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# Alternators:

##  In huge alternators, the moving part is poles.

 In case of alternators, the stator frame serves as a return path for the flux.
 Alternators mostly work on rotating field type principle, which is different
from dc machines where the field is stationary. Therefore the alternators work
 High-speed alternators have a rotor construction of non-salient type.
 The voltage applied to the field of a rotating cylindrical rotor type alternator is
low dc voltage.
 Alternators are usually designed to generate different frequencies.
 The standard practice, nowadays in alternators is to have rotating field.
 The diameter of high-speed turbo alternators as compared to hydroelectric
ones is smaller because speed is high.
 The slip rings employed in a three-phase alternator in hydrostation are
insulated for low voltage.
 When the speed of alternator increases, the frequency increases.
 Steam-turbo-alternators are much smaller in size than water turbine alternators
for a given output. This is so because steam-turbo-alternators run at high-
speed.
 For a coil having a span of 2/3 or pole pitch, the coil span factor is 0.866.
 Distributing the armature winding of alternator is more than one number of
slots per pole per phase results in reduction of irregularities produce in the
waveform.
 When the power factor of load is unity, the armature flux of an alternator will
be cross magnetizing.
 An alternator is capable of delivering power at a particular frequency. The
frequency can be increased by increasing armature speed.
 If the input of the prime mover of an alternator is kept constant but the
excitation is increased then kVA will be leading.
 For two alternators operating in parallel, if the load shared by one of them is
to be increased, is field excitation is to be kept constant but input torque
should be increased.
 If P = number of poles, f = the frequency in Hz, S = speed in rpm, the
relationship between the three for synchronous alternators is given as f =
PS/120 Hz.
 If 0 is the angle measured in electrical degrees between any point on the pole
face and center of the pole then for setting a sinusoidal wave as the output, the
air gap at that point should be such that air gap  1/cos .
 The sinusoidal voltage developed per-pole per phase in a group of coils is
defined as Egap = 4.44NnfK4Kp V, where N = number of turns per coil; n =
number of coils per phase per pole.
 The armature reaction of an alternator will be cross magnetizing of the power
factor of the load is unity.
 If Xs = the synchronous reactance of the machine, X e = leakage reactance and
Xg = reactance due to armature flux the Xg = Xs - Xe.
 The best and the most accurate method for determining the voltage regulation
is potier triangle method.
 An alternator is said to be over-excited if it is operating at leading pf.
 From what source does a rotating field type alternator receive its exciter
voltage from an auxiliary generator driven by main generator shaft?
 High-voltage alternators are usually of the rotating field type. This means the
generated voltage is connected directly to the load.
 The maximum current that can be supplied by alternator depends upon the
strength of the magnetic field.
 One of the advantages of distributing the winding in alternator is to improve
voltage waveform.
 Distribution factor K4 is defined as the ratio of emf’s of distributed winding to
concentrated winding.
 For a uniformly distributed winding the value of distribution factor is 0.955.
 One of the advantages of a short pitch winding lies in elimination or
suppression of harmonies.
 Pitch factor is defined as the ratio of the emf’s of short pitch coil to full pitch
coil.
 A winding is short pitched by 60 degrees electrical. Its pitch factor is 0.866.
 Synchronous impedance of an alternator is defined as the ratio of open circuit
voltage to short circuit current for same value of excitation.
 Synchronous reactance consists of two components, namely leakage reactance
and fictitious reactance.
 The imaginary of fictitious part of synchronous reactance takes care of
armature reaction.
 Regulation of an alternator is defined as the rise in terminal when full load is
thrown off expressed as percentage of the terminal voltage for the same value
of excitation and speed.
 Synchronization of alternators means connecting alternators in parallel.
 To synchronize alternator, three conditions must be fulfilled, namely same
voltage, same frequency and voltages should be in phase opposition with
respect to local series circuit.
 For synchronizing three phase alternators, the additional requirement is that
the phase rotation must be the same.
 The method most commonly used for synchronizing the alternators in a
powerhouse is bright lamp method and a synchroscope.
 In order to transfer the load from one alternator to another alternator, when
they are operating in parallel prime mover power input is increased.
 Adjustment of field excitation of one of the two alternators operating in
parallel will change its power factor.
 Each of the two alternators operating in parallel is adjusted for unity power
factor. Increasing the field current of one causes its power factor to become
lagging.
 Salient-pole type rotor is most suitable for turbo-alternators, which are
designed to run at high-speed.
 Dampers in large generators increase stability.
 Short-pitch coils in the alternator are used to reduce the harmonics from the
generated emf of the alternator.
 If the input to the prime mover of an alternator is kept constant but the
excitation is changed then the reactive component of the output is changed.
 The driving power from the prime mover driving an alternator is lost but the
alternator remains connected to the supply network and field supply is on. The
alternator will behave as a synchronous motor and will rotate in the same
direction.

