver, was safe and well.
Without adequate funding, maintenance of roads will be interrupted and the cause of
damaged roads and unsafe for user.
The last parties can carry out their role to help reduce the rate of road accidents is a
non-governmental organization (NGO) and the private sector. These parties can help
by conducting awareness campaigns for road safety. For example, the media
through television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the internet and so are able to
carry out their roles by providing useful inputs such as information security and the
lessons will have a profound impact on consumers. As for the private company, they
can mobilize safety campaign through consumer service and attractive offers to
encourage drivers more aware of this awareness campaign. Some examples of
campaigns that can be done is take a break at the gas station or rest highways, a
discount program for any vehicle servicing and free inspection for car and others.

In conclusion, to reduce the number of road accidents, the first thing driver should do
is change mind-set. In addition, we also need to constantly inspect the vehicle and
be responsive to whatever the problem. The accident rate in our country today has
become a nightmare for all concerned, so the government and non-governmental
organizations and the private sector must play their respective roles. When driving,
remember the loved ones, and let slow driving as long as safely reach their
destination.
Original:

Setiap tahun, kemalangan jalan raya berlaku di seluruh dunia dan tidak pernah
berhenti. Menurut Profeser Abdul Rahim Md. Noor (2012), dalam statistik dunia,
Malaysia menduduki tangga teratas dengan jumlah peratus kemalangan paling tinggi
diikuti oleh Kemboja dan Argentina. Pada tahun 2009, laporan dari Forum
Pengangkutan Antarabangsa Paris, Malaysia mencatatkan peratusan sebanyak 23.8
peratus dari setiap 100, 000 penduduk dan kemalangan tersebut terus meningkat
biarpun sedikit menurun pada tahun 2010, 2012 dan 2013 (Rahim, 2012). Jumlah
kematian masih menjadikan Malaysia dalam senarai 10 negara yang mempunyai
kadar kemalangan jalan raya tertinggi, yang membawa kepada pelbagai operasi
bersepadu dari semua agensi penguatkuasa dan badan bukan kerajaan.

Kemalangan berlaku apabila terdapat beberapa faktor dari manusia atau keadaan
sekeliling yang mempengaruhi tinkah laku manusia ketika memandu kenderaan.
Dengan satu kesilapan kecil, ia akan menyebabkan berlakunya perlanggaran antara
kenderaan dengan objek yang berada di sekitarnya. Jika mangsa tidak bernasib
baik, ia akan menyebabkan kecederaan, kecacatan mahupun kematian pada
pesalah atau mangsa keadaan. Berdasarkan kajian yang pernah dijalankan oleh
Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan Malaysia, terdapat dua punca utama berlakunya
kemalangan jalan raya, iaitu dari faktor manusia dan faktor keadaan persekitaran
(Tamrin. 2012).

Faktor manusia ialah berkaitan dengan sikap pemandu jalan raya sendiri, samada
memandu melebihi had laju atau secara berbahaya. Setiap kawasan jalan raya yang
berlainan mempunyai had laju tersendiri mengikut risiko kawasan masing-masing.
Misalnya, bagi kawasan lebuhraya atau jalan persekutuan, had laju yang ditetapkan
ialah 110km/h manakala kawasan lain seperti berhadapan dengan sekolah,
kawasan kampung, kawasan jalan berbahaya, keadaan jalan yang berliku, sempit
dan tidak rata pula mempunyai had laju lebih rendah iaitu 80km/h atau lebih rendah.
Tetapi bagi kenderaan berat pula seperti trailer, lori atau bas, mempunyai had laju
lebih rendah iaitu 80km/h jalan utama atau lebuhraya. Jika pemandu gagal
mematuhi peraturan ini, sebarang kesilapan kemalangan bakal mengundang risiko
kecederaan atau kematian kerana ia telahpun dikategori sebagai had kelajuan yang
selamat.

Ini kerana kesemua kategori kenderaan yang diuji di makmal pelanggaran New Car
Assessment Programme (NCAP), kenderaan hanya diuji pada impak kelajuan
62km/h. Ini bermakna, jika kenderaan dipandu melebihi had tersebut, kerangka
utama kenderaan tersebut akan remuk dan bakal membunuh semua mangsa dalam
kenderaan biarpun kenderaan tersebut dilengkapi dengan peralatan keselamatan
seperti beg udara dan tali pinggang keledar. Ini dibukti sendiri oleh penganalisis
kenderaan, Richard Harmood (2013) apabila kenderaan yang mendapat rating
sehingga 4 bintang dalam ujian pelanggaran telah remuk lebih 50% dan membunuh
semua penumpang. Sedangkan rata-rata kenderaan yang berada di Malaysia hanya
lulus ujian dalam rating 2 bintang manakala selebihnya gagal dalam ujian
pelanggaran.

Selain dari sikap pemandu, faktor lain yang menyumbang adalah seperti tidak
memberi tumpuan atau lalai ketika memandu, tahap kesihatan pemandu yang tidak
sihat, keadaan pemandu yang letih, memandu sambil menggunakan telefon bimbit
dan sebagainya (Tarmin, 2012). Ia berlaku berikutan pemandu tidak mengambil
berat dalam keselamatan jalan raya dan kurang memberi perhatian terhadap
persediaan sebelum memandu mana-mana kenderaan. Sikap sambil lewa sebegini
bakal memberi kesan yang lebih buruk, malah akan membahayakan nyawa mangsa
yang tidak bersalah. Kebiasaanya, pemandu tidak mengambil iktibar terhadap
kemalangan jalan raya yang berlaku pada pihak lain, dan hanya akan menyesalinya
apabila kemalangan tersebut melibatkan diri sendiri atau ahli keluarga terdekat.

