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High-Performance MEMS

IMU Solutions for


Demanding Applications
MARK LOONEY
MEMS Application Engineer

02/17/2016
Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) Basics
…sensor functions, coordinate basics

 DOF = Degrees of freedom

 An Inertial Measurement Unit provides a combination of linear,


rotational, magnetic and barometric sensors
9DOF 10DOF
 3-axis accelerometer (linear) 6DOF
 3-axis gyroscope (rotation rate)
 3-axis magnetometer (magnetic field)
 Barometer (altitude)

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Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) Basics
…one primary purpose is to estimate orientation angles

Accelerometers respond to their orientation, with respect to the earth’s gravitational


field. They are typically most influential for LEVEL FLIGHT state

 x  a sin  a x 1g 
 
 ay 
 x  a tan a 
 x

Gyroscopes measure the angular rate of rotation, around their Sensor Fusion
measurement axis; angle estimates come from integration. Real-time
Typically most influential DURING MANUEVERS. angle estimation

𝑡2
∅𝑑 𝑡 = 𝜔𝑚 𝑡 ∙ 𝑑𝑡
PIN 14
PIN 1

𝑡1
Application Example
Industrial Inspection System
Image Stabilization enables productivity and
quality assurance

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Industrial Inspection System
…swinging motion causes image distortion

Swinging
motion
Video
Camera

Ideal center of
camera view

Conveyor belt

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Industrial Inspection System
…understand basic geometry of the problem

Swinging
motion
Video
d SW  D  sin  SW  Camera

 SW 
 a sin 
d SW 

 D  D

Ideal center of
camera view

Conveyor belt

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Industrial Inspection System
…MEMS Gyroscopes enable solution via Image Stabilization

- Servo
Motor

ADXRS290
Calibration Digital
Integrator MEMS
Alignment Filtering
Gyro

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Industrial Inspection System
…Image Stabilization, with MEMS Gyroscope Feedback

Swinging
motion
Video
Camera

Ideal center of
camera view

Conveyor belt

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Industrial Inspection System
…evaluate residual error in geometric terms

Swinging
motion
Video
d RE  D  sin  RE  Camera

 RE  a sin  d RE D 
  D

Ideal center of
camera view

Conveyor belt
Key point
The residual error will be influenced by
the noise in the feedback signal…gyro
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Industrial Inspection System
…so we can relate them to key gyroscope (ARW) metrics

0.0015

0.001 ADIS16460 ARW = 0.17


Integration Error (degrees)

0.0005

-0.0005

-0.001

-0.0015
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Integration Time (seconds)

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MEMS IMUS
Driving beyond the benign
…providing the best pointing/tracking
accuracy, in the toughest conditions.

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So, can I use a consumer IMU for my industrial app?
…maybe
Applications: Complex Motion, Long Life, Mission Critical
 Inertial Sensors more heavily relied on
 Complex/Unpredictable Conditions

Industrial Individual Specs: Strong


MEMs
Composite Spec (Attitude/Heading): 0.3-0.5o (and better)

Technology CHASM
Consumer
Individual Specs: ‘OK’
MEMs
Composite Spec (Attitude/Heading): 3-5o… (highly compromised)

Applications: Simple Motion, Short Life, Error Tolerant


 Other Non-Inertial Sensors more Highly Weighted
 Operational Conditions Restricted/Constrained

Today’s Best Consumer Devices result in 10X or lower Positioning


Accuracy Regardless of how much Sensor-Processing is done 12
IMU Building Blocks
…more than just soldering a small, cheap IC on a PCB

► Core sensor expertise


► Interface
circuit and packaging…preserving and capturing available
performance.
► Calibration: optimizing/improving performance
► Packaging, characterization of key behaviors, long-term

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IMU Building Blocks
…Core sensor technology that is targeted for performance

► Best
in class Gyro Performance
under rugged environmental
conditions
► Proprietary
differential Quad-
Resonator structure offers superb
shock and vibration rejection
 0.015 o/s/g
 0.0001o/s/g2
► New in-plane Roll/Pitch Gyro With
Industry leading Noise
Performance
 0.004 °/sec/√Hz

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IMU Building Blocks
…Typical performance gaps with core sensors
ie: Vehicle-mounted antenna, camera,
Cross-Axis laser, weapon, etc.