D.C. Generators:

##  The output voltage of a single loop generator is a pulsating dc.

 A smooth output from a generator is obtained by design of the armature
winding.
 The output voltage of a generator is given by the equation E = V + IsRs.
 In most generators, the output voltage is induced by relative motion between
the field and the armature coils.
 Self-excited classification is given to a dc generator that receives in field
excitation current from internal source.
 The shunt field of a compound generator is connected across both the series
and the armature. This connection is known as long shunt.
 Residual magnetism is necessary in a self-excited generator.
 If the number of poles in a lap-wounded generator is increased by a factor of 2
the generated emf will remain the same.
 Electric dc generators have normally an overall efficiency of the order of 85-
95%.
 The armature magnetic field has effect that it cross magnetizes or distorts it.
 Brushes are always placed along magnetic neutral axis (MNA).
 MNA makes an angle of 90 with the flux passing through the armature.
 In a dc generator the flux is seen to be crowded at the trailing pole tips and
also at the leading pole tips weakened.
 If m is the forward lead angle in radians, Z is the total number of conductors
and I is the current in each armature pole, the demagnetizing ampere-
turns/pole are given as ATg = ZI x m / 2.
 The function of a compensating winding is to neutralize the demagnetizing
effect of armature reactor.
 In the commutation process it is the current, which is getting reversed.
 In any dc generator the emf generated in the armature is maximum when rate
of change of flux is maximum.
 A simple method of increasing the voltage of a dc generator is to increase the
speed of rotation.
 The method, which can be used to improve commutation process, is all of the
above.
 Interpoles are connected in series with the armature and compensating
windings are connected in series with the armature.
 Maximum number of equalizer rings needed in an electrical machine is equal
to N = 2 x No. of Conductors / No. of Poles.
 Shunt generator is most suitable for running in parallel operation.
 Shunt generators are used where the main requirement is a constant voltage
 Equalizer connections are required when paralleling two compound
generators.
 The function of an interpole is neutralizing cross-field of armature reaction
and obtain ideal commutation.
 Interpoles are normally connected in parallel with the field.
 In DC generators, lap winding is used for low voltage, high current.
 DC generators preferred for changing automobile batteries is shunt generator.
 In a dc generator commutator plays vital role for providing direct current of a
dc generator.
 In dc generator the ripples in the direct emf and generated are reduced by
using commutator with large number of segments.
 Shunt generator are preferred for parallel operations.
 Full-load efficiency of the generator will be 92.51%.
 Copper loss in dc generator varies with load.
 In dc generator, the cause of rapid brush wear may be any of the above.
 In a shunt generator the voltage built up generally restricted by saturation of
iron.
 The armature of a dc generator is laminated to reduce eddy current loss.
 With dc generator 1% regulation is preferred.