Selain faktor manusia, kemalangan juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor sekeliling


pada kenderaan atau jalan raya. Bagi kenderaan seperti kereta, bas, atau lori
perlulah berada dalam keadaan baik ketika dipandu di jalan raya. Kenderaan
tersebut mestilah diservis secara berkala seperti keadaan tayar, brek kenderaan dan
pelbagai lagi sistem kenderaan. Dan setiap kali sebelum memulakan perjalanan, ia
perlu diperiksa terlebih dahulu bagi mengesan sebarang kerosakkan atau
kecacatan. Jika ia gagal diperiksa dengan baik, ia akan menyebabkan berlakunya
sesuatu kemalangan yang tidak diduga biarpun pemandu kenderaan memandu
secara berhemah. Faktor kemalangan yang berpunca dari kenderaan biasanya
datang dari masalah seperti tayar yang telah botak, sistem brek yang gagal
berfungsi, ataupun masalah sistem pengendalian kereta yang rosak ketika
kenderaan sedang dipandu.

Manakala keadaan jalan raya pula antara faktor terakhir yang menyumbang punca
kemalangan jalan raya (Tarmin, 2012). Sesetengah keadaan jalan raya sangat
berbahaya kepada pengguna yang melalui akibat dari keadaan permukaan tar yang
rosak dan berlubang, lampu isyarat yang gagal berfungsi, papan tanda yang rosak
atau tidak dipasang. Apabila dalam keadaan hujan pula, keadaan jalan yang lincin
juga tidak dapat dielakkan berlaku dan kes terpencil yang lain adalah seperti
kerosakkan akibat pokok tumbang atau terdapat objek berbahaya pada jalan seperti
sampah dan paku yang berada di laluan jalan raya.

Bagi mengurangkan kadar kemalangan jalan raya, terdapat dua pihak yang boleh
melaksanakan peranan masing-masing dan mereka ialah kerajaan dan badan-
badan bukan kerajaan atau swasta. Kerajaan melalui pengubalan undang-undang
jalan raya (Tarmin, 2012) mampu mengubah apa-apa polisi yang perlu bagi
meningkatkan tahap keselamatan jalan raya. Ia boleh dilakukan dengan
penguatkuasaan yang lebih cekap dari agensi-agensi Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan,
Polis dan sebagainya. Sebagai contoh, bagi mengurangkan kesalahan
pengubahsuai kenderaan secara haram, setiap kenderaan yang mahu mendapatkan
cukai kenderaan perlu menjalani pemeriksaan bagi mengesan sebarang
pengubahsuai haram, ataupun mengesan sebarang kerosakkan pada kereta.

Bagi memperkuatkuasakan undang-undang sedia ada juga, agensi keselamatan


juga perlu meningkatkan operasi-operasi bagi mengesan pesalah laku jalan raya
yang gagal mematuhi undang-undang. Agensi keselamatan juga perlu mempunyai
aset-aset peronda yang lebih banyak dan berteknologi tinggi bagi memastikan
kelancaran tugas. Penggunaan peralatan seperti kamera litar tertutup, perangkap
had laju, dan sistem pemeriksaan pendaftaran atas talian antara teknologi yang
bakal membantu pihak berkuasa menjalankan tugas dengan lebih mudah.Dan
kerajaan juga perlu mempertingkatkan lagi dana kewangan bagi memastikan setiap
jalan raya yang digunakan oleh pemandu, berada dalam keadaan selamat dan baik.
Tanpa dana yang mencukupi, penyelenggaraan jalan raya akan terganggu dan
menjadi punca jalan raya rosak dan tidak selamat untuk pengguna.

Pihak terakhir yang boleh menjalankan peranan untuk membantu mengurangkan


kadar kemalangan jalan raya ialah badan bukan kerajaan (NGO) dan pihak swasta.
Pihak ini dapat membantu dengan cara menjalankan kempen kesedaran terhadap
keselamatan jalan raya. Sebagai contoh, pihak media melalui televisyen, radio, surat
khabar, majalah, internet dan sebagainya mampu menjalankan peranan dengan
memberi input-input berguna seperti info keselamatan dan pengajaran yang akan
memberi kesan mendalam terhadap pengguna. Manakala bagi pihak syarikat swasta
pula, mereka boleh menggerakkan kempen keselamatan melalui khidmat pengguna
dan tawaran menarik untuk menggalakkan pemandu lebih prihatin terhadap kempen
kesedaran ini. Antara contoh yang boleh dilakukan ialah kempen berehat seketika di
stesen minyak atau perhentian lebuhraya, program diskaun untuk sebarang kerja-
kerja servis kenderaan dan pemeriksaan percuma dan lain-lain.

Kesimpulannya, untuk mengurangkan jumlah kemalangan jalan raya, perkara


pertama yang kita harus lakukan ialah perubahan pemikiran. Di samping itu, kita
juga perlu sentiasa memeriksa kenderaan dan peka terhadap apa sahaja masalah.
Kadar kemalangan jalan raya di negara kita hari ini telah menjadi satu mimpi ngeri
bagi semua pihak, jadi kerajaan dan badan bukan kerajaan serta pihak swasta perlu
memainkan peranan masing-masing. Semasa memandu, ingatlah orang tersayang,
dan memandu biar lambat sampai ke destinasi asalkan selamat.