Rough road causes angular vibration


(±10°/sec) in the y-axis (pitch).
High cross-axis sensitivity (GCAS) will cause
angular jitter on the x-axis (roll).
ØROLL = 𝐆𝐂𝐀𝐒 x θPITCH

Typical Device Spec: +/-2% ADI Spec: <0.087%

Vibration
Rough road causes up/down vibration
(±2g-rms) in the z-axis
High Linear-g sensitivity (GL) will cause
angular jitter on all three gyroscopes.

ØROLL = 𝐆𝐋 x 𝐴𝑍

Typical Device Spec: 0.1 o/s/g ADI Spec: 0.015 o/s/g

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IMU Building Blocks
…Vibration/Cross-axis impact on spectral noise density

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ADI Sensors Excel at Rejection of Vibration, and other
critical drift factors
ADXRS290 Consumer-targeted devices
(Response to 15g random vib) (Response to 5g random vib)

Vib applied
along Z direction

► ADI Subjected to 3X Higher Vibration, shows 10X Better Response


IMU Building Blocks
…Vibration/Cross-axis impact on Stability
1000
AVERAGE • Linear-g can be
Example observed, compensated
±10º Tilt with Linear-g and in some cases,
ROOT ALLAN VARIANCE (°/Hour)

Only removed with filtering.


• The issue with rectified
100 (gxg) is that it is difficult
to observe and is one-
sided, so filtering results
in a bias shift.
Some devices • gxg is rarely specified
+1σ
with <2 °/hr of • One gyro’s performance
10 In-run bias stability for gxg is 0.005°/sec/g2
• On this product, the
Linear-g from ±10º of tilt
degrade to ~62º/hr ADXRS646, ~6.2º/hr impact of a 2g rms
ADIS16488, ~ 5.6º/hr vibration would be
–1σ 72°/hour!

10277-007
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
INTEGRATION PERIOD (Seconds)
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Designing for Total Spec Performance
Why it Matters…
in-run bias
10 5 1
(dph)
linear-g
0.1 0.05 0.015 0.01 0.001 0.1 0.05 0.015 0.01 0.001 0.1 0.05 0.015 0.01 0.001
(dps/g)
linear-g effect
under 5deg tilt 31.4 15.7 4.7 3.1 0.3 31.4 15.7 4.7 3.1 0.3 31.4 15.7 4.7 3.1 0.3
(dph)
Total/Actual
Bias (dph) 33 18.6 11 10.5 10 32 16.5 6.9 5.9 5 31.4 15.7 4.8 3.25 1.04

 Linear-g effect, under 5o tilt = (linear-g) x (sin 5o) x 3600sec/hour


 Total Bias = RSS of in-run bias and linear-g effect

► Performance in a dynamic environment relies on more than in-run bias


stability
► Other specifications, such as vibration rejection, can be significant ‘spoilers’
► Key is well balanced Bias plus Linear-g rejection

(ie: even a 10dph gyro, with 15mdps/g Vibration Rejection, can


perform better than a 1 dph gyro with 50mdps/g Vibration)
IMU Building Blocks
…calibration

Motion Dynamics Deep Application


Expertise Knowledge

Core Enhanced Application


Sensors Position/Motion
Sensor Information

Gyroscopes
 x,input  gSFx temp, volt  gMAxy gMAxz   x,output  gBx temp, volt    gGS xx gGS xy gGS xz   f x,input 
         gGS gGS gGS  *  f 
 y ,input   gMAyx gSFy temp, volt  gMAyz *
   y , output 
  gB y temp , volt   yx yy yz   y , input 

 z ,input  gMAzx gMAzy gSFz temp, volt   z ,output  gBz temp, volt    gGS zx gGS zy gGSzz   f z ,input 

Accelerometers
f x,input aSFx (temp ) aMAxz   f x,output aBx (temp )    0 rxy rxz   x,input 
2
aMAxy
        2
f y ,input   aMAyx aSFy (temp ) aMAyz  *  f y.output  aBy (temp )   ryx 0 ryz  *  y ,input 
f x,input  aMAzx aSFz (temp )  f z ,output  aBz (temp )    rzx rzy 0   z ,input 
2
aMAzy
 

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ADIS16460
The latest….
…smallest, lowest noise…so much more

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ADI Inertial Solutions for Navigation and Stabilization