D.C. Motors:

##  Magnetic as well as heating effect produced by the electric motor.

 The rotating part of a dc motor is known as carbon brush.
 The function of a commutator in a dc machine is to change alternating voltage
to direct voltage.
 Carbon brushes are used in electric motors to prevent sparking during
commutation.
 Voltage equation for dc motor is V = Eb + IaRa
 Condition for maximum power output for a dc motor is Eb = V / 2.
 The speed of a dc motor is directly proportional to back emf and inversely
proportional to flux.
 The highest speed attained by a dc shunt motor is equal to no load speed at
rated flux.
 In a dc motor iron losses occur in the yoke.
 The dummy coil in dc machines is used to bring about mechanical balance of
armature.
 An external resistance is added in the series with the field of a dc shunt motor.
When the motor runs, the effect of resistance is to increase the speed of the
motor.
 The speed of a dc shunt motor is required to be more than F.L. speed. This is
possible by reducing the field current.
 If speed of a dc shunt motor increases, the back emf increases.
 The current flowing in the conductors of a dc motor is ac.
 As the load is increased the speed of a dc shunt motor will reduce slightly.
 The current drawn armature of a dc motor is (V - Eb) / Ra.
 If the current in the armature of dc series motor is reduced to 5% the torque of
the motor will become 25% of the previous value.
 The shunt current flowing in short shunt compound-wound motor is given by
Ish = (V + IscRsc) / Rsh.
 In dc shunt motor, if the terminal voltage is reduced to half and torque remains
the same, then speed will be half and armature current becomes double.
 A 4-pole lap-wound armature has 400 conductors and a flux per pole of 25
mWb. The emf generated, when running at 600 rpm, will be 120V.
 The torque of a motor is the product of tangential force on the rotor and its
 The armature current drawn by any electrical motor is taken from the coupling
mounted on the shaft.
 The power stated on the nameplate of any motor is always the output power at
the shaft.
 A starter is necessary to start a dc motor because it limits the starting current
to a safe value.
 The efficiency of any electrical machine/apparatus will be high, if its losses
are minimum.
 The direction of rotation of a dc motor is reversed by reversing armature
connections.
 The armature of dc motor is laminated to reduce the eddy current losses.
 Shunt motor with commutating poles has the least drop in speed between no
 The speed of a series motor at no load is infinity.
 The speed of a dc series motor decreases if the flux in the filed winding
increases.
 Dc shunt motor is used to derive the constant speed line shafting lathes,
blowers and fans.
 If the back emf in a dc motor is absent, the motor will burn.
 The field flux of a dc motor can be controlled to achieve the speeds higher
than rated speed.
 By providing a variable resistance across the series field (diverter) in a dc
series motor, speeds above normal can be obtained because flux is reduced.
 DC series motors are best suited for traction work because torque is
proportional to the square of armature current and speed is inversely
proportional to torque.
 A series motor is started without load. The effect is that the speed increases
rapidly.
 The direction of rotation of a dc series motor can be reversed by interchanging
the field terminals only.
 The motor used for intermittent, high torque is cumulative compound motor.
 If the field of a dc shunt motor is opened the speed of the motor will become
very high.
 DC cumulative compound motor is used for rolling mills.
 Armature reaction is attributed to the effect of magnetic field setup by the
armature current.
 If the supply terminals of dc shunt motor are interchanged motor will run at its
normal speed in the same direction as it was running.
 When the electric train is moving down a hill the dc motor acts as dc series
generator.
 Series motor is suitable for high starting torque.
 To get a stronger magnetic field air gap between stator and armature of an
electric motor kept as small as possible.
 Interpoles are meant for reducing sparking at the commutator.
 Swinburne’s test is most economical for finding the no-load losses of a large
dc shunt motor.
 The rated speed of a given dc shunt motor is 1050rpm. To run this machine at
1200 rpm field resistance control will be used.
 It is preferable to start a dc series motor with some mechanical load on it
because it may develop excessive speed and damage itself.
 If a flux of a dc motor approaches zero, its speed will approach infinity.
 As the load is increased, the speed of a shunt motor reduces slightly.
 A 230V-dc series motor is connected to 230V-ac will run with less efficiency.
 The main function of a commutator in dc motor is to convert ac to dc.

