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In case of alternators, the stator frame serves as a return path for the flux.

Alternators mostly work on rotating field type principle, which is different

from dc machines where the field is stationary. Therefore the alternators work

on Faraday’s law.

High-speed alternators have a rotor construction of non-salient type.

The voltage applied to the field of a rotating cylindrical rotor type alternator is

low dc voltage.

Alternators are usually designed to generate different frequencies.

The standard practice, nowadays in alternators is to have rotating field.

The diameter of high-speed turbo alternators as compared to hydroelectric

ones is smaller because speed is high.

The slip rings employed in a three-phase alternator in hydrostation are

insulated for low voltage.

When the speed of alternator increases, the frequency increases.

Steam-turbo-alternators are much smaller in size than water turbine alternators

for a given output. This is so because steam-turbo-alternators run at high-

speed.

For a coil having a span of 2/3 or pole pitch, the coil span factor is 0.866.

Distributing the armature winding of alternator is more than one number of

slots per pole per phase results in reduction of irregularities produce in the

waveform.

When the power factor of load is unity, the armature flux of an alternator will

be cross magnetizing.

An alternator is capable of delivering power at a particular frequency. The

frequency can be increased by increasing armature speed.

If the input of the prime mover of an alternator is kept constant but the

excitation is increased then kVA will be leading.

For two alternators operating in parallel, if the load shared by one of them is

to be increased, is field excitation is to be kept constant but input torque

should be increased.

If P = number of poles, f = the frequency in Hz, S = speed in rpm, the

relationship between the three for synchronous alternators is given as f =

PS/120 Hz.

If 0 is the angle measured in electrical degrees between any point on the pole

face and center of the pole then for setting a sinusoidal wave as the output, the

air gap at that point should be such that air gap 1/cos .

The sinusoidal voltage developed per-pole per phase in a group of coils is

defined as Egap = 4.44NnfK4Kp V, where N = number of turns per coil; n =

number of coils per phase per pole.

The armature reaction of an alternator will be cross magnetizing of the power

factor of the load is unity.

If Xs = the synchronous reactance of the machine, X e = leakage reactance and

Xg = reactance due to armature flux the Xg = Xs - Xe.

The best and the most accurate method for determining the voltage regulation

is potier triangle method.

An alternator is said to be over-excited if it is operating at leading pf.

From what source does a rotating field type alternator receive its exciter

voltage from an auxiliary generator driven by main generator shaft?

High-voltage alternators are usually of the rotating field type. This means the

generated voltage is connected directly to the load.

The maximum current that can be supplied by alternator depends upon the

strength of the magnetic field.

One of the advantages of distributing the winding in alternator is to improve

voltage waveform.

Distribution factor K4 is defined as the ratio of emf’s of distributed winding to

concentrated winding.

For a uniformly distributed winding the value of distribution factor is 0.955.

One of the advantages of a short pitch winding lies in elimination or

suppression of harmonies.

Pitch factor is defined as the ratio of the emf’s of short pitch coil to full pitch

coil.

A winding is short pitched by 60 degrees electrical. Its pitch factor is 0.866.

Synchronous impedance of an alternator is defined as the ratio of open circuit

voltage to short circuit current for same value of excitation.

Synchronous reactance consists of two components, namely leakage reactance

and fictitious reactance.

The imaginary of fictitious part of synchronous reactance takes care of

armature reaction.

Regulation of an alternator is defined as the rise in terminal when full load is

thrown off expressed as percentage of the terminal voltage for the same value

of excitation and speed.

Synchronization of alternators means connecting alternators in parallel.

To synchronize alternator, three conditions must be fulfilled, namely same

voltage, same frequency and voltages should be in phase opposition with

respect to local series circuit.

For synchronizing three phase alternators, the additional requirement is that

the phase rotation must be the same.

The method most commonly used for synchronizing the alternators in a

powerhouse is bright lamp method and a synchroscope.

