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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

6 OF SOLIDS AND FLUIDS

) some important Terms developed inside the body. The restoring force per

• Deforming force : External force which tries to unit area of the body is called stress.

change in the length, volume or shape of the body Restoring force F F

is called deforming force. Stress = = internal = external

Area of the body A A

• Elasticity : It is that property of the material of a

body by virtue of which the body opposes any • The effect of stress is to produce distortion or a

change in its shape or size when deforming forces change in size, volume and shape (i.e., configuration

are applied to it, and recovers its original state as of the body). There are three types of stress

soon as the deforming forces are removed. • Longitudinal or normal stress : When object is

• Perfectly elastic body : The body which perfectly one dimensional then force acting per unit area

regains its original form on removing the external is called longitudinal stress. It is of two types :

deforming force, is defined as a perfectly elastic (a) Compressive stress (b) Tensile stress

body, e.g., quartz is very nearly to a perfectly elastic

body. Tensile stress = F/A Compressive stress = F/A

• Plastic body : The bodies which remain in deformed F F F F

state even after removal of the deforming force are

defined as plastic bodies. ¾ Consider a block of Fn

F

• Internal restoring force : When an external force solid as shown in figure.

acts at any substance then due to the intermolecular Ft

Let a force F be applied

force there is an internal resistance produced into to the face which has

the substance called internal restoring force. area A. Resolve F into (a)

¾ At equilibrium the numerical value of internal two components :

restoring force is equal to the external force. Fn = F sinq called normal force and Ft = F cosq

) stress called tangential force.

• When deforming force is applied on the body then F F sin q

\ Normal (tensile) stress = n =

the equal restoring force in opposite direction is A A

• Tangential or shear stress : It is defined as the ¾ Longitudinal strain : It is defined

restoring force acting per unit area tangential to the asthe increase in length per unit l

surface of the body. Refer to figure (a). original length, when the body

F F cos q is deformed by external forces. l

Tangential (shear) stress = t = F

A A

• Bulk stress or volume stress : Change in length Dl

F = PA Longitudinal strain = =

When the force is acting all Original length l

along the surface normal to ¾ Volumetric strain : It is defined

the area, then force acting as the change in volume per

per unit area is known as unit original volume, when V V

volume stress. The effect the body is deformed by

of pressure is to produce external forces.

change in volume. The shape Change in volume DV

Volumetric strain = =

of the body may or may not change depending Original volume V

upon the homogeneity of body.

¾ Shear strain : It is defined as the angle q (in

¾ Difference between pressure and stress :

radian), through which a face originally

Pressure Stress perpendicular to the fixed face gets turned on

Stress can be either applying tangential deforming force.

Pressure is always

normal or tangential to x

normal to the area. Shear strain = q = tan q =

the area. L

Pressure on a body is Stress can be compressive x x F

F

always compressive. or tensile or shear.

L

Pressure is a scalar. Stress is a tensor. L

• Breaking stress : The stress required to cause actual

fracture of a material is called the breaking stress or

ultimate strength.

) stress-strain Graph

F • Proportional limit : The limit in which Hook’s law is

Breaking stress = valid and stress is directly proportional to strain is

A

called proportional limit.

¾ Dependence of breaking stress : Nature of

material, temperature, impurities. D

C

¾ Independence of breaking stress : Cross B Yield Ultimate E

A point tensile Fracture

sectional area or thickness, applied force. strength point

Stress

limit

depends on cross sectional area or thickness,

nature of material, temperature, impurities.

Permanent Strain

) strain set

• The ratio of the change in configuration (i.e., shape,

• Elastic limit : The maximum stress which on

length or volume) to the original configuration of

removing the deforming force makes the body to

the body is called strain.

recover completely its original state.

Change in configuration

Strain = • Yield point : The point beyond elastic limit, at

Original configuration which the length of wire starts increasing without

There are three types of strain increasing stress, is defined as the yield point.

• Breaking point : The position when the strain ¾ Bulk modulus (B) : The moldulus of elasticity

becomes so large that the wire breaks down at last, of volume

is called breaking point. At this position the stress Normal stress − F / A − PV

B= = =

acting in that wire is called breaking stress and Volumetric strain DV / V DV

strain is called breaking strain. Negative sign indicates a decrease in volume

• Elastic after effect or Elastic relaxation : The with an increase in pressure.

property, by virtue of which a body does not regain For ideal gases bulk modulus is of two types :

its original form immediately after removing the — Isothermal bulk modulus, Biso = P

deforming force but gains it after some time, is — Adibatic bulk modulus, Badi = gP

defined as elastic relaxation. ¾ The reciprocal of bulk modulus of elasticity is

• Elastic fatigue : It is defined as the loss in the defined as compressibility (K).

strength (elasticity) of a material caused due to 1

repeated alternating strains to which the material K=

B

is subjected. ¾ Modulus of rigidity (G) : Modulus of elasticity

• Elastic hysteresis : The of shape

g

sin

Load or stress

Tangential stress F / A F

rea

sing

Shearing strain q Aq

inc

crea

ad

) Poisson’s ratio

Lo

d de

This is the reason why the • Within the elastic limit, the ratio of

Loa

values of strain for same Extension or strain lateral strain to the longitudinal strain

stress are different while is called Poisson’s ratio. D

increasing the load and Lateral strain l

− DD / D

s= =

while decreasing the load. Longitudinal strain Dl / l

¾ Metals with small plastic deformation are l

l DD

called brittle while metals with large plastic or s=− ⋅ D – D

D Dl

deformation are called ductile.

The negative sign indicates that longitudinal and

¾ Elasticity restoring forces are strictly lateral strains are in opposite sense.

conservative only when the elastic hysteresis • Relation between Y, B, G and s

is zero, i.e., the loading and unloading stress -

9 3 1

strain curves are identical. Y = 3B(1 – 2s), Y = 2G(1 + s), = +

Y G B

¾ The material which have low elastic hysteresis

• Elongation of a wire by its own weight equals to

have also low elastic relaxation time. (Mgl/2AY).

) Modulus of Elasticity • Work done in stretching a wire,

• Within elastic limit, modulus of elasticity is defined 1 F

W = × load × extension= × Dl

as the ratio of the stress to the strain. 2 2

• It depends on the nature of the material of the body This work done is stored in the wire as elastic

and is independent of its dimensions. potential energy.

• There are three types of moduli of elasticity So, elastic potential energy density,

¾ Young’s modulus (Y) : The modulus of elasticity W 1

u= = × stress × strain

of length V 2

Longitudinal stress F /A F ×l ) Applications of Elasticity

Y= = =

Longitudinal strain Dl A × Dl • The thickness of metallic ropes used in cranes to

l lift heavy loads is derived by the knowledge of the

elastic limit of the material and for a safety factor — Barometer is used to measure atmospheric

of 10. pressure. It was discovered by Torricelli.

• In case of twisting of a cylinder (or wire) of length L — Atmospheric pressure varies from place to

and radius r, elastic restoring couple per unit twist place and at a particular place from time to

is given by time.

pGr 4 ¾ Gauge pressure : Excess pressure (P – Patm)

C= measured with the help of pressure measuring

2L

instrument called Gauge pressure.

• Depression of a beam loaded at the middle by a

Pgauge = hrg or Pgauge ∝h

load W and supported at the ends is

— Gauge pressure is always measured with

WL3 help of manometer.

δ=

48YIg ¾ Absolute pressure : Sum of atmospheric and

where L is the length of a beam, Y is the Young’s Gauge pressure is called absolute pressure.

modulus for the material of the beam, and Ig is the Pabs = Patm + Pgauge ⇒ Pabs = Po + hrg

geometrical moment of inertia.

¾ For a beam of circular cross section of radius r,

) Buoyancy and Archimede’s Principle

• Buoyancy : If a body is partially or wholly immersed

pr 4

Ig = in a fluid, it experiences an upward force due to the

4 fluid surrounding it. This phenomenon of force

¾ For a beam of rectangular cross section of exerted by fluid on the body is called buoyancy and

breadth b and thickness d, force is called buoyant force or upthrust.

bd 3 Buoyant force, FB = rVg

Ig =

12 r = density of fluid, V = volume of displaced fluid

• Archimede’s principle : It states that the buoyant

) Pressure

force on a body that is partially or totally immersed

• If a uniform force is exerted normal to an area (A),

in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced

then pressure (P) is defined as the normal force (F)

by it.

F

per unit area, i.e., P = . • Buoyant force acts vertically upward through the

A

centre of gravity of the displaced fluid. This point

• Practical units : atmospheric pressure (atm), bar

is called centre of buoyancy. It depends upon the

and torr

effective acceleration.

1 atm = 1.01325 × 105 Pa = 1.01325 bar =

¾ If a lift is accelerated downwards with

760 torr = 10.33 m of water

acceleration a(a < g) then FB = rV(g – a)

1 bar = 105 Pa

¾ If a lift is accelerated downwards with a = g

1 torr = pressure exerted by 1 mm of mercury

then FB = rV(g – a) = 0

column = 133 Pa

¾ If a lift is accelerated upward with acceleration

• Pressure is of three types

a then FB = rV(g + a)

¾ Atmospheric pressure :

Force exerted by air Upto top of • Due to upthrust, the weight of the body decreases.

atmosphere

column on unit cross Air Wapp = W – FB (W is the true weight of the body)

column

Sea Area = 1 m2

section area of sea level level Decrease in weight = W – Wapp = FB = Weight of

called atmospheric the fluid displaced

pressure (Po). • Using Archimede’s principle, we can determine

F relative density (R.D.) of a body as

Po = = 101.3 kN m −2

A Density of body

R.D. =

\ Po = 1.013 × 105 N m–2 Density of pure water at 4 °C

• If a body is weighed in air (WA), in water (WW) and • Rotational flow is the flow in which the fluid

in a liquid (WL), then particles while flowing along path-lines also rotate

Loss of weight in liquid about their own axis. In irrotational flow, particles

Specific gravity of liquid = do not rotate about their axis.

Loss of weight in water

W − WL ) Equation of continuity

= A

WA − WW • The continuity equation is the mathematical

• Weight of liquid displaced = upthrust = weight of expression of the law of conservation of mass in

body fluid dynamics.

This is known as law of floatation.

¾ The floating body will be in stable equilibrium

when the metacentre lies above centre of gravity A1 v1 A2 v2

of body. v2t

¾ The floating body will be in unstable equilibrium

when the metacentre lies below centre of gravity v1t

of body. • In the steady flow, the mass of fluid entering into a

¾ The floating body will be in neutral equilibrium tube of flow in a particular time interval is equal to

when the metacentre coincides with centre of the mass of fluid leaving the tube.

gravity of body. m1 m2

¾ If a person floats on his back on the surface of

= or r1A1v1 = r2 A2v2

Dt Dt

water, the apparent weight of the person is zero. Here r = r1 = r2 = density of fluid, v = velocity of fluid,

) Different Types of Fluid Flow A = Area of cross section of tube

• Steady flow is defined as that type of flow in which or A1v1 = A2v2 or Av = constant

the fluid characteristics like velocity, pressure and ) Bernoulli’s Theorem

density at a point do not change with time.

• Bernoulli’s equation is mathematical expression of

¾ In steady flow, all the particles passing

the law of mechanical energy conservation of fluid

through a given point follow the same path and

dynamics.

hence a unique line of flow. This line or path

is called a streamline. Streamlines do not • This theorem is applied to the ideal fluids.

intersect each other. Characteristics of an ideal fluid are :

• In an unsteady flow, the velocity, pressure and ¾ The fluid is incompressible.

density at a point in the flow varies with time. ¾ The fluid is non-viscous.

• Laminar flow is the flow in which the fluid particles ¾ The fluid flow is steady.

move along well-defined streamlines which are ¾ The fluid flow is irrotational.

straight and parallel. In this flow, the velocities • The sum of pressure energy, kinetic energy and

at different points in the fluid may have different potential energy per unit volume remains constant

magnitudes, but their directions are parallel. along a streamline in an ideal fluid flow i.e.,

• Turbulent flow is an irregular flow in which the

1

particles can move in zig-zag way due to which P + rv 2 + rgh = constant

eddies formation take place which are responsible 2

(Energy per unit volume)

for high energy losses.

• In compressible flow, the density of fluid varies P v2

or + + gh = constant

from point to point, whereas in incompressible r 2

(Energy per unit mass)

flow, the density of the fluid remains constant P v2

throughout. Liquids are generally incompressible or + + h = constant

rg 2 g

while gases are compressible.

(Energy per unit weight)

P The viscous force is directly It is independent of the

In this equation, is called pressure head,

rg proportional to the surface area of solid surfaces in

v2 area of contact of liquid contact.

is called velocity head and h is called

2g layers.

gravitational/potential head.

The viscous force is directly It is independent of the

) Applications of Bernoulli’s Theorem proportional to the relative relative velocity of one

• Venturimeter : It is a device to measure the flow of velocity between two layers body with respect to

speed of incompressible fluid. of a liquid. another body in contact.

¾ Volume of the fluid flowing out per second It does not depend upon It is directly proportional

2hrm g Area = a1 Area = a2 the normal reaction to the normal reaction

Q = a1v1 = a1a2 P1 v1 P2 v2 between the two layers of between the surfaces in

r(a12 − a22 )

Liquid of

the liquid. contact.

¾ Speed of fluid at wide h

density m

• Newton’s law of viscosity : Viscous force acting

neck

between two layers of a liquid flowing in streamlined

2hrm g a22 motion is given by

v1 = ×

r a12 − a22 dv

F = −hA

• Torricelli’s law : dy

dv

¾ If the container is open at the top to the is velocity gradient, h is coefficient of viscosity

dy

atmosphere then speed of efflux v1 = 2 gh of fluid and A is contact area of the layers.

P2 = P A2

2 • Stoke’s law : When a sphere of radius r moves

h

uniformly through a viscous liquid then retarding

A1

1 force experienced by the sphere is, Fv = 6phrv.

H

Pa • Terminal velocity :

(H – h)

When a solid sphere 4

FB = 3 r3g

falls in a liquid then its

Horizontal range, R = v1 × t accelerating velocity is

controlled by the viscous Fv = 6rvT

2(H − h)

= 2 gh × = 2 h(H − h)

g force of liquid and hence

H it attains a constant

R will be maximum if h = and Rmax = H. 4

2 velocity which is known W= 3 r3g

¾ In general as shown in figure, speed of outflow, as terminal velocity (vT).

2(P − Pa ) At equilibrium, FB + Fv = W

v1 = 2 gh + 4 3 4

r or pr sg + 6 phrvT = pr 3rg

3 3

) Viscosity 2

2 r (r − s)

• Viscosity is the property of the fluid by virtue of or vT = g

9 h vT

which it opposes the relative motion between its ¾ The variation of velocity

adjacent layers. It is the fluid friction or internal with time (or distance)

velocity

• Difference between viscosity and solid friction graph. Time or distance

Viscosity Solid friction

) Poiseuille’s Formula

It is internal friction as the It is external friction as • Volume of liquid flowing per second V through a

layer exerting the friction the friction force is due horizontal capillary tube of length l, radius r, across

force is internal to the to an external body. a pressure difference P, under streamline motion,

liquid. is given by

W is the work done in increasing the area A of

pPr 4 P

V= = free surface of liquid at rest without any change in

8 hl R temperature.

8 hl • Molecules on the free surface of a liquid at rest

• Liquid resistance R = experience maximum downward pulling force

4

pr

• Two capillary tubes are joined in series. which gives rise to surface tension.

P = P1 + P2 and V is same through the two tubes. • Surface tension depends only on the nature of liquid

¾ Equivalent liquid resistance, Rs = R1 + R2

and is independent of the surface area or length of

the imaginary line drawn on the free surface of

• Two capillary tubes are joined in parallel. Equivalent

liquid at rest.

RR

liquid resistance, RP = 1 2 . • Work done in forming a liquid drop/bubble

R1 + R2

¾ Work done in forming a liquid drop of radius

¾ In parallel, V = V1 + V2 but pressure difference R, surface tension S is W = 4pR2S.

P is same across both tubes. ¾ Work done in forming a soap bubble of radius R,

¾ Work done in increasing the radius of a liquid

• The type of flow pattern (laminar or turbulent) is

determined by a non-dimensional number called drop from R1 to R2 is W = 4 pS(R22 − R12 ).

Reynold’s number (Re). Which is defined as ¾ Work done in increasing the radius of a soap

rvd bubble from R1 to R2 is W = 8 pS(R22 − R12 ).

Re =

h • Formation of a bigger drop by a number of smaller

where r is the density of the fluid having viscosity drops

h and flowing with mean speed v. d denotes the ¾ When n number of smaller drops of a liquid,

diameter of obstacle or boundary of fluid flow. each of radius r, surface tension S are combined

• Although there is not a perfect demarkation for to form a bigger drop of radius R then

value of Re for laminar and turbulent flow but some Volume of bigger drop = volume of n smaller

authentic references take the value as drops

Re <1000 >2000 between 1000 4 3 4

pR = n × pr 3 or R = n1/3r

to 2000 3 3

Type of laminar often may be laminar ¾ The surface area of bigger drop = 4pR2

flow turbulent or turbulent = 4pn2/3r2, which is less than the area of n

smaller drops.