Induction Motor:

##  Squirrel cage Induction motor has very small starting torque.

 Just like a DC shunt motor the speed of induction motor operating in stable
region decreases with increases in load.
 Magnetic flux produced due to the stator winding with three phase current of
frequency ‘f and which is of constant value, rotates at synchronous speed. If
‘P’ is the Number of poles of the motor, the synchronous speed is given by
Ns= 120f / P
 In an induction motor rotor runs at a speed, which is always lesser than the
speed of the stator field.
 The frequency of the rotor current in an induction motor is given by (if f is the
supply frequency f is the rotor frequency and S is the slip f = Sf).
 Frequency of the rotor in an induction motor in terms of Ns, N and P is given
as Ns – N = 120 f ’ / P.
 In a 3Φ induction motor, the torque increases with the increase in supply
voltage.
 Improvement in the power factor in an induction motor increases the torque
and decreases the current due to the increased in impedance.
 In an induction motor the torque is related with the supply voltage as Tα V2.
 Torque under running conditions is maximum at the slip “S” which makes
rotor reactance/phase equal to rotor resistance/phase.
 The value of the slip at maximum torque condition (under running condition)
in terms of R2 and X2 is S=R2/X2.
 Two of the power supply terminals to a 3-phase induction motor got
interchanged during reconnection after maintenance of the motor, when put
back into service, the motor will rotate in the reverse direction to that prior to
maintenance.
 A 400kW, 3-phase, 440V, 50Hz induction motor has a speed of 950 rpm on
full load. The machine has six poles. The slip of the machine will be 0.05.
 If the air gap of the induction motor is increased the magnetizing current will
increase.
 In a slip-ring induction motor, resistance is connected in rotor phases to
increase the starting current.
 For a 3-phase, wound-rotor induction motor, as increase in rotor resistance
affects the motor performance in the starting current decreases.
 It is advisable to avoid line starting of induction motor and use starter because
motor takes 5-7 times its full load current.
 A change of 5% in the supply voltage of a 3-phase induction motor will
produce to its torque a change of approximately 10%.

Synchronous motors:

##  Synchronous motor has constant speed.

 The synchronous speed of a 50-cycle 10-pole motor is 600rpm.
 The speed of a synchronous motor connected to a 50-cycle supply is 1000rpm
the number of poles it must have 6.
 The maximum power developed in a synchronous motor occurs at a coupling
angle of 90.0.
 A 3-phase, 4-pole, 24-slot, alternator has its armature coils short-pitched by 1
slot. Its pitch factor will be 0.94.
 Synchronous motor is capable of being operated at lagging and leading power
factor.
 The synchronous motor is not inherently self-starting because the force
required to accelerate the motor is to the synchronous speed in an instant is
absent.
 When the stator windings are connected in such a fashion that the number of
poles are made half, the speed of the motor of a synchronous motor increases
to two times the original value.
 In a synchronous motor, as load is applied, the motor takes more armature
current because the motor by shifting its phase backward causes motor to take
more current.
 Synchronizing power of a synchronous machine is inversely proportional to
the synchronous reactance.
 Synchronous motor always runs at the synchronous speed.
 Synchronous motors are not self-starting.
 An over-excited synchronous motor takes leading current.
 The motor in which stator and rotor magnetic field rotate at the same speed is
synchronous motor.
 When the excitation of an unloaded salient pole synchronous motor suddenly
gets disconnected, then the motor stops.
 In a synchronous motor, the torque angle is the angle between the rotating
stator flux and rotor poles.
 A 3-phase, 400V, 50Hz, 4-pole synchronous motor has a load angle of 100
electrical. The equivalent mechanical degree will be 5.0.
 The breakdown torque of a synchronous motor varies as applied voltage.
 In a synchronous motor, windage losses not vary with load.
 A 3-phase, 400V, 500Hz salient pole synchronous motor is running on no
load. If there is break in the excitation winding of the motor the motor will
stop.
 A 3-phase synchronous motor is running clockwise. In case the direction of its
field current is reversed the motor will continue to run in the same direction.
 The speed regulation of a 3-phase synchronous motor is zero.
 In a synchronous motor, the synchronizing power comes in to action when
rotor speed is either less or more than synchronous speed.
 The speed of the synchronous motor always remains constant.
 The minimum armature current of the synchronous motor corresponds to
operation at unity power factor.
 If the field of a synchronous motor is under-excited the power factor will be
lagging.
 The motor stops when the excitation of an unloaded salient-pole synchronous
motor suddenly gets disconnected.
 In a 3-phase synchronous converter the ratio of AC current to DC current is
equal to 0.943.
 The armature current of the synchronous motor has large values of both low
an high excitation.