In order to transfer the load from one alternator to another alternator, when

they are operating in parallel prime mover power input is increased.

Adjustment of field excitation of one of the two alternators operating in

parallel will change its power factor.

Each of the two alternators operating in parallel is adjusted for unity power

factor. Increasing the field current of one causes its power factor to become

lagging.

Salient-pole type rotor is most suitable for turbo-alternators, which are

designed to run at high-speed.

Dampers in large generators increase stability.

Short-pitch coils in the alternator are used to reduce the harmonics from the

generated emf of the alternator.

If the input to the prime mover of an alternator is kept constant but the

excitation is changed then the reactive component of the output is changed.

The driving power from the prime mover driving an alternator is lost but the

alternator remains connected to the supply network and field supply is on. The

alternator will behave as a synchronous motor and will rotate in the same

direction.

D.C. Generators:

A smooth output from a generator is obtained by design of the armature

winding.

The output voltage of a generator is given by the equation E = V + IsRs.

In most generators, the output voltage is induced by relative motion between

the field and the armature coils.

Self-excited classification is given to a dc generator that receives in field

excitation current from internal source.

The shunt field of a compound generator is connected across both the series

and the armature. This connection is known as long shunt.

Residual magnetism is necessary in a self-excited generator.

If the number of poles in a lap-wounded generator is increased by a factor of 2

the generated emf will remain the same.

Electric dc generators have normally an overall efficiency of the order of 85-

95%.

The armature magnetic field has effect that it cross magnetizes or distorts it.

Brushes are always placed along magnetic neutral axis (MNA).

MNA makes an angle of 90 with the flux passing through the armature.

In a dc generator the flux is seen to be crowded at the trailing pole tips and

also at the leading pole tips weakened.

If m is the forward lead angle in radians, Z is the total number of conductors

and I is the current in each armature pole, the demagnetizing ampere-

turns/pole are given as ATg = ZI x m / 2.

The function of a compensating winding is to neutralize the demagnetizing

effect of armature reactor.

In the commutation process it is the current, which is getting reversed.

In any dc generator the emf generated in the armature is maximum when rate

of change of flux is maximum.

A simple method of increasing the voltage of a dc generator is to increase the

speed of rotation.

The method, which can be used to improve commutation process, is all of the

above.

Interpoles are connected in series with the armature and compensating

windings are connected in series with the armature.

Maximum number of equalizer rings needed in an electrical machine is equal

to N = 2 x No. of Conductors / No. of Poles.

Shunt generator is most suitable for running in parallel operation.

Shunt generators are used where the main requirement is a constant voltage

over a narrow load range.

Equalizer connections are required when paralleling two compound

generators.

The function of an interpole is neutralizing cross-field of armature reaction

and obtain ideal commutation.

Interpoles are normally connected in parallel with the field.

In DC generators, lap winding is used for low voltage, high current.

DC generators preferred for changing automobile batteries is shunt generator.

In a dc generator commutator plays vital role for providing direct current of a

dc generator.

In dc generator the ripples in the direct emf and generated are reduced by

using commutator with large number of segments.

Shunt generator are preferred for parallel operations.

Full-load efficiency of the generator will be 92.51%.

Copper loss in dc generator varies with load.

In dc generator, the cause of rapid brush wear may be any of the above.

In a shunt generator the voltage built up generally restricted by saturation of

iron.

The armature of a dc generator is laminated to reduce eddy current loss.

With dc generator 1% regulation is preferred.

D.C. Motors:

The rotating part of a dc motor is known as carbon brush.

The function of a commutator in a dc machine is to change alternating voltage

to direct voltage.

Carbon brushes are used in electric motors to prevent sparking during

commutation.

Voltage equation for dc motor is V = Eb + IaRa

Condition for maximum power output for a dc motor is Eb = V / 2.

The speed of a dc motor is directly proportional to back emf and inversely

proportional to flux.