• On gradually increasing the speed of flow at certain ¾ In this process energy is released, given by

speed transition from laminar flow to turbulent

flow takes place. This speed is called critical speed. W = S × (4pr2n – 4pR2) = 4pSr2n2/3(n1/3 – 1)

• For lower density and higher viscosity fluid, laminar 1 1

= 4 pSR2 (n1/3 − 1) = 4 pSR3 −

flow is more probable. r R

) surface Tension ¾ The increase in temperature of bigger drop

• It is the property of liquid by virtue of which its 3S 1 1

Dq = −

free surface possess a tendency to contract so as Jcr r R

to acquire a minimum possible surface area and

behave like a stretched membrane. where r = density and c = specific heat of liquid.

• Quantitatively, surface tension of liquid is ) Excess Pressure

F W • Excess pressure inside a liquid drop, P = 2 S/R

S= =

l A • Excess pressure inside a soap bubble, P = 4 S/R

where F is the force acting on imaginary length • Pressure difference (P) across curved surfaces of

l drawn tangentially to the liquid surface at rest. radii R1 and R2

¾ If the curvatures are in mutually opposite tangents to solid and liquid surfaces at a point of

direction, then contact inside the liquid. It depends on the nature

1 1 R1 R2 of solid and liquid both and for concave meniscus,

P =S − it is acute while for convex it is obtuse.

R R

1 2

• The phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid in a

¾ If the curvatures are in the same direction,

capillary tube is known as capillarity.

then

• The rise or fall in a capillary tube is given by

1 1

P =S + 2S cos q 2S r

R R R2 h= =

1 2 R 1 cos q =

S rrg Rrg R

¾ For a cylindrical surface, P = where S is the surface tension of the liquid, q is

R

because R1 = R and R2 = ∞ the angle of contact, r is the density of liquid, r is

2S the radius of capillary tube, R is the radius of the

¾ For a spherical surface, P = meniscus and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

R

because R1 = R2 = R ¾ If q > 90°, i.e., meniscus is convex, h will be

• If there is an air bubble of radius R in a liquid of negative, i.e., the liquid will fall in a capillary

density r at a depth h below the surface of liquid, tube.

then total pressure inside that bubble is ¾ If q = 90°, i.e., meniscus is plane, h = 0, so no

P = P0 + hrg + 2S/R phenomenon of capillarity.

where P0 is the atmospheric pressure and hrg is the ¾ If q < 90°, i.e., meniscus is concave, h will be

hydrostatic pressure. positive, i.e., the liquid will rise in the capillary.

• If P1 and P2 are pressures inside the two soap bubbles • If a capillary tube is of insufficient length as

and P0 is pressure outside each bubble, then ratio of compared to height to which liquid can rise in the

3

P −P capillary tube, then the liquid rises upto the full

their volumes is 2 0 . length of capillary tube but there is no overflowing

P −P

1 0

of the liquid in the form of fountain. It is so because

) Angle of contact and capillarity the liquid meniscus adjusts its radius of curvature

• Angle of contact is defined as the angle between the so that hR = constant, i.e., hR = h′R′.

1. One end of a nylon rope of length 4.5 m and The rate of flow of water (in cm3 s–1) through the

diameter 6 mm is fixed to a tree-limb. A monkey tube will be

weighing 100 N jumps to catch the free end and (a) 6300 (b) 1890 (c) 2315 (d) 1680.

stays there. The elongation of the rope and the 3. Water and mercury are filled in two cylindrical

corresponding change in the diameter respectively vessels up to same height. Both vessels have a hole

are (Young’s modulus of nylon = 4.8 × 1011 N m–2 in the wall near the bottom. If the velocity of water

and Poisson ratio of nylon = 0.2) and mercury coming out of the holes are v1 and v2

(a) 3.32 × 10–5 m (b) 4.41 × 10–8 m respectively, then

–9

(c) 8.85 × 10 m (d) 1.94 × 10–9 m. (a) v1 = v2 (b) v1 = 13.6 v2

2. Water flows in a horizontal A (c) v1 = v2/13.6 (d) v1 = 13.6 v2 .

B

tube as shown in the figure.

The pressure of water changes 4. A ring is cut from a platinum tube has 8.5 cm

by 600 N m–2 between A and B where the areas of internal and 8.7 cm external radius. It is supported

cross section are 30 cm2 and 15 cm2 respectively. horizontally from a pan of a balance so that it comes

in contact with the water in a glass vessel. What 11. Two blocks of masses 1 kg and

is the surface tension of water if an extra weight 2 kg are connected by a metal

= 3.97 g wt is required to pull it away from water ? wire going over a smooth pulley

(Take g = 980 cm s–2) as shown in the figure. The

(a) 72.04 dyne cm–1 (b) 35.98 dyne cm–1 breaking stress of the metal is 1 kg

(c) 54.03 dyne cm–1 (d) 18.02 dyne cm–1 2 × 109 N m–2. What should be the

2 kg

5. A 45 kg boy whose leg bones are 5 cm2 in area and minimum radius of the wire used

50 cm long falls through a height of 2 m without if it is not to break?

breaking his leg bones. If the bones can stand a (Take g = 10 m s–2)

stress of 0.9 × 108 N m–2, then the Young’s modulus (a) 4.6 × 10–5 m (b) 9.2 × 10–5 m

–4

for the material of the bone is (Take g = 10 m s–2) (c) 2.3 × 10 m (d) 2.3 × 10–5 m

(a) 2.25 × 109 N m–2 (b) 2.76 × 108 N m–2 12. If two soap bubbles of different radii are connected

(c) 4.42 × 107 N m–2 (d) 3.17 × 109 N m–2. by a tube,

6. Two rods A and B of the same material and same (a) air flows from bigger bubble to the smaller

length have radii r1 and r2 respectively. When they bubble till the sizes become equal

are rigidly fixed at one end and twisted by the same (b) air flows from bigger bubble to the smaller

couple applied at the other end, then the ratio of bubble till the sizes are interchanged

the angles of twist at the ends of A and B is (c) air flows from the smaller bubble to the bigger

(a) r2 : r1 (b) r14 : r24 (c) r24 : r14 (d) r13 : r23. bubble

7. A large tank filled with water to a height h is said (d) there is no flow of air.

to be emptied through a small hole at the bottom. 13. A rectangular film of liquid is extended from

Find the ratio of time taken for the level of water to (4 cm × 2 cm) to (5 cm × 4 cm). If the work done

fall down from h to h/2 and h/2 to zero. is 3 × 10–4 J, the value of the surface tension of the

(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 + 1 (c) 2 (d) 2 − 1 liquid is

(a) 0.250 N m–1 (b) 0.125 N m–1

8. The lower end of a capillary tube is dipped in water. –1

(c) 0.2 N m (d) 8.0 N m–1.

Water rises to a height of 8 cm. The tube is then

[NEET Phase II 2016]

broken at a height of 6 cm. The height of water

column and angle of contact will be 14. Three liquids of densities r1, r2 and r3 (with

3 3 r1 > r2 > r3), having the same value of surface

(a) 6 cm, sin −1 (b) 6 cm, cos −1 tension T, rise to the same height in three identical

4 4

1 capillaries. The angles of contact q1, q2 and q3 obey

1

(c) 4 cm, sin −1 (d) 4 cm, cos −1 . p

2 2

(a) > q1 > q2 > q3 ≥ 0

9. The rate of steady volume of water through a 2

p

capillary tube of length l and radius r under a (b) 0 ≤ q1 < q2 < q3 <

pressure difference of P is V. This tube is connected 2

p

with another tube of same length but half the radius (c) < q1 < q2 < q3 < p

in series. Then the rate of increase of steady volume 2

p

through them is (the pressure difference across the (d) p > q1 > q2 > q3 > . [NEET Phase II 2016]

2

combination is P)

V V 16 V 17 V 15. Two non-mixing liquids of densities r and nr

(a) (b) (c) (d) . (n > 1) are put in a container. The height of each

16 17 17 16

liquid is h. A solid cylinder of length L and density

10. A cylindrical vessel is filled with water up to height d is put in this container. The cylinder floats with

H. A hole is bored in the wall at a depth h from its axis vertical and length pL (p < 1) in the denser

the free surface of water. For maximum range, h is liquid. The density d is equal to

equal to (a) {2 + (n – 1)p}r (b) {1 + (n – 1)p}r

H H 3H (c) {1 + (n + 1)p}r (d) {2 + (n + 1)p}r.

(a) (b) (c) (d) H.

4 2 4 [NEET Phase I 2016]

16. The Young’s modulus of steel is twice that of brass. (a) (pmBb)a (b) (2pmBb)Da

Two wires of same length and of same area of (c) (pmBb)Da (d) (4pmBb)Da

cross section, one of steel and another of brass are [JEE Main Online 2016]

suspended from the same roof. If we want the lower

20. If it takes 5 minutes to fill a 15 litre bucket from a

ends of the wires to be at the same level, then the

2

weights added to the steel and brass wires must be water tap of diameter cm then the Reynolds

in the ratio of p

(a) 4 : 1 (b) 1 : 1 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 2 : 1. number for the flow is (density of water = 103 kg m–3

[AIPMT 2015] and viscosity of water = 10–3 Pa s) close to

(a) 5500 (b) 11,000 (c) 550 (d) 1100

17. Consider a water jar of radius R R

[JEE Main Online 2015]

that has water filled up to height H

H

and is kept on a stand of height h. SolutionS

Through a hole of radius r (r << R) 2r

1. (c) : As the monkey stays in equilibrium, the

at its bottom, the water leaks out tension in the rope equals the weight of the monkey.

h

and the stream of water coming Hence,

down towards the ground has a 2x

stress T / A TL

shape like a funnel as shown in the figure. If the Y= = or l =

strain l / L AY

radius of the cross section of water stream when it

hits the ground is x. Then or elongation,

1

(100 N) × (4.5 m)

l=

H 4 H (p × 9 × 10−6 m2 ) × (4.8 × 1011 N m −2 )

(a) x =r (b) x = r

H + h H + h

=3.32 × 10–5 m

1

2

H 2 Dd / d (Dd )L

H Again, Poisson ratio = =

(c) x =r (d) x = r .

H + h H + h l/L ld

Dd × 4.5 m

[JEE Main Online 2016] or 0.2 =

18. Which of the following options correctly describes (3.32 × 10−5 m) × (6 × 10−3 m)

the variation of the speed v and acceleration a of a 0.2 × 6 × 3.32 × 10−8 m

point mass falling vertically in a viscous medium or Dd = = 8.85 × 10–9m

4. 5

that applies a force F = –kv, where k is a constant,

2. (b) : Let the velocity at A = vA and that at B = vB

on the body? (Graphs are schematic and not drawn

2

to scale) v 30 cm

a v By the equation of continuity, B = =2

v A 15 cm2

(a) (b) 1 1

v

a By Bernoulli’s theorem, PA + rv 2A = PB + rv B2

t t 2 2

v v 1 1 3

or PA − PB = r(2v A )2 − rv 2A = rv 2A

2 2 2

(c) (d)

3

a a or 600 N m −2 = (1000 kg m −3 )v 2A

t t 2

[JEE Main Online 2016]

or v A = 0.4 m2s −2 = 0.63 m s −1

19. A bottle has an opening of radius a and a

length b. A cork of length b and radius The rate of flow = (30 cm2) (0.63 m s–1)

b

(a + Da) where (Da << a) is compressed = 1890 cm3 s–1

to fit into the opening completely (see 3. (a)

figure). If the bulk modulus of cork is 4. (b) : Let r1 and r2 be the inner and outer radius of

B and frictional coefficient between the ring when ring is in contact with water along its

the bottle and cork is m then the force inner and outer circumference. So, when it is pulled

needed to push the cork into the bottle is out of water, the total force on it due to surface

tension will be, F = S (2pr1 + 2pr2) 8 6 6 cos 0° 3

F mg \ = or cos q = =

or S = = cos 0° cos q 8 4

2 p(r1 + r2 ) 2 p(r1 + r2 )

or q = cos–1 (3/4)

3.97 × 980

= = 35.98 dyne cm −1 pPr 4

2 × (22 / 7)(8.5 + 8.7) 9. (c) : V = ; when tubes are connected in

8 hl

5. (a) : Here, m = 45 kg; h = 2 m; L = 0.50 m;

A = 5 × 10–4 m2 series, then the rate of flow of water through each

Loss in gravitational energy tube (V1) is same. Let (P – P1) be the difference in

= gain in elastic energy in both leg bones pressure across the first tube and P1 be the difference

1 in pressure across the second tube. Then

⇒ mgh = 2 × × stress × strain × volume

2 p(P − P1 ) r 4 pP1 (r / 2)4

Here, volume = AL = 5 × 10–4 × 0.50 = 2.5 × 10–4 m3 V1 = = ...(i)

8 hl 8 hl

\ 45 × 10 × 2

= 2(0.5 × 0.9 × 108 × strain × 2.5 × 10−4 ) P1 16 P

or P − P1 = or P1 =

16 17

45 × 10 × 2 From (i),

or strain = = 0.04

0.9 × 2.5 × 104 p(16P / 17) (r 4 / 16) 1 pPr 4 V

V1 = = × =

stress 0.9 × 108 8 hl 17 8hl 17

\ Y= = = 2.25 × 109 N m–2

strain 0.04 V 16V

Rate of decrease of volume = V − =

6. (c) : If a wire of length l and radius r is fixed at 17 17

one end and a torque t is applied at the other end 10. (b) : Horizontal velocity of water flowing out of

produces angle of twist q in the wire, then

hole, u = 2 gh

pGr 4 q 2tl

t= or q = , i.e., q ∝ 1 / r 4 Height of hole from ground level = (H – h).

2l 4

pGr The time taken by water to cover vertical distance

4

q r (H – h) will be

Thus, 1 = 2

q2 r14 1

(H − h) = gt 2 or t = 2(H − h) / g

7. (d) : Let R be the radius of the tank and r be the 2

radius of the hole. Then velocity of water flowing \ Horizontal range,

out of the hole, v = 2 gh . If dh is the fall in height R = ut = 2 gh × 2(H − h) / g = 2 h(H − h)

of water in time dt, then Horizontal range will be maximum if dR/dh = 0

2dh dh r 2

− pR = pr 2v = pr 2 2 gh ; − = 2 g dt 1

i.e., 2 × (hH − h2 )−1/2 × (H − 2h) = 0

dt h R2 2

Required ratio, or H = 2h or h = H/2

h /2

dh 11. (a) 12. (c)

t1

∫ h h− h 13. (b) : Work done = Surface tension of film

= h = 2 = 2 −1 × Change in area of the film

t2 0 h

dh or W = T × DA

∫ h 0− 2 Here, A1 = 4 cm × 2 cm = 8 cm2

h /2

A2 = 5 cm × 4 cm = 20 cm2

8. (b) : When a capillary tube is broken at a height of DA = 2(A2 – A1) = 24 cm2 = 24 × 10–4 m2

6 cm, the height of water column will be 6 cm. As W = 3 × 10–4 J, T = ?

2S cos q h 2S W 3 × 10−4 1

h= or = = constant

\ T= = = = 0.125 N m −1

rrg cos q rrg DA 24 × 10−4 8

2T cos q Ws 2

14. (b) : Capillary rise, h = \ =

rrg Wb 1

cos q

For given value of T and r, h ∝ 17. (a) : Let v1 and v2 be the velocities of water when

Also, h1 = h2 = h3 r it leaks out through the hole and when it hits the

cos q1 cos q2 cos q3 ground respectively.

or = =

r1 r2 r3 Then, as per Bernoulli’s theorem,

Since, r1 > r2 > r3, so for positive value of cos q v12 + 2gh = v22

cos q1 > cos q2 > cos q3 Now, according to Torricelli’s law, v1 = 2 gH ...(i)

p \ 2gH + 2gh = v22 ...(ii)

For 0 ≤ q < , q1 < q2 < q3

2 According to continuity equation,

p

Hence, option is (b) i.e., 0 ≤ q1 < q2 < q3 < a1v1 = a2v2

2

15. (b) : or pr 2 ⋅ 2 gH = px 2 ⋅ 2 g (H + h) [Using (i) and (ii)]

1/ 4

H H

x2 = r 2 or x = r

h

d

(L – pL) H +h H + h

pL

h 18. (c) : Equation of motion for the point mass

ma = mg – kv ...(i)

d = density of cylinder dv dt

dv mg − kv ⇒ =

A = area of cross section of cylinder or =

dt m mg − kv m

Using law of floatation,

Weight of cylinder = Upthrust by two liquids Integrating,

v t

L × A × d × g = nr × (pL × A)g + r(L – pL)Ag dv 1

d = npr + r(1 – p) = (np + 1 – p)r ∫ mg − kv = m ∫ dt

d = {1 + (n – 1)p} r 0 0

and area of cross section of Steel Brass

1

− [ln(mg − kv )]0 =

k

v

m

t

; v =

mg

k

1 −(e

− kt

m ) ...(ii)

each wire. In order to have L, A L, A Putting (ii) in (i), we get

the lower ends of the wires

− kt

to be at the same level (i.e., mg

same elongation is produced

Ws Wb ma = mg − k × ( −kt /m ) or a = ge m

k 1− e

in both wires), let weights Ws and Wb are added to Hence option (c) represents the correct variation.

steel and brass wires respectively. Then by definition

of Young’s modulus, the elongation produced in the Normal stress

19. (d) : Bulk modulus, B =

steel wire is Volumetric strain

Ws L W/ A N N

DLs = P= =

as Y = A (2pa)b

Ys A DL / L

and that in the brass wire is 2 pa Da × b 2Da

Volumetric strain = =

WL pa2 × b a

DLb = b N a

Yb A \ B= ×

But DLs = DLb (given) 2 pab 2Da

N = 4pb Da × B

Ws L Wb L Ws Ys \ Required force = Frictional force

\ = or =

Ys A Yb A Wb Yb = mN = (4pmBb)Da

Y 20. (a)

As s = 2 (given)

Yb

CLASS XI Series 6

CBSE

Thermodynamics

Time Allowed : 3 hours

Kinetic Theory Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory.