3-Axis gx, gy, gz


MEMS
Gyro
+ x Filtering

ΔΘx, ΔΘy, ΔΘz


Component Gyros Correction
Formulas
ADXRS646/29X (Temp, Vdd)
Alignment

ax, ay, az
3-Axis
MEMS
Accel
+ x Filtering

Component Accels Correction ΔVx, ΔVy, ΔVz


Formulas
ADXL35X/203 Compact 6 DoF (Temp, Vdd)
Tactical Grade 6 DoF
ADIS16445/46X
ADIS16334, ADIS16445
ADIS16485
Tactical Grade 10 DoF
ADIS16488A
Magnetometers
Barometer
(3x) Compact 10 DoF Dynamic Orientation Sensing
• Extended Kalman Filter
ADIS16448
ADIS16448
ADIS16480 ADIS16488
Industrial IMU
…ADIS16460 is the latest in a long-term progression

ADIS1635X
ADI First to Market with Industrial Targeted IMUs
2007

ADIS1636X
2X Performance Increase; Interface/Footprint Compatible
2009

ADIS1648X
4X Performance Increase; Tactical Grade IMU Family
2011

ADIS1644X
50% Size Reduction; Interface Compatible; 10 DoF
2012

ADIS16460
50% Size Reduction ; Noise, Stability, and Cost Improvements;
Now

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ADIS16460 Six Degrees of Freedom Inertial Measurement Unit

► Industry’s most affordable benchmark


(cost and size) for High Performance
Inertial Sensing
► Robust sensing measurements
reduce the need for complex isolation
or system level compensation
► System ready implementation through
proven iSensor ® integration,
calibration, and reliability

Key Benefits
► Improved resolution and stability in machine
positioning, particularly under dynamic and
challenging environments
► Calibration, across temperature, on every device
ensures best possible performance, and lower overall
system cost
► Integration, and precision alignment, of industrial
grade linear and rotational sensing cores, into
complete sensor-fused IMU, with optimized
embedded sensor processing

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ADIS16460 Six Degrees of Freedom Inertial Measurement Unit

Features and Specifications Portfolio Positioning


► 6 DoF ► 50% Size Reduction over prior generations
 Tri-Axis Linear and Rotational Sensing
► Lowest Noise Industrial Grade IMU in the
► Random Walk portfolio
 Angular: 0.1 °/√hr
 Velocity: 0.002 m/sec/√hr ► Targeted at High Volume (cost-sensitive)
Industrial Applications, which demand high-
► Vibration Rectification Error performance
 Gyro: 0.0004 °/sec/g2
 Accel: 0.08 mg/g2 Competitive Positioning

► Sensitivity Tempco ► Smallest Industrial-Grade IMU


 Gyro: +/- 20 ppm/°C ► Industry Leading Vibration Rejection
 Accel: +/- 15 ppm/°C

► Cross-Axis Sensitivity: 0.08%


► Bandwidth: 375Hz
► Size: 22x22x9mm

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ADIS16460 Six Degrees of Freedom Inertial Measurement Unit:
Applications Example

► Problem: Correction for outages or inaccuracies


in primary sensing/feedback loops for
Guidance/Controls/Servos. GPS /
Other Guidance
Navigation
► Solution: Low Noise, Vibration Immune, Inertial Computer
Controls
Sensing cluster reduces jitter, and provides IMU
primary guidance during outages or disruptions of Servos
other sensors
 Low noise : 0.004 °/sec/√Hz rms
 Linear Vibration Rejection: 0.01 °/sec/g
 Alignment: 0.05 Degrees
 Bandwidth: 375 Hz
 Sample Rate: 2048 SPS

► Applications:
 UAVs/Drones
 Robotics
 Smart Agriculture/Construction Machinery
 Factory/Industrial Automation
 IoMT (...Moving things…)

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Getting started
Avoiding typical pitfalls

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ADIS16460 Six Degrees of Freedom Inertial Measurement Unit:
Design Resources

► Data Sheet:
 ADIS16460: Available Now ADIS16460
 www.analog.com/ADIS16460

► Evaluation Tools
 ADIS16IMU/PCBZ – Breakout Board
 EVAL-ADISZ – Evaluation System
 IMU Evaluation Software
► Videos
 High Performance MEMs: What does that mean?
 Shock and Vibration Rejection of MEMs Gyroscopes
► Technical Articles EVAL-ADISZ ADIS16IMU4/PCBZ
 ANTICIPATING AND MANAGING CRITICAL NOISE
SOURCES IN MEMS GYROSCOPES