The highest speed attained by a dc shunt motor is equal to no load speed at

rated flux.

In a dc motor iron losses occur in the yoke.

The dummy coil in dc machines is used to bring about mechanical balance of

armature.

An external resistance is added in the series with the field of a dc shunt motor.

When the motor runs, the effect of resistance is to increase the speed of the

motor.

The speed of a dc shunt motor is required to be more than F.L. speed. This is

possible by reducing the field current.

If speed of a dc shunt motor increases, the back emf increases.

The current flowing in the conductors of a dc motor is ac.

As the load is increased the speed of a dc shunt motor will reduce slightly.

The current drawn armature of a dc motor is (V - Eb) / Ra.

If the current in the armature of dc series motor is reduced to 5% the torque of

the motor will become 25% of the previous value.

The shunt current flowing in short shunt compound-wound motor is given by

Ish = (V + IscRsc) / Rsh.

In dc shunt motor, if the terminal voltage is reduced to half and torque remains

the same, then speed will be half and armature current becomes double.

A 4-pole lap-wound armature has 400 conductors and a flux per pole of 25

mWb. The emf generated, when running at 600 rpm, will be 120V.

The torque of a motor is the product of tangential force on the rotor and its

radius.

The armature current drawn by any electrical motor is taken from the coupling

mounted on the shaft.

The power stated on the nameplate of any motor is always the output power at

the shaft.

A starter is necessary to start a dc motor because it limits the starting current

to a safe value.

The efficiency of any electrical machine/apparatus will be high, if its losses

are minimum.

The direction of rotation of a dc motor is reversed by reversing armature

connections.

The armature of dc motor is laminated to reduce the eddy current losses.

Shunt motor with commutating poles has the least drop in speed between no

load and nominal load.

The speed of a series motor at no load is infinity.

The speed of a dc series motor decreases if the flux in the filed winding

increases.

Dc shunt motor is used to derive the constant speed line shafting lathes,

blowers and fans.

If the back emf in a dc motor is absent, the motor will burn.

The field flux of a dc motor can be controlled to achieve the speeds higher

than rated speed.

By providing a variable resistance across the series field (diverter) in a dc

series motor, speeds above normal can be obtained because flux is reduced.

DC series motors are best suited for traction work because torque is

proportional to the square of armature current and speed is inversely

proportional to torque.

A series motor is started without load. The effect is that the speed increases

rapidly.

The direction of rotation of a dc series motor can be reversed by interchanging

the field terminals only.

The motor used for intermittent, high torque is cumulative compound motor.

If the field of a dc shunt motor is opened the speed of the motor will become

very high.

DC cumulative compound motor is used for rolling mills.

Armature reaction is attributed to the effect of magnetic field setup by the

armature current.

If the supply terminals of dc shunt motor are interchanged motor will run at its

normal speed in the same direction as it was running.

When the electric train is moving down a hill the dc motor acts as dc series

generator.

Series motor is suitable for high starting torque.

To get a stronger magnetic field air gap between stator and armature of an

electric motor kept as small as possible.

Interpoles are meant for reducing sparking at the commutator.

Swinburne’s test is most economical for finding the no-load losses of a large

dc shunt motor.

The rated speed of a given dc shunt motor is 1050rpm. To run this machine at

1200 rpm field resistance control will be used.

It is preferable to start a dc series motor with some mechanical load on it

because it may develop excessive speed and damage itself.

If a flux of a dc motor approaches zero, its speed will approach infinity.

As the load is increased, the speed of a shunt motor reduces slightly.

A 230V-dc series motor is connected to 230V-ac will run with less efficiency.

The main function of a commutator in dc motor is to convert ac to dc.

Induction Motor:

Just like a DC shunt motor the speed of induction motor operating in stable

region decreases with increases in load.

Magnetic flux produced due to the stator winding with three phase current of

frequency ‘f and which is of constant value, rotates at synchronous speed. If

‘P’ is the Number of poles of the motor, the synchronous speed is given by

Ns= 120f / P

In an induction motor rotor runs at a speed, which is always lesser than the

speed of the stator field.