Transformers:

##  The principle of working of a transformer is mutual induction.

 Transformer is used to change the values of voltage.
 The path of the magnetic flux in a transformer has low reactance.
 Electric power is transformed from one coil to the other coil in a transformer
magnetically.
 Transformer operates at power factor depending on the power factor of the
 The laminations are made from nickel alloy steel stampings.
 The steel for construction of transformer core is made so as to have high
permeability and low hysteresis.
 The special silicon steel is used for laminations because hysteresis losses are
reduced.
 Magnetic circuit is common in the two windings of the transformer.
 The main function of the iron core in a transformer is to decrease the
reluctance of the magnetic path.
 Preferably, the resistance between the primary and the secondary of a
transformer should be as low as possible.
 Ideal transformer assumptions do not include zero reactance of windings.
 The reactance of the transformer is determined by its leakage flux.
 The efficiency of a transformer is normally in the range of 90-98%.
 The resistance of low voltage side of a transformer is less than the resistance
of its high voltage side.
 Eddy current losses in transformer core are reduced by decreasing the
thickness of laminations.
 The primary and secondary voltages are 180.0 out of phase is a transformer.
 The basic property of the transformer is that it changes the voltage level of an
AC signal without changing power, frequency of shape.
 Eddy current losses in a transformer are minimized by laminating the core, the
lamination being insulated from each other by a light coat of core plate
varnish.
 The induced emf in the transformer secondary will depend upon frequency,
flux and number of turns in the secondary.
 At every instant the direction of the secondary current in a transformer must
be such as to oppose any change in flux. This is accordance with Lenz’s law.
 The voltage transformer ratio is E2/E1.
 The magnitude of mutual flux in a transformer is same at all levels.
 The concentric windings are used in core type transformer with LT winding
placed next to core.
 Crossover windings are used for high voltage winding of small rating
transformers.
 In an ideal transformer on no-load, the primary applied voltage is balanced by
the secondary induced emf.
 Transformers are rated in KVA.
 Air core is used for a high frequency transformer.
 If in a transformer the secondary turns are doubled and at the same time the
primary voltage is reduced by half, then secondary voltage will not change.
 The no-load current of a transformer in terms of full load current is usually 1-
3%.
 Oil cooling is the common method of cooling a power transformer.
 Eddy currents heat up the metal parts.
 Autotransformer has only one winding.
 The use of higher flux density in transformer design decreases the weight per
KVA.
 The transformer oil used in transformers provides insulation and cooling.
 Variable transformer is the typical use of an autotransformer variable
transformer.
 In any transformer the voltage per turn in primary and secondary remains
always same.
 The full load copper loss in a transformer is 400W. At half load, the copper
loss will be 100W.
 A transformer is working at it maximum efficiency. Its iron loss is 500 W.
 Power transformers are designed to have maximum efficiency at near full
 As compared to an amplifier, a transformer cannot increase output power.
 Distribution transformers have good all day efficiency due to low iron loss.
 In transformer the purpose of breather is to extract moisture of the air.
 Two transformers when operating in parallel will share the load depending
upon their per unit impedance.
 The magnetic coupling between the primary and the secondary windings of a
transformer may be increased by using the magnetic core of low reactance.
 Conservator consist of an air-type metal drum fixed at the top of the tank.