(ii) Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

(v) Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculator is not allowed.

1. Can a system be heated and its temperature remains ratio T1/T2?

constant? 8. Calculate the number of degrees of freedom of

2. Air pressure in a car tyre increases during driving. molecules of hydrogen in 1 cc of hydrogen gas at

Explain. NTP.

3. The volume of a given mass of a gas at 27 °C and 9. Write any four fundamental postulates of the kinetic

1 atm is 100 cc. What will be its volume at 327 °C? theory of an ideal gas.

4. Calculate the number of atoms in 39.4 g of gold. OR

Molar mass of gold is 197 g mol–1. At what temperature does all molecular motion

5. During adiabatic changes, the volume of a gas cease ? Explain.

is found to depend inversely on the square of its 10. Discuss whether the following phenomena are

absolute temperature. Find how its pressure will reversible :

depend on the absolute temperature. (a) Water fall (b) Rusting of iron

section-B section-c

6. What happens to the change in internal energy 11. A vessel A contains hydrogen and another vessel

of a gas during (a) isothermal expansion and B whose volume is twice of A contains same mass

(b) adiabatic expansion? of oxygen at the same temperature. Compare

7. A monatomic ideal gas, initially at temperature T1 (a) average kinetic energies of hydrogen and

is enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a frictionless oxygen molecules, (b) root mean square speeds of

piston. The gas is allowed to expand adiabatically to the molecules and (c) pressures of gases in A and

a temperature T2 by releasing the piston suddenly. B. Molecular weights of hydrogen and oxygen are

If L1 and L2 are the lengths of the gas column before 2 and 32 respectively.

12. Explain why 19. 1 g of water at 100 °C is converted into steam at

(a) There is no atmosphere on the moon. the same temperature. If the volume of steam is

(b) There is fall in temperature with altitude. 1671 cm3, find the change in the internal energy of

the system. Given latent heat of steam = 2256 J g–1

13. Estimate the average thermal energy of a helium

and 1 atmospheric pressure = 1.013 × 105 N m–2.

atom at (a) room temperature 27 °C, (b) the

temperature on the surface of the sun 6000 K, 20. Ten small planes are flying at a speed of

(c) the temperature of 10 million kelvin (the typical 150 km h–1 in total darkness in an air space that is

core temperature in case of a star). 20 × 20 × 1.5 km3 in volume. You are in one of the

planes, flying at random within this space with

14. Show that the slope of an adiabatic curve at any no way of knowing where the other planes are.

point is g times the slope of an isothermal curve at On the average about how long a time will elapse

the corresponding point. between near collision with your plane. Assume for

15. Explain why this rough computation that a safety region

(a) Two bodies at different temperatures T1 and T2 around the plane can be approximated by a sphere

if brought in thermal contact do not necessarily of radius 10 m.

settle to mean temperature (T1 + T2)/2. OR

(b) The coolant in a chemical or a nuclear plant (a) The difference between two specific heats of a

(i.e., the liquid used to prevent the different gas is 5000 J kg–1 K–1 and the ratio of specific

parts of a plant from getting too hot) should heats is 1.6. Find the two specific heats.

have high specific heat. (b) A cylinder containing one gram molecule of

(c) The climate of a harbour town is more temperate the gas was compressed adiabatically until its

than that of a town in a desert at the same temperature rose from 27 °C to 97 °C. Calculate

latitude. the work done on the gas. Given g = 1.5.

16. Two cylinders A and B of equal capacity are 21. (a) When a molecule (or an elastic ball) hits a

connected to each other via a stopcock. The (massive) wall of container, it rebounds with

the same speed. When a ball hits a massive bat

cylinder A contains a gas at standard temperature

held firmly, the same thing happens. However,

and pressure, while the cylinder B is completely

when the bat is moving towards the ball, the

evacuated. The entire system is thermally insulated.

ball rebounds with a different speed. Does the

The stopcock is suddenly opened. ball move faster or slower?

Answer the following : (b) When gas in a cylinder is compressed by

(a) What is the final pressure of the gas in A and B? pushing in a piston, its temperature rises.

(b) What is the change in internal energy of the gas? Guess an explanation of this in terms of kinetic

(c) What is the change in temperature of the gas? theory.

(d) Do the intermediate states of the system (before (c) What happens when a compressed gas pushes

settling to final equilibrium state) lie on its a piston out and expands ? What would you

P-V-T surface? observe?

17. Two perfect gases at absolute temperatures 22. Two thermally insulated vessels 1 and 2 are filled

T1 and T2 are mixed. There is no loss of energy. with air at temperature (T1, T2), volumes (V1, V2)

Find the temperature of the mixture if the masses and pressures (P1, P2) respectively. If the valve

of the molecules are m1 and m2 and the number of joining the two vessels is opened, what will be the

molecules in the gases are n1 and n2 respectively. temperature inside the vessel at equilibrium ?

18. A thermos flask contains coffee. It is vigorously section-D

shaken. Consider the coffee as the system. 23. One day Ramesh was pumping air into his

(a) Has any heat been added to it? (b) Has any cycle tyre. He noticed that both the volume and

work been done on it? (c) Has its internal energy pressure of the air in the tyre were increasing

changed? (d) Does its temperature rise? simultaneously. He was a bit confused as he had

learnt in his Physics class that pressure varies (c) Given the internal energy for one mole of gas at

inversely with volume as per Boyle's law. Next day temperature T is 3/2 RT, find the heat supplied

he talked to his Physics teacher about this to the gas when it is taken from state 1 to 2, with

phenomenon. The teacher thought it to be an V2 = 2V1.

important phenomenon and therefore explained to 26. Show that the pressure exerted by an ideal gas is

the whole class. 1

Answer the following questions : P = r v2, where r is the density and v is the root

3

(a) What are the values displayed by Ramesh and mean square velocity.

the teacher? OR

(b) What is your opinion to correct the Using the law of equipartition of energy, determine

explanation for the given observation? the values of CP, CV and g for (a) monatomic,

section-e (b) diatomic and (c) triatomic gases.

24. State first law of thermodynamics and use it to solutions

find the expression for work done during adiabatic 1. From first law of thermodynamics,

expansion. Write two limitations of first law of DQ = DU + DW

thermodynamics. ⇒ DQ = nCV DT + DW (Q DU = nCVDT)

OR If system has constant temperature inspite of heat

supplied then DT = 0 and DQ = DW. It means heat

What is an isothermal process? State two essential

supplied (DQ) to the system is used in doing work

conditions for such a process to take place. Show

(DW) against the surrounding.

analytically that work done by one mole of an ideal

gas during isothermal expansion from volume V1 2. A car tyre has a fixed volume (V). When car

is driven, the temperature (T) of air in its tyre

to volume V2 is given by

increases. So, according to Charles’ law, P ∝ T

V2 at constant V, pressure of the air in the car tyre

W = RT loge

V1 increases.

What is the change in internal energy of a gas, 3. Here, T1 = 27 °C = 300 K, V1 = 100 cm3

which is compressed isothermally? T2 = 327 °C = 600 K, V2 = ?

25. What is Carnot engine ? Derive an expression for At constant pressure, V ∝ T

the efficiency of a Carnot engine. On what factors V1 T1

does it depend? or =

V2 T2

OR

V1T2 100 × 600

Consider a P-V diagram in which the path followed ⇒ V2 = = = 200 cm3

T1 300

by one mole of perfect gas in a cylindrical container

is shown in figure. 4. Given, mass of gold, m = 39.4 g

Molar mass of the gold, M = 197 g mol–1

Number of gold atoms in 39.4 g of gold

NA 6.023 × 1023 mol −1

= ×m= × 39.4 g

M 197 g mol −1

= 1.205 × 1023

1 constant

5. Given, V ∝ 2 \ V =

T T2

(a) Find the work done when the gas is taken from PV

But = constant

state 1 to state 2. T

(b) What is the ratio of temperature T1/T2, P constant

\ ⋅ = constant or P ∝ T3

if V2 = 2V1? T T 2

6. (a) Isothermal expansion : Temperature remains or absolute temperature ∝ average kinetic energy

constant during an isothermal change. As internal of molecules

energy is a function of temperature only, so it will \ For temperature = 0 K, average kinetic energy = 0

remain constant during an isothermal change.

Thus at 0 K, the velocity of molecules becomes zero.

As DT = 0, so DU = CV DT = 0

(b) Adiabatic expansion : For an adiabatic change, 10. (a) Water fall : It is not a reversible process. During

DQ = 0, so from first law of thermodynamics, fall of the water, the major part of its potential

DQ = DU + DW = 0 or DW = – DU energy is converted into kinetic energy of the water.

During adiabatic expansion, work is done by a However, on striking the ground, a part of it is

gas i.e., DW is positive, so DU must be negative. converted into heat and sound. It is not possible to

Hence internal energy of a gas decreases during an convert the heat and the sound produced along with

adiabatic expansion. the kinetic energy of water into potential energy so

that the water can not rise back to its initial height.

7. For an adiabatic process, TV g – 1 = constant Therefore, water fall is not a reversible process.

For a monatomic gas, g = 5/3 (b) Rusting of iron : During rusting, iron gets

\ TV2/3 = constant oxidised by the oxygen of the air. Since it is a

Let A = area of cross-section of the cylinder. chemical change so it is not a reversible process.

Then, T1(L1A)2/3 = T2(L2A)2/3

2 /3 11. (a) For all gases at the same temperature, average

T1 L2 kinetic energy per molecule is same and is

\ =

T2 L1 3

E = kBT

8. At NTP, volume occupied by 1 g mole of gas 2

= 22400 cc As the gases in both vessels are at the same

Number of molecules in 1 cc of H2 temperature, so the ratio of their average kinetic

energy per molecule = 1 : 1.

6.023 × 1023

= = 2.688 × 1019 3RT

22400 (b) As vrms =

Since each diatomic molecule has 5 degrees of M

freedom. vH MO 32

\ Total number of degrees of freedom \ = = = 4 :1

vO MH 2

= 5 × 2.688 × 1019 = 1.344 × 1020 1m 2

(c) According to kinetic theory, P = v

9. (i) All gases consist of molecules. The molecules are 3 V rms

rigid elastic spheres and identical in all respects where m is the mass and V is the volume of the gas.

for a given gas and different for different gases. Masses of both gases are equal. So the ratio of their

(ii) The size of a molecule is negligible as compared pressure is

to the average distance between molecules. PH v H V

2

16 2

(iii) The molecules are in a state of continuous = × O = × = 32 : 1

PO vO VH 1 1

random motion, moving in all directions with

all possible velocities. 12. (a) Gravitational force of the moon is roughly 1/6th

(iv) The molecules exert no force on each other of the gravitational force of the earth, so the escape

or on the walls of the container except during velocity of air molecules on the moon is smaller than

collision. that on the earth. As the moon is in the proximity of

OR the Earth as seen from the sun so solar irradiance

All molecular motion ceases at absolute zero or on the moon surface is same as that of the earth.

at 0 K. According to the kinetic interpretation of Escape velocity of the particle on the moon is

temperature internal energy of an ideal gas is purely 2.38 km s–1. The rms speed of the constituents of

kinetic, air (O2, N2, CO2 and water vapour) lies between

0.4 km s–1 to 0.8 km s–1, which is smaller than

3 2 E

E = kBT or T = 2.38 km s–1. Inspite of this a significant number

2 3 kB of molecules have speeds greater than 2.38 km s–1

and hence escape easily. Now rest of molecules thermal capacities. In case the two bodies have

arrange the speed distribution for the equilibrium equal thermal capacities, they would settle at

temperature. Again a significant number of the mean temperature (T1 + T2)/2.

molecules get their speeds greater than 2.38 km (b) The purpose of a coolant is to absorb maximum

s–1 and escape. Due to this continuous process, the heat with least rise in its own temperature. This

moon has lost its atmosphere over a long period of is possible only if specific heat is high because

time. Q = mc DT. For a given value of m and Q the

(b) We know, E = U + K = constant rise in temperature DT will be small if c is large.

As the molecules move higher their potential This will prevent different parts of the nuclear

energy (U) increase but and kinetic energy (K) reactor from getting too hot.

decrease and hence fall in temperature. At greater (c) The relative humidity of a harbour town is more

height more volume is available for gas to expand than that of a desert town. Due to high specific

and hence some cooling takes place i.e., a fall in heat of water, the variations in the temperature

temperature. of humid air are less. Hence the climate of a

13. The average kinetic energy of the gas at a harbour town is without the extreme of hot or

3 cold.

temperature T, E = kT

2 16. (a) When the stopcock is suddenly opened, the

volume available to the gas at 1 atm becomes

where k = 1.38 × 10–23 J K–1

twice the original volume and hence pressure

T = Temperature in kelvin

becomes half the original volume (Boyle's law).

(a) T = 27 °C = 27 + 273 = 300 K

Hence the pressure of the gas in each of the

3 –21

E = × 1.38 × 10−23 × 300 = 6.21 × 10 J cylinders A and B is 0.5 atm.

2 (b) As the system is thermally insulated, so DQ = 0.

(b) T = 6000 K Also, the gas expands against zero pressure, so

3 –19 DW = 0. Hence by first law of thermodynamics,

E = × 1.38 × 10−23 × 6000 = 1.242 × 10 J

2 DU = 0 i.e., there is no change in the internal

(c) T = 10 × 106 K = 107 K energy of the gas.

3 –16 (c) As there is no change in the internal energy of

E = × 1.38 × 10−23 × 107 = 2.07 × 10 J the gas, so the temperature of the gas remains

2

unchanged.

14. For an isothermal change, PV = constant

(d) No. The free expansion of the gas is very

Differentiating both sides, we get

P ⋅ dV + V ⋅ dP = 0 or V ⋅ dP = – PdV rapid and hence cannot be controlled. The

\ Slope of an isothermal curve, intermediate states are non-equilibrium states

and do not satisfy the gas equation. In due

dP P

=− course, the gas returns to equilibrium state

dV isothermal V

which lies on P-V-T surface.

For an adiabatic change, PV g = constant 17. According to the kinetic theory, the average kinetic

Differentiating both sides, we get

3

P . gVg–1 . dV + V g . dP = 0 energy of a gas molecule = kBT . Before mixing

2

\ Slope of an adiabatic curve,

the two gases, the average kinetic energy of all the

dP gP molecules of the gas

=−

dV adiabatic V 3 3

= kB n1T1 + kB n2T2

Clearly, slope of an adiabatic curve = g × slope of an 2 2

isothermal curve. After mixing, the mean kinetic energy of both the

As g > 1, so an adiabatic P-V curve is steeper than 3

gases = kB(n1 + n2)T

the corresponding isothermal P-V curve. 2

15. (a) The two bodies may have different masses and where T is the temperature of the mixture. If there

different materials i.e., they may have different is no energy loss, then

3 3 3 OR

kB(n1 + n2)T = kB n1T1 + kB n2T2 Here, CP – CV = 5000 J kg–1 K–1

2 2 2

n T +n T C

T= 1 1 2 2 and P = 1.6 or CP = 1.6 CV

n1 + n2 CV

18. (a) No. As the thermos flask is insulated, heat has \ 1.6 CV – CV = 5000 or 0.6 CV = 5000

not been added to the coffee (DQ = 0).

5000

(b) Yes. Some work is done by the man in shaking or CV = = 8333.33 J kg–1 K–1

the coffee against the forces of viscosity i.e., DW 0. 6

is negative. CP = CV + 5000 J kg–1 K–1 = 13333.33 J kg–1 K–1

(c) By first law of thermodynamics, DQ = DU + DW. Here, T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K,

As DQ = 0 and DW is negative, so DU is positive T2 = 97 + 273 = 370 K

i.e., internal energy of the coffee increases. Work done in adiabatic compression of the gas is

(d) Because of the increase in internal energy of the given by

coffee, the temperature of the coffee will also

increase. R 8.3 × (370 − 300)

W= (T2 − T1 ) = = −1162 J

1− g 1 − 1.5

19. Mass of water, m = 1 g = 10– 3 kg

Latent heat of steam 21. (a) Let the speed of the ball be u relative to the

L = 2256 J g– 1 = 2256 × 103 J kg–1 wicket behind the bat. If the bat is moving

Atmospheric pressure, P = 1.013 × 105 N m– 2 towards the ball with a speed v relative to the

Volume of steam, Vs = 1671 cm3 = 1671 × 10–6 m3 wicket, then the relative speed of the ball to bat

Mass 10−3 is v + u towards the bat. When the ball rebounds

Volume of water, Vw = = = 10–6 m3 (after hitting the massive bat) its speed, relative

Density 103

to bat, v + (v + u) = 2v + u, moving away

According to first law of thermodynamics,

from the wicket. So the ball speeds up after

dQ = dU + PdV or mL = dU + P(Vs – Vw)

the collision with the bat. For a molecule,

\ Change in internal energy is

this would imply an increase in temperature.

dU = mL – P(Vs – Vw)

= 10–3 × 2256 × 103 – 1.013 × 105 (b) When a gas in cylinder is compressed by

(1671 × 10–6 – 10–6) pushing in a piston, the speed of the molecules

= 2256 – 1.013 × 10 × 10–6 × 1670

5 or their kinetic energy increases. This increases

= 2256 – 0.1013 × 1670 the temperature of the gas.