The frequency of the rotor current in an induction motor is given by (if f is the

supply frequency f is the rotor frequency and S is the slip f = Sf).

Frequency of the rotor in an induction motor in terms of Ns, N and P is given

as Ns – N = 120 f ’ / P.

In a 3Φ induction motor, the torque increases with the increase in supply

voltage.

Improvement in the power factor in an induction motor increases the torque

and decreases the current due to the increased in impedance.

In an induction motor the torque is related with the supply voltage as Tα V2.

Torque under running conditions is maximum at the slip “S” which makes

rotor reactance/phase equal to rotor resistance/phase.

The value of the slip at maximum torque condition (under running condition)

in terms of R2 and X2 is S=R2/X2.

Two of the power supply terminals to a 3-phase induction motor got

interchanged during reconnection after maintenance of the motor, when put

back into service, the motor will rotate in the reverse direction to that prior to

maintenance.

A 400kW, 3-phase, 440V, 50Hz induction motor has a speed of 950 rpm on

full load. The machine has six poles. The slip of the machine will be 0.05.

If the air gap of the induction motor is increased the magnetizing current will

increase.

In a slip-ring induction motor, resistance is connected in rotor phases to

increase the starting current.

For a 3-phase, wound-rotor induction motor, as increase in rotor resistance

affects the motor performance in the starting current decreases.

It is advisable to avoid line starting of induction motor and use starter because

motor takes 5-7 times its full load current.

A change of 5% in the supply voltage of a 3-phase induction motor will

produce to its torque a change of approximately 10%.

Synchronous motors:

The synchronous speed of a 50-cycle 10-pole motor is 600rpm.

The speed of a synchronous motor connected to a 50-cycle supply is 1000rpm

the number of poles it must have 6.

The maximum power developed in a synchronous motor occurs at a coupling

angle of 90.0.

A 3-phase, 4-pole, 24-slot, alternator has its armature coils short-pitched by 1

slot. Its pitch factor will be 0.94.

Synchronous motor is capable of being operated at lagging and leading power

factor.

The synchronous motor is not inherently self-starting because the force

required to accelerate the motor is to the synchronous speed in an instant is

absent.

When the stator windings are connected in such a fashion that the number of

poles are made half, the speed of the motor of a synchronous motor increases

to two times the original value.

In a synchronous motor, as load is applied, the motor takes more armature

current because the motor by shifting its phase backward causes motor to take

more current.

Synchronizing power of a synchronous machine is inversely proportional to

the synchronous reactance.

Synchronous motor always runs at the synchronous speed.

Synchronous motors are not self-starting.

An over-excited synchronous motor takes leading current.

The motor in which stator and rotor magnetic field rotate at the same speed is

synchronous motor.

When the excitation of an unloaded salient pole synchronous motor suddenly

gets disconnected, then the motor stops.

In a synchronous motor, the torque angle is the angle between the rotating

stator flux and rotor poles.

A 3-phase, 400V, 50Hz, 4-pole synchronous motor has a load angle of 100

electrical. The equivalent mechanical degree will be 5.0.

The breakdown torque of a synchronous motor varies as applied voltage.

In a synchronous motor, windage losses not vary with load.

A 3-phase, 400V, 500Hz salient pole synchronous motor is running on no

load. If there is break in the excitation winding of the motor the motor will

stop.

A 3-phase synchronous motor is running clockwise. In case the direction of its

field current is reversed the motor will continue to run in the same direction.

The speed regulation of a 3-phase synchronous motor is zero.

In a synchronous motor, the synchronizing power comes in to action when

rotor speed is either less or more than synchronous speed.

The speed of the synchronous motor always remains constant.

The minimum armature current of the synchronous motor corresponds to

operation at unity power factor.