 For a 3-phase transformer, turns ratio K is given as √3 line voltage ratio.
 In a power transformer the winding which is nearer to the iron core of the
transformer is LV. Winding.
 All day efficiency of a transformer ηA < Electrical efficiency of transformer.
 If we increase the flux density in the case of a transformer the size of the
transformer will reduce.
 In an ideal transformer on no load, the voltage applied across the primary
winding of the transformer is balanced by the secondary induced emf.
 No-load primary input is practically equal to the iron losses in the transformer
because primary current is small.
 Transformer of energy from primary of the transformer to the secondary takes
place due to the flux linkage between the two windings.
 If Rs is the resistance of secondary winding of the transformer and K is
transformation ratio then the equivalent secondary resistance refers to primary
side will be Rs/K.
 The percentages of the resistance, reactance and impedance have the same
value whether referred to primary or secondary of the transformer.
 If the supply frequency to the transformer is increased, the iron loss will
increase.
 The size of a transformer core will depend on (i) and (ii) both.
 Two transformers operating in parallel will share the load depending upon
their rating.
 Three 10:1 single phase, step-down transformers are connected in Y/Δ. For a
primary line-to-line voltage of 3980 Volts, find the corresponding line voltage
on the secondary side 230 Volts.
 Two transformers operating in parallel will share the load depending upon
their rating.
 While conducting short circuit test on a transformer the following side is
short-circuited LV side.
D.C. Generators:
1. In a DC generator if P be the number of poles and N be the rpm of rotor, then
the frequency of magnetic reversals is given by
(a) NP/2 (b) NP/60
(c) NP/120 (d) NP/3000
2. The material used for commutator brushes is mostly
(a) Copper (b) Mica
(c) Carbon (d) Cast iron
3. A 4-pole DC generator rotates at 1500 rpm. How many times in a second, will
the emf induced in each armature conductor change its direction?
(a) 500 (b) 100
(c) 400 (d) 200
4. For a fixed number of poles and armature conductors, select the winding that
will give higher emf
(a) Lap winding (b) Wave winding
(c) Any of the above (d) None of these
5. Eddy current loss is
(a) Inversely as the thickness of the laminations
(b) Inversely as the square of the thickness of the laminations
(c) Directly as thickness of laminations
(d) Directly as the square of the thickness of laminations
6. From amongst the following losses in a DC generator, select the one that has
the least proportion
(a) Copper losses (b) Hysteresis losses
(c) Eddy current losses (d) Windage losses
7. For a shunt generator, what loss is considered constant?
(a) Copper loss (b) Eddy current loss
(c) Hysteresis loss (d) All of the above
8. If f be the frequency of magnetic reversals, then hysteresis loss changes as
(a) f (b) 1/f
(c) 2f (d) f/2
9. A sinusoidal voltage of 5 Hz is applied to the field of a shunt generator. The
armature voltage wave
(a) Will be zero (b) Will be 5 Hz
(c) Will be of 5 x N Hz (d) Will be of N/5 Hz
10. Interpoles are usually wound with
(a) Very fine gauge copper wire (b) Heavy gauge copper wire
(c) Insulation material (d) Interpoles do not need winding
11. If m be the mechanical degrees, e be the electrical degrees and P be the
number of poles on a dc generator, then which of the following rations is valid
(a) m = 2eP (b) e = 2mP
(c) m = 2e /P (d) e = 2m /P
12. Which of the following loss in a dc generator is dissipated in the form of heat?
(a) Mechanical loss (b) Copper loss
(c) Core loss (d) All of the above
13. The emf generated by a shunt wound dc generator is E. If pole flux remains
constant and the speed of the generator is doubled, the emf generated will be
(a) E (b) E/2
(c) 2E (d) Slightly less than E
14. Two dc generators A and B have 6 poles each. Generator A has wave wound