= 2256 – 169.171 = 2086.829 J (c) When a compressed gas pushes a piston out, the

20. Here, v = 150 km h–1, N = 10 speed of the molecules or their kinetic energy

V = 20 × 20 × 1.5 km3. decreases. This decreases the temperature of

Diameter of plane, d = 2 R = 2 × 10 = 20 m the gas.

= 20 × 10–3 km 22. As PV = nRT

N 10 PV

n= = = 0.0167 km–3 \ n=

V 20 × 20 × 1.5 RT

Mean free path of a plane P1V1

For first vessel, n1 =

1 RT1

λ=

2 πd 2n P2V2

For second vessel, n2 =

Time elapse before collision of two planes randomly, RT2

λ 1 P (V1 + V2 )

t= = For the combined vessel, n =

v 2 πd 2nv RT

1 But n = n1 + n2

=

1.414 × 3.14 × (20) × 10−6 × (0.0167) × (150) \ P (V1 + V2 ) = P1V1 + P2V2

2

T1T2 P (V1 + V2 ) where A is the cross-sectional

or T= Area = A

P1V1T2 + P2V2T1 area of the piston and dV = A dx

is the increase in the volume of

As V = constant so DW = 0 the gas. dx

Also, DQ = 0 so DU = 0 or DT = 0 Suppose the gas expands

i.e., T = constant adiabatically and changes from

Using Boyle's law, P(V1 + V2) = P1V1 + P2V2 the initial state (P1, V1, T1) to the Gas

T T (P V + P V ) final state (P2, V2, T2). The total

Hence, T = 1 2 1 1 2 2 Insulating wall

P1V1T2 + P2V2T1 work done by the gas will be

23. (a) The values displayed by Ramesh are good V2

observant, highly interested in learning physical Wadiabatic = ∫ P dV

phenomena observed in daily life. V1

The values displayed by the teacher are providing For an adiabatic change

good education and undertaking the doubts of PV g = K or P = KV –g (K = constant)

student. V2

\ −g

(b) Boyle's law is valid for a fixed mass of a gas. Wadiabatic = ∫ KV dV

When we pump air into a cycle tyre, air molecules V1

are pushed into the tyre and so the mass of the V2 V

−g V 1− g 2

air in the tyre increases. Hence Boyle's law is not =K ∫V dV = K

applicable under the given situation. V1 1 − g V1

24. If some heat is supplied to a system which is capable

of doing work, then the quantity of heat absorbed by =

K

1− g

( g

V21− − V11−

g

)

the system will be equal to the sum of the increase

in its internal energy and the external work done by =

1

g −1

( g

KV11− − KV21−

g

)

the system on the surroundings.

Let But K = P1V1g = P2V2g

1

DQ = Heat supplied to the system by the surroundings

DW = Work done by the system on the surroundings

\ Wadiabatic =

g −1

( g

P1V1gV11− − P2V2gV21−

g

)

DU = Change in internal energy of the system 1

Wadiabatic = (P V − P V )

Then according to the first law of thermodynamics, g −1 1 1 2 2

DQ = DU + DW P Area = A Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics are

Suppose the system is a as follows :

gas contained in a cylinder (i) It does not indicate the direction of transfer of

provided with a movable dx heat.

piston. Then the gas does work (ii) It does not tell anything about the conditions

in moving the piston. The work under which heat can be converted into

Gas

done by the system against a mechanical work.

constant pressure P is (iii) It does not indicate the extent to which heat

DW = Force × Distance Q energy can be converted into mechanical work

= Pressure × Area × Distance continuously.

= PA dx OR

or DW = P DV An isothermal process is one in which the pressure

where DV = Adx = the change in the volume of and volume of the system change but temperature

the gas. remains constant.

So, the first law of thermodynamics takes the form, Essential conditions for an isothermal process to

DQ = DU + P DV take place are

When the piston moves up through a small distance (i) The walls of the container must be perfectly

dx, the work done by the gas will be conducting to allow free exchange of heat

dW = PA dx = P dV between the system and the surroundings.

(ii) The process of compression or expansion expansion which takes its states from (P1, V1, T1)

should be very slow, so as to provide sufficient to (P2, V2, T1), then

time for the exchange of heat. V

Work done by the gas when the piston moves up W1 = Q1 = nRT1 ln 2 = area ABMKA

V1

through a small distance dx is given by P

dW = PA dx = PdV A(P1, V1, T1)

Isothermal

where A is the cross-sectional Area = A expansion

B(P2, V2, T1)

area of the piston and

com

+ Q1

Adiaression

dV = Adx, is the small

p

batic

dx

increase in the volume of the

Adiabatic

gas. Suppose the gas expands D(P4, V4, T2) expansion

isothermally from initial Gas – Q2

state (P1, V1) to the final state Isothermal C(P3, V3, T2)

(P2, V2). The total amount of Conducting wall compression

O V

work done will be K L M N

V2

Step 2 : Adiabatic expansion (BC). The gas is now

placed on the insulating stand and allowed to

Wisothermal = ∫ P dV expand slowly till its temperature falls to T2.

V1

nRT If W2 work is done by the gas in the adiabatic

For n moles of a gas, PV = nRT or P = expansion which takes its state from (P2, V2, T1) to

V

V2 V2

(P3, V3, T2), then

nRT 1 nR(T1 − T2 )

\ Wisothermal = ∫ dV = nRT ∫ V dV

V W2 = = area BCNMB

V1 V1 g −1

V

= nRT[lnV ]V2 = nRT(ln V2 – ln V1) Step 3 : Isothermal compression (CD). The gas

1 is now placed in thermal contact with the sink

V2 at temperature T2. The gas is slowly compressed

= nRT ln

V1 so that as heat is produced, it easily flows to the sink.

V2 The temperature of the gas remains constant at T2.

or Wisothermal = 2.303 nRT log If Q2 heat is released by the gas to the sink and

V1

P1

W3 work is done on the gas by the surroundings

= 2.303 nRT log in the isothermal compression which takes its state

P2

from (P3, V3, T2) to (P4, V4, T2), then

The change in internal energy of a gas, which

V

is compressed isothermally is zero because the W3 = Q2 = nRT2 ln 3 = area CNLDC

internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on V4

its temperature. As temperature remains constant, Step 4 : Adiabatic compression (DA). The cylinder

there is no change in internal energy. is again placed on the insulating stand. The gas is

further compressed slowly till it returns to its initial

25. Carnot engine is an ideal reversible heat engine state (P1, V1, T1).

that operates between two temperatures T1 (source) If W4 is the work done in the adiabatic compression

and T2 (sink). The working substance is carried from (P4, V4, T2) to (P1, V1, T1), then

through a reversible cycle of the following four

nR(T1 − T2 )

steps : W4 = = area DAKLD

Step 1 : Isothermal expansion (AB). Place the g −1

cylinder on the source so that the gas acquires the Total work done by the gas = W1 + W2

temperature T1 of the source. As the gas absorbs the (in steps 1 and 2)

required amount of heat from the source, it expands Total work done on the gas = W3 + W4

isothermally. If Q1 heat is absorbed from the source (in steps 3 and 4)

and W1 work is done by the gas in isothermal \ Net work done by the gas in one complete cycle,

W = W1 + W2 – (W3 + W4) (b) Q PV = nRT

But W2 = W4 C C

\ W = W1 – W3 = Q1 – Q2 ⇒ V = nRT ⇒ T = V ...(ii)

V nR

Also, W = area ABMKA + area BCNMB

– area CNLDC – area DAKLD ⇒ T ∝ V

or W = area ABCDA T1 V1 V1 1

\ = = = ...(iii)

Hence in a Carnot engine, the mechanical work T2 V2 2V1 2

done by the gas per cycle is numerically equal to (as V2 = 2V1)

the area of the Carnot cycle. 3

(c) Given, U = RT

Efficiency of Carnot engine is defined as the ratio 2

of the net work done per cycle by the engine to the

3 3

amount of heat absorbed per cycle by the working ⇒ DU = RDT = R(T2 − T1 )

substance from the source. 2 2

W Q1 − Q2 Q 3

⇒ DU = RT1( 2 − 1) (using eqn. (iii))

\ h= = =1− 2 2

Q1 Q1 Q1

From eqn. (i)

nRT2 ln(V3 / V4 )

or h=1– DW = 2P1 V1 ( V2 − V1 ) = 2P1V1 ( 2 − 1)

nRT1 ln(V2 / V1 )

Now step 2 is an adiabatic expansion, therefore = 2RT1 ( 2 − 1)

T1V2g–1 = T2V3g–1 ...(i)

\ From first law of thermodynamics,

Similarly, step 4 is an adiabatic compression,

7

therefore DQ = DU + DW = RT1 ( 2 − 1)

T1V1g–1 = T2V4g–1 ...(ii) 2

On dividing (i) by (ii), we get 26. Consider an ideal gas

g −1 g −1 enclosed in a cubical

V2 V3 V V

= or 2 = 3 vessel of edge L. Also y

V1 V4 V1 V4 (vx , vy , vz)

Area = A

there are n molecules (–vx , vy , vz)

T2 per unit volume. A

Hence, h = 1 – vx t

T1 molecule moving with x z

Given, PV1/2 = constant = C hits the planar wall (perpendicular to x-axis) of

area A. As the collision is elastic, the molecule

rebounds with the same velocity. The y and z

components of velocity do not change while the

x-component reverses sign. So the velocity after the

collision is (–vx , vy , vz).

The change in momentum of the molecule

= – mvx – mvx = – 2mvx

By the conservation of momentum, the momentum

(a) Work done by the gas

imparted to the wall in each collision = 2 mvx

V2 V2 \ Number of molecules hitting wall of area A in

C

DW = ∫ PdV = ∫ V

dV time Dt

V1 V1 1

= Avx Dt × number of molecules per unit volume

V 2

2

1/

V 2 1

=C = Avx Dt n

= 2C( V2 − V1 ) 2

1 Total momentum transferred to the wall in time

2 V1

Dt is

1

\ DW = 2P1 V1 ( V2 − V1 ) ...(i) Dp = 2 mvx × Avx Dt n = nmvx2 A Dt

2

Contd. on Page No. 82

integer Answer tyPe class-Xi

1. A stone is thrown vertically upward. When the n

stone is at point A, its distance from a certain is 8.4 m. If angle of projection is a and tan a = .

Find the value of n. 4

point O is 6 5 m at t = 0 and the component of

velocity along OA is non-zero. When it is at point 5. A circular tube of mass M is placed vertically on a

B(OB = 10 m), the component of velocity along horizontal surface as shown in figure.

OB is zero. When it is at point C(OC = 6 m), the Two small spheres each of m m

component of velocity of the particle along OC is mass m, just fit in the tube

zero. If the velocity of projection of the stone is one released from the top. If

the tube looses contact with M

v0 = 5n m s–1, then find the value of n.

the ground at q = 60° then

2. A cord of length 64 m is used to connect a 100 kg find the value of m/M.

astronaut to a spaceship whose mass is much larger

than that of the astronaut. The value of the tension 6. A man weighing 60 kg is standing on a trolly

in the cord is x × 10–2 N. Assume that the spaceship weighing 240 kg. The trolly is resting on frictionless

is orbiting near the earth’s surface. Also assume that horizontal rails. If the man starts walking on the

the spaceship and the astronaut fall on a straight trolly along the rails at a speed 1 m s–1, then after

5 s, his displacement in metre relative to the ground

line from the earth’s centre. The radius of the earth

will be

is 6400 km. Find the value of x.

7. A homogeneous disc with a radius 0.2 m and

3. A vessel contains two immiscible

mass 5 kg rotates around an axis passing through

liquids of density r1 = 1000 kg m–3 1

its centre. The angular velocity of rotation of the

–3

and r2 = 1500 kg m . A solid block disc as a function of time is given by the formula

of volume V = 10–3 m3 and density 2 w = 2 + 6t. The tangential force applied to the rim

d = 800 kg m–3 is tied to one end of the disc (in N) is

of a string and the other is tied to

8. One end of a steel wire is fixed to ceiling of an

the bottom of the vessel as shown

elevator moving up with an acceleration 2 m s–2 and

in figure. The block is immersed with 2/5th of its a load of 10 kg hangs from other end.

volume in the liquid of higher density and 3/5th Area of cross section of

in the liquid of lower density. The entire system is the wire is 2 cm2. The

kept in an elevator which is moving upwards with longitudinal strain in the

an acceleration of a = g/2. Find the tension (in N) wire is n × 10–6. What is the

the string. (Take g = 10 m s–2)

value of n? (Take g = 10 m s–2

4. A projectile is projected from ground with least and Y = 2 × 1011 N m–2)

velocity to cross a wall 3.6 m high and 4.8 m away 9. There are two pendulums of lengths l1 (= 81 cm)

from the point of projection. The range of projectile and l2 (= 64 cm) which start oscillating. At some

instant of time, both the pendulums are passing the oscillations of the system shown in the figure

from mean position in the same phase. After how that does not allow the top block to slide on the

many oscillations of shorter pendulum, both the bottom.

pendulums will be in the same phase in mean

solutions

position?

10. A bus is moving with a velocity of 5 m s–1 towards 1. (4) : From figure,

a huge wall. The driver sounds a horn of frequency

AC = (6 5 )2 − 62

165 Hz. If the speed of sound in air in 335 m s–1, the

number of beats per second heard by the passengers = 6 5 − 1 = 12 m

in the bus would be And CB = 102 − 62 = 8 m

11. A vessel has 6 g of hydrogen at pressure P and

temperature 500 K. A small hole is made in it so that \ The maximum height attained by the ball is

hydrogen leaks out. How much hydrogen in gram H = AB = 12 m + 8 m = 20 m

\ 2

leaks out if the final pressure is P/2 and temperature v = u2 – 2gH or 02 = v02 – 2gH

falls to 300 K?

\ v0 = 2 gH = 2 × 10 × 20 = 20 m s −1 = 5n m s −1

12. A body hanging from a massless spring stretches

\ n=4

it by 2 cm at earth’s surface. How much will the

same body stretch the spring (in cm) at height 2. (3) : As according to given problem the mass of

2624 km from the surface of earth? (Take radius of satellite M is much greater than that of astronaut m,

earth = 6400 km) as the centre of mass of the system will be close

to satellite and as the satellite is orbiting close to

13. The rate of change of the surface of earth, the equation of motion of the

position with respect system (S + A) will be

to time gives the

GMe ( M + m)

velocity of the = ( M + m)Rw2

2

particle. Figure shows R h

GMe R

position-time graph

Rw 2 = =g ...(i) r Me S

for two particles P R2

and Q. The ratio of M TA

and the equation of motion m

velocities of both of the astronaut will be

particles P and Q is n. Find the value of n. GMem

+ T = mr w2

2

14. A transverse wave of amplitude 5 mm is generated r

at one end (x = 0) of a long string by a vibrating GMe

source of frequency 500 Hz. At a certain instant of T = m r w2 −

time, the displacement of a particle A at x = 1 m is r2

–5 mm and that of particle B at x = 2 is +5 mm. The r R 2

wavelength of the wave is k m. Find the value of k. T = mg − (Using eqn. (i))

R r

15. When the system shown

( R + h) R2

in the diagram is in = mg − (as r = R + h)

450 N m–1

equilibrium, the right m 150 N m–1 R (R + h)2

spring is stretched by 1 cm. m −2

h h

The coefficient of static friction between the blocks T = mg 1 + − 1 +

R R

is 0.3. There is no friction between the bottom block

−2

and the supporting surface. The force constants 3 mgh h 2h

of the springs are 150 N m–1 and 450 N m–1 = as 1 + ≈ 1 −

R R R

(refer figure). The blocks have equal mass of 2 kg

each. Find the maximum amplitude (in cm) of So substituting the given data,

3 × 100 × 10 × 64 N N mv2

−2

T= = 3 × 10 N R

6400 × 103

\ x=3 N mg

3. (6) : We will analyse this problem from the reference

Mg

frame of elevator.

Total buoyant force on the block, mv 2

2 3 2 3 For any sphere, N + mg cos 60° =

Fb = V r2 + V r1 ( g + a) 5 1 5 1 R

5 5 mg mg

N+ = mg ⇒ N = ...(ii)

From the condition of 2 2

equilibrium, From eqns (i) and (ii),

Fb = T + Vd(g + a) mg m

= Mg ⇒ =2

T = Fb – Vd(g + a) 2 M

2 3 6. (4) : Here, m1 = 60 kg, m2 = 240 kg, u1 = 1 m s–1,

= ( g + a)V r2 + r1 − d

5 5 u2 = 0

As a = g/2 \ (g + a) = 10 + 5 = 15 m s–2 If v is combined velocity of trolly and man, then

Putting the values, applying the principle of conservation of linear

2 3 momentum,

= 15 × 10−3 × 1500 + × 1000 − 800 = 6 N

5 5 (m1 + m2) v = m1u1 + m2u2

4. (7) : Here, R = 8.4 m, x = 4.8 m, y = 3.6 m m u + m2 u2 60 × 1 + 0

\ v= 1 1 = = 0.2 m s–1

v 2 sin 2a v 2 sin 2a m1 + m2 60 + 240

R= 0 or 8.4 = 0

g 10

y Velocity of the man with respect to ground = 1 – 0.2

v02 sin 2a = 84 v0 = 0.8 m s–1

3.6 m

42

v02 = x

sin a cos a 4.8 m 7. (3) : Here, r = 0.2 m, M = 5 kg, F = ?