► Inertial MEMS Community in the EngineerZone:


 https://ez.analog.com/community/mems
 150+ FAQs
 1300+ Discussions
 200+ Active users

► Product home page: www.analog.com/ADIS16460

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Design Support
Mechanical Design Tips – It can impact performance

► Start with Datasheet, Application Notes (AN-1295, AN-1305) and 3-D


models on the web
► ACTION: Search “ADIS16485” and all will come up near the top of this
list, through the home page or as a result.
► Reference designs for using the ADIS16460 will be available soon!
MACHINE
SCREW HEAD
MATING CONNECTOR

RIGID PCB

ADIS16488A

TAPPED
HOLES WASHER

MOUNTING
SURFACE

NOTES
12124-009

1. MACHINE SCREWS WILL NOT BE VISIBLE CROSS SECTION


VIEW FOR ILLUSTRATION PURPOSES ONLY.

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Design Support
Key Electrical Connections

► Power, SPI, auxiliary I/O


► Most often see figures like this in the datasheet.
► Not shown: Reset lines – Manage noise opportunity
 Several cases of open-ended cable connections causing issue, some of them
when the customer had no plan to use the function?!!!
I/O LINES ARE COMPATIBLE WITH
3.3V LOGIC LEVELS +3.3V
VDD

10 11 12 23
SYSTEM
PROCESSOR SS 6 CS ADIS16485
SPI MASTER
SCLK 3 SCLK

MOSI 5 DIN

MISO 4 DOUT

IRQ 9 DIO2

13 14 15

10666-011
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Design Support
Power Supply – It can prevent start-up/progress

► Start-up transients…common for any embedded system


 Initial charge of internal decoupling capacitors (24uF on ADIS1648x family)
 Supply start-up transients demands
T T
VDD

CURRENT

CURRENT

4 4
10666-129

10666-128
CH1 2.00V 1.00ms 1.00MS/s CH1 2.72V 1.00ms 1.00MS/s CH1 2.72V
CH4 100mA Ω T 9.800% 1M POINTS CH4 100mA Ω T 9.800% 1M POINTS

► Stay within operating range


 Majority of failure returns have some sort of EOS

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Design Support
Data Communications - Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)

► Common reason that customers will say, “part is not working.”


► Not designed for long cables but it is possible with drivers/attention to
detail on the transmission lines.
► Use a repeating pattern: read PROD_ID. Should be correct, every time!
 We have read parts for days without errors
► Use a scope to look for valid timing, sequencing, signal integrity, coding
I/O LINES ARE COMPATIBLE WITH
3.3V LOGIC LEVELS +3.3V
VDD

10 11 12 23
CS
SYSTEM
PROCESSOR SS 6 CS ADIS16485
SPI MASTER SCLK
SCLK 3 SCLK

MOSI 5 DIN DIN DIN = 0111 1110 0000 0000 = 0x7E00


MISO 4 DOUT

10666-016
DOUT
IRQ 9 DIO2
DOUT = 0100 0000 0110 0101 = 0x4065 = 16,485 (PROD_ID)
13 14 15
10666-011

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Design Support
Starter code

► Numerous examples on the web


► Phil Burkert, FAE-USA/Illinois developed an example for the ADIS16448:
 EngineerZone: search “ADIS16448 code.” Top result:
 https://ez.analog.com/docs/DOC-2993

► Other examples, with great comments on GitHub


 https://github.com/juchong/ADIS16448-Arduino-Demo
 https://github.com/juchong/ADIS16460-Arduino-Teensy

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Design Support
Troubleshooting tips

► Power supply measurement, at the device


► Power supply current close to typical in Table 1 spec (all datasheets)
► Read PROD_ID register in a repeating pattern to study for correct coding,
sequencing, phasing, timing and signal integrity
► Accelerometers respond to

 https://ez.analog.com/docs/DOC-2181
► Noise/stability:
 Read rates synchronous with sample rates?
 Part is on stable platform (no opportunity for vibration?)
 Raw data…let’s take a look…sometimes “no function” comes with “high noise”
initial report. 0xFFFF and 0x0000 look like a large span but in twos complement,
they are only 1LSB apart.

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