armature while generator B has lap wound armature. The ratio of the induced
emf in generators A and B will be
(a) 1:3 (b) 2:3
(c) 3:1 (d) 3:2
15. Two dc generators A and B have 6 poles each. Generator A has wave wound
armature while generator B has lap wound armature. The ratio of the induced
emf in generators A and B will be
(a) 1:3 (b) 2:3
(c) 3:1 (d) 3:2
16. Magnetic field in a dc generator is produced by
(a) Permanent magnets (b) Electromagnets
(c) Both (a) and (b) above (d) None of the above
17. In a generator, the winding loss is proportional to
(a) Supply voltage
(b) Square of the supply current
(c) Square of armature speed
(d) Flux density
18. The number of armature parallel paths in 12 pole dc generator provided with
triplex lap winding will be
(a) 16 (b) 24
(c) 48 (d) 36
19. The emf in volts induced in a coil of 200 turns when the magnetic flux change
from 0.01 Wb to 0.0025 Wb in 0.1 sec will be
(a) 4.5 (b) 3.0
(c) 1.5 (d) 7.5
20. In a dc generator
(a) External characteristics = internal characteristics + armature reaction
(b) Internal characteristics = magnetization characteristics – ohmic drop
(c) External characteristics = magnetization characteristics – ohmic drop –
armature reaction
(d) Magnetization characteristics = External characteristics
21. A generator is known as flat compounded when
(a) The voltage remains constant irrespective of the load on the generator
(b) The voltage produced is in proportion to the load on the generator
(c) The generator is capable of producing higher voltage at lighter loads
(d) The generator is capable of producing voltage more than the rated
voltage.
22. Iron losses in dc machine occur in
(a) Yoke (b) Commutator
(c) Main body (d) Armature rotor
23. Eddy current loss in a dc shunt generator
(a) Varies inversely as the square of the lamination thickness
(b) Varies inversely as the square of flux density
(c) Occurs in magnetic as well as magnetic conductor materials
(d) Is independent of the rotor speed
24. In a dc generator the critical resistance means the resistance of
(a) Brushes (b) Field
25. When two dc generators are running in parallel an equalizer bar is used
(a) To increase the series flux
(b) To increase the generated emf
(c) To reduce the combined effect of armature reaction of both the
machines
(d) Since the two identical machines will pass approximately equal
26. Which one is the condition for maximum efficiency for a dc generator?
(a) Eddy current losses = stray losses
(b) Hysteresis losses = eddy current losses
(c) Copper losses = 0
(d) Variable losses = constant losses
27. With a dc generator which of the following regulation is preferred?
(a) 100% regulation (b) Infinite regulation
(c) 50% regulation (d) 1% regulation
28. Which generator would you prefer for feeding long dc transmission lines?
(a) Series generator (b) Shunt generator
(c) Overcompound generator (d) Flat compound generator
29. How can the polarity of a dc generator be reversed?
(a) Increasing field current
(b) Reversing field current
(c) Reversing field current as well as direction of rotation
(d) Any of the above
30. A generator may lose residual magnetism because of
(c) Vibrations (d) Heating
31. Select the one that is not a cross field machine
(a) Level compound generator with interpoles
(b) Amplidyne
(c) Roseneberg dynamo
32. For a 6 pole wave wound dc generator the number of brushes will be equal to
(a) 12 (b) 6
(c) 4 (d) 2
33. When P is the number of poles in a lap wound dc generator, the number of
brushes will be equal to
(a) 2P (b) P
(c) (2P+2) (d) P/2
34. Mica belongs to which class of insulation?
(a) A (b) E
(c) F (d) H
35. The two-circuit armature of a four-pole generator has 51 slots, each slot
containing 20 conductors. Useful flux per pole is 0.7 x 10-2 Wb and rpm is
1500. The voltage generated will be
(a) 192 V (b) 212 V
(c) 315 V (d) 357 V
36. In a dc generator Windage loss varies with speed (N) in the ratio of
(a) N (b) N2
(c) 1/N (d) 1/N2