If the field of a synchronous motor is under-excited the power factor will be

lagging.

The motor stops when the excitation of an unloaded salient-pole synchronous

motor suddenly gets disconnected.

In a 3-phase synchronous converter the ratio of AC current to DC current is

equal to 0.943.

The armature current of the synchronous motor has large values of both low

an high excitation.

Transformers:

Transformer is used to change the values of voltage.

The path of the magnetic flux in a transformer has low reactance.

Electric power is transformed from one coil to the other coil in a transformer

magnetically.

Transformer operates at power factor depending on the power factor of the

load.

The laminations are made from nickel alloy steel stampings.

The steel for construction of transformer core is made so as to have high

permeability and low hysteresis.

The special silicon steel is used for laminations because hysteresis losses are

reduced.

Magnetic circuit is common in the two windings of the transformer.

The main function of the iron core in a transformer is to decrease the

reluctance of the magnetic path.

Preferably, the resistance between the primary and the secondary of a

transformer should be as low as possible.

Ideal transformer assumptions do not include zero reactance of windings.

The reactance of the transformer is determined by its leakage flux.

The efficiency of a transformer is normally in the range of 90-98%.

The resistance of low voltage side of a transformer is less than the resistance

of its high voltage side.

Eddy current losses in transformer core are reduced by decreasing the

thickness of laminations.

The primary and secondary voltages are 180.0 out of phase is a transformer.

The basic property of the transformer is that it changes the voltage level of an

AC signal without changing power, frequency of shape.

Eddy current losses in a transformer are minimized by laminating the core, the

lamination being insulated from each other by a light coat of core plate

varnish.

The induced emf in the transformer secondary will depend upon frequency,

flux and number of turns in the secondary.

At every instant the direction of the secondary current in a transformer must

be such as to oppose any change in flux. This is accordance with Lenz’s law.

The voltage transformer ratio is E2/E1.

The magnitude of mutual flux in a transformer is same at all levels.

The concentric windings are used in core type transformer with LT winding

placed next to core.

Crossover windings are used for high voltage winding of small rating

transformers.

In an ideal transformer on no-load, the primary applied voltage is balanced by

the secondary induced emf.

Transformers are rated in KVA.

Air core is used for a high frequency transformer.

If in a transformer the secondary turns are doubled and at the same time the

primary voltage is reduced by half, then secondary voltage will not change.

The no-load current of a transformer in terms of full load current is usually 1-

3%.

Oil cooling is the common method of cooling a power transformer.

Eddy currents heat up the metal parts.

Autotransformer has only one winding.

The use of higher flux density in transformer design decreases the weight per

KVA.

The transformer oil used in transformers provides insulation and cooling.

Variable transformer is the typical use of an autotransformer variable

transformer.

In any transformer the voltage per turn in primary and secondary remains

always same.

The full load copper loss in a transformer is 400W. At half load, the copper

loss will be 100W.

A transformer is working at it maximum efficiency. Its iron loss is 500 W.

Power transformers are designed to have maximum efficiency at near full

load.

As compared to an amplifier, a transformer cannot increase output power.

Distribution transformers have good all day efficiency due to low iron loss.

In transformer the purpose of breather is to extract moisture of the air.

Two transformers when operating in parallel will share the load depending

upon their per unit impedance.

The magnetic coupling between the primary and the secondary windings of a

transformer may be increased by using the magnetic core of low reactance.

Conservator consist of an air-type metal drum fixed at the top of the tank.

For a 3-phase transformer, turns ratio K is given as √3 line voltage ratio.

In a power transformer the winding which is nearer to the iron core of the

transformer is LV. Winding.

All day efficiency of a transformer ηA < Electrical efficiency of transformer.

If we increase the flux density in the case of a transformer the size of the

transformer will reduce.

In an ideal transformer on no load, the voltage applied across the primary

winding of the transformer is balanced by the secondary induced emf.

No-load primary input is practically equal to the iron losses in the transformer

because primary current is small.

Transformer of energy from primary of the transformer to the secondary takes

place due to the flux linkage between the two windings.

If Rs is the resistance of secondary winding of the transformer and K is

transformation ratio then the equivalent secondary resistance refers to primary

side will be Rs/K.

The percentages of the resistance, reactance and impedance have the same

value whether referred to primary or secondary of the transformer.

If the supply frequency to the transformer is increased, the iron loss will

increase.

The size of a transformer core will depend on (i) and (ii) both.

Two transformers operating in parallel will share the load depending upon

their rating.

Three 10:1 single phase, step-down transformers are connected in Y/Δ. For a

primary line-to-line voltage of 3980 Volts, find the corresponding line voltage

on the secondary side 230 Volts.

Two transformers operating in parallel will share the load depending upon

their rating.

While conducting short circuit test on a transformer the following side is

short-circuited LV side.

D.C. Generators:

1. In a DC generator if P be the number of poles and N be the rpm of rotor, then

the frequency of magnetic reversals is given by

(a) NP/2 (b) NP/60

(c) NP/120 (d) NP/3000

2. The material used for commutator brushes is mostly

(a) Copper (b) Mica

(c) Carbon (d) Cast iron

3. A 4-pole DC generator rotates at 1500 rpm. How many times in a second, will

the emf induced in each armature conductor change its direction?

(a) 500 (b) 100

(c) 400 (d) 200

4. For a fixed number of poles and armature conductors, select the winding that

will give higher emf

(a) Lap winding (b) Wave winding

(c) Any of the above (d) None of these

5. Eddy current loss is

(a) Inversely as the thickness of the laminations

(b) Inversely as the square of the thickness of the laminations

(c) Directly as thickness of laminations

(d) Directly as the square of the thickness of laminations

6. From amongst the following losses in a DC generator, select the one that has

the least proportion

(a) Copper losses (b) Hysteresis losses

(c) Eddy current losses (d) Windage losses

7. For a shunt generator, what loss is considered constant?

(a) Copper loss (b) Eddy current loss

(c) Hysteresis loss (d) All of the above

8. If f be the frequency of magnetic reversals, then hysteresis loss changes as

(a) f (b) 1/f

(c) 2f (d) f/2

9. A sinusoidal voltage of 5 Hz is applied to the field of a shunt generator. The

armature voltage wave

(a) Will be zero (b) Will be 5 Hz

(c) Will be of 5 x N Hz (d) Will be of N/5 Hz

10. Interpoles are usually wound with

(a) Very fine gauge copper wire (b) Heavy gauge copper wire

(c) Insulation material (d) Interpoles do not need winding

11. If m be the mechanical degrees, e be the electrical degrees and P be the

number of poles on a dc generator, then which of the following rations is valid

(a) m = 2eP (b) e = 2mP

(c) m = 2e /P (d) e = 2m /P

12. Which of the following loss in a dc generator is dissipated in the form of heat?

(a) Mechanical loss (b) Copper loss

(c) Core loss (d) All of the above

13. The emf generated by a shunt wound dc generator is E. If pole flux remains

constant and the speed of the generator is doubled, the emf generated will be

(a) E (b) E/2

(c) 2E (d) Slightly less than E

14. Two dc generators A and B have 6 poles each. Generator A has wave wound

armature while generator B has lap wound armature. The ratio of the induced

emf in generators A and B will be

(a) 1:3 (b) 2:3

(c) 3:1 (d) 3:2

15. Two dc generators A and B have 6 poles each. Generator A has wave wound

armature while generator B has lap wound armature. The ratio of the induced

emf in generators A and B will be

(a) 1:3 (b) 2:3

(c) 3:1 (d) 3:2

16. Magnetic field in a dc generator is produced by

(a) Permanent magnets (b) Electromagnets

(c) Both (a) and (b) above (d) None of the above

17. In a generator, the winding loss is proportional to

(a) Supply voltage

(b) Square of the supply current

(c) Square of armature speed

(d) Flux density

18. The number of armature parallel paths in 12 pole dc generator provided with

triplex lap winding will be

(a) 16 (b) 24

(c) 48 (d) 36

19. The emf in volts induced in a coil of 200 turns when the magnetic flux change

from 0.01 Wb to 0.0025 Wb in 0.1 sec will be

(a) 4.5 (b) 3.0

(c) 1.5 (d) 7.5

20. In a dc generator

(a) External characteristics = internal characteristics + armature reaction

(b) Internal characteristics = magnetization characteristics – ohmic drop

(c) External characteristics = magnetization characteristics – ohmic drop –

armature reaction

(d) Magnetization characteristics = External characteristics

21. A generator is known as flat compounded when

(a) The voltage remains constant irrespective of the load on the generator

(b) The voltage produced is in proportion to the load on the generator

(c) The generator is capable of producing higher voltage at lighter loads

(d) The generator is capable of producing voltage more than the rated

voltage.

22. Iron losses in dc machine occur in

(a) Yoke (b) Commutator

(c) Main body (d) Armature rotor

23. Eddy current loss in a dc shunt generator

(a) Varies inversely as the square of the lamination thickness

(b) Varies inversely as the square of flux density

(c) Occurs in magnetic as well as magnetic conductor materials

(d) Is independent of the rotor speed

24. In a dc generator the critical resistance means the resistance of

(a) Brushes (b) Field

(c) Armature (d) Load

25. When two dc generators are running in parallel an equalizer bar is used

(a) To increase the series flux

(b) To increase the generated emf

(c) To reduce the combined effect of armature reaction of both the

machines

(d) Since the two identical machines will pass approximately equal

currents to the load

26. Which one is the condition for maximum efficiency for a dc generator?

(a) Eddy current losses = stray losses

(b) Hysteresis losses = eddy current losses

(c) Copper losses = 0

(d) Variable losses = constant losses

27. With a dc generator which of the following regulation is preferred?

(a) 100% regulation (b) Infinite regulation

(c) 50% regulation (d) 1% regulation

28. Which generator would you prefer for feeding long dc transmission lines?

(a) Series generator (b) Shunt generator

(c) Overcompound generator (d) Flat compound generator

29. How can the polarity of a dc generator be reversed?

(a) Increasing field current

(b) Reversing field current

(c) Reversing field current as well as direction of rotation

(d) Any of the above

30. A generator may lose residual magnetism because of

(a) Varying loads (b) Over-excitation

(c) Vibrations (d) Heating

31. Select the one that is not a cross field machine

(a) Level compound generator with interpoles

(b) Amplidyne

(c) Roseneberg dynamo

(d) Metadyne

32. For a 6 pole wave wound dc generator the number of brushes will be equal to

(a) 12 (b) 6

(c) 4 (d) 2

33. When P is the number of poles in a lap wound dc generator, the number of

brushes will be equal to

(a) 2P (b) P

(c) (2P+2) (d) P/2

34. Mica belongs to which class of insulation?

(a) A (b) E

(c) F (d) H

35. The two-circuit armature of a four-pole generator has 51 slots, each slot

containing 20 conductors. Useful flux per pole is 0.7 x 10-2 Wb and rpm is

1500. The voltage generated will be

(a) 192 V (b) 212 V

(c) 315 V (d) 357 V

36. In a dc generator Windage loss varies with speed (N) in the ratio of

(a) N (b) N2

(c) 1/N (d) 1/N2

ANSWERS

1. c 2. c 3. b 4. a 5. b 6. d 7. d 8. a 9. a 10. b 11. b

12. c 13. d 14. c 15. c 16. b 17. c 18. d 19. b 20. c 21. a 22. d

23. c 24. b 25. a 26. d 27. d 28. c 29. b 30. d 31. a 32. d 33. b

34. d 35. d 36. b

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