8.4 m

The equation of trajectory is As w = 2 + 6t

gx 2 dw

y = x tan a − \ = 6 = a, angular acceleration

2v02 cos2 a dt

3.6 = 4.8 tan a −

42

2× cos2 a Ia 1 a

sin a cos a \ F= = Mr 2 ×

5 r 2 r

3.6 = 4.8 tan a − (4.8)2 tan a 1 6

42 = × 5 (0.2)2 × =3N

7 n 2 0. 2

\ tan a = 1.75 = = or n = 7

4 4 8. (3) : Tension in wire, F = m(g + a)

5. (2) : Conserving energy for any sphere

= 10(10 + 2) = 120 N

1 F 120

0 = − mg (R − R cos 60°) + mv 2 Stress, S = = = 60 × 104 N m−2

2 A 2 × 10−4

v 2 gR

= ⇒ v = gR

2 2 S 60 × 104

Strain = = = 3 × 10−6

As shown in figure, for tube 2N cos 60° = Mg Y 2 × 1011

(when it just lift off)

N = Mg ...(i) As per question, n × 10–6 = 3 × 10–6 or n = 3

If m is the mass of the particle and k is the spring

l

9. (9) : As T = 2π or T ∝ l constant of the spring, then

g At the surface of earth, mg = kx0 ...(ii)

T1 l1 81 9 At height h, mg′ = kx ...(iii)

\ = = = ...(i)

T2 l2 64 8 From (ii) and (iii)

g′ x g′ 1

Let shorter pendulum makes n oscillations, then = or x = x0 = × 2 = 1 cm

g x0 g 2

longer pendulum will make one less oscillation (\ x0 = 2 m)

than n to come in phase again, while passing

13. (1) : The slope of x-t graph gives velocity.

through mean position, i.e.,

20 − 15

nT2 = (n – 1)T1 or T1 = n ...(ii) \ vP = = 0.5 m s−1

10 − 0

T2 n − 1

15 − 10

From (i) and (ii), and vQ = = 0.5 m s −1

10 − 0

n 9

= or 8n = 9n – 9 or n = 9 v 0.5

n −1 8 \ n= P = =1

vQ 0.5

10. (5) : Case I : The bus acts as the source

us = 5 m s–1, u = 335 m s–1, u = 165 Hz 14. (2) : y = a cos(kx – wt) and a = 5 mm

u × u 335 × 165 335 At t = 0, y = a cos kx

u′ = = = Hz It is given that at x = 1 m, y = –5 mm = –a

u − us 335 − 5 2

⇒ cos(k) = –1

Case II : For reflected sound from the wall, bus and at x = 2 m, y = +5 mm = +a

acts as listener uL = 5 m s–1 ⇒ cos(2k) = 1

(u + uL ) u′ (335 + 5) × 335 2π

u′′ = = = 170 Hz \ k = π or =π⇒λ=2m

u 335 × 2 λ

\ Number of beats per second = u′′ – u 15. (3) : Suppose origin is at the equilibrium position

= 170 – 165 = 5 and the direction of increasing x is towards the

right. If the blocks are at the origin, the net force

11. (1) : Here, m = 6 g, T = 500 K on them is zero. If the blocks are displaced by a

m 6 small distance x to the right of the origin, value of

From PV = RT , PV = R × 500 ...(i)

M M the net force on them is –4kx. Applying Newton’s

If x g of hydrogen leaks out, then, second law to the two-block system gives

P \

Pressure = , T = 300 K –4kx = 2ma ( k = 150 N m–1)

2 Applying Newton’s second law to the lower block

P (6 − x ) ...(ii)

\ 2 V = M R × 300 gives

k(x1 – x) – f = ma

From (i) and (ii), where x1 = initial stretch and f is the magnitude of

6R 2 (6 − x ) the frictional force.

× 500 = R × 300 f = k(x1 + x)

M M

or 30 = (12 – 2x) 3 ⇒ x = 1 g The maximum value of x is the amplitude A

and the maximum value for f is msmg. Thus,

12. (1) : Let g′ be the acceleration due to gravity at msmg = k(x1 + A)

height h. m mg

2 or A = s − x1

gR 2 6400 k

Then, g ′ = = g×

( R + h)2 6400 + 2624 On putting the values, we get

0.3 × 2 × 10 1

1 g A= − = 0.3 m = 3 cm

or g′ ≈ g × = ...(i) 150 100

2 2

MPP-6 Class XI

extent of understanding of specified chapter. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Total Marks : 120 Time Taken : 60 min

NEET / AiiMs / PMTs equal mass of sand at 20 °C is poured in the flask and

Only One Option Correct Type shaken for some time so that the temperature of the

1. On a temperature scale Y, water freezes at –160 °Y mixture is 40 °C. Now the experiment is repeated

and boils at –50 °Y. On this Y scale, a temperature with 100 g of a liquid at 50 °C and an equal mass of

of 340 K is sand at 20 °C when the temperature of the mixture

(a) –106.3 °Y (b) – 96.3 °Y is found to be 30 °C. The specific heat of the liquid

(c) –86.3 °Y (d) –76.3 °Y (in kJ kg–1 K–1) is

(Specific heat of water = 4200 J kg–1 K–1)

2. Six identical conducting rods are joined as shown. (a) 1.05 (b) 2.01 (c) 1.55 (d) 1.95

The ends A and D are maintained at 200 °C and

20 °C respectively. No heat is lost to surroundings. 5. Two slabs A and B of different materials but of the

The temperature of the junction C will be same thickness are joined end to end to form a

composite slab. The thermal conductivities of A and

A B C D B are K1 and K2 respectively. A steady temperature

200 °C 20 °C difference of 12 °C is maintained across the

K

composite slab. If K1 = 2 , the temperature

(a) 60 °C (b) 80 °C (c) 100 °C (d) 120 °C 2

difference across slab A is

3. Two thin rods of lengths L1 and L2 at a certain

(a) 4 °C (b) 6 °C (c) 8 °C (d) 10 °C

temperature are joined to each other end to end.

The composite rod is then heated through a 6. An ideal gas is expanding such that PT2 = constant.

temperature T. The coefficients of linear expansion The coefficient of volume expansion of the gas is

of the two rods are a1 and a2 respectively. 1 2 3 4

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Then, the effective coefficient of linear expansion of T T T T

the composite rod is 7. 22320 cal of heat is supplied to 100 g of ice at 0 °C. If

α + α2 the latent heat of fusion of ice is 80 cal g–1 and latent

(a) 1 (b) α1 + α2

2 heat of vaporization of water is 540 cal g–1, the final

L α + L2 α1 L α +L α amount of water thus obtained and its temperature

(c) 1 2 (d) 1 1 2 2

L1 + L2 L1 + L2 respectively are

4. Temperature of 100 g of water in a thermoflask (a) 8 g, 100 °C (b) 100 g, 90 °C

remains fixed for a pretty long time at 50 °C. An (c) 92 g, 100 °C (d) 82 g, 100 °C

8. When a liquid is heated in a glass vessel, 13. Assertion : For higher temperatures, the peak

its coefficient of apparent expansion is emission wavelength of a black body shifts to lower

1.03 × 10–3 °C–1. When the same liquid is heated wavelengths.

in a copper vessel, its coefficient of apparent Reason : Peak emission wavelength of a black body

expansion is 1.006 × 10–3 °C–1. If the coefficient of is proportional to the fourth-power of temperature.

linear expansion of copper is 17 × 10–6 °C–1, then 14. Assertion : While measuring the thermal

the coefficient of linear expansion of glass is conductivity of a liquid experimentally, the upper

(a) 8.5 × 10–4 °C–1 (b) 9 × 10–6 °C–1 layer is kept hot and the lower layer is kept cold.

(c) 27 × 10–6 °C–1 (d) 10 × 10–4 °C–1 Reason : This avoids heating of liquid by convection.

9. A lead bullet of unknown mass is fired with a speed 15. Assertion : When hot water is poured in a beaker of

of 180 m s–1 into a tree in which it stops. Assuming thick glass, the beaker cracks.

that in this process two third of heat produced Reason : Outer surface of the beaker expands

goes into the bullet and one third into wood. The suddenly.

temperature of the bullet raises by

JEE MAiN / JEE AdvANcEd / PETs

(Specific heat of lead = 0.12 J g–1 °C–1)

Only One Option Correct Type

(a) 140 °C (b) 106 °C (c) 90 °C (d) 100 °C

16. Two identical thin metal strips, one of aluminium

10. What fraction of the volume of a glass flask must be

and the other of iron are riveted together to form a

filled with mercury so that the volume of the empty

bimetallic strip. The temperature is raised by 50 °C.

space may be the same at all temperatures?

If the central planes of the two strips are separated by

(aglass = 9 × 10–6 °C–1, gHg = 18.9 × 10–5 °C–1)

2 mm and the coefficients of thermal expansion for

1 1 1 1 aluminium and iron are respectively 30 × 10–6 °C–1

(a) (b) (c) (d)

2 7 4 5 and 10 × 10–6 °C–1, the average radius of curvature

11. The temperature of a room heated by a heater is of the bimetallic strip is about

20 °C, when outside temperature is –20 °C, and it is (a) 50 cm (b) 100 cm

10 °C, when the outside temperature is –40 °C. The (c) 150 cm (d) 200 cm

temperature of the heater is 17. Parallel rays of light of intensity I = 912 W m–2

(a) 60 °C (b) 40 °C (c) 80 °C (d) 100 °C are incident on a spherical black body kept in

12. A piece of iron is heated in a flame. It first becomes surroundings of temperature 300 K. Take Stefan-

dull red, then becomes reddish yellow and finally Boltzmann constant s = 5.7 × 10–8 W m–2 K–4

turns to white hot. The correct explanation for the and assume that the energy exchange with the

above observation is possible by using surroundings is only through radiation. The final

(a) Newton’s law of cooling steady state temperature of the black body is close to

(b) Stefan’s law (a) 330 K (b) 660 K (c) 990 K (d) 1550 K

(c) Wien’s displacement law 18. A 10 W electrical heater is used to heat a container

(d) Kirchhoff ’s law filled with 0.5 kg of water. It is found that the

Assertion & Reason Type temperature of the water and the container

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of rises by 3 K in 15 minutes. The container is then

assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the emptied, dried, and filled with 2 kg of an oil. It

correct choice as : is now observed that the same heater raises the

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the temperature of the container-oil system by 2 K in

correct explanation of the assertion. 20 minutes. Assuming no other heat losses in any of

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the processes, the specific heat capacity of the oil is

the correct explanation of the assertion. (Specific heat of water = 4200 J kg–1 K–1)

(c) If assertion is true, but reason is false. (a) 2550 J kg–1 K–1 (b) 5100 J kg–1 K–1

(d) If both assertion and reason are false. (c) 3000 J kg–1 K–1 (d) 1500 J kg–1 K–1

19. Ice starts forming in a lake with water at 0 °C, when lB corresponding to maximum spectral radiancy in

the atmospheric temperature is –10 °C. If time the radiation from B is shifted from the wavelength

taken for 1 cm of ice to be formed is 7 hours, the lA corresponding to maximum spectral radiancy in

time taken for the thickness of ice to increase from the radiation from A, by 1 µm. If the temperature of

1 cm to 2 cm is A is 5802 K, then

(a) 7 hours (b) less than 7 hours (a) the temperature of B is 1934 K

(c) more than 7 hours but less than 14 hours (b) lB = 1.5 µm

(d) more than 14 hours (c) the temperature of B is 1160 K

More than One Options Correct Type (d) the temperature of B is 2901 K

20. A composite block is made of slabs A, B, C, D and 23. A solid material is supplied

E of different thermal conductivities (given in with heat at a constant rate.

Temperature

The temperature of the E

terms of a constant K) and sizes (given in terms of C

length, L) as shown in the figure. All slabs are of material varies with heat D

A

input as shown in figure. CD = 2AB

same width. Heat Q flows only from left to right B

through the blocks. Then in steady state Which of the following O Heat input

interpretations from the

0 1L 5L 6L

heat graph is/are correct?

A B 3K E

1L (a) AB represents the change of state from solid to

2K C 4K 6K liquid.

3L (b) CD represents change of state from liquid to

D 5K vapour.

4L

(c) Latent heat of fusion is twice the latent heat of

(a) heat flow through A and E slabs are same.

vaporization.

(b) heat flow through slab E is maximum.

(d) Latent heat of vaporization is twice the latent

(c) temperature difference across slab E is smallest.

heat of fusion.

(d) heat flow through C = heat flow through B

+ heat flow through D.

21. The temperature drop through a two layer furnace

wall is 900 °C. Each layer is of equal area of cross

section. Which of the following actions will result

in lowering the temperature T of the interface?

Inner Outer

layer layer

1000 °C 100 °C

layer.

(b) By increasing the thermal conductivity of inner

layer.

(c) By increasing the thickness of outer layer.

(d) By increasing the thickness of inner layer.

22. Two bodies A and B have thermal emissivities of

0.01 and 0.81 respectively. The outer surface areas

of the two bodies are equal. The two bodies emit

total radiant power at the same rate. The wavelength

Integer Answer Type (a) 1000 : 39 (b) 39 : 1000

–1

24. A piece of ice (specific heat capacity = 2100 J kg °C –1 (c) 243 : 130 (d) 130 : 243

and latent heat = 3.36 × 105 J kg–1) of mass m grams

Matrix Match Type

is at –5 °C at atmospheric pressure. It is given 420 J of

heat so that the ice starts melting. Finally, when the 29. Match the entries in column I with the entries of

ice-water mixture is in equilibrium, it is found that column II.

1 g of ice has melted. Assuming there is no other heat Column I Column II

exchange in the process, the value of m is (A) Bimetallic strip (P) Conduction

(B) Chimney (Q) Radiation

25. A metal rod AB of length 10x has its one end A in

(C) Heat transfer (R) Convection

ice at 0 °C and the other end B in water at 100 °C. If a

through a metallic

point P on the rod is maintained at 400 °C, then it is

wire

found that equal amounts of water and ice evoparate

(D) Sun’s rays reach the (S) Thermal expansion of

and melt per unit time. The latent heat of evaporation

earth solids

of water is 540 cal g–1 and latent heat of melting of ice

A B C D

is 80 cal g–1. If the point is at a distance of lx from the

(a) P S Q R

ice end A, the value of l is

(b) Q P R S

26. The density of a substance at 0 °C is 10 g cm–3 and (c) R Q S P

at 100 °C its density is 9.7 g cm–3. The coefficient of (d) S R P Q

linear expansion of the substance is 10–x °C–1. The

30. Match the entries in column I with the entries of

value of x is

column II.

Comprehension Type Column I Column II

A solid aluminium sphere and a solid lead sphere of same (A) Temperature of the (P) Newton’s law of cooling

radius are heated to the same temperature and allowed stars

to cool under identical surrounding temperatures. The (B) Special case of (Q) Kirchhoff ’s law

specific heat capacity of aluminium is 900 J kg–1 °C–1 Stefan’s law

and that of lead is 130 J kg–1 °C–1. The density of lead is (C) Good absorbers are (R) Planck’s radiation law

104 kg m–3 and that of aluminium is 2.7 × 103 kg m–3. good emitters

Assume that the emissitivity of both the spheres is the (D) The energy (S) Wien’s displacement law

same. distribution in black

27. The ratio of rate of heat loss from the aluminium body spectrum

sphere to the rate of heat loss from the lead sphere is A B C D

(a) 1 : 1 (b) 90 : 13 (a) P Q R S

(c) 100 : 27 (d) 1 : 4 (b) Q R S P

(c) S P Q R

28. The ratio of rate of fall of temperature of the (d) R S P Q

aluminium sphere to the rate of fall of temperature

of the lead sphere is

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6 ATOMS AND NUCLEI

F Quantum Theory of Light • Force exerted on perfectly

Incident photon

• Energy radiated from a source is in the form of reflecting surface

p1 = h

small packets which are known as photon. Photon f Let N photons are there

is not a material particle. in time t, change in

• According to Planck the energy of a photon is momentum of photons Reflected photon

directly proportional to the frequency of the −2Nh p2 =–h

radiation, i.e., = Dp =

l

hc 1240 2Nh

E ∝ u; E = hu = = eV but change in momentum of surface = − Dp =

l l(in nm) l

E hu h 2Nh 2h Pl

• Momentum of photon, p = = = f Force on surface F = = n but n =

c c l tl l hc

• If source is 100% efficient, then the number of 2h P l 2P

photons emitted per second by the source can be \ F= × =

l hc c

given by

F 2P 2 I

Power of source

P P Pl Pressure = = =

n= = = = A cA c

Energy of photon E hu hc • Force exerted on perfectly absorbing surface

• Intensity of light is the energy crossing per unit Nh

−0 Incident photon

area per unit time perpendicular to the direction Dp Nh

F= = l = p1 = h

of propagation. t t tl

E P (There are N photons in time t.)

I= = No reflected

At A h P photon

⇒F=N =

l c p2 = 0

f For a point source, intensity at a distance r from

P F P I

Pressure = = =

the source, I = A Ac c

4 pr 2

• When a beam of light is f For a-particles (ma = 4 × 1.67 × 10–27 kg) :

In

cid

incident at an angle q 0.101

l= Å

en

tp

on perfectly reflector V

ho

surface then force • de Broglie wavelength associated with uncharged

to

n

particles

exerted on the surface

n

to

2P 2h pho For neutrons (mn = 1.67 × 10–27 kg) :

F= cos q = n cos q te d f

c l lec

2IA cos q Re

f h 6.62 × 10−34

= l= =

c 2mK 2 × 1.67 × 10−27 K

F 2 I cos q For thermal neutrons at ordinary temperatures :

Pressure = = f

A c K = kT

• When some part of incident light on the plate h 30.835

is absorbed and the remaining part is reflected l= =

2mkT T

IA h

then net force on the plate F = (1 + r ) and

F I c f For gas molecules : l =

pressure P = = (1 + r ), where r is the reflection mvrms

A c f For gas molecules at T K

coefficient of the plane and 0 < r < 1.

3 h

• A perfectly reflecting solid sphere of radius r is E = kT ⇒ l =

2 3mkT

kept in the path of a parallel beam of light of large

aperture. If the beam carries an intensity I, the force • The wavelength of a matter wave given by l = h

p

pr 2 I has physical significance; its phase velocity has no

exerted by the beam on the sphere is .

c physical significance. However, the group velocity

F Matter Waves (de Broglie Waves) of the matter wave is physically meaningful and

• The waves associated with moving particle are called equals the velocity of the particle.

matter waves or de Broglie waves. The wavelength

• Electron diffraction experiments by Davisson and

associated with a moving particle is known as

Germer, and by G.P. Thomson, as well as many

de Broglie wavelength and it is given by

later experiments, have verified and confirmed the

h h wave-nature of electrons. The de Broglie hypothesis

l= =

p mv of matter waves supports the Bohr’s concept of

where p = momentum of the particle, m = mass of stationary orbits.

the particle, and v = velocity of the particle.

p2 h λ

f Also, kinetic energy, K = ⇒l=

2m λ

2mK

λ

• de Broglie wavelength associated with charged n=2

n=3

particles

n=4

f For electrons (me = 9.1 × 10–31 kg) : For standing wave,

h 12.27 nh nh

l= = Å 2 pr = nl = or mvr =

2mqV V mv 2p

For protons (mp = 1.67 × 10–27 kg) :

f

F Photoelectric Effect

0.286 • When light of sufficiently small wavelength is

l= Å

V incident on a metal surface, electrons are ejected

f For deuterons (md = 2 × 1.67 × 10–27 kg) : from the metal. This phenomenon is called the

0.202 photoelectric effect. The electrons ejected from the

l= Å

V metal are called photoelectrons.

• Photoelectric effect is an instantaneous process,

as soon as light is incident on the metal,

photoelectrons are emitted.

• Experimental set-up to study photoelectric effect

Light

Cathode Anode

e

f Stopping potential varies linearly with

V G

frequency. Slope of the graph (h/e) is same for

all metals.

• Einstein’s photoelectric equation, maximum kinetic

energy of photoelectrons, K max = hu − f = hc − f. f For u ≤ u0, stopping potential is zero.

l

Here, f is the work function of the metal. f Stopping potential does not depend on the

• The work function represents the energy needed to distance between cathode and anode.

remove the least tightly bound electrons from the • Quantum efficiency

surface. It depends only on nature of the metal and number of electron emitted per second

independent of any other factors. =

total number of photon inciden nt per second

• If the photon energy (say for l = l0) is just sufficient

ne

to librate the electron only, then kinetic energy =

nph

hc

of the photoelectron will be zero. Then =f

hc

l F Bohr’s Model of hydrogen Like Atoms

or l0 = = threshold wavelength • Postulates:

f

Corresponding threshold frequency f An electron revolves in a certain stable orbit

c f without the emission of radiant energy.

u0 = = Angular momentum of an electron in the orbit

l0 h f

is integral multiple of h/2p.

• Another form of photoelectric equation h

mvr = n where, n = 1, 2, 3, ..., and is called

1 1 2p

K max = h(u − u0 ) = hc −

l l0 principal quantum number.

f When an electron makes a transition from a

• Variation of photoelectric current with

higher orbit to a lower stable orbit, the difference

f Intensity (u and V are constant) and potential in the energy of the electron is radiated as a

difference (I and u are constant) are photon of energy hu.

Photocurrent

Photocurrent

hu = Ei – Ef

• Stopping potential : If the fastest electron just fails • In the nth orbit of hydrogen like atom,

to reach the anode, then anode potential is known mv 2 1 (e)(Ze)

= ⋅

as stopping potential (V0). rn 4 pε0 rn2

hc nh

eV0 = K max = − f = hu − f Ln = mvrn =

l 2p

f Radius of orbit,

2

n2 h 2 ε 0 n

rn = ⇒ rn = (0.53) Å

pme Z 2 Z

f Velocity of electron,

e2 Z Z

vn = ⇒ vn ∝ f Time period of the electron

2h ε0 n n

2 prn 4ε20n3h3 T1n3

1 cZ Tn = = 2 4 = 2

Also, vn = vn Z me Z

137 n

• Total number of emission from nth state to ground

Ze 2

f Kinetic energy of electron, K = n(n −1)

8pε0 rn state are .

2 2

f Potential energy of electron, U = − Ze • Ionisation energy: The minimum energy needed

4pε0 rn to ionise an atom. Ionisation energy of a hydrogen

f Total energy of electron,

atom in ground state is 13.6 eV and ionisation

E = K + U = –K

potential is 13.6 V.

me 4 Z 2 Z2

En = − 2 2 2 = − (13.6) 2 eV • Excitation energy is the energy needed to take the

8h ε0 n n

atom from its ground state to an excited state.

F hydrogen spectrum

F

continuous and characteristic X-rays Kα

• In an experimental set up (Coolidge tube) highly

Intensity

Kβ

energetic electrons are made to strike a metal

surface, X-rays come out. λmin

• Intensity variation of X-rays with wavelength is 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

shown in the figure. Characteristic X-rays are Ka Wavelength (pm)

and Kb which have very large intensity. At other • Cut off wavelength of X-ray spectrum is given by,

wavelength, intensity varies gradually and these hc

X-rays are called continuous X-rays. l min = , where V is accelerating potential.

eV

42 Physics For you | december ‘16

1242 into to fill this vacancy and atoms emits a

l min (in nm) = characteristic X-ray photon.

V (in volt)

• Energy levels of the atom when one electron is

f lmin depends only on accelerating voltage (V) knocked out is shown in the figure.

not on the material of the target.

• Characteristic X-rays:

Incident electron K-electron

e–

hυ

Kα X-ray

f Choose E = 0 (reference) when atom is in

ground state.

f Incident electron strikes a target atom. f EK = energy of the atom when an electron from

f Incident electron knocks out one of its deep the K-shell is knocked out EL, EM, EN etc. have

seated electrons (n = 1) and there remains a same interpretation.

vacancy. f X-rays emitted due to electronic transition

f One electron from higher shell (n = 2) moves from a higher energy state to a vacancy created

in the K shell are called K X-rays.

• Wavelengths and frequencies of the some of the X-rays

Transition Series Line Wavelength Frequency Energy difference Wavelength

K→L K a lKa uKa EK – EL = huKa hc

lK a =

( EK − EL )

lKb =

( EK − E M )

l La =

( EL − E M )

DE = hu = Rhc(Z − b)2 2 − 2

• Soft X-rays: longer lmin (less energy) 1 2

F Moseley’s Law 3Rc 3Rc

• According to Moseley’s observations, frequency of

u= (Z − b) so a =

4 4

X-rays spectrum is given by • Thus proportionality constant a does not depend

u = a ( Z − b) ; where a and b are constant. on the nature of target but depends on transition.

• Bohr’s model will give reasonable results if Z is Bohr’s model Moseley’s correction

replaced by (Z – b) with b ≈ 1.

2 1 1 2 1 1

• Energy released during the transition from n = 2 to DE 13.6Z 2 − 2 eV 13.6(Z − 1) 2 − 2 eV

n = 1 is given by n1 n2 n1 n2

3 1 1 1 1

u RcZ 2 − Rc(Z − 1)2 −

2 2 2 2

2

n1 n2 n1 n2

1

1 1 1 1 1

l RZ 2 − R(Z − 1)2 −

2 2 2 2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 n1 n2 n1 n2

Position number

F

Bragg’s Law Z 2e 4 mN me

• It predicts the conditions under which diffracted f Energy, En′ = −

8ε20n2h2 (mN + me )

X-ray beams from a crystal are possible.

µ Z 2 µe

En′ = En × e ⇒ En′ = −(13.6 eV)

me n2 me

F Nuclear Force

• It is the strongest force in the universe and acts only

between the nucleons.

• Very short range : Only upto size of nucleus (3 or

2d sin q = nl; n = 1, 2, 3, … 4 fermi). More than this distance, nuclear force is

n = order of spectrum, l = wavelength of X-ray almost zero.

• By using a monochromatic X-ray beam and noting • Very much depends upon distance : Small variation

the angles of strong reflection, the interplanar in distance may cause of large change in nuclear

spacing d and several information about the force while electrostatic force remains almost

structure of the solid can be obtained. unaffected.

• Independent of charge : Interacts between n-n as

F Effect of Mass of Nucleus on Bohr Model

well as between p-p and also between n-p.

• As no external force is acting on a nucleus-

electron system, hence the center of mass of the • Spin dependent : It is stronger between nucleons

nucleus-electron system, must remain at rest. having same sense of spin than between nucleons

+Ze r1 r2 having opposite sense of spin.

e– • Nature

Nucleus CM

r f Attractive : If distance is about 1 fm or above.

f Repulsive. If distance is less than 0.5 fm.

+Ze r1 F composition of Nucleus

r2 +F Fcf • Nucleons are protons and neutrons which are

CM

e

e–

present in the nuclei of atoms.

me r mN r Atomic number = Number of protons (Z)

r1 = and r2 = f Mass number (A) = Number of protons (Z) +

mN + me mN + me

mN me number of neutrons (N).

Reduced mass of the system, µe = f Nuclear mass is the total mass of the protons

mN + me

• Relative picture of the atom and neutrons.

• A nuclide is a specific nucleus of an atom

Rest

characterised by its atomic number Z and mass

mN me

e number A.

r mN me

+Ze • Symbolically, nuclide ≡ Z X ; X = chemical symbol

A

of the element

• For the electron in nth orbit • Properties of nucleons

f Radius, Name Symbol Charge Mass Rest energy

2 2 2 2

n h ε0 n h ε0 (mN + me ) Proton p +e 1.007276 u 938.28 MeV

rn′ = ⇒ rn′ =

2

pZe µe pZe2 me mN

Neutron n 0 1.008665 u 939.57 MeV

m

rn′ = rn × e • Isotopes, Isobars, Isotones and Isomers

µe

f Isotopes : The atoms of an element which

Ze 2 have same atomic number but different mass

f Speed, vn =

2nhε0 number.

Eb

• Binding energy per nucleon, DEb /n =

A

= Average energy needed to separate a nucleus into

its individual nucleons.

• Shape of BE/A is determined primarily by three

factors

f a constant term, which originates because

nucleons interact only with their nearest

f Isobars : The atoms having same mass number neighbours.

but different atomic number. f a sharp decrease for light nuclei.

Example : 31H and 23He, 17 37 37

Cl and 16 S

f a gradual decrease for heavy nuclei due to

f Isotones : The nuclides having the same number coulomb repulsion of the nuclear protons.

of neutrons.

Example : 1737 39

Cl and 19 K • Observation from the BE/A graph, energy can be

liberated in two different ways

f Isomers : Nuclei with same atomic number and

f Nuclear fission : A heavy nucleus breaks in

mass number but existing in different energy

two light nuclei of comparable masses. BE per

state.

nucleon is greater for two lighter fragments

• Nuclear size : The number of protons and neutrons

than it is for the original nucleus.

per unit volume is approximately constant over the

entire range of nuclei. f Nuclear fusion : Two light nuclei combine

A to form a heavier nucleus. BE per nucleon is

i.e., constant

4 3 greater in the final nucleus than it is in the two

pR original nuclei.

3

⇒ A ∝ R3 ⇒ R ∝ A1/3 F of radioactive Decay

Law

R = R0A1/3; R0 = 1.2 fermi = 1.2 × 10–15 m • Rate of decay of nuclei is given by

Mass of nucleus dN dN

f Nuclear density, r = − ∝ N (t ) ⇒ = − lN (t )

Volume of nucleus dt dt

3m l → disintegration (decay) constant

mA

= = ⇒ r ∝ A0 • Number of undecayed radioactive nuclei at any

4 4 pR03

× pR03 A time t

3

And r = 2.23 × 1017 kg m–3 N(t) = N0 e–lt

F Binding Energy N0 → number of nuclei at time t = 0

• The loss in energy which is responsible for binding • Number of decayed nuclei,

the nucleons together in a nucleus is called the Nd = N0 (1 – e–lt)

binding energy. N Nd

2

Eb = DMc where, DM = mass defect

N0 N0

DM = [ZmP + (A – Z)mN] – M

M → mass of nucleus

\ Eb = [(ZmP + (A – Z) mN)–M] × c2 t t

1 a−decay

• Mean life = Average life = τ av = A

ZX → ZA−−42Y + 42 He+ Q

l

ln 2 0.693 f Q value of a-decay : Q = (mX – mY – mHe)c2

• Half life = T1/2 = = = 0.693 τ av This energy is shared by the daughter nucleus

l l

and the alpha particle.

1

f Also, τ av = = 1.44 T1/2 f The energy released during the alpha decay of

l

92 U is 4.25 MeV.

238

• Number of nuclei present after n half life (t = nT1/2)

N The energy supplied to emit proton from 238

= 0n f 92 U

(2) is 7.68 MeV. Hence a proton cannot be released

t /2 N t /2 N t /2 N t /2 N

N 0 1 → 0 1 → 20 1 → 30 .... 1 → n0 by 238

92 U without supply of external energy.

2 2 2 2

• Beta decay : It is spontaneous decay of nucleus by

• If a nuclide can decay simultaneously by two emitting an electron or a positron.

different processes with different decay constants −

f b − decay : n → p + e − + u ; ZA X b

→ Z +A1Y + −01 e + u

l1 and l2, then effective decay constant of the +

→ Z −A1Y + +01 e + u

• Activity of sample: f The mass number A of a nuclide undergoing

dN beta decay does not change.

R=− = lN = lN 0 e − lt • Gamma decay : It is the phenomenon of emission

dt

= R0 e − lt of one or more g-ray photon by a nucleus in its

excited state so as to acquire its ground state.

Here, R0 = lN0 is decay rate at t = 0. Co

f Units of activity

1 curie = 1 Ci = 3.7 × 1010 dps

1 Rutherford = 1 rd = 106 dps

1 Becquerel = 1 Bq = 1 dps

• Alpha decay : It is spontaneous decay of a heavy

nucleus by emitting an alpha particle.

SYSTEM OF PARTICLES ELECTROMAGNETIC

AND ROTATIONAL MOTION INDUCTION

CLASS XI CLASS XII

Centre of Mass and Centre of Gravity Rotational Motion Axis Axis

R Combination of Inductors

l The centre of gravity of a body coincides with l Perpendicular distance of each particle l Inductors in series, L–R Circuit

Magnetic Energy

its centre of mass only if the gravitational field remains constant from a fixed line or R

Energy stored in an inductor, l Inductors in parallel, l Current growth in L–R

does not vary from one point of the body to point and particle do not move parallel l

l If coils are far away, then M = 0.

l Mathematically, l Angular displacement, q = Energy stored in the solenoid, l Current decay in L–R circuit,

l So,

Angular velocity, w =

Axis Axis Here,

l Magnetic energy density,

w For discrete body, Angular acceleration, a =

Inductance

l Equations of rotational motion L R L

R l Emf induced in the coil/conductor,

w w = w0 + at

w q = w0t + at 2 l Coefficient of self induction,

w For continuous body,

w w 2 = w02 + 2aq

Axis Axis l Self inductance of a long solenoid,

l Centre of mass of symmetric body l Torque : Turning effect of the force

about the axis of rotation. R1 l Mutual inductance,

w Semi-circular ring, L Lenz's Law Induced Electric

R2 The direction of the induced

l Angular momentum, l

l Mutual inductance of two long coaxial solenoids, Field

current is such that it opposes

w Semi-circular disc, l Work done by torque, W = tdq l It is produced by change in

the change that has produced it.

l Power, P = tw magnetic field in a region. This

Axis Axis l If a current is induced by an is non-conservative in nature.

increasing(decreasing) flux, it l Coefficient of coupling,

Moment of Inertia For perfect coupling, k = 1 so,

original flux.

l For a system of particles l For a rigid body, l It is a consequence of the law of l This is also known as integral

z Spherical shell Solid sphere conservation of energy. form of Faraday’s law.

y

w Position, l Perpendicular axes theorem :

Iz = Ix + Iy x Magnetic Flux and Faraday's Law

(Object is in x-y plane )

w Velocity, Axis Axis l Magnetic flux

A R l Faraday’s law : Whenever magnetic flux linked with a coil

w Acceleration, l Parallel axes theorem : changes, an emf is induced in the coil.

b

IAB = ICM + Md 2 CM a Energy Consideration

d w Induced emf,

= 0, then = constant. I = MR2/2

in Motional emf

w If

B l Emf in the wire, e = Bvl

w Induced current,

l Induced current,

w Induced charge flow ,

Electric Generator

Conservation of Angular Momentum Equilibrium of a Rigid Body Rolling Motion l Force exerted on the wire, l Mechanical energ y is

I converted into electrical

l If the net external torque acting on a system l A rigid body is said to be in mechanical l For a body rolling without slipping, B

equilibrium, if both of its linear momentum velocity of centre of mass l × v energy by virtue of electro-

is zero, the angular momentum of the F

and angular momentum are not changing with

vCM = Rw magnetic induction.

system remains constant, no matter what R

changes take place within the system.

time, i.e., total force and total torque are zero.

Kinetic energy, l Power required to move the

Motional emf l Induced emf,

l Linear momentum does not change implies e = NABw sinwt = e0sinwt

l On a straight conducting wire, e = Bvl

= constant; I1w1 = I2w2 the condition for the translational equilibrium K = Ktranslational + Krotational

wire, l Induced current,

of the body and angular momentum does l On a rotating conducting wire about one end,

(for isolated system) not change implies the condition for the = It is dissipated as Joule’s heat. Here, are perpendicular to each other.

rotational equilibrium of the body.

1. Ultraviolet light of wavelength 300 nm and intensity 6. Let u1 be the frequency of the series limit of Lyman

1.0 W m–2 falls on the surface of a photosensitive series, u2 be the frequency of the first line of Lyman

material. If two percent of the incident photons series, and u3 be the frequency of the series limit of

produce photoelectrons, then the number of Balmer series. Then

photoelectrons emitted from an area of 1.0 cm2 of (a) u1 + u2 = u3 (b) u2 – u1 = u3

the surface is nearly 1

(a) 2 × 1013 s–1 (b) 3 × 1012 s–1 (c) u1 – u2 = u3 (d) υ3 = (υ1 + υ2 ) .

13 –1 2

(c) 4 × 10 s (d) 4 × 1012 s–1. 7. There is a stream of neutrons with a kinetic energy

2. X-rays are produced in an X-ray tube by electrons of 0.0327 eV. If the half life period of neutrons is

accelerated through an electric potential difference 700 s, what fraction of neutrons will decay before

of 50.0 kV. An electron makes three collisions in they travel a distance of 10 m?

the target before coming to rest and loses half of (a) 3.96 × 10–4 (b) 3.96 × 10–5

–6

its remaining kinetic energy in each of the first two (c) 3.96 × 10 (d) 3.96 × 10–7.

collisions. Neglect the recoil of the heavy target

8. It is proposed to use nuclear fission reaction:

atoms, the wavelength of the resulting photons in

2 2

first two collisions is (Take hc = 1243 eV nm) 1H + 1 H → 24 He

(a) 49.72 pm ; 99.44 pm in a nuclear reactor of 200 MW rating. If the energy

(b) 47.38 pm ; 24.86 pm from the above reaction is used with 25% efficiency

(c) 52.24 pm ; 49.72 pm in the reactor, how many grams of deuterium will

(d) 49.72 pm ; 24.86 pm.

be needed per day? The masses of 12H and 24He are

3. A normal human eye can see an object if it receives 2.0141 u and 4.0026 u respectively.

a minimum light intensity of 2 × 10–10 W m–2, (a) 115.3 g (b) 120.3 g

reflected from an object. What is the minimum (c) 125.3 g (d) 130.3 g.

number of photons of wavelength 500 nm that must

enter the pupil of the eye per second in order to see 9. In a hydrogen atom, an electron jumps from the

the object if the appearance of the pupil is about state n to n – 1 where n > > 1. The frequency of the

1 cm2 ? (Given h = 6.63 × 10–34 J s ; c = 3 × 108 m s–1) emitted radiation is proportional to

(a) 2.5 × 104 (b) 2.5 × 105 (a) n0 (b) n–1 (c) n–2 (d) n–3.

4

(c) 5.0 × 10 (d) 5.0 × 105. 10. When stopping potential is applied to the anode of

4. The stopping potential for the photoelectrons photocell, no current is observed. This means

emitted from a metal surface of work function (a) the emission of photoelectrons stops

1.7 eV is 10.4 V. Identify the energy levels in (b) the photoelectrons are collected near the

hydrogen atom which will emit the wavelength of collector plate

radiation used (c) the photoelectrons are emitted but are

(a) n1 = 1, n2 = 2 (b) n1 = 1, n2 = 3 reabsorbed by the photocathode itself

(c) n1 = 2, n2 = 4 (d) n1 = 2, n2 = 5. (d) the photoelectrons are dispersed from the side

5. A radioactive sample decays by two different of the apparatus.

processes. Half life for the first process is t1 and for 11. The count rate of a Geiger-Muller counter for the

the second process is t2. The effective half life is radiation of a radioactive material of half life of

(a) t1 + t2 (b) t1 – t2 30 min decreases to 5 s–1 after 2 h. The initial count

(t1 + t2 ) t1 t2 rate was

(c) (d) .

2 t1 + t 2 (a) 80 s–1 (b) 625 s–1 (c) 20 s–1 (d) 25 s–1.

12. A nucleus ruptures into two nuclear parts, which 18. Half lives of two radioactive elements A and B are

have their velocity ratio equal to 2 : 1. What will be 20 min and 40 min, respectively. Initially, the

the ratio of their nuclear size (nuclear radius)? samples have equal number of nuclei. After 80 min,

(a) 31/2 : 1 (b) 1 : 31/2 the ratio of decayed numbers of A and B nuclei will be

1/3

(c) 2 : 1 (d) 1 : 21/3. (a) 1 : 16 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 5 : 4.

13. Electrons of mass m with de-Broglie wavelength [JEE Main Offline 2016]

l fall on the target in an X-ray tube. The cutoff 19. A hydrogen atom makes a transition from n = 2

wavelength (l0) of the emitted X-ray is to n = 1 and emits a photon. This photon strikes a

2mcλ2 2h doubly ionized lithium atom (Z = 3) in excited state

(a) λ0 = (b) λ0 = and completely removes the orbiting electron. The

h mc

least quantum number for the excited state of the

2m2c 2 λ3 ion for the process is

(c) λ0 = (d) l0 = l.

h2 (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 3.

[NEET Phase II 2016]

[JEE Main Online 2016]

14. The half life of a radioactive substance is

30 min. The time (in min) taken between 40% decay 20. A neutron moving with a speed v makes a head on

and 85% decay of the same radioactive substance is collision with a stationary hydrogen atom in ground

state. The minimum kinetic energy of the neutron

(a) 15 (b) 30 (c) 45 (d) 60.

for which inelastic collision will take place is

[NEET Phase II 2016]

(a) 20.4 eV (b) 10.2 eV

15. If an electron in a hydrogen atom jumps from (c) 12.1 eV (d) 16.8 eV.

the 3rd orbit to the 2nd orbit, it emits a photon of [JEE Main Online 2016]

wavelength l. When it jumps from the 4th orbit to

the 3rd orbit, the corresponding wavelength of the SolutionS

photon will be 1. (b) : Energy incident over 1.0 cm2 = 1.0 × 10–4 J

16 9 Energy required to produce photoelectrons,

(a) λ (b) λ

25 16 E = (1.0 × 10–4) × (2/100) = 2.0 × 10–6 J

20 20 Energy of each photon,

(c) λ (d) λ.

7 13 hc (6.6 × 10−34 ) × 3 × 108

E0 = = = 6.6 × 10–19 J

[NEET Phase II 2016] λ 300 × 10−9

16. Given the value of Rydberg constant is 107 m–1, the Number of photoelectrons ejected

wave number of the last line of the Balmer series in

E 2.0 × 10−6

hydrogen spectrum will be = = = 3 × 1012 s–1

E0 6.6 × 10−19

(a) 0.25 × 107 m –1 (b) 2.5 × 107 m –1

(c) 0.025 × 104 m –1 (d) 0.5 × 107 m –1. 2. (a) : Energy of the incident electron = 50 keV

[NEET Phase I 2016] The energy of X-ray photon produced in first

collision

17. Radiation of wavelength l, is incident on a 50

photocell. The fastest emitted electron has speed v. E1 = 50 − = 25 keV

2

3λ

If the wavelength is changed to , the speed of Wavelength of photon produced,

4

the fastest emitted electron will be hc 1243 eV nm

1/ 2 1/ 2

λ1 = =

4 4 E1 25 × 103 eV

(a) > v (b) < v

3 3

= 49.72 × 10–3 nm = 49.72 pm

1/ 2 1/ 2

4 3 In the second collision the electron loses energy,

(c) = v (d) = v .

3 4 25

= = 12.5 keV

[JEE Main Offline 2016] 2

\ Energy of X-ray photon produced, For series limit of Balmer series, n1 = 2, n2 = ∞

E2 = 12.5 keV 1 Rc

∴ υ3 = Rc − 0 =

\ Wavelength of photon produced, 2 2 4

1243 eV nm

λ2 = = 99.44 × 10−3 nm Now, υ1 − υ2 = Rc −

3Rc Rc

= = υ3

3

12.5 × 10 eV 4 4

= 99.44 pm \ u 1 – u 2 = u3

3. (c) : Power of the light entering the eye, 1 2 2E

P = IA = 2 × 10–10 × 10–4 = 2 × 10–14 W 7. (c) : As E = mv , υ = ≈ 2500 m s −1

2 m

If n number of photons of given wavelength enter Time taken to cover a distance of 10 m i.e.,

per second the pupil of the eye to see the object, 10 m

dt = = 4 × 10−3 s

P Pλ (2 × 10−14 )(500 × 10−9 ) 2500 m s −1

then n = = =

hc / λ hc (6.63 × 10−34 ) × (3 × 108 )

dN

= 5.0 × 104 As − = λN ,

dt

4. (b) : Since stopping potential, Vs = 10.4 V. The dN 0.693

maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons is − = λdt = (4 × 10−3 s)

N T1/ 2

Kmax = 10.4 eV. The energy of the incident photon is

given by E = Kmax + f0 = 10.4 + 1.7 = 12.1 eV 0.693 (4 × 10−3 s)

We know the energy of electron in energy level of = = 3.96 × 10−6

700 s

−13.6

hydrogen atom is, En = eV

n2 8. (b) : Energy output of the reactor per day

−13.6 = 200 × 106 (J s–1) × (24 × 60 × 60 s) = 1728 × 1010 J

When n = 1, E1 = eV = −13.6 eV

12 1728 × 1010

Energy input = = 6912 × 1010 J

−13.6 (25 / 100)

When n = 2, E2 = 2 = −3.4 eV

2 Energy released by the fusion of two 21H nuclei

−13.6 = [(2 × 2.0141) – 4.0026] × 931.5 MeV

When n = 3, E3 = = −1.51 eV

32 = 23.85 MeV = 38.15 × 10–13 J

Number of 21H nuclei required

Here, E3 – E1 = – 1.51 – (–13.6) = 12.1 eV.

Hence the transition corresponds to n1 = 1 and n2 = 3. 6912 × 1010 J

= = 362.3 × 1023

−13

5. (d) : As l = l1 + l2 (38.15 × 10 J) / 2

0.693 0.693 0.693 t t Mass of fuel required

⇒ = + or t = 1 2

t t1 t2 t1 + t2 2g

= (362.3 × 1023 ) × = 120.3 g

6. (c) : We know that series limit means the shortest 6.023 × 1023

possible wavelength (maximum photon energy) 9. (d) : According to Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom

and first line means longest possible wavelength 1 1 1

(i.e., minimum photon energy). = RZ 2 −

λ n2 n2

1 2

1 1

As υ = Rc − , where R is Rydberg constant. c 1 1

2 2

n1 n2 υ = = RcZ 2 −

λ 2 2

n1 n2

For series limit of Lyman series, n1 = 1, n2 = ∞

\ u1 = Rc 1 1 n2 − n12

∴ υ∝ − = 2

For first line of Lyman series, n1 = 1, n2 = 2 n12 n22 n12 n22

1 1 3 n2 − (n − 1)2 2n − 1

∴ υ2 = Rc − = Rc υ∝ =

2

1 22 4 2

n (n − 1) 2

n (n − 1)2

2

When n > > 1, 15. (c) : When electron jumps from higher orbit to

2n 1 lower orbit then, wavelength of emitted photon is

υ∝ , i.e., υ ∝ or υ ∝ n−3

n 4

n 3 given by,

10. (c) : When stopping potential is applied to the 1 1 1

=R −

λ 2 2

anode of photocell, the emitted photoelectrons n f ni

experience force of repulsion due to electric field Transition : 3 → 2, wavelength = l

set up and they are reabsorbed by the photocathode Transition : 4 → 3, wavelength = l′ = ?

itself.

1 1 1 5R

11. (a) : Half life time = 30 min; so, = R − =

2

Rate of decrease (N) = 5 s–1 ; λ 2 32 36

Total time = 2 h = 120 min. 1 1 1 7R

Relation for initial and final count rate and = R − =

2

time half life 120 30 4

λ′ 3 42 144

N 1 1 1 1

= = = = 144 5λ 20 λ

N0 2 2 2 16 \ λ′ = × =

7 36 7

Therefore N0 = 16 × N = 16 × 5 s–1 = 80 s–1.

16. (a) : Here, R = 107 m–1

12. (d) : Velocity ratio, v1 : v2 = 2 : 1 The wave number of the last line of the Balmer

Mass (m) ∝ Volume ∝ r3. series in hydrogen spectrum is given by

1 1 1 7

According to law of conservation of momentum, = R 2 − 2 = R = 10 = 0.25 × 107 m −1

m1v1 = m2v2 λ 2 ∞ 4 4

v1 m2 r23 17. (a) : According to Einstein’s photoelectric equation

\ = =

v2 m1 r13 maximum kinetic energy of a photoelectron,

1 hc

r1 v2

13 13 K = mv 2 = − φ

1 1 2 λ

or = = =

r2 v1 2 13

2 According to the question, for incident radiation of

1/3 wavelength l, maximum speed of photoelectron is v.

or r1 : r2 = 1 : 2

1 2 hc

\ mv = − φ ...(i)

13. (a) : Kinetic energy of electrons, 2 λ

p2 (h / λ)2 h2 Assume speed of fastest photoelectron is v′ when

K= = =

2m 2m 2mλ2 3λ

incident photon has wavelength .

So, maximum energy of emitted X-ray photon = K 1 4 hc 4

\ mv ′2 = −φ

hc h2 2mcλ2 2 3λ

= ∴ λ0 =

λ0 2mλ2 h 1 4 1

or mv ′2 = mv 2 + φ − φ (from Eqn (i))

2

3 2

14. (d) : N0 = Number of nuclei at time t = 0

N1 = Remaining nuclei after 40% decay 1 2 φ 4 2 2φ

or mv ′2 = mv 2 + or v ′ = v +

= (1 – 0.4) N0 = 0.6 N0 2 3 3 3 3m

N2 = Remaining nuclei after 85% decay \ 4

v′ > v

= (1 – 0.85) N0 = 0.15 N0 3

2

N 2 0.15N 0 1 1 18. (d) : Half life of A, T1/2(A) = 20 min

\ = = =

N1 0.6N 0 4 2 Half life of B, T1/2(B) = 40 min

Initially, number of nuclei in each sample = N

Hence, two half lives is required between 40% decay

and 85% decay of a radioactive substance. Now, 80 min = 4T1/2(A) = 2T1/2(B)

\ Time taken = 2T1/2 = 2 × 30 min = 60 min Number of active nuclei after four half lives of A,

NN 3 13.6 × 9

NA = = × 13.6 ≥

4

16

2 15 4 n2

\ Number of decayed nuclei = N – NA = N

16 ⇒ n2 ≥ 3 × 4 or n ≥ 12 = 3.5

Number of active nuclei after two half lives of B, \ Least quantum number for the excited state = 4.

N N 20. (a) : Using conservation of linear momentum,

NB = =

22 4 3 Total momentum before collision

\ Number of decayed nuclei = N – NB = N = Total momentum after collision

4 v

15 mv = (m + m) v′ ⇒ v ′ =

N

5 2

\ Required ratio = 16 =

3 4 Loss in kinetic energy during the process,

N 2

4 1 1 v 1

∆K = mv 2 − (2m) = mv 2

19. (b) : Energy of emitted photon, 2 2 2 4

1 1 3 For minimum kinetic energy of neutron, lost kinetic

E = − × 13.6 eV = × 13.6 eV

12 2

2 4 energy should be used by the electron to jump from

first orbit to second orbit.

Energy required to completely remove the electron

1 2

from nth excited state of doubly ionized lithium, ⇒ mv = (13.6 − 3.4) eV = 10.2 eV

4

13.6 Z 2 13.6 × 9

E′ = eV = eV 1 2

n 2

n2 ∴ mv = 20.4 eV = Kinetic energy of the

2

As E ≥ E′ neutron for inelastic collision.

CLASS XII Series 7

CBSE

Semiconductor Electronics : Materials,

Devices and Simple Circuits Time Allowed : 3 hours

Communication Systems Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS Previous Years Analysis

(i) All questions are compulsory. 2016 2015 2014

(ii) Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. Delhi AI Delhi AI Delhi AI

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. VSA – 1 1 1 2 –

(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks

SA-I 1 1 1 1 1 2

each.

SA-II 2 3 3 3 _ 3

(v) Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

VBQ 1 _ _ – 1 –

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculator is not allowed. LA – – – – – –

1. Show variation of resistivity of Si with temperature following figure. Identify X and Y. Write their

in a graph. functions.

2. Why should a photodiode be operated at reverse

bias?

3. Why do we need carrier waves of very high

frequency in the modulation of signals?

8. Answer the following questions, giving reasons :

4. Define repeater. What is its function? (i) Why is the current under reverse bias almost

5. Which of the following would produce analog independent of the applied potential upto a

signals and which would produce digital signals? critical voltage?

(i) A vibrating tuning fork. (ii) Why does the reverse current show a sudden

(ii) Musical sound due to a vibrating sitar string. increase at the critical voltage?

(iii) Light pulse. 9. Inputs A and B are applied to the logic gate set up as

(iv) Output of NAND gate. shown in the figure. Complete the given truth table

and name the equivalent gate formed by this set-up.

section-B

6. In a transistor, doping level in base is increased

slightly. How will it affect (i) collector current and

(ii) base current?

A B A′ B′ Y 16. Mention three different modes of propagation used

in communication system. Explain with the help

0 0

of a diagram how long distance communication

0 1

can be achieved by ionospheric reflection of radio

1 0

1 1 waves.

17. Distinguish between frequency modulation and

OR

amplitude modulation. Why is an FM signal less

For the circuit shown in figure find the current

susceptible to noise than an AM signal?

flowing through the 1 W resistor. Assume that the

two diodes, D1 and D2, are ideal diodes. 18. Write the frequency at which T.V. signals are

transmitted. Derive an expression for the range

upto which signals transmitted by a T.V. tower can

be received.

19. Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, the

working of a photodiode. Write briefly how it is

used to detect the optical signals.

10. The maximum amplitude of AM wave is found to 20. A semiconductor has equal electron and hole

be 15 V while its minimum amplitude is found to concentrations of 2.0 × 108 cm–3. On doping with

be 3 V. What is the modulation index? a certain impurity, the hole concentration increases

section-c to 4.0 × 1010 cm–3.

(i) What type of semiconductor is obtained on

11. Draw a circuit diagram of full wave rectifier. Explain

doping ?

its working principle. Draw the input and output

(ii) Calculate the new electron concentration of the

waveforms indicating clearly the functions of the

semiconductor.

two diodes used.

(iii) How does the energy gap vary with doping?

12. What do we understand by the cut off, active and

21. You are given the two circuits as shown in figure.

saturation states of the transistor?

Show that circuit (i) acts as OR gate while the circuit

13. In the given circuit diagram, (ii) acts as AND gate.

a voltmeter V is connected

across a lamp L. How would

(i) the brightness of the lamp,

and (ii) voltmeter reading V (i)

be affected, if the value of

resistance R is decreased?

Justify your answer ?

(ii)

14. Express by a truth table the output Y for all possible

OR

inputs A and B in the circuit shown in figure

If each diode in figure has a forward bias resistance

of 25 W and infinite resistance in reverse bias, what

will be the values of the current I1, I2, I3 and I4?

communication system :

(i) Transducer (ii) Receiver

(iii) Transmitter (iv) Bandpass filter

(v) Amplification (vi) Demodulator

22. Figure shows a communication system. What 26. (i) Write three important factors which justify the

is the output power when input signal is of need of modulating a message signal.

1.01 mW ? (gain in dB = 10 log10 (Po/Pi ). (ii) What is meant by detection of a modulated

signal? Draw block diagram of a detector

for AM waves and state briefly, showing the

waveforms, how the original message signal is

obtained.

section-D OR

23. Arnab was talking on his mobile to his friend for (i) What is space wave propagation?

a long time. After his conversation was over, his (ii) What is internet? Write the four applications of

sister Anita advised him that if his conversation was the internet.

of such a long duration, it would be better to talk soLutions

through a landline.

(i) Why is it considered harmful to use a mobile 1. The variation of resistivity of silicon (Si) with

phone for a long duration? temperature is shown as

(ii) Which values are reflected in the advice of his

sister Anita?

Resistivity ()

(iii) A message signal of frequency 10 kHz is

superposed to modulated a carrier wave of

frequency 1 MHz. Determine the sidebands

produced.

section-e Temperature (T)

24. (i) Describe briefly, with the help of a diagram, the 2. Because in reverse bias, the fractional change in

role of the two important processes involved in minority carriers is much larger than the fractional

the formation of a p-n junction. change in majority carriers in forward bias. So,

(ii) Name the device which is used as a voltage effect of intensity of light on the minority carriers

regulator. Draw the necessary circuit diagram

dominated reverse bias current is more easily

and explain its working.

measurable than that in forward bias current.

OR

Draw the circuit diagrams of a p-n junction diode 3. High frequency carrier waves are used to increase

in (i) forward bias, (ii) reverse bias. How are these operating range, to reduce antenna length and

circuits used to study the V-I characteristics of a convert the wide band signal into narrow band

silicon diode ? Draw the typical V-I characteristics. signal. Then the signal can be easily recovered and

25. With the help of a labelled circuit diagram, distinguished from other signals at the receiving

explain how an n-p-n transistor can be used as an station.

amplifier in common-emitter configuration. Write 4. A repeater is a combination of a transmitter, an

an expression for its voltage gain. Explain how the amplifier and a receiver which picks up a signal

input and output voltages are out of phase by 180° from the transmitter, amplifies and retransmits it

for a common-emitter transistor amplifier. to the receiver sometimes with a change of carrier

OR frequency. Multiple repeaters help in extending the

(i) Explain the formation of energy bands in range of the communication system.

solids. On the basis of energy band diagrams,

distinguish between metal, insulator and 5. Analog signal would be produced by vibrating

semiconductor. tuning fork and musical sound due to a vibrating

(ii) What is a light emitting diode (LED)? Mention sitar string.

two important advantages of LEDs over Digital signal would be produced by light pulse and

conventional lamps. NAND gate.

6. If the doping level in base region of a transistor is By Ohm's law, the current through 1 W resistor is

increased slightly, then greater fraction of charge 6

carriers (electrons or holes) entering into base from I= =2A

2 +1

the emitter will be neutralised due to recombination

of opposite charge carriers in base region. As a A

10. We know that, µ = m

result, (i) the collector current IC will decrease, but Ac

(ii) base current IB will increase. It is given that Am + Ac = 15 V and Ac – Am = 3 V

7. The component X in the figure is intermediate \ 2Ac = 15 + 3 = 18 V ; Ac = 9 V

frequency (IF) stage, which facilitates further and 2Am = 15 – 3 = 12 V ; Am = 6 V

processing of the received signal by lowering the \ µ=6 =2

carrier frequency. 9 3

The component Y is an amplifier, which amplifies 11. A full wave rectifier consists of a transformer, two

the detected signal so as to have a strong output. junction diodes D1 and D2 and a load resistance RL.

8. (i) When the diode is reverse biased, a very small The input a.c. signal is fed to the primary coil P of the

current of few microamperes flows due to the drift transformer. The two ends A and B of the secondary

of minority charge carriers whose number density S are connected to the p-ends of diodes D1 and D2.

remains constant, so the current under reverse bias The secondary is tapped at its central point T which

is almost independent of the applied potential upto is connected to the n-ends of the two diodes through

a critical voltage. the load resistance RL, as shown in figure.

(ii) When the reverse voltage across the p-n

junction reaches a critical voltage, the reverse

current suddenly increases to a large value. It is

due to the increase in the number of minority

charge carriers because of the breakdown of the

diode. The avalanche breakdown occurs in lightly

doped diodes due to ionisation by collision. Zener

breakdown occurs at low voltages in heavily doped Working : At any instant, the voltages at the end

diodes by field emission. A (input of D1) and end B( input of D2) of the

secondary with respect to the centre tap T will

9. Truth table for the given circuit is as follows:

be out of phase with each other. Supposed during

A B A′ = A B ′ = B Y ′ = A + B Y = Y ′ the positive half cycle of a.c. input, the end A is

positive and the end B is negative with respect to

0 0 1 1 1 0

the centre tap T. Then the diode D1 gets forward

0 1 1 0 1 0

biased and conducts current along the path

1 0 0 1 1 0

AD1XYTA, as indicated by the solid arrows. The

1 1 0 0 0 1 diode D2 is reverse biased and does not conduct.

Clearly, Y = A⋅B. Hence the given circuit is equivalent During the negative half cycle, the end A becomes

to an AND gate. negative and the end B becomes positive with

OR respect to the centre tap T. The diode D1 gets

Diode D1 is forward biased and offers zero reverse biased and does not conduct. The diode

resistance. Diode D2 is reversed biased and offers D2 conducts current along the path BD2XYTB,

infinite resistance. The given circuit reduces to the as indicated by broken arrows. As during both

equivalent circuit as shown in figure. half cycles of input a.c. the current through load

RL flows in the same direction (X → Y), so we

get a pulsating d.c. voltage across RL, as shown in

figure.

Waveforms of input a.c. and output voltage obtained

from a full wave rectifier.

cutoff region. From equation (i), the output voltage

V0 = VCC

Active region : When Vi increases slightly above

0.7 V, a current IC flows in the output circuit

and the transistor is said to be in the active state.

From equation (i), as the term IC RC increases,

the output voltage V0 decreases. Now as Vi

increases, IC increases almost linearly and so V 0

decreases linearly till its value becomes less then

1.0 V.

Saturation region : When Vi is high i.e., the emitter-

base junction is heavily forward biased, a large

collector current IC flows which produces such a

large potential drop across load resistance RC that

the emitter-collector junction also gets forward

biased. The output voltage V0 decreases to almost

zero. The transistor is said to be in the saturation

sate because it cannot pass any more collector

12. Figure shows the circuit diagram of a base-biased current IC.

n-p-n transistor in CE configuration. Here RB is a 13. In the following figure, the

resistor in the input circuit and RC in the output transistor is a n-p-n

circuit. transistor with base-

emitter junction forward

biased and the collector

reverse biased. Hence,

a base current IB and

consequently, collector

current IC flow in the circuit. If value of resistor

R is reduced, then IB and correspondingly IC will

increase. Due to increase in IC, the lamp will go more

V0 = VCC – ICRC ...(i) brilliantly. Due to increase in current IC flowing

through lamp resistance the potential difference

across the lamp increases and consequently,

voltmeter reading will increase.

14. The given circuit includes an AND and an OR gate,

as shown in figure

Cut off region : When Vi increases from zero to a output is

low value (less then 0.7 V in case of a Si transistor), Y′= A ⋅ B

the forward bias of the emitter-base junction is Then inputs A and Y′(= A ⋅ B) are fed to OR gate so

insufficient to start a forward current. That is, IB = 0 that the output from it is

and hence IC = 0. The transistor is said to be in the Y=A+A⋅B

The logic table for the given circuit is as follows : In sky wave propagation, radio signals can be

AND gate OR gate transmitted to the stations which otherwise become

inaccessible to the ground due to curvature of

Inputs Output Inputs Output

earth. Thus due to reflection by ionosphere, radio

A B Y′= A ⋅ B A Y′ Y = A + Y′ wave signals can be transmitted virtually from any

0 0 0 0 0 0 one place to the other on surface of earth. So it is

0 1 0 0 0 0 useful for very long distance radio communication.

1 0 0 1 0 1 Thus for long distance radio broadcasts through sky

1 1 1 1 1 1 wave propagation, we use short wave bands.

Hence the truth table is 17. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the

Inputs Output carrier is varied by the modulating signal and the

change in amplitude from the unmodulated value

A B Y

is directly proportional to the instantaneous value

0 0 0 of the modulating signal but is independent of its

0 1 0 frequency. This is represented in figure.

1 0 0

1 1 1

15. (i) Transducer : It is a device which converts energy

from one form to another from.

(ii) Receiver : It is a device which recovers the

original message signal from the signal received at Carrier wave

the output of the communication channel. (a)

(iii) Transmitter : It is a device which processes

the incoming message signal into a form suitable

for transmission through a channel and for its

subsequent transmission.

(iv) Bandpass filter : A bandpass filter blocks lower

and higher frequencies and allows only band of Modulating sine-wave signal

frequency (centred around carrier frequency) to

pass through it.

(v) Amplification : It is the process of increasing

the amplitude and hence the strength of an electrical

signal by using and electric circuit (consisting of

atleast one transistor) called the amplifier.

Amplitude-modulated wave

(vi) Demodulator : Demodulator is a device which

recovers the original information signal from the In frequency modulation, the instantaneous

modulated wave at the receiver end. frequency of the carrier is varied by the modulating

signal. The instantaneous deviation of frequency

16. (i) Ground wave or surface wave propagation

from the unmodulated values is directly proportional

(ii) Sky wave propagation

to the instantaneous value of the modulating

or ionospheric propagation

(iii) Space wave signal but is independent of its frequency. This is

propagation/Line of sight represented in figure.

propagation.

In sky wave propagation,

radio waves transmitted

by transmitting antenna are directed towards the

ionosphere. The radiowaves having frequency

range 2 MHz to 30 MHz are reflected back by the

ionosphere. Frequency-modulation wave

AM has : (i) low efficiency as the useful power is in to the absorption of photons. This generation of

the side bands, (ii) noisy reception, (iii) poor quality photogenerated charge carriers occurs in or near

of reception and (iv) small operating range. the depletion region. Due to the junction field,

FM has : (i) very high efficiency, (ii) noiseless electrons get collected on n-side and holes on

reception, (iii) high fidelity and (iv) large operating the p-side setting up an emf. This send a current

range. through the load. In a reverse biased photodiode,

Practically all natural and man-made noises result we can easily observe the change in photocurrent

in electrical amplitude disturbances (variation). with the change in radiation intensity. Hence a

Since in FM modulation, the carrier amplitude is

photodiode can be used to detect optical signals.

kept constant, all the amplitude-sensitive noises are

eliminated because variations in amplitude due to 20. (i) Here, ni = 2.0 × 108 cm–3 and

noise are not reproduce. To limit the FM signal to nh = 4.0 × 1010 cm–3

constant amplitude, a limiter circuit is used in an As on doping, the hole concentration has increased,

FM receiver. so a p-type semiconductor is obtained on doping.

18. Television frequencies lie in (ii) New electron concentration of the

the range 100 – 200 MHz. semiconductor,

Let T.V. signals be n2 (2.0 × 108 )2

transmitted from an ne = i = = 1.0 × 106 cm −3

nh (4.0 × 1010 )

antenna of height PQ = hT.

Due to the curvature of the (iii) On doping, energy gap between acceptor

earth, no direct signals are energy level and valence band decreases to a very

possible beyond the points small value ranging from 0.01 eV to 0.05 eV.

S or T, as shown in figure. 21. Let us first find the Boolean expression for logic

Let PS = PT = d. circuit (i)

From right-angled DOTQ, we get

OQ2 = OT2 + QT2

Here, OQ = R + hT , QT = PT = d

OT = R = Radius of the earth

\ (R + hT)2 = R2 + d2 So, above logic circuit provides output as OR gate.

or R2 + hT2 + 2hTR = R2 + d2 ( )

Here X = A + B and Y = X = A + B = A + B

hT

or d2 = hT2 + 2hTR = 2hTR 1 + Now let us find the Boolean expression for logic

2R

circuit (ii)

But hT << R, therefore, d2 = 2hTR or d = 2hT R

19. A photodiode is a p-n junction fabricated from a

photosensitive semiconductor and provided with a

transparent window so as allow light to fall on on By De-Morgan’s theorem we know

its junction. Its symbolic representation is shown in

figure. ( A + B ) = AB

h So, above logic circuit provides output as AND

gate.

OR

When the photodiode is Let R be the effective resistance of the circuit, then

illuminated with light

R = RAB || REF + 25

photons of energy A

hu greater than the RAB = 125 + 25 = 150 W

energy gap Eg of REF = 125 + 25 = 150 W

the semiconductor, \ R = 25 + 150 = 100 W

additional electron-hole pairs are generated due 2

Since diode in the branch CD is reverse biased, I3 = 0. 25. Refer to point 9.4 (8) page no. 595 (MTG Excel in

5 Physics)

Current, I1 = = 0.05 A

100

OR

According to Kirchhoff ’s, current rule,

I1 = I2 + I3 + I4 or I2 + I4 = I1 = 0.05 (i) Refer to point 9.1 (5, 6) page no. 583 (MTG

... R = R , so, I = I

AB EF 4 2 Excel in Physics)

2I4 = 2I2 = 0.05

(ii) Refer to point 9.3 (7 (iv (a), (f)) page no. 591

0.05

I 4 = I2 = = 0.025 A (MTG Excel in Physics)

2

26. (i) Refer to point 10.2 (2) page no. 637 (MTG

22. Excel in Physics)

(ii) Refer to point 10.2 (7) page no. 639 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

OR

–1

Path length = 5 km, Loss rate = 2 dB km

(i) