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Discovering Gilgamesh
The World’s First Action Hero

The History of Spain:
Land on a Crossroad
E D TIME OF Taught by Professor Joyce E. Salisbury



1. From Stones to Bronze: Prehistoric Spain

off 2. Celtic, Phoenician, and Greek Colonists



3. Rome Conquers the Iberian Peninsula
R BY M A R 4. Christianity Comes to Hispania
5. Barbarian Tribes Divide the Peninsula
6. The Visigoths Unite Spain
7. Islam: The New Religion
8. Conflict within Islam
9. The Moors and the Glory of al-Andalus
10. The Christian Reconquista
11. Medieval Spanish Culture
12. The Sephardim: Iberian Judaism
13. Gypsy Influences on Spain
14. The Growth of Catholic Religious Passion
15. Columbus and the New World
16. Conquistadors and Missionaries
17. The Spanish Main: Trade Convoys and Piracy
18. The Golden Age of the Spanish Habsburgs
19. Religious Wars on Muslims and Protestants
20. The 18th-Century Bourbon Kings of Spain
21. Spain Loses Its Empire
22. 20th-Century Spanish Modernism
23. The Spanish Civil War and Franco’s Reign
Discover the Powerful Influences 24. Modern Spain: Still on a Crossroad

Spain Had on World History
Spain has played a unique and pivotal role in Western civilization. In The History of Spain: Land on a Crossroad
The History of Spain: Land on a Crossroad, Professor Emerita Joyce E. Course no. 8286 | 24 lectures (30 minutes/lecture)
Salisbury of the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay presents a fascinating
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The ng of
diplomats and rulers in late 1814, had one goal: to put Europe back
together after Napoleon tore it apart. The four major players—Austria,
Prussia, Russia, and the United Kingdom—bickered for months over
how to achieve it. But then something happened in 1815 that smashed
through the bureaucracy: Napoleon’s return.

When word of Napoleon’s escape from Elba reached Vienna, the
delegates wasted no time. Before he reached Paris, Napoleon was declared
an outlaw. Just 15 days later, the four major powers each pledged 150,000
men to fight “until Bonaparte shall have been rendered absolutely unable
to create disturbance, and to renew his attempts for possessing himself
of the Supreme Power in France.” Their speed paid off: A few months
later, they would defeat Napoleon at Waterloo.

Napoleon once said, “Men are moved by two levers only: fear and self
interest.” In this instance he was correct. Fear of his relentlessness and
genius coupled with a desire to preserve the safety of their lands and
people, creating a combination that gave Europe strong motivation
to unite for quick action—something that Napoleon had fatally

Amy Briggs, Executive Editor


July/August.org. USED UNDER LICENSE. and November/December by National Geographic Partners. BUSINESS AND LEGAL AFFAIRS. MATT MOORE. THEODORE A. SICKLEY. SUBSCRIBER: If the Postal Service alerts us that your magazine is undeliverable. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. BRIGGS WATERLOO NAPOLEON’S Deputy Editor VICTOR LLORET BLACKBURN FINAL DEFEAT Editorial Coordinator and Text Editor JULIUS PURCELL TO HELL Editorial Consultants JOSEP MARIA CASALS (Managing Editor. Tampa.com/corrections. Historia magazine) BUILDING THE Design Editor FRANCISCO ORDUÑA PANTHEON ROME’S ORIGINAL SUPERDOME Photography Editor MERITXELL CASANOVAS THE SILK ROAD WHEN EAST MET WEST Contributors PLUS: Discovering Gilgamesh IRENE BERMAN-VAPORIS. To opt out of future direct mail from other organizations. SUSAN DIDONATO. for corrections and clarifications. Box 643. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC PARTNERS JILL CRESS EVP. LLC. MARK VIOLA Production Services JOHN CHOW. visit www. In Canada.S. BOYLE deputy managing editor. Carmel.nationalgeographic.O. you may request that your name be removed from promotion lists by calling 1-800-647-5463. national geographic partners YULIA P. P. we have no further obligation unless we receive a corrected address within two years. DARRICK MCRAE.com or call 1-800-647-5463. MARI CARMEN CORONAS EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AUREA DÍAZ INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE EDITOR SOLEDAD LORENZO EDITORIAL COORDINATOR MONICA ARTIGAS MARKETING DIRECTOR BERTA CASTELLET CREATIVE DIRECTOR JORDINA SALVANY GENERAL DIRECTOR OF PLANNING AND CONTROL IGNACIO LÓPEZ National Geographic History (ISSN 2380-3878) is published bimonthly in January/February.O. CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC AND YELLOW BORDER DESIGN ARE TRADEMARKS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. JANE SUNDERLAND VICE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL MANAGER JOHN MACKETHAN CHRISTIE’S IMAGES / BRIDGEMAN / ACI Publishing Directors senior vice president. LLC. Number 6. The World’s First Action Hero SARAH PRESANT-COLLINS. BATTLE OF EXECUTIVE EDITOR AMY E. MARC BRIAN DUCKETT. JULIE IBINSON. visit www. Historia magazine). TRACY PELT for subscription questions. Box 62138. we welcome your comments and suggestions at history@natgeo. JUSTIN DROMS. PRESIDENT RICARDO RODRIGO CEO ENRIQUE IGLESIAS MANAGING DIRECTORS ANA RODRIGO. Toronto. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC PARTNERS JEFF SCHNEIDER COPYRIGHT © 2018 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC PARTNERS. FL 33662. GREGORY STORER Customer Service SCOTT ARONSON.nghservice. Volume 3. 1145 17th Street.A. Ontario M5W 3W2. visit natgeo. . JOHN SEELEY. agreement number 40063649. P. delivery. TRAVIS PRICE. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC PARTNERS MARCELA MARTIN CHIEF MARKETING OFFICER. c/o Data & Marketing Association. NW. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to National Geographic History. Washington. visit DMAchoice. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC PARTNERS SUSAN GOLDBERG CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER. Box 4412 STA A.O. May/June. ROCCO RUGGIERI.S. DC 20036. P. RICHARD BROWN. $29 per year for U. AND BACK THE AFTERLIFE IN ANCIENT GREECE IÑAKI DE LA FUENTE (Art Director. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC PARTNERS DECLAN MOORE EDITORIAL DIRECTOR. while we do not accept unsolicited materials. NY 10512. Periodicals postage paid at Washington. We occasionally make our subscriber names available to companies whose products or services might be of interest to you. March/April. to subscribe online. and additional mailing offices. or mail a request to: DMA Choice. September/October. PRINTED IN U. PAULA COMMODORE.com. CHRISTINA NAGEY. DC.com. national geographic books LISA THOMAS Advertising ROBERT AMBERG Consumer Marketing and Planning ANNE BARKER. SUZANNE MACKAY. return undeliverable Canadian addresses to National Geographic History. KRISTIN SEMENIUK. If you prefer not to be included. national geographic magazine AMY KOLCZAK publisher.

gazelles. and much else. 3 NO. LONDON . and beliefs. cats. but for most mortals it was 8 PROFILES a one-way trip. Epicc of Gilgamesh. and oldest chronicles of the Americas. 6 AN OLD ROAD Camels and riders travel the Nubra Valley. 12 D DAILY LIFE Maade of fish guts. Guarded by a three-headed dog.C. purpose and its construction. bulls. not n In 1872 self-taught scholar even Napoleon’s fierce determination aand Geeorge Smith discovered the military genius could save him at Wateerlooo. historians continue to ponder its soaring dome was unrivaled for centuries. dogs. across the empire. Whether canyonlands is one of the beloved companions or sacrifices to the gods. garum paired with Along it moved goods. Using crocodiles were also carefully wrapped and preserved for eternity. proved how blood circulates by using scientific experiments 46 Rome’s Perplexing Pantheon to overturn centuries of medical Erected in Rome’s first year of empire. high-tech imaging. egggs. the realm of Hades and its In 1628 William Harvey perils and punishments have bedeviled the Western imagination for millennia. BRRITISH MUSEUM. ies. India. The Chinese exchange of silk for horses forg ged Prizzed for its “perfume” and craved the trade routes linking Asia with Europe. Features Departments 4 NEWS 16 Ancient Egypt’s Animal Mummies Ancient rock art in the Texas People were not the only beings mummified in ancient Egypt. a southern spur of the Silk Road. SEVENTH CENTURY B. wine. chicken. one of the oldest works of literrature. archaeologists are now preserving these vulnerable works. by cracking the code of cuneiform. the Pantheon’s misunderstanding. which connected China and the Roman world. ideas. garum was 64 The Silk Road Unfolds Ro ome’s favorite condiment. then rebuilt by Hadrian. 32 How Greeks Envisioned the Underworld Odysseus might be able to go to hell and back. VOL. 78 Napoleon’s Last Stand 90 D DISCOVERIES Despite his daring resurgence in 1815. FLOOD TABLET OF THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH.

ARCHAIC ROCK ART SavingAmerica’sOldestChronicles Paintings from 2700 b. is increasingly has hit on a way of preserving painting scenes from their Since the 1930s. TO A. animals. lost when the Rio Grande was Fo u n d e d i n 1 9 9 8 by the Pecos River meets the terious sites was first made. them: men on horse.c. T hey saw the Europe. 1500s adorn the canyonlands of Texas. ry. 4 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . Filling the walls there have been huge strides that remain are under threat ans arriving and drew with pictures of people and in deciphering the vivid nar. when doc. Research & Education Center of the Southwest had been Dammed and Saved can societies. 600. Based back and figures in habitants of southwestern this unique chronicle of thou. lives on the canyons where umentation of these mys. from further flooding. under threat. Rio Grande.C. to the a. NEWS SIGNS OF THE TIMES PICTOGRAPHS ON THE MAIN ROCK ART PANEL OF SUNBURST SHELTER INCLUDE PECOS RIVER STYLE PAINTINGS DATING FROM 2700 B. But But there is hope. in Comstock. which holds the key to the the Shumla Archaeological ago—the hunter-gatherers worldview of ancient Ameri. Many sites were the murals for posterity.D.d. of the lower Pecos region. their thrilling story can still be told. Long before Texas inscribed the stories of sands of years of human histo. so if they ever disappear. A new project is preserving them in high-tech images. then—as early as 4.700 years early America. these ancient in. and those archaeologist Carolyn Boyd. at the heart Spanish dress. ratives within the murals. dammed in 1969.

this Val Verde County. carbon-dated to 1200 b. Shumla researchers often work in close quarters (bottom). oldest visual texts.. technology to create a massive year project to carry out a digital archive of America’s comprehensive documenta. Scholars used Decorrelation Stretch software to enhance it. Far-Flung Shumla’s Alexandria Project The Alexandria Project is will use the latest in imaging ambitious in scope. library of images will preserve Named for the Library their glory. To study these artworks. an faintest brushstroke. ancient repository of all the learning in the world. SHUMLA RESEARCHERS OBSERVE AND TAKE FIELD NOTES AT CRAB SHELTER. revealing a much sharper image (below) of an elaborate anthropomorphic figure. Shumla NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 5 .c. WITH THE DEVILS RIVER FLOWING BELOW. A POLYCHROMATIC PAINTING at Crab Shelter. SHUMLA ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER Shumla has begun a three. Even if tion of rock art sites across the artwork disappears. is faded and blurry (above). down to the very of Alexandria in Egypt. PHOTOS: JEROD ROBERTS.

the work of an particularly struck by a mural known artist of the Huichol people of western as the White Shaman. High Art Enduring Creation Narrative Geographic Society–funded Scrambling onto hol. NEWS JEROD ROBERTS. part of the team that studied White Shaman Mural: An As part of a National 10 sites for the pilot.were formed when soft lime- inations of key Pecos sites. that they believe can foster a bond When a civilization disappears. and rebirth. a complex but Boyd was convinced they all narrative started to take shape: A played a role in a unified story—if creation myth. winning co-author of The miles of rugged canyonlands.000 square archaeologist Jerod Roberts. She was with mysterious dots. Boyd meaning behind its art is lost. “Let’s es. elements at other sites. and antlered humanlike figures. Carolyn Boyd (right) studied a modern painting of antlered first encountered the rock art of the figures and deer antlers decorated lower Pecos in the late 1980s. the cavities in Pecos—has already dedicat. ARCHAEOLOGIST. scattered across 8. highly de- founder Boyd—award. 6 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . which takes hundreds of overlapping photos from one viewpoint to create a single.” said Shumla condition of a site. all play started spotting patterns at other sites a powerful mystical role in the process in the lower Pecos region. with peyote. a hallucinogenic cactus which she is observing in the image. SHUMLA ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER CONNECTING THE DOTS ARTIST. including of life. Some archaeologists theorize Once Boyd connected these with the that the array of images are unrelated. the team the canyons of the lower Pecos ed years to in-depth exam. of the art nestles. was gradually many more sites to document. and the harder layers. a white figure Mexico. panels were imaged using a Gigapan system. but in. figures. The mural eroded by natural forces. sandwiched between Her database shows there are just say it was fun. Boyd later Shumla founder. test research methods. peyote. death.Inhabited for more than in the Rock Art of the Lower pilot. credibly tiring. the between the living and the dead. tailed image for future study. to collected data on mural siz. in which deer. andria Project last year. techniques. She and antlered humanlike figures. only she could crack the code. the number of identified stone. and knew that similar deer and dot motifs scholars must piece the meanings also appear in the ancient Pecos works. The Huichol associate deer surrounded by multicolored forms. the first phase of the Alex. Shumla staff began lowed ledges where much 10.000 years. together.

1000. some of these Boyd’s research has centered acterized by stick figures of the age of the sites belies lofty shelters started to on decoding the complex humans and animals engaging their vulnerability. STUDENTS OF SHUMLA’S ROCK ART FIELD SCHOOL GET FIRSTHAND KNOWLEDGE OF THE PREHISTORIC ART AT THE WHITE SHAMAN SITE.” explains This art may appear cryptic to as Pecos River Style. As central to American also used for burial. “When we serve as art galleries when rituals they depict. were covered with images. known be lost tomorrow. THE DOTS AROUND ITS ANTLERS ARE PART OF A MYTHOLOGY OF LIFE. animals of the region. but several stages in the devel. heritage as the Lascaux or others for cooking. along with eties seeking refuge from These drawings may appear Research has identified realistically portrayed animals..c. Alexandria Project “may be our only shot.d. the with meaning for its creators. Some were cryptic to modern eyes. the visit and document any given figures evolved into distinctive site. AMANDA CASTANEDA. Altamira caves are to Europe. the elements. began to appear. But it was suffused featured striking humanlike or other events. SHUMLA ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER These “rock shelters” their long . curved walls closely tied to the plants and herringbones. AND REBIRTH. and they were full of meaning for opment of the Pecos murals. DEATH. abstract motifs—zigzags. In the face of flood modern eyes. For many years. he says. Later. figures. Around a.” NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 7 . a story in group activities. Around their creators. The earliest forms are char. SHUMLA ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER ANTLERED HUMANLIKE FIGURE AT THE WHITE SHAMAN SITE. and lattices— were a boon for early soci. 2700 b. which Roberts. we treat it as if it may multicolored designs.

true nature of circulation centuries 1618 waiting for a physician like Englishman before Harvey. tearing down the theories that had been popular in Europe for nearly 1. Harvey’s small a stroke.” a substance Galen. Galen ment and build and maintain tissues. Sometimes the 1578 throughout the body (the name artery liver might produce too much blood. his description of blood circulation has became a gigantic milestone. and the only from the heart to the lungs and contains new science about liver and veins. which meant that it needed to be arteries conveyed not blood but air constantly replenished. His icine cannot be denied. making it easier restore equilibrium. dominate European medicine and schol. dark. illness. the brain to form “pneuma. als of Chinese medicine. and his teachings would come to Some blood would come into contact with air in the lungs and go to the heart.600 to King James I of England years ago.500 years.d. and physician. proved a 400-year-old theory that body. and William Harvey is born comes from this original idea: The Greek the body became imbalanced. 1657 William Harvey dies of Published in 1628. England. as He will study medicine at By the 16th and 17th centuries scientific drawing off the excess fluid would the leading colleges and methods had evolved. arteria means “that which conveys air”). Galen’s theories were sitting ducks. responsible for sensation and feeling.CharlesI. venous blood formed in the Going puted the teachings of Galen. become widely accepted. Galen’s cure was bloodletting. At the time of volume—about 70 pages long— his death.PROFILES William Harvey’s Bloody Revolution In the 17th century this English doctor proved how blood circulates through the human body. From there. Galen lived in the second century a. successor. Instead. an accomplished Greek phy- liver and then traveled through the veins throughout the body to deliver nourish- Beyond sician and scholar. Galen taught that there are three main completes a circle and never stops mov- interconnected systems in the body: the ing. back without reaching other parts of how the blood circulates. leading to in Folkestone. Galen. the blood studies of human anatomy to identify the physiological difference did not return to the liver or the heart. PUBLISHED IN 1628 8 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 AGE FOTOSTOCK . universitiesofEurope. this bright red blood went to Circa 216 arship for centuries. dies. One of the main manu- Harvey becomes physician William Harvey to take them down. it would be consumed by the medicineforcenturies. According to the body. He also dis.. He was the first According to Galen’s theory. for new scientists to challenge the old Other scientists had discovered the ones. Ibn an-Nafis described so-called “small Harvey’s groundbreaking the heart and circulation” in which blood circulated book is published and arteries. Greek scholar Galen’s massive contributions to med.” In the 13th century the Arab doctor 1628 brain and nerves. will dominate European between veins and arteries. written 2. COVER OF ON THE MOTION OF THE HEART AND BLOOD IN ANIMALS. U ntil 1628 few Europeans dis. stated that “all of the blood and will also serve his Galen’s Anatomy in the body is pumped by the heart.

the Galenic great promise as a child. WILLIAM HARVEY CONDUCTS AN EXPERIMENT BEFORE KING CHARLES I OF ENGLAND TO DEMONSTRATE HIS THEORY OF BLOOD CIRCULATION. this philosopher and encouraged his studies. Out of respect for. SCIENCE TAKES ON SUPERSTITION HARVEY’S FAME paved the way for becoming the royal physician from 1618. Harvey dissected the toad with a scalpel and proved that it was just an or- dinary (dead) amphibian. It was at court that Har- vey became involved in the witch hunts of the 17th century. of the Royal College of Physicians. 1578. and his father Through his teachings and observa- tradition. He through the body. On one occasion. Charles I. Harvey showed James I and his successor. or fear of. In 1607 he became a fellow repeated experiments. The king appointed him as an expert wit- ness in several trials. Harvey and the Heart 1609 he was appointed physician to St. theory to explain how blood flowed through which the blood circulated. serving both in the lungs before returning to the heart.The The growing skepticism of Galen’s work Bartholomew’s Hospital in London. and Harvey’s scientific approach saved the lives of at least four women accused of being witches. RUE DES ARCHIVES/ALBUM In16th-centuryEuropeGalen’steach. and in from phlebotomies (drawing blood from NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 9 . England. As a young man tions. He applied rigorous contemporary the Belgian anatomist completed his medical education at the standards to his research and only Andreas Vesalius demonstrated in the University of Padua in 1602. a toad was alleged to be a demon in disguise: To test the theory. ingswere beginningtobechallenged. His terbury and at Cambridge University. He collected data challenge the rest of his teachings. He returned accepted conclusions as proven when 1500s the flaws in Galen’s anatomical to England and began practicing medicine they were based on evidence from description of the heart. but he did not and teaching. Har- Spanish physician Michael Servetus had a great influence on William Harvey. Charles I. He treated James I during the king’s serious illness in 1625 and would serve his son and heir. Harvey began to develop a new doctor did not describe the pathways he studied at the King’s School in Can. The son of a farmer. in became the royal physician. vey’s star continued to rise: In 1618 he arguedthatthevenousbloodwaspurified who was born in Folkestone. however.


NAMED IN HONOR of one its
most illustrious members, William
Harvey House is the accommodation
wing of the Royal College of Physicians
in London. It was built in 1826 by the
Regency architect John Nash.

a vein) and palpitations of arterial aneu- in animalibus (On the Motion of the Heart in a circle. His strongest evidence was
rysms (abnormal dilation). He conducted and Blood in Animals) in 1628. Harvey’s that it would be impossible for the body
thorough research, including numerous small volume—about 70 pages long— to replenish the amount of blood it would
dissections of human beings and as many became a gigantic milestone. consume under Galen’s theories. He
as 40 animal species. Harvey pored over In this book (first published in Latin, arrived at this conclusion by calculating
the results before compiling them and and then in English 25 years later) Harvey the total volume of blood that moves
publishing his groundbreaking Exercita- laid out the evidence supporting his case through the body in an hour and showed
tio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis that blood moved throughout the body that it was too high for the body to
replenish. Therefore, the amount of
blood in the human body must be con-
stant and in perpetual motion.
IN COLD BLOOD Harvey’s observation of beating ani-
mal hearts showed him how the heart,
AS THE ROYAL DOCTOR during the English Civil War,
not the liver, functions as the engine for
Harvey was entrusted with protecting the young chil- the circulatory system: “It must therefore
dren of King Charles I at the Battle of Edgehill in 1642. be concluded that the blood in the animal
Following the battle, he noted that a royalist left for dead body moves around in a circle continu-
in the frost had revived because the intense cold had ously and that the action . . . of the heart
slowed his blood loss. is to accomplish this by pumping.” The
action of the heart moved blood out
through the arteries to the body and then
back to the heart through the veins.


Valves in
the Veins
WILLIAM HARVEY wanted to demon-
strate how blood moved through
the body in a circuit, flowing out
through the arteries and return-
ing through the veins. Inside the
veins, Harvey observed valves
that kept the flow moving in
one direction: “The valves are
solely made and instituted
lest the blood should pass
from the greater into the
lesser veins . . . The delicate
valves, while they read-
ily open in the right
direction, entirely
prevent all contrary
motion.” Harvey’s
simple experiment (right)
Harvey applied a tourniquet He then applied pressure with his
shows the valves in action. to the arm of a volunteer, who finger to stop the blood, keeping it

gripped an object in his hand. He from flowing past point H. The vein
GALEN’S VIEW OF THE CIRCULATORY then waited for the blood vessels between points O and H did not fill
SYSTEM IN DE ARTE PHISICALI ET DE to swell due to the buildup of with blood, which demonstrated
CIRURGIA (1412) BY JOHN ARDERNE liquid flowing through them. The that there the valve at point O was
HARVEY’S VALVE EXPERIMENTS small globular protuberances acting like a dam and preventing
ILLUSTRATED IN A 1766 EDITION OF THE (B, C, D, E) indicate the presence the blood from flowing backward
OPERA OMNIA, A COLLECTION OF HIS WORKS of venous valves. toward the hand.

Aftereffects adopted by practicing physicians right pioneering work Exercitationes de gener-
Because Harvey’s work challenged the away. Traditional remedies (such as atione animalium, or On Animal Gener-
accepted ideas of the time, it was greeted enemas and purgatives) were based on ation, on embryology in 1651. The last
with a mix of interest, skepticism, and Galen’s idea of human physiology, but years of his life were spent in poor health,
hostility. In England many were intrigued doctors still applied them to patients. as he suffered from gout, kidney stones,
by his writing and persuaded by his sci- Bloodletting, in particular, remained a and insomnia before dying from a stroke.
ence. King Charles I saw the academic popular treatment for illness; even In life Harvey had been unable to prove
value of his work, but some conservative Harvey supported its use. A half century the connection between veins and arter-
doctors leveled accusations of quackery after Harvey’s death, the French king ies, but four years after his death, anoth-
at him, causing his private practice to suf- Louis XIV was still accepting traditional er scientist would build on Harvey’s leg-
fer. In Europe his discoveries were not treatments. Throughout his life, the king acy. Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694)
embraced, and detractors included lead- was treated with 2,000 purgatives, hun- revealed the passages that connected the
ing writers of the period. While Molière dreds of enemas, and 38 bloodlettings. venal and arterial systems. Using a
and Boileau supported Harvey’s views, Professionally, Harvey remained in microscope, he discovered minuscule
Descartes—who initially accepted blood service to the royal family and was sent vessels, the capillaries, the missing piece
circulation—rejected the idea that the on several diplomatic missions to of the puzzle.
heart pumped the blood. Despite initial Europe. He largely retired from public
resistance, Harvey’s theory of circulation life in 1645, but he did continue his med- —Bernat Hernández
was widely accepted by the time of his ical research into the human body with Learn more
death in 1657 at age 79. a focus on reproduction. While his work
Paradoxically, the growing acceptance on circulation is certainly his greatest BOOKS
William Harvey: A Life in Circulation
of Harvey’s work on circulation was not achievement, he also produced the Thomas Wright, Oxford University Press, 2012.



Garum, Rome’s
Funky Fish Sauce
Made from fish guts, garum was the condiment of choice
across the Roman world. A network of factories and trade
routes sprang up to feed Rome’s insatiable appetite for
this singularly smelly relish.

hat would be on the menu guts specifically—and salt. It was used
for a banquet at the home in recipes to enhance flavor. Romans
of a rich Roman at the end cooked with it either as a straight flavor-
of the first century a.d.? ing or by combining it with other ingre-
A dozen guests reclin- dients, such as pepper (garum piperatum),
ing on couches would wait for slaves to vinegar (oxygarum), wine (oenogarum),
carry laden dishes to the table. What oil (oleagarum), or even drinking
would they serve? To start, there might water (hydrogarum).
be pork with garum, followed by fish This condiment became so essential
with garum, and to wash it down: wine to the ancient Roman palate that a huge
with . . . yes, garum! network of trade routes grew up to move
So what was this essential sauce that the prized relish from fishery to plate. Like
enhanced so many Roman dishes? To- many delicacies today, the finest garum on a first-century Pompeii
day’s closest equivalent to garum is prob- could sell for astronomical sums. mosaic. Different varieties
ably fish sauce, a liquid mix of fermented As well as gracing dinner plates of fish were the key
fish and salt, which in the empire, garum was also used ingredient for garum,
is now a staple in medicinally. Its high protein content Rome’s favorite seasoning.
National Archaeological
many Southeast was thought to stimulate the appe- Museum, Naples
Asian cuisines. Like tites of recovering patients and to have SCALA, FLORENCE
modern fish sauce, curative properties for a range of mal-
Roman garum was adies. In his Natural History, Pliny the
also made from fer- Elder extols garum as a cure for dysen-
mented fish—the tery and an effective treatment for dog
bites. Pliny also recommended it for
earaches, and believed that consum-
ing African snails marinated in garum
RANCID RICHES would ward off stomach troubles.

Fish Factories
A SAUCE SALESMAN and freed slave, Aulus Umbricius
Garum’s origins lie in both Greek and
Scaurus constructed his dream house in first-
Phoenician cooking. Amphorae contain-
century Pompeii thanks to the fortune he made from
ing deposits of the sauce have been found
garum. Believed to have been the main supplier of
in shipwrecks from the fifth century b.c.,
the prized sauce to the wealthy city, his atrium was
and it is believed that its name may derive
decorated with a mosaic floor incorporating images
from the Greek word for shrimp.
of garum amphorae, including this one (left).
It was the Romans, however, who really
got a taste for the stuff. By the imperial

ensuring quick and easy access to the freshest catch. . Among the book’s simplest lovage [a green herb]. world’s craving for the fish sauce. Crush pepper. Let it assimilate with this recipe for Parthian chicken: cated near the coast. The most liquamen [a fish sauce similar seasoned with a mixture of characteristic elements of these factories to garum] and add wine. With Garum MARCUS GAVIUS APICIUS. like in Add laser [a fennel-like plant] cally. essential ingredients. chicken. The Joy of Cooking . rooms for cleaning fish. and quarter it. and a Each factory had a central patio. De re coquinaria (On the Subject of Cooking) contains period it was part of a thriving. a wealthy Roman epicure. and wine. Sprinkle with pepper. and places to store the little caraway suffused with recipes is a dish of fried eggs prized liquid when it was made. Most likely compiled in the fourth century.d. and is associated with one of the oldest cookbooks in ancient history. these production centers were lo. Typi. . cause of the stench radiating from them. Factories known as many recipes that list garum the chicken in an earthen dish cetariae proliferated to satisfy the Roman and other fish sauces as and pour the seasoning over it. Place wine and garum! were the vats in which the fish sauce was NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 13 . pan- European economy. They al- the seasoning and braise the Dress the chicken carefully so tended to be outside the city center be. lived in the first century a.

They were placed between layers inferior product to garum. 3 BOTTLING Following fermentation. the amphorae are piled up in large warehouses close to Something Fishy the beach. turned into garum. produced. they have been found excavated out of erwise disagreeable by-products—fish When the fermentation stage was rock. whitebait. a highly resistant seal. FIRST-CENTURY RELIEF. such as the one at Baelo Claudia (above). vats were filled with strained. MUSEUM OF ROMAN CIVILIZATION. depending on the type of fish used to make it and on the concentration of the liquid. It was important to add Garum Gourmets and garum. the malodorous mixture was opus signinum. but occasionally Garum conveniently used up the oth. These were normally made of carrying out both processes together: of fermentation that gave the sauce its cement set into the floor. An Two types of others. The Pliny the Elder likened the weaker product was usually destined for smell of luxury garum to that of more modest kitchens. saving the fish innards for garum production. amber liq- ant to ensure the precious glop did not fresh fish guts typically cleaned from uid was the prized sauce garum. GARUM FACTORY IN THE SECOND-CENTURY CITY OF BAELO CLAUDIA IN SOUTHERN SPAIN 4 STORING CLASSIC VISION/AGE FOTOSTOCK Ready for shipping. The resulting thick. mackerel. allec was also products were of salt and aromatic herbs and left in the widely traded. DEA/AGE FOTOSTOCK . especially made for the product. Roman Empire. the mixture is strained to obtain the garum sauce. The onto ships to be transported and traded across the whole Roman-era garum factory at Cotta in Morocco (right) was another production Mediterranean basin. tuna. The vats’interiors were coated with innards—of the salting process. and the paste left behind was called allec. and shipped out for sale. distinctive tang. made in the sun for several months until they reached cetariae: salt fish proper pungency. center where fish were harvested. 5 SHIPPING Numerous garum factories sprang up along the coasts of North Africa and The amphorae are loaded Spain. anchovies. finished. which is decanted into amphorae of a variety of sizes. near modern-day Tarifa. 2 FERMENTING Located in the center of the factory are several rectangular vats where the mix of fish guts and salt will be left for several months to ferment in the sun. factories in Armorica (modern-day Brittany in France) pro- duced cheap garum to supply the huge FISH ON A TABLE. but in the later the finest of perfumes.DA I LY L I F E 1 PREPARING In the long hall workers clean the daily catch. There just the right amount of salt—too little Not unlike different types of wine or was a very prac. garum came in all sorts of tical reason for much would disrupt the natural process different grades and prices. while seep away. ROME demand from the army. To make garum. would result in putrefaction. while too cheeses today.

scombris. of the fish sauce fermented in the Med- of marking painted on the outside of the rian Peninsula were dotted along the iterranean sun. lives on in the name of the modern town Italy was. ticular gourmet variety known as garum the Iberian Peninsula was especially rich By tracking amphorae finds. Here. lying conveniently near the sisting entirely of discarded. mouth of the Tagus River. These “labels” are a kind The majority of factories on the Ibe.” found at the Monte Testaccio in Rome. Praising whiff of the Roman Cartagena fisheries imperial consumers. a Baelo Claudia was a key garum produc. Although garum was produced in many garum amphorae from these towns have end garum. A and sea. broken food Regardless of where it came from or its Strait of Gibraltar. Andalusian coast up to Portugal and the stuff was on the inside. where the Mediterra. On some. been found all over the Roman Empire. derived from and many garum amphorae have been the finest unguents or perfumes. which was produced on the in salting factories. could nevertheless enjoy the salty tang been preserved. that once brought garum to its Cartagena in southern Spain). a practice that continues on civilized world. amphora to indicate what kind of food. scouted for high. spoil heap more than 100 feet high con- Delicacy Delivery tion center. of course. meanwhile. Pliny the Elder extols one par. but they were eral fish species. way to spawn. by land outskirts of Carthago Nova (modern-day and even tuna as their main ingredient. eventu- rae for transportation. researchers sociorum. There were many waters form the migratory route for sev. nets could be set to England as far as Hadrian’s Wall. © ÉDITIONS ERRANCE 1 The rich. ally reaching the remote hills of northern types of garum amphorae. 5 4 3 2 WATERCOLOR: JEAN-CLAUDE GOLVIN. vessels. There. Pliny put its fragrance on a par with in the area—Escombreras. These routes through western Europe. always kept separate from those used catch tuna as they passed through on their on the chilly northern boundaries of the for transporting oil or wine. all garum was stored in ampho. Many used mackerel can trace an extensive network. MUSÉE DÉPARTEMENTAL ARLES ANTIQUE. ens. Garum was also carried over land quality. soldiers and citizens inscriptions known as tituli picti have that coast to this day. nean Sea joins the Atlantic Ocean. richly supplied. different places across the Roman world. the Latin word for “mackerels. Remnants of —María José Noain Maura NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 15 . this mackerel-based product to the heav.

The tiny mummified dog’s head (below right) was either a pet. as attested by this magnificent crocodile from the first century A. BELOW: SPL/AGE FOTOSTOCK Egypt’s Eternal Animals MUMMY MENAGERIE . S.D. VANNINI/GETTY IMAGES.CROC OF AGES The Egyptian tradition of embalming animals lasted until the Roman period. or an offering to the god Anubis. often depicted as a dog.

a complex practice that has yielded revealin insights into Egyptian culture. SALIMA IKRAM .In ancient Egypt mummification w just for people: Cats. dogs. birds. c and even crocodiles were also wra in linen for the afterlife.

found able to live for eternity. and depending on an animal’s size and whether it animals intended as divine offerings. Animal mummies typically fall into then either placed in a coffin or buried. PTOLEMAIC PERIOD (323 B. dogs. FLORENCE . the time of the Old Kingdom in the third millennium b. Its mummified There is certainly no lack of specimens: Mil.C. of the creature.. were found with iron its most standard form. for example. Birds. with sacred oils and resins to inhibit bacteria century b.c.d. provided a physical refuge for the soul. whose preserved body a burial ground entirely given over to cats.butthesamebasicprin. cover it with natron (a naturally occurring mix- depicted on this it is only relatively recently that ture of several sodium compounds) to desiccate coffin (above) was mummified animals have begun to it. ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO SCALA. which was in use was similar to the one for humans. become an established custom by such as crocodiles. Technology was Beloved Companions always evolving and often varied among Recent finds have revealed yet more proof of just embalminghouses. they include a broad growth.victual (or food) ferent techniques were developed over time. remains were placed lions of artificially preserved bodies of animals Next. IN THE FORM OF A FALCON. The process 2017 archaeologists working at Berenice. on the transformed the recipient into a divine being. farsouthofmodernEgypt’sRedSeacoast. Found in museum col. A PRINCE’S PET lthough human mummies have would eviscerate the body. drying out the body the pet of the eldest catch the attention of the public. feathers. In the case of animals. how much ancient Egyptians loved their pets. Dif- four major categories: pets. In ciples underpinned the practice.and some creatures. animals.-A. ranging from beetles to body would be wrapped in linen bandages and BRIDGEMAN/ACI bulls. Cairo range of creatures. HORUS. could take 15 to 50 days.In in the first century a. GOD OF THE SKY. animals worshipped as gods. Some of The process for mummifying animals the buried animals at the site. or scales. 30). dry it.c. the Museum. wash it. had fur. and The regal cat fascinated people for centuries. depending on the size son of Amenhotep III. Mummification of people—including were sometimes eviscerated and then immersed the bodies of pharaohs—in Egypt had in a mixture of resin and oil. were not eviscerated at all. monkeys. and other domestic animals.D. embalmers collars around their necks. At the end of this lengthy process. Egyptian lections all over the world. it would be cleaned and anointed inside in the 14th survive from antiquity.

Along with the baboon. god of writing and learning. the ibis symbolized Thoth.NEWLY HATCHED The author carefully cleans an ibis mummy buried inside an earthenware vessel found in Abydos. RICHARD BARNES .

from the 10th century b. or food. pet dogs. who died around 1400 b. They were probably royal pets.C. who lived around 300 b. whose wrappings had fallen away. and those belonging to royalty were especially venerated. A beautifully preserved royal hunt- ing dog (right) was discovered in 1906 in a tomb of the Valley of the Kings. RELIEF ON THE PETS FOR LIFE MASTABA OF MERERUKA IN SAQQARA. Another well-preserved royal pet is the gazelle (below) that belonged to Queen Isetemkheb D in the 10th century B.. The animal. mon- keys. DOGS ON A LEASH. it BRIDGEMAN/ACI lay in a sycamore casket. mummies reveal a more prag- matic side. RICHARD BARNES A graveyard exclusively reserved for cherished domestic animals—whose remains were un- mummified—appears to have been a late devel- opment in Egypt’s long history of death rites for pets. was found in his coffin with his pet dog embalmed at his feet. Soul Food Victual. a couple buried at Saqqara in the 14th century b. and gazelles had been mummified and often entombed in their own coffins. wrapped in strips of linen and adorned with necklaces. Sometimes. One of the most famous. her pet gazelle. a practice recorded throughout ancient Egyptian history. THIRD MILLENNIUM B. baboons. Going back much further. A N D T H E A F T ER L I F E pets were prized across ancient Egyptian society. for example.c. cats. Discovered at Deir el Bahri in 1881. shared their tomb with many companion animals including dogs. and touching. was embalmed and placed in her tomb in a gazelle-shaped casket. cats. On or around her death. was found facing a baboon in a kind of standoff—perhaps a joke set up by grave robbers centuries ago.c. A man called Hapi-men. Horem- heb. and vervet monkeys.C.one could take everything 20 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . Pharaohs typically had their pets buried close to them. For centuries before. A baboon and a hunting dog were dis- covered in what is now known as Tomb 50 in the Valley of the Kings. such pets were buried with their owners.belonging either to the 18th-dynasty pha- raoh Amenhotep II.c.c. Both mummies are on display at the Egyptian Museum. or to the last king of that dynasty.. Cairo.in fact. examples of an owner’s love for their pet is the case of Queen Isetemkheb D. This type of mummy emphasizes the belief that.


c. and even liver have been found as provisions for the mummies. some in egg-shaped containers—clearly.c. geese. joints of meat skinned and prepared for consumption. each desiccated and anointed with resins and oils. Beef ribs and shoulders. and pigeons were common (chickens were not until about the second or third century b. another type of animal mummy performed an important spiritual function. had over 40 vict- ual mummies in his tomb. this animal would be worshipped and 22 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . This form of offering was most common in elite burials in the New Kingdom period (1539- 1075 b. LONDON SCALA. although un-mummified food offer- ings have been discovered from earlier.C. legs of veal. EGYPT. King Tutankhamun. SECOND MILLENNIUM B.c. Priests often identified the “chosen ones” by their dis- tinctive markings or coloration. then wrapped—presumably without the same prayers that were used for pets and other animal mummies—before being placed in cas- kets often mimicking the shape of the food. Ducks.. Poultry and meat were preserved to be human sustenance in the afterlife.BOWL FROM THEBES THEBES. BRITISH MUSEUM. By the New Kingdom poultry was being plucked. which meant that the deceased would need food. he would not go hungry! Gods on Earth In addition to companionship and sustenance. EGYPT CONTAINING REMAINS OF DRIED FISH AND LINEN STRIPS. and that the afterlife is very similar to an ideal earthly existence. who died when he was a teen- ager in the 14th century b. The Egyptians believed that a particular god could send his or her“essence”into the body of an animal. During its life- time.). FLORENCE with them.).

can be seen carefully stacked beneath one of the pharaoh’s funeral beds in the photo. The image in this photo was taken by the Carter expedition photographer. GRIFFITH INSTITUTE. Harry Burton.D U C K D I N N ER S I N T H E A F T ER L I F E when howard carter discovered Tutankhamun’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings in November 1922. in 2015.” These distinctive white containers. he found not only the boy king’s magnificent grave goods but also “a pile of oviform [egg-shaped] wooden cases. and digitally colorized by Dynami- chrome on behalf of the Griffith Institute at the University of Oxford. containing trussed ducks and a variety of other food offerings. UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD . stashed with sustenance for the young king’s sojourn into the afterlife.

Here. con- ing and learning. near its predecessors in a granite sarcophagus. abounds. known as the Serapeum. god of potency. The oldest such cult was that of the Apis bull. people began a lengthy hand.) DEPICTING WORSHIP OF AN APIS BULL. it was mummifiedandburiedwithgreatpomp. After death.lived well beyond the average age of normal rams. written in the second or first century B.C.god of writ. After its death. Rams sacred to Khnum. The Khnum rams. 24 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . PARIS DEA/ALBUM treated as if it were a god.C. who was sacred to the creator god Ptah of Mem- phis and was buried at the Serapeum at Saqqara. for all Apis bulls. creation. were buried at Elephantine. where it received ev- The fourth animal mummy type. all of which are attributes of a cat. dying when they were over 20 years old. were sacred to the removed by injecting solvents through the anus. only Egypt was the Apis bull. the mummy was carried to a beauty. and After completion. love. one of the most important sacred animals in combshavebeenlootedsinceancienttimes. other bull deities are known from Heliopolis near Memphis and Armant near Luxor. and inundation. Each balmed. deity had a specific animal that was its symbol: The viscera were usually not extracted but instead Cats. It can be found in museums all mourning period sometimes lasting as long as over the world: This is the votive offering.STELA FROM THE SERAPEUM OF SAQQARA (13TH CENTURY B. S AC R ED COW S Unfortunately.partly because their beaks took structed in the 13th century B. while the site of Bubastis housed a cat dedicated to the goddess Bastet. as mentioned above. LOUVRE MUSEUM. a process described in detail in the Apis Papyrus. ibises special catacomb at nearby Saqqara reserved were consecrated to the god Thoth.C. on the other ery comfort. often hand-fed with mash when their teeth had worn down entirely.given that so many of these cata. a god of the underworld. a 70 days. Many such animals lived to an unusually old age due to the care that they received. the Apis bull lived in stables near the Divine Offerings deity’s temple in Memphis.for example. goddess Bastet. a few sacred-animal mummies have been found. goddess of pleasure. The animal’s body was carefully em- mummified animal sacrificed to the gods. worshipped at Memphis. The incarnation of the god Ptah. it was buried the shape of a pen.and the spirit of the god would transfer to a new animal.

its wrappings and false eyes are still in good condition.BULL’S EYE A technician (above) examines an Apis bull by x-ray. KYODO NEWS/GETTY IMAGES . Thanks to careful preparation of the body centuries ago. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION ENTOMBED All Apis bulls were buried in colossal sarcophagi such as the one shown to the left. located in the Serapeum of Saqqara near the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis.

located near the modern settlement of Tunah al
Jabal in central Egypt, the city of Hermopolis was
sacred from early in Egyptian history to Thoth, god of
writing and learning, later associated with the Greek
god Hermes. Among its many monuments are the
remarkable catacombs along its northern bound-
ary, containing huge quantities of votive mummies
of ibises and baboons sacrificed and embalmed in
honor of Thoth. Most of these offerings were made
in the Greco-Roman period, but at least one item—
a baboon sarcophagus—is dated to the time of the
Persian king Darius I, who ruled Egypt in the fifth
FALCON HEAD FROM THE PTOLEMAIC PERIOD. LOUVRE MUSEUM, PARIS and sixth century B.C. The rock-cut chambers in the
RMN-GRAND PALAIS foreground of this image were for baboon mummies.
Farther down, ibis mummies were placed.

These mummified animals were purchased
from the priests and offered by pilgrims at
shrines dedicated to the respective gods. The
mummified animals would, it was believed,
present the prayers of the pilgrim to the god
that are burned in churches today.Once offered,
the mummies would remain in the temple pre-
cincts until an annual or biannual celebration,
possibly attended by thousands of pilgrims,
when they would be interred in tombs associ-
ated with the temple.
To meet demand,animals were probably bred
for the purpose. The creation of these mum-
economy. The overhead costs were consider-
able: The animals had to be acquired, housed,
fed, and then sacrificed and mummified with
materials traded from different parts of Egypt
as well as from abroad. Their sale to pilgrims,
however, would have raised significant funds
for the temple.
A vast range of creatures were offered: cats,
dogs, crocodiles, gazelles, fish of different
types—including catfish and Nile perch—
baboons, raptors, ibises, baboons, shrews, and
scarab beetles. By 200 b.c. catacombs could be
mified offerings to the gods.
The largest of these found so far is a colos-
sal mass grave at Saqqara, discovered in 1897.
An excavation in 2009, followed by a second
in 2012, uncovered astonishing findings: Built
around 2,500 years ago, the catacomb holds the



T H E I N S I D E S TO RY bird bones
3-D image of the
the investigation of Egypt’s animal mummies interior of a kestrel
has entered a new age as changes in technology mummy from the
allow researchers to examine intact mummies Ptolemaic period.
without unwrapping them, so sparing them dam- South African
age. Radiography—x-rays and CT scans—can Mummy Project
provide clear initial images. Imaging technology AND VISION GRAPHICS

can even make 3-D prints of the skeleton within
the wrappings. Scholars are also using chemi-
cal analysis of embalming agents to identify the
materials used in mummification. These chemi-
cal “signatures” can reveal more about
where and how mummies were
made. DNA analysis is increas-
ingly used to understand the
genetic development of the
different species that were
preserved, providing insight
into how these creatures have
evolved over time. Another new technique is ex-
perimental mummification, in which researchers count the crocs
actually make mummies for themselves. This When the National Museum of
highly practical form of research sheds valu- Antiquities of the Netherlands ran a 3-D
able light on how mummies were made, the scan on a sixth-century B.C. mummy,
technologies and materials that create specific they found it held two adults (white,
results, and the most effective ways to mum- above; red, below) surrounded by
47 young (blue).
mify different animals. As technological sophis- INTERSPECTRAL
tication increases, future studies will yield yet
more fascinating information on the complex
role of these objects in the economic,
religious, and emotional lives of
the ancient Egyptians.


The feline-shaped casket containing a cat mummy is from the Ptolemaic period. THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER . Manchester Museum. England MANCHESTER MUSEUM.cat scan The University of Manchester is undertaking a major project to study more than 800 votive- animal mummies from 57 museums around the world.

c. Mummification technology in- forms us about the ancient Egyptians’ knowl- edge of chemistry. 30 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . Unwrapping Egypt In addition to what they reveal of ancient beliefs ram and cultural practices. they might enclose the bones of a different species. Among votive offerings found in other parts of Egypt are “false” mummies. Paris how animals were butchered. then it magically were associated with became so through the supporting prayers. animal mummies also Mummified rams— this one is either provide scholars with a great deal of informa.d. is now in the British Museum. baboons thing was a particular item. the practice possi. London. animal bones. foreign invaders overran Egypt. This Although sacred-animal cults. such as what foods were the gods Khnum and Amun. SALIMA IKRAM IS DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY IN CAIRO AND A FOUNDER OF THE ANIMAL MUMMY PROJECT AT CAIRO’S EGYPTIAN MUSEUM.remains of eight million creatures. and their treatment. and the animal cults allowed Egyptians to define themselves. and that if one said or wrote that some. such as that of seated mummy (period unknown) was found the Apis bull. burial complex in er in Egyptian history. The enduring popularity of animal offerings might partly be due to national sentiment: In later history. but also yield practical clues as to Museum. Were the pilgrims being swindled by the priests? A more charitable theory is that the Egyptians believed that a part could signify the baboon whole. reveal much about veteri- nary methods. around 600 b. Louvre highly valued. Located near the Temple of Anubis—the dog-like deity of death and the afterlife—the corpses are mainly those of dogs and puppies. or trauma to. or even feathers. Although wrapped to resemble a specific animal.c. the god Thoth. Although central Egypt and weakened by Christianity. religiously and culturally.. Victual mummies not only associated with reveal cultural insights. in the Tunah al Jabal the practice of votive mummies started much lat. from the Ptolemaic tion about different aspects of ancient Egypt’s or Roman era—are society and economy. Signs of disease in. are known from around 3000 b. Along with ibises. and the materials used to make millions of mummies provide an insight into the trade networks and economy of this millennial culture. bly survived as late as the fourth century a. The study of the different species used sheds light on the climate and environment of those times and how it has changed since. remnants of one or several animals.

one of the gods crocodile eggs. such as this crocodile mummies— mummies are shown on this page. have been found at fertility god Sobek. The jackal the Roman era—and is associated with even mummies of Anubis. example from the such as this one from PHOTOS: BRITISH MUSEUM/SCALA. Today these mummies are Many jackal mummies Associated with the carefully conserved by museums for their cultural. been found across British Museum Egypt. British Museum . One such center was the cult of the cat goddess. G I F T S F O R T H E G O DS during egypt’s later period—from the beginning of the Ptolemaic period in the fourth century B. historical. children jackal crocodile tourists Today. and scientific value.C. Bastet. British Museum cats X-ray analysis conducted at the British Museum on Roman-era mummies such as these has revealed the method used to kill them: Their necks were broken. have of the underworld. where a vast number of votive cat mummies were produced to meet demand. sold them to tourists. As European inter- est in Egypt boomed in the 19th century. in Bubastis in Lower Egypt. to the Roman occupation in A. FLORENCE. Pilgrims offered them to the gods in places of worship all over the country. 30—the mummy- production industry flourished.D. Examples of votive Abydos. RAM: DEA/AGE FOTOSTOCK Roman era.

a subterranean realm ruled by the taciturn god Hades.In the myths of ancient Greece. As Greek culture evolved. dead souls and living heroes alike traveled to the underworld. so did ideas about the afterlife and the kinds of rewards and punishments awaiting mortals there. DAVID HERNÁNDEZ DE LA FUENTE .

Vienna CULTURE-IMAGES/ALBUM .GUIDE TO THE OTHER SIDE The messenger god Hermes also guided souls to the underworld. Oil painting by Adolf Hirémy- Hirschl. Belvedere Gallery. 1898. Here he is shown surrounded by the spirits of the dead waiting on the banks of the River Styx.

the underworld held an im. first they are judged and sentenced. an ethical dimension ter. including the Taenarum near Sparta. The beast the emerging idea of the immortality would allow entrance but would viciously of the soul. regal—but finds it a uniformly dreary. guard where Hades kidnapped Persephone. about the afterlife continued to evolve. sculptor Gian poem the Aeneid.. while Other divine creatures lived in the un. Here lived a sibyl who was said to this 1622 statue. The geographical location of the as they have lived well and piously. Aeneas before he travels to the underworld. also dwelled in rather more familiar to modern minds. Typically Plato’ s vision of rewards and punish- it was underground: Some myths placed ments for the life lived on earth later the portals in volcanoes. gray place. both to Hades’realm. lifeless dead. and distant.H eroes in ancient Greek myth might STEALING observed that toxic gases killed birds. a dia- was the mythical ferryman who car. genius. logue about the soul and the afterlife. but sooner or later they all end. disembodied ghosts?”Achilles wealth. Rome L. attack anyone who tried to leave. He most likely became tied goes on: “I would rather work the soil as to them because of the riches that a serf. Charon losopher Plato wrote Phaedo.C. Hades abducts of the most famous is a cave in Cumae. created by heroes who all made it to hell and back. the phi- to Thanatos. especially come to the place where each is led by his murder and murder of family members. bearded. caverns. or not. the sixth century B. became lord of the underworld. of Hercules. and Hades Odyssey. During the centuries after Homer.” underworld was not set in stone. The Tartarus.” side his queen. This concept of reward and pun- three-headed dog Cerberus guarded the ishment might have been connected to gates to the house of Hades. the bad were consigned to the torments of derworld with Hades and his queen. FLORENCE Imagining the Afterlife threw their tyrannical father. Theseus. Persephone (Pro. on hire to some landless. near Lake portant place in Greek myth. as spirits were divided into the just Hades and taken to the underworld and unjust. ROMANO/SCALA. Ruled by Hades. Orpheus. In Virgil’s first-century B. A fissure have had adventures on land or at A QUEEN in ancient Enna in Sicily is held by tradition to be sea. the three brothers Ideas about the afterlife were constantly develop- drew lots to determine who would rule each realm. By daughter of the goddess Deme. in Italy. erished peasant than be King of all these Hades ruled the underworld along.C. Poseidon. Persephone was kidnapped by entered. appearing in tales Persephone in Avernus.C. Hades. sian Fields or the Isles of the Blessed. After the six children of Cronus and Rhea over. In Homer’s epic poem The Zeus won the sky. The good were taken to the Ely- to be his bride. the Sibyl of Cumae counsels Lorenzo Bernini. brother of howls as the god also considered gateways to the underworld. where it was tracked neatly onto Christian notions 34 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . Cerberus. the god of death. One Zeus and Poseidon. ing in ancient Greece. Hades’domain and were responsible for Plato wrote: “Now when the dead have punishing mortals for crimes. which encounters the Greek war hero Achilles. ideas serpine in Roman mythology). or Erinyes. He remains aloof. Rulers of the Dead Borghese Gallery. Brother In the fourth century B. the hero Odysseus visits the underworld and bles his brothers—mature. the sea. The His ideas about the underworld seem three Furies. written around the eighth century B.”was also known who asks him:“How did you dare to come by the names Pluto and Dis.C. ried spirits across the River Styx. Hades resem. were the dead. and Odysseus— be able to tell the future. where the dead live on as names associated with gods of mindless. impov- came from underneath the ground. means“the unseen one. Numerous dog of the ed up in the same place: the land of underworld. cold.

h ment of the idea of purgatory in the Middle Ages: “Those who are found to have lived neither well nor ill.he must not look back. go to the Acheron [one of the rivers of the underworld] and. as she follows him into the SINCE ANTIQUITY. The katabasis in several places in The Lord of the Rings. Known in Greek as katabasis. kingdom have inspired artists to sketch what the not resistthetemptationtolookoverhisshoulder.” g Going to Hell Literature was also deeply affected by ideas E D of the afterlife.the underworld has appeared ER ST OC T UT in many myths. on the condition that. and return from. In Virgil’s Greek authors. the as well: J.Orpheus can. the river of oblivion. Anchises.As the last of his 12 labors. The souls of those HISTORIAN DAVID HERNÁNDEZ DE LA FUENTE IS A SPECIALIST IN CLASSICAL HISTORY AND ITS LEGACY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE. writers’ descriptions of Hades’ world above. Hades grants him his request. the river of woe. embarking upon vessels provided for them. and F Cocytus. judged to have lived good lives spend their afterlives in the h Elysian Fields.strongman In the minds of the Greeks. According to works from then until the modern era. above. Tolkien employed elements of the souls had to wander the shore for a hundred years.arrive in them at the lake. R. and to his anguish. five rivers existed in the underworld. The medieval poet could only be crossed with the help of the ferryman. and if they have done any wrong they are absolved by paying the penalty for F their wrong doings. Odysseus trav- els to the underworld to seek the advice of the deceased prophet Tiresias. the river as a symbolic journey to hell. fields. the b River Styx. Instructed by the sorceress Circe. One key idea in Phaedo even influenced the Catholic Church’s develop. of lamentation—flowed around G Tartarus. contained water Joseph Conrad’s novel Heart of Darkness—the tale that produced forgetfulness in whoever drank from it. such as rivers. Raised by the Muses. the underworld was an Hercules must travel to the land of the dead to actual physical place that had geographical features bring Cerberus back to the living. Aeneid. E to retrieveamadivorytrader—isofteninterpreted Phlegethon. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 35 . A The entrance to The katabasis has appeared in countless other the underworld lay outside the realm. Aeneas descends into the underworld to The most famous. c River Lethe. this ZO L INO /SH MAR journey often sends the hero on a quest for knowl- edge that can only be found in the land of the dead. Modern writers use this motif Some myths claimed that if the fee went unpaid. of one man’s quest up and down the Congo River The last three rivers—d Acheron. R. and caverns. The motif of a hero’s descent K to. the flaming river. Orpheus uses his musical gifts to persuade Hades GEOGRAPHY OF and Persephone to allow his beloved wife Eurydice THE UNDERWORLD to return to life. of the dead. is one example. a deep abyss of eternal torment where those judged wicked were sent to be punished for eternity. bounded it and seek out his father. there they dwell and are purified. Charon. the circles of hell. landscape of the Greek underworld might look like. A c b of judgment after death.Eurydice disappears to the land The 1850 French illustration. A common death ritual was to place a coin Dante places the narrator of The Divine Comedy in in the mouth of the deceased to pay for the journey.

and Atropos cut it at life’s end." Clotho spun the thread of life. Lachesis measured Some writers suggest this is a euphemism. painful demises. sovereign of the underworld—also known determined how long a person’s life would last: as Pluto—was often referred to as "the rich one. The Keres. to it. Death itself avoid speaking his dreaded name. forms with both positive and negative attributes. were death goddesses that the poet realm deep within the ground. Thanatos was believe it is because Hades was associated not the god of death. 1 Ruler of the Dead A statue of Pluto (Hades) from the Roman theater at Mérida. JAVIER SOBRINO/AGE FOTOSTOCK MASTERS OF MORTALITY GODS OF LIFE AND DEATH IN ANCIENT GREEK culture. nonviolent ends.D. were three goddesses who Hades. which both come from his other hand. Other scholars could come in several forms. Some believed he delivered just with death but with the wealth of precious peaceful. presided over the dead. death came in many mortals died or deliver death itself. also called the Moirai. 36 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . First to second century A. Spain. The Fates. on the metals and gems. Hades only Hesiod associated with violent. he did not decide when especially on the battlefield.

and dancers were hired for the funeral. Italy.C. The one shown here is by the so-called Thanatos Painter from the fifth century B. AKG/ALBUM Grieving in Ancient Greece During burials. lekythos vessels were often decorated with scenes. singers. mourners. It portrays the gods Thanatos (Death) and his twin Hypnos (Sleep) carrying a warrior’s body. tomb in Ruvo.C.Measuring a Man’s Life Three goddesses—the Fates—were responsible for apportioning the length of human life. It depicts the Fates as three old women about to cut the thread. women walked behind the procession and—unless they were close relatives—could only attend if they were over 60. as shown in this scene from a fourth- century B. Flutists. London BRITISH MUSEUM/SCALA. such as in this 16th-century oil painting by Francesco Salviati from the Palazzo Pitti in Florence. NAPLES/BRIDGEMAN/ACI Death Has Wings Placed in tombs as an offering. a decision which not even the gods could change. FLORENCE . British Museum. NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM. The baleful presence of the Fates is a recurring theme in art history.

Charon was often depicted as an old. Minos. The trial of the soul determined the reward or pun- ishment for the deceased. while Aeacus was gentler and more merciful. with Minos still casting the third and final vote. In the case of any ties. or soul guide. it was Minos who cast the deciding vote on the fate of the soul. After paying the ferryman (the dead were often buried with a coin in their mouth for Charon). and Rhadamanthus. Another account divides up the judges by geography rather than personality: Aeacus judged the people of Europe. all sons of Zeus: Aeacus. they waited for the decrepit ferryman Charon to transport them across the river. they crossed the river. In some accounts. Next they would appear before the three judges of the dead. Rhadamanthus was known for his harshness. . Rhadamanthus the people of Asia. These three had been mortal and were granted their positions after death as reward for their wisdom and fairness in life. On the banks of the River Styx. bearded man carry- ing a pole. Son of Nyx (Night) and Erebos (Darkness).THE FINAL JOURNEY WELCOME TO THE UNDERWORLD THE SOULS OF THE DEAD were transported from the tomb to the entrance of the underworld by the god Hermes in the role of psychopompos.

Valencia. he handles the pole BRIDGEMAN/ACI himself. Museum of Fine Arts. La Rochelle. Here. itting in Judgment rossing Over The 19th-century French artist Gustave Doré The early 20th-century Spanish painter imagines the souls of the dead as they plead José Benlliure’s vision of the journey to the their cases before the three great judges of the underworld in Charon’s boat. VALENCIA/BRIDGEMAN/ACI . The ferryman underworld. is a hideous. skeletal creature with a wild. the deceased souls were forced to row the boat. and Aeacus. In other accounts. Spain MUSEO SAN PIO V. Rhadamanthus. Minos. France gray beard. Museum of Fine Arts.

As a com- promise. Persephone’s comings and goings came to explain the changing seasons. POINT OF NO RETURN “PROSERPINE” (PERSEPHONE) BY DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI. Rather than let the world starve. Zeus allowed Persephone to spend a portion of the year with her mother and the other part of the year with Hades. the world darkens and cools during fall and winter.3RELUCTANT RULER QUEEN OF THE DEAD THE ANCIENT GREEKS initially saw the underworld as a gloomy place. Demeter. LONDON/ALBUM 40 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . 1874. roamed the earth in search of her missing daughter after she disappeared. Zeus ordered Hades to return Persephone so that Demeter would allow the earth to bloom again. and the queen of the dead also became known as the goddess of spring. After she returns to Ha- des. When Persephone returns to her mother. for Persephone had eaten the seeds of a pome- granate while in the underworld. Ha- des presides over it with his wife. devoid of light and air. the world grows warm and green throughout the spring and summer months. whom he kidnapped after being captivated by her beauty. Persephone’s mother and goddess of agricul- ture. LONDON TATE. Persephone was an unwilling resi- dent and longed to return to the world above. Persephone (called Proserpine by the Romans). TATE BRITAIN. Nothing would grow until Demeter found her. Anyone who tasted the food in the land of the dead could not return to the land of the living. But the mother and child reunion was bittersweet.

An Egyptian Twist These first-century B. Persephone. DEA/SCALA / . statues of Hades. while Hades wears a kálathos. Their presence attests to the blending of different cults in the ancient world: Persephone is assigned symbols related to Isis. such as the crescent moon on her forehead. and Cerberus were found on the island of Crete in a temple dedicated to the Egyptian goddess Isis and the Greco- Egyptian god Serapis.C. a headdress worn by Serapis. Heraklion Archaeological Museum. Crete DEA/SCALA. FLORENCE .

Zeus freed them so they thus "tantalizing" him for eternity. When Zeus and the Olympic gods ters. Later myths imagined Tartarus as the ment is to try to fill a tub with water to wash away setting for the carrying-out of divine punishments their crimes—but no matter how much water they against mortals. they cast down Cronus and his allies night. For instance. Before the recedes. Staatliche Kunstsammlungen. who all slew their husbands on their wedding triumphed. The sentences were often as pour into it. head. the tub leaks and can never be filled. the king tomless abyss located far beneath the underworld. the water toncheires (hundred-handed giants). their divine punish- to Tartarus. Tantalus—who murdered his own son and served In myth. King Danaus’s 50 daugh- of the Titans. it was often used as a prison for defeated his flesh to the gods—is condemned to suffer thirst deities: After the Titan Cronus overthrew his father. Sentenced to Tartarus. Another myth could fight with him against Cronus and the rest describes the Danaïds. diabolical as the crimes. Furious with a mortal queen. Juno’s Revenge Jan Brueghel the Elder’s 1590s painting imagines the descent of Juno (Hera. if he reaches for food. and hunger for all time. it sways out of reach. Made to stand in a pool of the sky god Uranus. bunches of ripened fruit are hung over his his hideous brothers. PRISON AND PUNISHMENT THE TORMENTS OF TARTARUS THE REGION OF TARTARUS was envisioned as a bot. Dresden BRIDGEMAN/ACI . Cronus used it to incarcerate water. If he stoops to drink from the pool. in Greek) into the underworld as told in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. the Cyclopes and the Heca. Juno asks the Furies—terrifying goddesses of vengeance who dwell in the underworld—to drive the queen and her family insane. battle to usurp his father.

only to watch it roll down again. Museum of Fine Arts. Hera (Juno).Hard Labor In this 1548-49 oil painting. France BRIDGEMAN/ACI . Titian depicts the terrible suffering inflicted on Sisyphus. Madrid ALBUM One Bad Tur After Zeus pardone i for killing his father-in-law. Nantes. Prado Museum. In Tartarus Ixion was bound to a fiery wheel for his eternal punishment. graphically depicted in this 1876 oil painting by Jules-Élie Delaunay. His punishment in Tartarus is to push a rock up a hill. the trickster who dared deceive Hades himself. Ixion—king of the Lapiths—did something rather foolish: He tried to seduce Zeus’s queen. whereupon he must push it back up again—forever.

ma anyy brave and clever heroes must find their w ways into and out of the realm of Hades—som mee to retrieve a lost love. stuck to a rock fa acee. Thee musician Orpheus travels there to reunite with his dead wife. Along with Orpheus and Odysse euss. k and others to achieve an im- possible task. The trickster Odysseus must see ek the t advice of the dead prophet Tirresias. but Herculess iss so pow- erful that he wounds the immo ortaal Hades. Cerberus. who remains imp i prisoned. Dog D g Catcher For his 12th labor. others to gain secreet knowledge. who w o returns to the land of the living. but cannott free his com- panion Pirithous. DEA/GETTY IMAGES . Hades agrees Hercules can have the dog. but only if he can subdue him. Classical schol- ars call this perilous journey the katabasis ("a going down"). who w o wished to kidnap Persephone and make heer his bride. and Pirithouss an nd Theseus are trapped. Hades attempts to prrevvent the hero from entering. the legendaaryy founder of Athens. Hercules manages to rescue Theseus. who then has to be taken to Mount Olympus for healing. Euryddicee. Theseus had accompan nieed his friend Pirithous. Hercules must enter the underworld and capture Cerberus the guardian of the gates.C. the mighty Hercules ventured into Haades’ kingdom to carry out his 12th la abo or: the capture of the many-headed hound d of hell. Their quest failed. a moment re-created in this black-figure vase from the sixth century B. king of the Lapiths. Hercules’ journeyy en nables him to rescue someone else who em mb barked on a katabasis: Theseus.THE KATABASIS GOING DOWWN TO HADES IN A WEALTH OF GREEK MYTHS.

Jean-Baptiste Corot shows the couple after crossing the River Styx. Paris H. Houston BRIDGEMAN/ACI . Louvre Museum. about to leave the underworld. to induce him to answer the hero’s questions. Museum of Fine Arts. but Orpheus cannot avoid turning and so loses his beloved forever. In this 1861 oil painting. This second-century bas-relief shows the hero offering a blood sacrifice to the spirit of Tiresias. LEWANDOWSKI/RMN-GRAND PALAIS on’t Look Back Hades and Persephone allow Orpheus to return to earth with his beloved Eurydice on one condition: Orpheus and Eurydice are not allowed to look back during their return. n Offering o the Dead In The Odyssey Homer recounts how Odysseus travels down to the kingdom of Hades to speak to the deceased prophet Tiresias about the dangers awaiting him on his return home to Ithaca.

the building’s original purpose and construction remain one of rome’s greatest mysteries.000 years.The Original Superdome OF THE PANTHEON the soaring dome of rome’s pantheon has been wowing visitors for nearly 2. despite being one of the empire’s best preserved structures. LUIS BAENA DEL ALCÁZAR .

D. GIOVANNI SIMEONE/FOTOTECA 9X12 .. it was built on the site of an earlier structure.DIVINE SUNLIGHT Ever changing light floods through the oculus that pierces the mighty dome spanning Rome’s Pantheon. raised to glorify Augustus. Dedicated by Emperor Hadrian in the second century A.

118-125 a. his adoptive architects.d. and converted into a god. but Augustus wisely the third time. what it was for. according to legend.. To structures SCALA. had been assassinated due to fears that original Pantheon looked like.” His writings have IMPERIAL DESIGNS as the Campus Martius (Field of Mars) that then caused headaches for historians—not only Over a century after lay outside the city walls. T wenty-seven b.d. FLORENCE symbolic act because. Agrippa had accrued a colossal fortune from may have been dedicated to the gods of Rome. 609 Work on the first After the build.c. Hadrian’s refused the honor: Julius Caesar. becoming the sole ruler of Rome. son statue of Augustus inside and dedicate the tem. both victors of makes it unclear if he is writing about Agrippa’s Augustus. shown here in a impressive new public bath complex entailed Whatever its form or function. The king.” Despite this homage. and he or—his own preferred theory—“that its dome decided to spend it developing the area known resembled the heavens. Pantheon. An original structure or a later incarnation. was the first Pantheon. 81 a. Hadrian— key naval battles. Domi. Damaged by fire in 80 a.d. a monumen. of an urban reform effort begun by Emperor to beautifying Rome By far the most impressive part of the site. Rome’s founder and first scriptions praising the original builders. had been caught up in a great storm. taken Pantheon was no exception: Below the pediment up to heaven. . Martyres. but also because the reference to a dome imperial monument- building began under whom Agrippa and Augustus. Hadrian shortly after his accession in 117. of Lucius. Later. and Agrippa is credited theon was badly damaged by fire in A. made [this building] when consul for ple to the new emperor. he had kingly ambitions. a. his military campaigns under Augustus. a deity unusual. and even whether it was called the Pantheon at Dio Cassius speculated that the temple all.c. who have not yet been definitively 27 b. old temple was pulled down to make way for the Pantheon. Florence— with creating the template for the water system repaired by Emperor Domitian. There is some confusion over what Agrippa’s father. Emperor Hadrian Pope Boniface IV Pantheon begins ing is damaged constructs a magnifi. this he restored or rebuilt. and rebuilt however. as part dedicated his reign that served imperial Rome for years to come.d. In January Octavian proclaimed himself Augustus. because dedicating a temple to all the gods was the first flurry of ments included the Basilica of Neptune. it was restored to glory by 128 and went on to achieve lasting architectural fame. Pantheon as DIVINE that Octavian becomes tian repairs the original which is topped by a massive the Church of Santa Maria ad HISTORY emperor. tal temple. of the main facade is an inscription in bronze let- The second-century historian Dio Cassius ters that reads:“M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] wrote that Agrippa had intended to erect a great co[n]s[ul] tertium fecit—Marcus Agrippa. concrete dome. marked the event by laying thefoundationfor what would become one of Rome’s most famous monuments:thePantheon. Agrippa’s Pan- second-century major infrastructure. the further. Placing it on the Field of Mars was a the building that stands today. His son-in-law. cent new Pantheon. consecrates the in the same year by fire. Agrippa’s new monu. had special cause to thank. 80 and bust from the Uffizi Gallery.D. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Hadrian often added in- was where Romulus. was an important year for Rome.

The site of the modern-day Piazza della Rotonda was once part of the Field of Mars. Agrippa. GEORG GERSTER/AGE FOTOSTOCK .URBAN RENEWAL Seven concrete rings that give rigidity to the Pantheon’s dome are clearly visible from above. intensively developed by Augustus’ son-in-law.

) Horologium g (1st century B. became a god.) Augustus resisted this potentially inflammatory act.C. Rome’s mythological founder. and until Augustus’ time. Altar of Faustina Minor (2nd century A.D. which he began building in 28 B.D. Its gnomon (shadow-caster) was an Egyptian obelisk taken by Augustus from Heliopolis.) Altar of Faustina Major (2nd century A. INCLUDING HADRIAN’S PANTHEON AT ITS HEART. Situated in a bend of the Tiber River outside the old city walls. the Field of Mars had long been used as an exercise ground. THE ILLUSTRATION IS BASED ON A MODEL DESIGNED BY ARCHITECT ITALO GISMONDI. to house his remains. early imperial structures on the Field of Mars. the symbolic importance of the building was plain: a straight line could be drawn from it to Augustus’ mausoleum. included the Horologium.C. MANY OF ITS KEY MONUMENTS CAN BE SEEN HERE.C. also intended to exalt the figure of Augustus. a monumental sundial. ON DISPLAY AT ROME’S MUSEUM OF ROMAN CIVILIZATION. 1. Agrippa’s decision to erect the temple next to the traditional site where Romulus. the son-in-law of augustus. shows a clear intention to unite the cult of Augustus to that of Rome’s founder.) Mausoleum of Augustus (1st century B. Other. . constructed the first Pantheon in the Field of Mars.) ROME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE FOURTH CENTURY. Although Temple of Hadrian (2nd century A.D. A SYMBOLIC SITE agrippa. was largely free of structures.

the Circus Maximus 6.c.d.) Rome’s Expansion The Pantheon 1 and the Stadium of 4 Domitian 2 were in the Field of Mars.C.) Pantheon (2nd century A.D. Theater of Pompey (1st century B.D.C.) Baths of Nero (1st century A. 5 The image shows the location of other important monuments.) Stadium of Domitian (1st century A. and the 7 Baths of Diocletian 8. It remained the city’s main 2 defense until another 4 was built in the ILLUSTRATIONS: DEA/AGE FOTOSTOCK era of Aurelian in the third century a. niece of Trajan (2nd century A.D. Tiber River . the Baths of Caracalla 7.) Temple of Matidia.D. defen- sive Servian Wall 3. such as the 6 the Colosseum 5. built in the fourth 1 8 century b.) Saepta Julia (1st century B. View shown above 3 which lay outside Rome’s early.

Porch This dome (also known as a cupola) rests on a PLAN OF THE PANTHEON sturdycylindricalbasesome20feetthick. so that whatever was done was made public. into thinking the new temple was traditional. now known as Santa Ma. Today. Each 52 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . floated down best preserved of all Ro.nowintheForumorthePantheonorvarious but the exterior might have deceived visitors other places. From the outside. Interest in classical monuments grew during using techniques that amaze engineers today.thewidestunsup- nouncement to the Virgin portedspaneverbuilt. 3 and upheaval. so the magnificent rotunda and the the Pantheon emerged relatively unscathed famous dome were both hidden from sight. but no one could ever have anticipated the mag- Flanked by twin pillars. diameter. created a structure that surpassed the great 16th-century painters Raphael and the original. RAUCH/AGE FOTOSTOCK 1 icated to Christian themes. the Nile on barges and then on boats across the man buildings in the world. was buried in the Pantheon.000 years S. a vast. was adorned with numerous bothstructureswereonlybestedbymoderncon- masterpieces of Christian struction techniques in the 20th century.until their journey ended surviving centuries of war in Rome. always being seated on a tribunal. the first king of a united Italy. Victor Emman- Although the purpose of the Pantheon in this uel II.itwas. Hadrian’s architects set out to create a structure sculpture and art from the Renaissance and ba- roque periods.The traditional facade was impressive. Dio Cassius states of the building’s symbolic significance for the in his history that the emperor Hadrian used nation of Italy. The church also contains the tombs of identified.forcenturies. is today. it broke new architectural ground. Standing nearly 40 feet tall and made of granite. Santa Maria del Fiore equals or surpasses the As a church. Following his death in 1878.which 1 TOMB OF VICTOR EMMANUEL II in turn sits on foundations of rubble-based 2 TOMB OF RAPHAEL 3 HIGH ALTAR Roman concrete. angular gable borne on 16 Corinthian columns.At about 142 feet in the Annunciation (the an. niches carved into the thick Upon entering.the nificent sight awaiting them inside. ria ad Martyres.thearchitecturedrawsthegazeupwardtothe such as the Crucifixion and curving surface of the dome. the initial impression was of 2 walls of the rotunda are ded. with a tri- a Christian church.They were helped it become one of the imported from Egyptian quarries. the Pantheon diameter of the Pantheon’s dome. it for government purposes and “transacted with the aid of the Senate all the important and Molding a Monument most urgent business and he held court with the When the Pantheon was rebuilt during Hadri- assistance of the foremost men. the Renaissance. an’s rule. ing’s consecrations probably each column weighed about 60 tons. The rotunda was constructed in three sections separated by cornices. In any case. soaring space. and the Pantheon’s heritage intrigued artists from the 15th century on- ward. from the sacks of the city itself.using building techniques that still Annibale Carracci. a clear sign era is debated by scholars. now in the pal.” The level of the piazza was lower then than it Surviving the decline of the Roman Empire.Thereissomedebateasto by the angel Gabriel that she whether the 15th-century dome over Florence’s Entrance will conceive and bear Jesus). ace. In 609 the Pan. resembling nothing that had been built before. just as 2. the Pantheon still resembled theon transformed from a pagan temple into a traditional Greco-Roman temple. ago. Mediterranean to Italy. baffle engineers today. The build.

The inscription on the frieze is dedicated to the builder of the first Pantheon. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. viewed from Giacomo della Porta’s 16th-century fountain in the Piazza della Rotonda.MAKING AN ENTRANCE The portico of the Pantheon. RAINER MIRAU/FOTOTECA 9X12 .

and the Temple of Apollo on the shores of Lake Avernus—both from the middle of the second century A.D. it is believed to have borne the image of an Niches eagle wearing a crown. They each stand nearly 40 feet tall. the inscription is dedicated to Agrippa. wider beam. whose most visible manifestation in Rome would be the 16th-century cupola atop St. Peter’s Basilica at the Vatican. fronted by a conventional portico. cornice (upper beam)—is carved from marble. —echo the Pantheon’s design. The Temple of Venus at the Baiae thermal springs near modern-day Naples. for example. The Pantheon. The dome later became an important characteristic of Christian architecture.C. The eight in front are of gray granite. the eight arrangement termed “octastyle. broke with tradition. bearing the inscription to Agrippa). Two niches on either side of the propylaea are believed to have Inscription once housed statues of Despite being totally Agrippa and Augustus. Roman temples were generally rectangular. The form influenced the Mausoleum of Helena. Oculus 2. Plinth .” behind of red granite. and above the level of the piazza. SOL 90/ALBUM It measures 112 feet by 50 feet and The entablature—comprising architrave (lower beam). Portico Columns and Entablature Entablature The facade of the portico has The portico’s 16 columns are each made from a single piece Capital eight frontal columns. rebuilt under Hadrian. CORINTHIAN ORDER The capitals that top the columns of the Pantheon are designed in typical Corinthian style. built by Constantine the Great in honor of his mother on the outskirts of Rome in the fourth century. Its innovative rotunda and cupola soon exerted a major influence on Roman religious architecture. the Pantheon’s distinctive aperture is its only source of ROMAN DOME natural light. Pediment Following construction. inspired by Greek and Etruscan models. builder of the original Pantheon in 27 B. RISE OF THE Some 27 feet in diameter. decorated with a pattern of acanthus leaves. frieze Shaft originally stood over four feet (central. a classic of stone.

huge cranes would have been required. All the capitals are carved from of the building. UM 0/ALB SOL 9 Exedrae Carved into the wall are six exedrae. Cupola At about 142 feet in diameter and made of concrete. sunken panels both lighten and strengthen the dome. Stacks Each of the eight shrines is placed up against a heavy-duty stack that helps support the weight of the cupola. it was. until the 20th century. The apse Two violet-colored columns flank the impressive apse. of smooth columns made of porphyry are rectangular. with columns made of staircases leading Rain that enters through the or granite and fluted with Numidian yellowish Numidian marble from Chemtou to the upper part oculus drains toward a channel marble bearing alternating triangular (Tunisia). white Pentelic marble from Greece. each holding a strut in place until the concrete poured over it had hardened. The shrines are formed with white veins. and curved pediments. prized for its distinctive violet color entrance made of floor’s center is about a foot eight shrines. or Shrines recesses. Two are circular and have Vestibule Floor It is believed that statues of the Roman columns made of Phrygian marble from This monumental Built in a convex form. the gods would have stood in each of the Turkey. Vertical Struts The cupola is divided into 28 curved sections. . equalled in size only by Florence’s Cathedral. running around the perimeter. One recent hypothesis suggests that in order to complete the formidable task of constructing the cupola. The other four exedrae brick includes two higher than the outer edge. and give its interior its distinctive pattern. Coffering Arranged in five ascending rows.

Theconcreteusedinthedomebecame limestone make up the lower levels of the dome.where sunlight dome”has endured since the second century. date of Rome’s founding.” into the tion.” Renaissance.Af- As the dome rises. ground levels of the building.Similar.After each layer had dried. as now. a figure—perhaps it was once naissance architect Filippo Brunelleschi was in. entering through the oculus. At the very top of the dome is a the building’s ceiling symbolizes the “celestial round window.much small. spired by the biggest dome in the world when he a moment of symbolic significance that would designed the cupola for Florence’s Santa Maria place him at the center of the empire. reducing its weight but still maintain. kind of scaffold the Romans constructed to sup- port the dome as the concrete was poured. known as “coffering. SPAIN.Other monu. imperial power. ing consists of cement mixed with travertine (a Most evidence points to the dome being built kind of limestone). peror Severus. Re.In streams in. progressivelylighterasthedomerosehigher. Dio Cassius’ speculation that ing its strength. Michelangelo.At noon on April 21. architects have studied the engi- LUIS BAENA DEL ALCÁZAR IS PROFESSOR OF ARCHAEOLOGY neering behind the feat. the carefully Les Invalides in Paris and Christopher Wren’s designed proportions of the building do seem St.the next would Concrete combined with fragments of porous beadded. Paul’s Cathedral in London. artisans used brickarchesandpierswasconstructedwithinthe pumice.and the highest level is a mix slowly and in stages. the concrete contains light. A key question is what AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MÁLAGA.called the oculus.the painter of the Sistine Chapel. heavens and earthly. Even if the Pantheon was never intended as ments. the cupola. lems involved in the construction of such a large who described the design of the Pantheon as dome has long confounded scholars. possibly during the reign of Em. del Fiore in the early 15th century. The awe that the Roman Pantheon has inspired down Deciphering the Dome the generations was perhaps best expressed by HowRomanarchitectssolvedthetechnicalprob. the time and the season. a light volcanic rock. the earthly realm corresponds to the opening is the Pantheon’s only light source. also drew their to suggest parallels between the workings of the inspiration from Hadrian’s masterpiece.there is also much debate over the Panthe- dome. to set. 56 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . Although fall on the entrance to the rotunda.this his view. A layer of concrete would of brick and tufa. a series of strong er stone. thick walls of the rotunda to further support it. try to the temple. Others levelismadeofprogressivelylightermaterialthe posited the creation of a framework that was at- higher up it goes. such as at the Then. The lowest level of the build. ter the cupola was completed. At the highest levels. theorized it was a forest of wooden struts that depending on the time of day and the season. Later. not human. The nates the niches of the rotunda depending on size and engineering audacity of Rome’s Pan.Some illuminate different niches of the Pantheon. er structures existed at that time. tached to the walls of the rotunda itself.Measuring about 27 feet across.which may oculus progressively moves around and illumi- also have been commissioned by Hadrian. arguments against this idea pointed to the immense strain that would have been placed on Rome’s timber supply. Since the “angelic. while the heavens The Pantheon was not the only Roman build. the sun’s rays directly domed buildings throughout history. on’s symbolism.the theon has been an enduring model for large. Hadrianhimself?—wouldbebathedinsunlight. were embodied by the magnificent curves of ing to be topped by a dome. Upon en- he used a different construction technique. the light filtering through the Sanctuary of Asclepius in Pergamon. be applied over the framework and then allowed The dome was made using a similar approach. reached to the floor. such as the late 17th-century chapel of a literal re-creation of the cosmos.The rays of the sun. engineers incised five rows of Beyond the enigma surrounding its construc- indented slabs.

were plated in gold. a sign of the renewed Renaissance interest in restoring the building to its former glory. The original doors. it is believed. The current doors date to the 15th century.DOOR TO DOOR Visitors enter the rotunda through two. LUIGI VACCARELLA/FOTOTECA 9X12 . 24-foot-high monumental bronze doors.

its bottom half would perfectly fill the space available (see the area marked in light blue in the image). Although there is no proof that Hadrian and his architects were consciously following a philosophical model.C. as perceived by Aristotle in the fourth century B. the monument’s proportions have been interpreted to reflect the idea of a cosmos formed of celestial spheres. . If the outline of the interior of the dome was continued so it became a regular sphere.3. HEAVENLY SPHERES the interior of the Pantheon’s drumlike rotunda is remarkable because its height is exactly the same as its diameter—142 feet.



rays from the sun shine into the Pantheon through the dome’s oculus. illuminating the entrance to the rotunda. This coincides with the date celebrated as the foundation of Rome: April 21.C. Some believe Hadrian ordered the building to be aligned in this way to enhance his aura of divinity. 753 B.RITE OF SPRING At noon on April 21. MATS SILVAN/AGE FOTOSTOCK .

Nicknamed “asses’ ears. Lake Avernus: 116 ft 326 330 Mausoleum of Helena. Baiae: 86 ft burial site of. The choice of the Pantheon as the resting Rise of the Dome: place for great Italian figures such as Raphael inspired French The Pantheon’s Cupola in Context a. its capitals and columns might have been cannibalized. added in the 17th century on the orders of Pope Urban VIII. NAPLES OF WORSHIP despite the pantheon’s architectural unity. The Pantheon did not escape entirely unscathed. 65 Domus Aurea (Nero’s house). London: 101 ft 1755-1792 Panthéon. Paul’s Cathedral. Were it not for this new role. A HISTORY THE CHURCH OF SAN FRANCESCO DI PAOLA. Second century Temple of Apollo. Peter’s Basilica. In 609 the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV. Rome: 66 ft 326-330 a repurposing that shows how much the term “pa th ” antheon” 532-537 7 Hagia Sophia. Naples: 1 t All Ears This 1835 watercolor by Viennese painter Rudolf von Alt depicts the Pantheon with the two bell towers. In the 17th century Pope Urban VIII had the bronze roof of the portico ripped off and ordered two bell towers to be erected. Rome: 142 ft Paris for the same reason.d. its MICHELE FALZONE/GETTY IMAGES official title to this day. among others. Rome: 43 ft in diameter revolutionaries centuries later to deconsecrate a church in 118-125 Pantheon. many changes to its fabric and function have been carried out over the centuries. who consecrated it as Santa Maria ad Martyres. the French novelist Victor Hugo. Renamed the Panthéon. 4. Florence: 142 ft 1585-15590 St. Paris: 69 ft 1817-1826 San Francesco di Paola. Vatican City: 136 ft 1680-ea arly 1700s Les Invalides. AKG/ALBUM . Paris: 91 ft 1675-1710 St.” they were finally removed in the late 1800s. although these were later removed. it is the Second century Temple of Venus. however. Istanbul (Constantinople): 107 ft continues to evolve over time. 1420-14434 Santa Maria del Fiore.

CHRISTIE’S IMAGES/SCALA. the door of the temple stands open as various people marvel at the beauty of the building. almost always from the same perspective: looking from the apse toward the main entrance. depicting the two columns that flank the apse. is the oldest.Lifelong Obsession Throughout his life. This 1732 painting. a figure surveys the interior. painter Giovanni Paolo Pannini depicted the interior of the Pantheon many times. From the oculus. In the background. FLORENCE .

and religions were exchanged as well. philosophies. SKAMAN/GETTY IMAGES . In the first century B.C. India.GOODS AND GODS Modern camel riders travel through the Nubra Valley. along the route that once linked southern Asia to Rome along the Silk Road. technology. goods were not the only things to cross through these mountains.

Connecting East and West THE SILK ROAD Linking China and the Roman world. CARLES BUENACASA PÉREZ . Along its pathways traveled not only luxuries and goods but also knowledge and beliefs that shaped and molded humanity.C. this trade network in Central Asia emerged in the first century B.

which he ensures that silk cocoons are not sneak cocoons out of China believes can be traded for silk.Whileshewasdrinkingteaintheshade Road. in which courtesans wear colored silk robes according to their social status. “Silk 2070 B.The art describe the trade routes that shuttled silks and of turning the cocoons of the silkworm other luxury goods between the Far East and moth (Bombyx mori) was.C. the 138 b. the bydeath. His aim was to halt the incursions network.) began consolidating forts in the north.C. legend.strong.At the end of the third cen- guarded as a state secret. 102 b. tury B. a. Emperor Qin Shi Huang Di (r. The Chinese did not make an effort to sell silk pletely unravel it. in circa Eastern opulence. according to the Mediterranean from the first century B.Centurieslater..C. 221-210 dential methods of sericulture was punishable B. 550 ORIGINS ZHANG QIAN rides west to try to form an alliance with the Yuezhi THE HAN DYNASTY now controls trading routes northwest AMID THE UPHEAVAL following the third-century OF THE to defend China. Traditionally. SILK ROAD mission. Over time.she examined it and Beyond the Wall discovered that pulling on a strand could com.d. This scene was produced during the Qing dynasty (17th to early 20th centuries). a cocoon fell into her cup. and shimmering—silk was In the 19th century German geographer Fer- firstcultivatedinChina. linking the lands of China to Rome. to produce silk in Europe. but discovers wild horses Its customs point at Dunhuang Christian monks manage to in the Fergana Valley.discovered by the wife of the Yellow Em. until the Middle Ages. Revealing the confi. of the nomadic Xiongnu tribes.C.”has stuck ever since.C. AKG/ALBUM S oft. silk production outside of their country until circumstances was entrusted to Chinese women and carefully forced them to do so. A SMOOTH SYSTEM Silk marked all aspects of China’s hierarchy. It seemed appropriate peror.c. It re-creates the second-century court of Emperor Yuan. smuggled out of China. collapse of the Han dynasty. of a mulberry bush. 66 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . Instead of throwing it away. and Richthofen’s term.perhapsasearly dinand von Richthofen looked for a term to as the mid-third millennium B. the Xia.c. He fails in his of China to the Fergana Valley.itwouldbethesesilken first phase of what would eventually become the threads that would weave together a vast trade Great Wall. a mythical forebear of the tribe that later to name it for the item most associated with founded China’s first dynasty.

d. the eastern starting point of the Silk Road. It was constructed at a time of renewed trade with the West under China’s vibrant Tang dynasty. CAPITAL CITY The Buddhist Great Wild Goose Pagoda was built in the mid-seventh century in the imperial capital Chang’an. EASTPHOTO/AGE FOTOSTOCK from a. 618 RENEWED CONFIDENCE and unity under China’s new Tang dynasty spurs demand for luxury goods. boosting two- way traffic along the Silk Road between China and Europe. .

whose lands correspond the fifth century B. while Alexander the Great’s eastward observed horses much larger than thosse expansion helped lay the foundations of trans- in China. the Han dynasty saw the advan- northwest and was captured by Xiongnu forces. the Yuezhi.C. his mission to the Yuezhi Officials knew they could trade silk for these a failure. he identified a widespread desire for palace guard. Kush hhe ern Asia. creating the Silk Road. and Indo-European society. China 13 years later. he had to enter enemy territory to the his return. In the pire had already improved travel through west- Fergana Valley. Chinese offficials embraced westward trade. Valley north of the Hindu Kush. In time this trade would plug China In this and other subsequent adventures. was one of a string of bustling oasis cities that offered a haven for travelers along the Silk Road. Han emperor Wudi tried another ap. tages of westward trade. BRONZE FIGURE. GEORG GERSTER/AGE FOTOSTOCK wall proved to be insufficient on its own. Realizing tthey could swap silk for horses. Even so. DESERT STOPOVER Watered by the Tian Shan mountains. Zhang Qian’s remark- beassts would be valuable mili. SECOND CENTURY ERICH LESSING/ALBUM . the remnants of the Hellenist culture estab- proach. the mysterious lands to the west: India and The route did not arise out of a vacuum. HAN DYNASTY.C. Most important Zhang Qian. into the lucrative markets of the West. horses. the sprawling Persian Em- to northeastern regions in Iran today. Central Asian tribe. He recognized that thesse Asian trade. in While in Parthia. able adventures were important early steps in tary additions to Chinese forcees. enemies of marking the first major contact between China the Xiongnu. especially the pros- After a long imprisonment. the diplomatic mission. In order to reach the Having absorbed Zhang Qian’s reports after Yuezhi. includ- however. Zhang Qian learned a great deal about ing the booming Roman world. was appointed as the leader of Chinese silk. on the rim of the Taklimakan Desert. He attempted an alliance with another lished by Alexander the Great in Central Asia. Gaochang. a young officer of the emperor’s of all. he returned to pect of obtaining the superior Fergana horses. he also made contact with 138 B. “FLYING” FERGANA HORSE. In the Parthian Empire.

who used the term in becameacatchallforthemeshoftrade German—Seidenstraße—on the cap. Ctesiphon became an rock-hewn caves crammed Road. however. N PA A RO E JA ME R O K ME Pan (Kercticapaeu chang DI h) m BL Gao jing ) YanBeijing AC TE K S Ath BYZA EA Aral Gulja 2 Dunhuang ( RR N R. f I N D I A c hs e a Barbaricon A HIN A OC Red Baruchi IND NSUL N I PE Se of B ay a l a n g Aduli s Moscha Arabian Amaravati B e Oc E o Sea Aden O OR Muziris A A ANK TR SRI L MA SU BOUND BY SILKEN THREADS A TANGLE e e fer s o e Han East and Europe. Alex A N Kush Fuz and ria Palmy 1 Bactra u ra E Hi t e a E CTESIPH M P (Balkh) Nubra P l a b e t IN ON IR Valley T i CH o f R.tothethirdcentury A. it became one of the sixth century. 1 CTESIPHON 2 DUNHUANG 3 CHANG’AN The capital of the Parthian An oasis city. connecting at various (that is. who traveled part of the Other trade routes forhim—thegeographerusedtheterm route in the early 1900s. Under the Tang important Christian center in with Buddhist murals reflect the dynasty.Awelltraveledscholar— inspiration for explorers such as Marc MountRichthofeninColoradoisnamed Aurel Stein.He to and from India. R sia ea in s nice In du G n ul Gang e s R . from the beginning of the first points with other routes taking trade century B.c. Babylon Euph E Lhasa Ni l e ra ton E tes R. and China’s Famed for its pleasure Empire in the first century b.Ithasserved Extension to Byzantium tion of a map of Central Asia he pub. routesacrossCentralAsia. e ns TIUM Sea an (Istan Sh llow CASPI P Battle of aN bul) g R Talas O an yan N G’A Ye Ti O Luo O Ea N rt AN xu e Des R n s SE Samarqand Kokand isha AN SEA . along the trade routes. principal customs post along gardens. alsounderstoodthetermasspecifically sion “Silk Road” is attributed to the relatedtothetransportofsilkfromeast Main land route of the Silk Road great German geographer Ferdinand to west.).COM . Battle n Maij ttoes a ey Kashgar aka Carrhaof Ferga n a Vall lim G ro P e R Ta k A O (Kashi) Ti T Pa mi r E gris Tyre Antio ch H I Mt s. of Western luxuries. Canzhou) G A R Charax Spas ng Y A B inou (Gu a P T I A Mathura L A Y A Pe r Bere st a . Chang’an was the and later of the Sasanian the Silk Road. baptizing flow of new religious ideas that the biggest cities in the traders passing on the spread toward China from India world. The unifying expres. Taxkorgan (Hotan ) IR ou Merv Khotan h R.. “Silk Road” von Richthofen. In time. and a major importer Silk Road. Fourth-century eastern terminus of the Silk Empire.D.C. and as and Rome lishedin1876. MAP: EOSGIS. as a title for numerous histories.

famous for silken rugs. iron. The two northern roads Chang’an. From three main routes.one branch went south. or use. the Chinese controlled traffic peratures and sandstorms claimed the lives of along the Silk Road as far as the Fergana Val.SILK: REVILED. The emperor Augustus considered that the fabric encour- aged immoral behavior. . CERAMIC TURTLE. lead. Hotan in China). jade. passed on either side of the Heavenly Moun- westtothemouthoftheGangesinIndia. TANG DYNASTY. travel along the next segment and trade with the Somewhere near here they rested in a place the merchants there. laws were passed to regulate the trade. and gold—and foodstuffs—saffron and route skirted the edge of the almost impass- other spices.Westboundtraders referred to only as the“Stone Tower. was the while soldiers carefully searched their baggage eastern starting point of this trading route.000 feet. When they wear them. they can- not swear with good conscience that they are not naked. tea.Among tains (Tian Shan).C. ATTENDED TO BY A HAIRDRESSER. of silk. of course. FRESCO FROM HERCULANEUM. Several times in Roman history. or cocoons out of the country.for example. and pomegranates. The first-century writer and moralist Seneca sternly criticized Roman matrons’ taste for the exotic fabric in his book De beneficiis: “Silk dresses can barely deserve to be called dresses when they cover neither [a lady’s] body nor their shame. This tin. BANNED. ley. SEVENTH TO TENTH CENTURIES 70 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 BRIDGEMAN/ACI . while Tiberius prohibited men from wearing silk clothes. .Although goods traveled thousands of miles The northern and southern roads met again in both directions. silk. gle highway but a network of roads that twisted From there. silk.” Turtle shells.beforedescendingintotheFerganaValley. bird feathers. FIGURINE FOUND IN A TOMB. feathers. They are imported at vast SAMUEL MAGAL/AGE FOTOSTOCK expense . The third road went south and turtle shells. on the border with modern-day probably only journeyed along short sections. and. it was synonymous with wealth but also with vanity. were just a few of the luxury items traveling west. able Taklimakan Desert. China and Kyrgyzstan. in order that our matrons may show as much of their persons in public as they do to their lovers in private. MUSEUM OF NAPLES Through Snow and Sandstorms had to wait several days to pay their exit duties The Chinese capital.The traders then crossed When they reached the next city. the merchants themselves near Kashgar. the Silk Road was not a sin. passed through Khotan (near modern-day Traders also brought metals—silver. of 24.who then would tracks. of course. whose peaks soar to heights the luxury products traveling west were jade. ITALY. to make sure no one was smuggling silkworms Strictly speaking.” WOMEN DRESSED IN SILK.they would sell the Pamir Mountains along narrow snowy their merchandise to the locals. and. . where extreme tem- By 102 B. the westward journey split into and turned on the way from east to west. many travelers. Chang’an (Xi’an). . . The Dunhuang Oasis was the second-century Egyptian geographer Ptolemy mainChinesecustomspost. carrots. AND LONGED FOR IN ROME.

consist of 194 caves cut into the sheer cliff face. The fourth and fifth century Maijishan Grottoes. TOP PHOTO GROUP/AGE FOTOSTOCK . SUSPENSION OF BELIEF Caves carved by Buddhist monks can be found in several places along the Chinese section of the Silk Road. near Gansu.

CERAMIC STATUETTE. around [the Romans] their standards. the most prominent of the Silk Road’s middle. century B. From here.C. feated Roman troops in 53 B. they crossed Ever since the shameful rout at Carrhae. In the first centu- and Antioch. ry Pliny the Elder wrote: “At least a hundred The Parthians built caravansaries for the traders and camels crossing the Syrian desert via Palmyra. some scholars identify the Chinese city of Taxkorgan as the place Ptolemy fixed as the halfway point along the Silk Road. CAMEL. Having silk both troubled and delighted the Romans. with . silken pennons” before describing how modate the traders and their camels along the the army was slaughtered and its Roman com- route to Ctesiphon (near Baghdad). silk was immensely goods were shipped popular across the Roman Empire. mander killed. and Turkmenistan. Ptolemy considered it the midway relationship with silk. capital. merchants from all over central with the Parthians. ment when the Parthian generals “displayed all where the great trading city of Merv is located. These included the Sog. Romans made note of the Parthians’ bold. Here. HALFWAY HOUSE Meaning “stone tower” in the Turkic language.C. whose archers soundly de- Asia waited to trade. A century after the battle. and who became tle. Before the bat- of Samarqand (Uzbekistan). at the Battle of dians. reached the Mediterranean. centered on areas century historian Florus later described the mo- of modern-day Iran. One of the earliest re- point of the Silk Road. STANDING UP. . their first. Iraq. TANG DYNASTY. as in other cities corded observations occurred during a conflict along the route. whose lands centered on the trading city Carrhae in modern-day Turkey. The image shows the 14th-century ruins of the city’s fortress. with the Pamir Mountains rising behind. This weak- to Rome from ness for a foreign luxury was bitterly criticized ports such as Tyre by Rome’s stern moralists. SEVENTH TO TENTH CENTURIES 72 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 GRANGER COLLECTION/AGE FOTOSTOCK . . the desert wastes of Syria via Palmyra. the Parthians thronged the routes that woven from Chinese silk. Farther west invincibility as well as finesse: colorful banners still. The Roman second- passed through their lands. beautiful spectacle that conveyed power and men between China and the West. fluttering Parthian kings built caravansaries to accom. PANORAMA STOCK/AGE FOTOSTOCK Believed by modern historians to be the city Rome itself had developed a love-hate of Taxkorgan.

no longer exists. Western frontier. all barbarians chronicle of China’s history. Later.000 li. eighth-century mural from the Qianling Mausoleum near Xi’an. The breed. the Shiji GALLOPING WEALTH succumb in their wake! —marks the arrival of the first of these A hunting scene on a seventh. . they defeat foreign would become the Silk Road. and is pre- SUPERSTOCK/AGE FOTOSTOCK in the Fergana Valley. Delighted. Brought into The explorer Zhang Qian had told the horse became a status symbol. cial breed of horses of great stamina however. horses became Emperor Wudi that there was a spe. HEAVENLY HORSES The heavenly horses arrive from the equip China with a formidable cavalry.c.to steeds. kind of sports car of its day. which would served only in paintings and sculptures. during the Tang period. a China along the Silk Road. The poem nations quoted left—from the first-century b. which led to what With loyal spirit. And crossing the deserts. the Fergana region. the emperor allowed the Having traveled 10. they come trading of silk with the inhabitants of with great virtue. status symbols during the Tang dynasty.

The skill these Chinese artisans passed tion had spread to the western lands. Not only products traveled and how it would be written.and Islam would all travel along these paths and touch cultures Learn more along the way. when sericultural know-how reached Ko- rea. and Arabia. the route was boosted year to India. This man emperor Justinian successfully smuggled pivotal battle. ter China returned to growth and prosperity Read it at ngm. Europe. FLORENCE million sesterces flow out of our empire every under the Tang dynasty. but ideas too: convulsions A SPECIALIST IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY. to its un. which checked China’s westward silkworms into his empire. Over the coming centuries. Italy SCALA. That is how by renewed Chinese demand for luxury goods much luxury and women cost us!” from the West.that dissemi- have passed through a dazzling array of cultures. world.D.c. chairs. 751 Muslim Abassid troops clashed their own independent supply after the Ro. with the Chinese at the Battle of Talas. to arrive in the West. ILLUSTRATION PUBLISHED IN 1900 the Basilica of San Vitale. nated through the Muslim lands into southern languages. along the Silk Road. HISTORIAN CARLES BUENACASA PÉREZ IS in human thought and faith that reshaped the ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BARCELONA. sixth century even the Romans had secured In A.com/dec2017. At the same time.” production on his own territory. it spread farther and farther east along the started to spring up outside China. Islam was rising in the monopoly on silk that the Han had so care. SPAIN.Even though silk produc. the center) looked fed them with mulberry leaves and so for ways to start silk managed to grow silk in Roman lands.. Arabian Peninsula. a roll of silk would Talas taught their captors a craft. the Road. He entrusted monks to bring back silkworm eggs from China along the Silk Road. eral of the Chinese prisoners from the Battle of man villa about a year later. and silk production tury. Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Paul Salopek’s trek along the Silk Road reveals the importance of the losophies over time. the Silk on to their captors was nothing less than how Road continued to be a vibrant connection of to make paper. Wrapping the eggs IMPERIAL FABRIC in dung to keep them warm. and pansion westward. 74 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 .OPERATION SILK: MONKS ON A MISSION THE CHINESE monopoly on silk production may well have been lost as early as the first century b. According to the historian acquiring Chinese Procopius: “They carried the eggs back to silk more easily. and during the eighth cen- fully nurtured fell apart.and climes.no Since the moment it left Chang’an. the monks Having failed to find smuggled them out inside one of their alternative routes for walking sticks. expansion. which would transform history cultures and trade. China.Christianity. The disruption to trade caused by the wars between Rome and the Sasanian Empire (succes- sors to the Parthians) led the Byzantine emperor Justinian to set up his own silk- production center. and ceramics. In part to protect The Road that Changed the World this trade. shaping people’s beliefs and phi. the Tang embarked on a major ex- In A. af. Mosaic from SILKWORMS ON A MULBERRY BUSH. Ravenna. It took longer. even as the first Christian China passed through a period of political missionaries were moving east along the Silk upheaval. Emperor Justinian (in KHARBINE-TAPABOR/ART ARCHIVE Byzantium and after the worms hatched.sev- packing in the aristocratic surroundings of a Ro.D. less significant outcome: According to lore. ancient trade network today.may have contributed to another. however. including silver-making tech- niques. In the seventh century.Buddhism. By the trade routes. 220 the Han dynasty collapsed. In National Geographic.


they are rolls it onto a kind of applied. painting—on display 3FANNING 4IRONING the Museum of Fine A young servant. PART OF A the rolls of silk. Boston—is prized for squatting on the four women who e cleanness of its lines ground.WOMEN’S WORK: MAKING SILK 3 4 PHOTOS: GRANGER COLLECTION/AGE FOTOSTOCK 1POUNDING 2SPINNING The Hard Work Four ladies pound A woman winds Behind the Softest Fabric the silkworm cocoons with the thread that had been pulled out from The painting above was created by the 12th-century sticks in hot water each cocoon in the Emperor Huizong (Song dynasty). “Court Ladies sumptuously dressed bobbin. and is believed to to extract the previous process. Created from ink. of work that was carried out in almost ritualistic fashion by high-ranking women. BANNER. on a silk canvas. A girl plays beside ts. The lady next Preparing Newly Woven Silk” portrays the importance in silken attire. appropriately. This will holding it taut. and brancy of its colors. just over 15 feet long. color. to her is sewing. wrinkles. d the freshness and charcoal. 10TH CENTURY. and gold work. LONDON ERICH LESSING/ALBUM . fans the are engaged in embers to heat the unrolling the silk. SHOWING TWO BUDDHAS FACING ONE ANOTHER. BRITISH MUSEUM. Despite the unrolls the filament physicality of their from the end and painter Zhang Xuan. in turn heat the iron carefully ironing and used to smooth out smoothing out any SILKEN FRAGMENT. She be a copy of an eighth-century original by the Tang-era fiber.


THE FINAL RETREAT French grenadiers defend the withdrawal of Napoleon’s army in the closing moments of the Battle of Waterloo. State Borodino War and History Museum and Reserve. Moscow CULTURE-IMAGES/ALBUM . Twentieth-century oil painting by Alexander Averyanov.


BUT n the early 1800s Napoleon Bonaparte NOT OUT stormed across Europe. The troops sent to arrest him en route to Paris end up joining his side. The countdown had begun to a last epic showdown. 1815 poleon’s banishment the year before had been Napoleon surrenders achieved after years of momentous and costly to the British aboard battles on land and at sea. Austria. march 25. and once more plunge Europe into war. Bellerophon. 1815 Napoleon lands at Cannes in southern France and begins marching on Paris. Helena in the southern Atlantic. 80 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . 1815 island of Elba. Na- July 15. where March 1814. in late February 1815. In spring 1815 British. His escape. King Louis XVIII Then.S. DOWN. Prussia. In France the Bourbon king Louis Napoleon abdicates for the XVIII had been restored to power. 1845. Napoleon’s Hundred Days february 1815 Less than one year after his abdication and exile to Elba. feared. second time. and Russian forces rushed to regroup as Napoleon started mobilizing his army. Painting seas. Leipzig fought to hold back the fiery emperor of France. Prussia. and Russia all by an international coalition led by the Duke of Wellington and Fine Arts. march 19. General von Blücher. as Britain. AKG/ALBUM In 1814 it looked as though they had succeeded. It is hard to overestimate the dismay and fear provoked by this news. 1815 Napoleon hears that territory for his French Empire and chal- The Battle of Waterloo takes Paris has fallen in lenging the supremacy of Britain on the place in Belgium.M. 1815 King Louis XVIII of France abandons Paris and flees to Ghent. the Napoleonic Wars Napoleon’s army is defeated by Paul Delaroche. Europe received will return to power in a shock: The audacious Napoleon had left Elba early July in the second Bourbon restoration. many the H. march 1. Napoleon leaves the island intending to return to power. Napoleon and his forces will reach Paris the next day. This time. Austria. 1815 Great Britain. sion. Prussian. would restart French imperial expan- He will be exiled to St. and Russia sign a new treaty declaring war on France to defeat the resurgent Napoleon. Museum of raged. swallowing up june 18. and set sail for France. Napoleon had abdicated and was exiled to the june 22. From 1804 to 1814. Austrian.

Wellesley managed with Egypt in 1798. and been shaped by.first ported the radical ideals of the French Revolu. MARTIN MOLCAN/AGE FOTOSTOCK Napoleon faced a coalition of nations led by one The French Empire’s renewed hopes to break of his most skilled British adversaries. forced a trade blockade on Britain by invading The First Rise and Fall Below. Joséphine. Trafalgar in 1805. Napoleon to have been of Spain under his control in the process.The Irish-born commander DEA/ALBUM tion and rose rapidly through the ranks of the hadchalkedupmilitarysuccessesinIndiabefore French army. Returning Portugal in 1811 and won decisive victories to France. ary 1800. and built to commemorate his great victory against Austria and Russia at the Battle of Austerlitz (1805). allied NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 81 . tria. Despite being on opposite sides. As a young soldier. by his then wife.and brought much eagle believed Born on the island of Corsica in 1769. Bonaparte possessed furious intelligence and commissioned It was on the Iberian Peninsula that the future relentless ambition. the Duke THE EAGLE British naval power were dashed at the Battle of HAS LANDED of Wellington.bornArthurWellesley. De- to India. Roman-style eagle now Germany and Poland. doned hope of invading Britain. European domination. DukeofWellington. Napoleon led the invasion of spite initial setbacks. the emperor in 1804. the Arc de Triomphe in Paris was modeled on the Arch of Titus in Rome.his Grand Army extraordinary events that had transformed Eu. he sup. NAPOLEON’S NEW EMPIRE Inscribed with the names of Napoleon’s generals. But even as Napoleon aban- On being crowned both men had shaped. To the west. The French Empire was weakening. By 1799 France was at patience and skill to expel Napoleon from war with most of Europe. defeated Napoleon. inous attempt to invade Russia. and in 1804 Napoleon crowned Following the French Grand Army’s ru- himself emperor of France.its commercial ally. Napoleon chose a went on to occupy swaths of Europe in what is rope in the late 18th century. he en- as his emblem. Napoleon took part in a against the French in Spain in 1813. His forces defeated Aus. dealing coup against the government and a major blow to the emperor’s plans for then became first consul in Febru. Proposing an aggressive approach being sent to Portugal in 1809 where he helped by attacking Britain’s territories en route guerrillas resist Napoleon’s occupation. a gilt bronze Portugal.

they British taunted him to surren. 82 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . novel Les Misérables (1862). unsuccessfully. expression “the word o f Events moved swiftly. Britain. PIERRE sion. spite his claims to want peace. Austria. Cam.” emperor had little time to organize. THE WORD OF CAMBRONNE CLEAN OR DIRTY? forces invaded France from all sides. mainland helped him plan for his daring return to the continent in early 1815. He dignity. where he was not exactly a prisoner. A major of the Imperial “Merde!—Shit!” Despite Guard. The actions of one member of the Imperial Guard was granted sovereignty of the island. Another account says CAMBRONNE he attempted. and its commander still inspired passionate loyalty. Its troops were experienced fighters. a volunteer force to supplement the standing PRIVATE army at his disposal. Victor Hugo popular. COLLECTION bronne said only one word: ALBUM ished state. But even in this dimin- Briton approached him. want to refer to merde eu- signed what amounted to a declaration of war. to put together 19TH-CENTURY that when a saber-wielding PORTRAIT. the French army was a fearful oppo- nent. der. The British noted with banishment to Elba. A flow of intelligence from the there are two very different versions as to what happened. a few miles off the Italian admiration how they withdrew calmly and with immense coast. to which he is reported phemistically. as well as at this point in the battle have passed into legend—although an armed guard. Together. they use the to have said: “The Guard dies. Pierre Cambronne Cambronne’s denial of both The Comeback Trail was rewarded for his loyalty tales. Cambronne. On March 20 Napoleon reached Paris with the to Napoleon by being made ized the “dirty” version in his support of the masses ringing in his ears. De- a count just before Waterloo. when the French Prussia. In April 1814 Napoleon was forced to abdicate and accepted I n spite of the defeat. the reputation of Napoleon’s Imperial Guard was enhanced at Waterloo. armies massing on France’s northern frontiers. and Russia were wary. and the restored French but the Guard never surren.” That is the clean ver. With enemy ders. One account says that the Ever since.

and this affair is nothing NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 83 .000 men. La Haye Sainte. knowing Paris on June 12. lish aare bad troops. both were Frrench theBBritish and destroy Wellington’s forces as victories. WELLINGTON MUSEUM. poleon organized their forces. he left Paris manderr stuck to his defensive tactic. who was troops along a two-and-a-half-mile-long ridge.000 men in total—to arrive. brimming with confi. 1815. On June 17. The British com- noring advice to postpone engagemen nt. who were CANNON As dawn broke on June 18. dence. German. Fauveau. them moment du Rooi. not far from the town of Wa- ton. and Prussian troops. The wet fields and muddy ro oads lingtton is a bad general. “The honor and happiness of our coun ntry are Napoleon’s camp was in the village of Maison at stake and. Wellington and Na- FODDER divided up into various detachments on the bor. A Military Quagmire Belgian. terloo. Ig. Napoleon hoped to take advan- A double battle took place on Junee 16 in tage of the separation of the Prussians from Quatre-Bras and Ligny. killed by an artillery Three farms—Papelotte. He had deployed the bulk of his 68. Frenchmen. LAWRENCE. some 50. Victoria and Albert Museum. On June 14. Hougou Hougoumont—stood along it. belonged to a road from Brussels.000 attack rather than force their hand. Wellington set The smashed der between France and present-day Germany. Blücher had withdrawn to Wavre. Dutch. LONDON ALBUM CHARGE OF THE CUIRASSIERS This 1874 oil painting by Félix Philippoteaux shows one of the last French cavalry charges against the British infantry. to join up with hiis army in RMN-GRAND PALAIS he need ded to wait for Blücher’s detachments— Belgium—where Wellington’s troops and Geb. heeavy that victory was within his grasp and that rains soaked the ground and the Freench it woould be quick and easy. he signed a proclam mation: a few mmiles from Waterloo. The emperor was convinced to Napoleon’s enemies. the Duke of Welling. “I tell you Wel- soldiers. London AKG/ALBUM The allied forces consisted of British.” he said: “[T]he Eng- became a swampy mess. cuirass (below) up his headquarters in Mont-Saint-Jean on the The British commander. THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON IN AN 1817 PORTRAIT BY T. in short. although neither was a fatal b blow soonnaspossible. patiently decided to wait for the enemy to French carabineer. Napoleon himself. Army Museum. and shell at Waterloo. was planning for a decisive victoryctory. After the hard von Blücher’s Prussian army also o lay in clash att Ligny. Because French forces totaled roughly has arrived when we must conquer or die!” 72. wait.

W.000 men stationed side the farm.” Hougoumont Farm was besieged began shelling the farm and set fire 3 by the French division commanded to several rooms and the stables. and in the courtyard. The barns are all burned Brunswick legionnaires. and of course suffered most severely . Coldstream Guards commanded by [on] a square of French infantry. which proved to be crucial in Jérôme. on June 22: in and around the site. and 4 p. our horses were within a few feet of wards of a thousand carcases. was down. Lt. PAINTING BY DENIS DIGHTON. but took a the French made three attempts to 3 large toll. dislodge the defenders. . FIGHTING OVER FARMS HOUGOUMONT DURING THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. LONDON BRIDGEMAN/ACI HOUGOUMONT Early in the battle. move. about 40 French troops managed to break into the breaking it. the two squadrons were and massacred them. winning the larger battle. But they dug in. Frye recounted seeing Hougoumont had a force of 2. an aw- and withstood the wave of attacks.m.m. Col. unable to mont. perished in the flames. Henry Lane. NATIONAL ARMY MUSEUM. the Square. One British officer. memory of a charge by his regiment with bullets. and they have been obliged to burn up- Colonel Macdonell. E. We did not succeed in ful holocaust to the War-Demon. . . Many injured soldiers. it is said. British officer Maj.. [A]t the close of To the Bitter End courtyard but the British cornered the battle.” . 1815. The French dreadfully cut up. The allies There was also fierce fighting out. including sol. Between 11 a. recounted his “Every tree [of the orchard] is pierced diers in the King’s German Legion. some days after the battle. . and the of hussars: “Our next attack . The allies managed to hold Hougou- by Napoleon’s youngest brother.

LONDON both the French and the allies lost thousands of men. and endeavouring to wrest port. prevent them from cost me and with what feelings they eral Drouet. and many stragglers were felled with breach the farm’s last defenses. failed. eral Quiot’s brigade and managed to the arms from the hands of my men. 1816. who fought in a British unit made up of expatri- obstinate contest was carried on where the gate was wanting. flanked on one side by a veg. as “breakwaters” to slow the French advance. however. The British had reinforced men. and seldom were the effects who has been in the same situation with accurate Baker rifles. . PAINTING BY WILLIAM HEARTH. fought pressed after them to the same spot. He described the already lay dead. with a degree of courage which I had 3 etable garden and on the other by an never before witnessed in French. this did can judge how much these words cessive attacks commanded by Gen. limited to one assailant. Favoured by their advanc. MUSEUM. however. not. . every bullet of ours gave the order to retreat. throwing themselves against the were accompanied. It turned into a rout. . in which GOUMONT. despising danger. Baring finally decided to save the orchard.” he wrote in a re- Marshall Ney personally led Gen. and their bodies La Haye Sainte Farm consisted of attack: “[They] nearly surrounded served as a protection to those who three buildings surrounded by high us. George Baring.Wellington’s forces fortified two farms in the middle of the battlefield. Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte. . through the loop-holes . was in charge of the this spot seventeen Frenchmen farm’s defense. NATIONAL ARMY MUSEUM. Comte d’Erlon. BRIDGEMAN/ACI LA HAYE SAINTE DURING THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. . . walls. The most bayonets or captured by the French. On A Pyrrhic Victory ate Germans. “Only he felled trees and armed the defenders hurt. LONDON BRIDGEMAN/ACI LA HAYE SAINTE Maj. After suc. Violent clashes HOT for control of them erupted throughout the day.” walls. and. lives of the remaining defenders and the gates and built barricades with ing in masses.

The Bras and Ligny on June 16. TRIPP NEY ALIX VIVIAN HALKETT IMPERIAL BACHELU GUARD VANDELEUR DU PLAT MAITLAND IMPERIAL GUARD n MITCHELL GRANT BRUNSWICK FOY BYNG JERÔME PIRE KEY MOMENTS SUNDAY SHOWDOWN more than eating breakfast.m. Cavalry charges struck terror repulse d’Erlon’s columns. Some historians believe that had at Waterloo. Wellington retreats north conditions forced him to delay his attack until (see smaller map. The battle to take these sites stretched on through 2:30 p.” But the emperor’s plan was thwarted by the muddy conditions and F ollowing the inconclusive French victories at Quatre. allied troops pursue. but it is repulsed.m. the infantry attacks punched more and more gaps in French and Prussian fighting at French start to retreat as the allied lines. into the forward allied marksmen. running out of munitions. Napoleon sends the day. The French 6:00 p. In the end. feared the battle was lost. 11-11:30 a. and artillery on the front: The two farms that the allies had strongholds at Hougoumont attack and takes La Haye Farm and La Haye Sainte. Always on the offensive. right) to block the road to Brussels late morning. Wellington’s officers.m. long before the Blücher retreats to Wavre. June 18. is set for the Battle of Waterloo. Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte.m. 1815. Napoleon would have defeated the commanders. 86 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . Ney leads an the French focused their forces on two key points launch an attack on the British infantry. the battle began sometime after eleven in the morning.m. Lord Uxbridge 7:00 p. SAXE-WEIMAR BEST RÖDER a PACK PONSONBY KEMPT KE MARCOGNET DONZELOT T LAMBERT SOMERSET . while superior 4:00 p. Sainte from the British. so that by the afternoon some of Plancenoit and Papelotte. Seeing that the Prussian regiments appear on Imperial Guard’s onslaught mations throughout the day. leads a powerful allied cavalry the Imperial Guard on a final who were able to launch successive attacks on charge that manages to offensive against Wellington’s center. The scene Prussians arrived. which prevented an early start. morning fog. pursued by Grouchy. The Prussian commander allied army within a few hours. Bülow and Ziethen’s French artillery pounded the Anglo-Dutch for- 8:15 p. causing great losses among the French. Ney and d’Erlon. on Sunday.m. Disciplined French Napoleon’s right flank. He is followed by Napoleon and his two it not rained. the allies’infantry. Heavy has come to nothing. fortified. cavalry.

AND IMPERIAL PERIODS. “Nothing could calm [the soldiers].m. an island in the middle of the Atlantic. sent several regiments of his Imperial Guard to NAPOLEONIC.000 and Blücher’s at hamlets of Plancenoit and Papelotte.” At 8:15 p. Napoleon gave him- rifying charge from the Imperial Guard. that Blücher’s Estimates vary. memoirs. “I hope to God that I have fought my last battle. the force self up to the British. Some Stunned. 1815 DURUTTE ZIETHEN PIRCH LOCATION AND MANEUVERS French Army SUBERVIE Cavalry Infantry Artillery Anglo-Dutch Army a d au IMPERIAL Cavalry Infantry Artillery GUARD Prussian Army BÜLOW Cavalry Infantry Artillery JACQUINOT DOMONT Waterloo Campaign To Brussels (16-18 July 1815) 6-17-1815 PL 6-18-1815 Mont-St.abdicated in favor of his son on June 22.-Guibert l 6-16-1815 To Namur 6-16-1815 French British To Mons 0 mi 2 Prussian 0 km 2 Battle MAPS: EOSGIS. will save us. La Haye Sainte farmhouse fell to the French at Wellington was overwhelmed by the loss of life: around 6 p. achieved fight the Prussians. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 87 . Napoleon suffered roughly 25. He realized a mortal blow had Even so. er’s arrival:“Night. As try. but historians place Welling- forces started to attack the French flank at the ton’s casualties around 15. by their comrades during the final push. the allied forces faced the ter. showed determined they charged. would break the The Napoleonic Era was over for good.” The victory at Waterloo came at a heavy cost: he said. which lost two. terror had taken control of them. the emperor thought. Jean-Roch Coignet recalled: thirds of its men in 45 minutes. Helena. He had already HISTORIAN JEAN-NOËL BRÉGEON IS A SPECIALIST IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY. THE FINAL MOVEMENTS EVENING OF JUNE 18.000 danger for Wellington was not over yet. such The French troops scattered in retreat. In his as the Inniskilling Regiment. who banished him to St.m.m.000 Frenchmen were captured. They were sorely missed the aim of breaching the front. But the about 8.000.” An hour later. where he Wellington desperately awaited news of Blüch.A month after the battle. or the Prussians. Capt. resilience in facing the French onslaught. been struck and returned to Paris. But he had miscalculated. Napoleon always reserved to decide battles. The casualties and 9. They. in particular the British. however. the strain was becoming intolerable. allies. It was at around 4 p. formations suffered unprecedented losses. the Imperial Guard faltered. allied gunfire ripped them apart.COM None of the French attacks. Napoleon Finally Facing His Waterloo ordered a retreat. The allied infan.

sides totaled just under 50. or dying men horses and wagons. the whole field from left to right was a mass he screams of the wounded of dead bodies.THE DAY AFTER: ASSESSING HORRORS OF BATTLE AT THE CENTER OF THE FRENCH FORMATION. who had no overwhelmed doctors and the gravediggers alike. accord- ing to some accounts the same was done to a number of French soldiers. 1815 WATERCOLOR BY 3 CHARLES BELL Burying the Fallen The task of bury- WELLCOME LIBRARY. Casualties from both next day. Many. The dead were stripped naked as the peasants took everything from shoes to rags. LONDON ing the thousands of bodies began the day after the battle and took local peas- ants more than 10 days to complete.000. They dug common graves about six feet deep in which they dumped 30 to 40 bodies. So many maimed. who surveyed men left on the battlefield lasted through the night and into the the battlefield the following day. Thousands of dead horses were burned on pyres. 1817 AQUATINT BRIDGEMAN/ACI “At Waterloo.” wrote Maj. Harry Smith. 3 . BRUSSELS HOSPITAL. Some died of dehydration. of which around half others were crushed under retreating were French. were finished off by scavengers prowling the battle- field to strip the corpses of whatever SOLDIER WITH A HEAD WOUND IN A valuables they might have had. dead. chance of being healed.

Accord Crumplin’s study. The remainder denof aWaterlooresident. injuries (62 percent) were caused by it is said the patient barely BRIDGEMAN/ACI rifles and other small-caliber weap. surgeon and astonishing forbearance. The best patients could hope for was opium or laudanum. word throughout the oper ons.Saberswereresponsibleforabout severedrightlegwasburiedi 18 percent of injuries. PARIS bodypartswerelimbs. O M A FRENCH historian Michael Crumplin calcu.000 opera- tions of this kind were carried out af- ter the battle—without anesthetic. Stoic t UM. CARNAVALET sels. most famous cases was th O DIED AT NATIONAL lates that most of the allied soldiers’ Uxbridge and his leg. others are reported to have . the most remedy was amputation. a kind of shrine.an was caused by cannon fire. Enduring Amputation The in were treated first by doctors and takentoaprovisionalhospitalin COMMON GRAVES IN FRONT OF LA BELLE ALLIANCE FARM. Three-quarters of the wou MUSEUM. Many fainted from pain and shock.THE CARNAGE BURNING OF THE BODIES OF FRENCH SOLDIERS AT HOUGOUMONT FARM. 19TH-CENTURY ENGRAVING BY JAMES ROUSE BRIDGEMAN/ACI The Damage Done In his book The endured the grisly proce F THE HONOR Bloody Fields of Waterloo.Duetoth BRIDGEMAN/ACI itedmedicalresourcesofthetim the risk of gangrene. some 2. attracting v 3 decades afterward.

Smith spent hours at Museum. In the characters lay the Epic of 1860 Smith began spending Gilgamesh—now considered his lunch breaks there to by many to be the world’s feed his growing hunger for oldest epic poem. lost work. Locked within borhood of Bloomsbury. upside down. a wedges. not only became an expert the study of Mesopotamia. except for the unrelent. but the discoveries that Aus- Gilgamesh could have been also made a discovery that ten Henry Layard and other PIECES OF THE PUZZLE lost. Smith Smith to organize and flood that long predates the expedition to Nineveh. archaeologists had recently These fragments contain ing curiosity of an unlikely tions about ancient history made at the site of Nineveh. but hid. age 36. an ancient language which—cuneo—is the root George Smith overcame ized in intricate engravings written in cuneiform script. R ecovered from mith picked up on the TURKEY Nineveh in the hat would serve him mid-19th centu. Born in 1840 to for banknotes. but lishing house that special. fragments of the Flood story. part of an ancient. London der in Victorian England Akkadian Autodidact the museum studying the BRITISH MUSEUM/SCALA. Its contents stunned his generation. George G S Smith visual details and patterns. of the term “cuneiform. near Mosul in modern-day century B. upended the way the Bible is read. falls ill with dysentery decipher its collection of Bible. He realizes it is where he discovers missing and dies in Aleppo at cuneiform clay tablets. Over time. clay tablets and teaching prospect of a career at the mal schooling and became himself to decipher them. prestigious British Muse. and reintroduced to the world an epic poem lost for millennia. Iraq. ENGRAVING OF GEORGE SMITH BRIDGEMAN/ACI .DISCOVERIES Opening the Floodgates: The Epic of Gilgamesh Self-taught scholar George Smith labored for years at the British Museum before stumbling on a clay tablet from Nineveh one winter day in 1872. George Smith. FLORENCE was difficult. copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh. in the cuneiform script of Of particular interest were The tale of the demigod ancient Mesopotamia. The work Its characters are formed decipher requires dedication a modest London family. British Climbing the social lad. For many. required close attention to from strokes in the form of and patience. shattered clay YRIA His workplace was for- tablets covered in tuitously located on Fleet indecipherable writing held Street—close to the Brit- one of the world’s greatest SAUDI ish Museum in the neigh- ARABIA treasures. lines from a seventh- scholar. an apprentice in a pub. the Latin word for the scholars working in the 1861 1872 1873 1876 The British Museum Smith stumbles on a tablet The Daily Telegraph During his third trip to hires 21-year-old George with references to a great newspaper finances Smith’s the Middle East. the At age 14 Smith left for. den to scholars at that time. turned contemporary no.” To the odds. ry. Nineveh ater. kadian. The tablets were in Ak- um was unthinkable.C.

the tab. which alerted him to the existence of the an- cient Epic of Gilgamesh. Egypt to Turkey. Numbering artifacts were simply left for events in the history of had worked with Layard at in the thousands. and soon dle East to seek out more fragment fitted where when ed when the Neo-Assyrian became an expert. ian king Ashurbanipal in the ing his understanding of hoped to travel to the Mid- larly adept at spotting which seventh century b. most of the managed to establish dates visitor. faced with a table strewn Empire stretched from The Naked Truth alized how well Smith could with shattered clay tablets. sam. Assyrian king Ashur- banipal was unearthed in Nin- eveh in the 1850s. Smith of their talented lunchtime vast number of tablets in ing were rare. helping to Nineveh. lets were discovered in the ancient puzzle were relieved They informed Sir Henry vinced the museum to hire 1850s by Hormuzd Ras. Smith. perfect. built by the Assyr. and thou- sands of tablets found there were transferred to the British Museum. pored over them. Smith ities. by moments of revelation. ancient languages. Creat. In 1861 Rawlinson con. library. Rawlinson. but the museum NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC HISTORY 91 .C. to organize the experts in Akkadian writ. met Smith and originated from Nineveh’s Over the next decade. who its collection. Smith proved particu. a protégé of Layard.c. Long days working with the interpret it. time basis. ing at the museum. the Israelites. Smith straighten out parts of the was impressed by his abil. tablets. the foremost cu. biblical chronology. As In his first decade work- neiform scholar of the time. many in storage at the museum. TAKING TABLETS THE GREAT LIBRARY of the seventh- century B. BRIDGEMAN/ACI antiquities department re. Rawlinson. deciphe- red by George Smith in 1872. Among these was the Flood Tablet. initially on a part.

I saw at once that his work on the broken tab. layperson.C. before it could be cleaned. JANE SWEENEY/GETTY IMAGES was obscured by a layer of grime. . this piece (now and its finding no rest- An Epic Flood known as tablet K. the Nergal Gate was originally built in Nineveh in the seventh century b. Overwhelmed with emo- tion at what he had just Overwhelmed with emotion at discovered. followed by the don and translate the tablets a fragment from Nineveh account of the send- already in their collection. . . When the restored tab- let was placed before him. my eye caught the statement that the ship rested on the mountains of Nizir [identified by some scholars as a real mountain in northern wanted him to stay in Lon. I had here discovered a lets might reveal links to But intriguing words aston. where the Gilgamesh tablets were stored. Smith to run around the room in began to run around the room in a state of ecstasy. DISCOVERIES GATE OF GLORY Rebuilt in the 20th century. he deciphered the characters and confirmed his hunch— that they were part of a sto- ry about a great flood. portion at least of the biblical accounts. In November 1872 Iraq]. Smith began what he had just discovered. Smith.c.caught his attention.3375) does ing-place and return- Smith’s great hope was that not look much different from ing. however. EIGHTH CENTURY B. an anxious man. His big ished Smith and reminded Chaldean account of breakthrough came after him of something. a decade of working at the of the lettering. had to wait for several days. PARIS to see what was happening. Other monuments erected at the height of the city’s power include the Library of Ashurbanipal. museum. his nerves strung like piano wires. To a ing forth of the dove.all the other cracked tablets. LOUVRE. Much the Deluge . count says that when his colleagues turned around GILGAMESH STATUE FOUND IN IRAQ. with many of the key elements similar to the Noah story in the biblical Book of Genesis: On looking down the third column. One ac- DAGLI ORTI/AURIMAGES a state of ecstasy. shout- ing and whooping.

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Sandars) BRITISH MUSEUM/SCALA.. In return for ex. . . George Smith in the Middle it is one of the world’s old. among most likely caused by the Smith’s work revealed his initial translations.. Smith was the next century. died in the to fund an excavation led by posed around 1800 b. the tab. In August 1876. shape.DISCOVERIES In the Beginning . In the while in Syria. but fourteen leagues distant there ap. For six days and six nights . It course of his excavations. K. the Epic of Gil- gamesh recounts the futile quest by its eponymous hero to find immortality. . the beast of the field . placing the flood story year. start filling in the blanks. boat grounded. tempest and flood raged like war- ring hosts. my family. my kin. ble. C . the London Daily was totally new to scholars. COMPOSED IN the second mil- lennium B . pieces. to travel to ancient sites in great archaeological digs of Telegraph newspaper offered Believed to have been com. His assistant Genesis. other adventures. he —Francisco del Río Sánchez 94 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . and there the OF THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH. SEVENTH CENTURY B. . .3375) peared a mountain. 1870s Smith published his prepared him a mule-drawn lets long predated the Bi. too late. When the seventh day dawned the storm from the south subsided. a poem began to take Dreams Cut Short vulsed Assyriology and bib- demics but also for the gen. The man whose Smith’s discovery caused As Smith amassed all these quiet scholarship had con- a sensation. Despite the desire coveries would inspire the clusivity. a great flood similar to the ly days into his excavation story of a great flood that Smith fell ill with dysentery one described in the Book of at Nineveh he stumbled on wiped out humanity. on a quest for immortality. . during ings included an account of reer proceeded rapidly. THE FLOOD TABLET (K. . Along the way. . on the mountain of DECIPHERED BY GEORGE SMITH IN 1872. Now known as the Smith’s career was short.” (English BRITISH MUSEUM. Later that translations of the work in litter to carry him to Aleppo. on. I looked at the face of the world and there was silence. . Epic of Gilgamesh. suffered constant illness. LONDON version by N. all mankind was turned to clay . However. . but the medical help he so further back in history than fragments enabled Smith to bly in The Chaldean Account desperately needed came originally thought. this work lived. and hears an account of a flood strikingly similar to that of the later story told in the Bible: “I loaded into her [the boat] all that I had of gold and of living things. not physically equipped to Syrian city at just age 36. not just for aca. the Middle East. lical studies. He would search for the est great literary works. count of the flood. complete the story begun by god Gilgamesh who. of Genesis.c.C. FLORENCE he stripped off his clothes missing pieces that would tells the story of the demi. missing lines from the ac. Smith’s archaeological ca. and whose dis- eral public. embarks searing heat. Nizir the boat held fast. the discovery of other several books—most nota. during which he hears the his third trip to the region. that Mesopotamian writ. with joy. . cope with the climate. In the East. he encounters gods and mon- sters.


to A FOOD HUNTER for the United States. 1922. Eden represented Fairchild searched the world for exotic plants. was ready to call off the search for a missing young pharaoh of Eggypt’s 18th dynasty.C.D. 96 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 . perfection to the people at the dawn of human civilization. utankhamun. and Pompeii In the months before Mount Vesuvius erupted in A. Propaganda. He sent for Carnarvon. election fever was sweeping the Roman city of Pompeii.” he said. When Carter first peeered inside the tomb. She wanted to plant more sakura first grand narrative of history. an account of the Greco- to beautify the nation’s capital. HOWARD CARTER (LEFT) “Wond derful things!” From that EXAMINES THE GOLDEN momeent. found himself at the center of the deal that brought two nations together and started a beloved tradition. preserving the campaigns forever. While visiting Japan in 1902. he was charmed by its pink cherry trees. while Persian wars. and never let go. SEAN PAVONE/GETTY IMAGES Pompeians talked up their candidates and trashed their rivals through graffiti. sometimes unsubstantiated) work. Tut’s tomb and its SARCOPHAGUS OF TUTANKHAMUN IN 1922. Their threats and boasts would soon be buried under ash. build diplomacy with Japan. “Yes. and became the “father of history.” From his President Taft hoped the trees would colorful (and. 79. Next Issue IN SE EARCH OF TUTT’S TOMB 2 THE PATRON of BY 1922 archaeeologist Howard Carter. David the Old Testament. who arrived three weekss later. he found a tomb’ss undisturbed entryway bearing Tut’s seals. Beautiful and bountiful. a paradise found in many traditions— OF THE CHERRY BLOSSOMS from Mesopotamian tales from the third millennium B. He im rodotus: The Father of History they caught the eye of First Lady Helen Taft in In 440 B. Lord Carnarvon. Carter Tu seccured one last try and began digging in the Valleey of the Kings.C. Carnarvon asked if he could see anything. On Novem mber 5. ironically. Fairchild the formal task of separating fact from fiction was born. the Greek scholar Herodotus wrote the world’s 1909. called sakura. A Place Called Eden DAVID FAIRCHILD. Politics. BRINGER The lush lands of the Fertile Crescent provided the inspiration for the Garden of Eden. treasures captured the world’s APIC/GETTY IMAGES fascinaation.


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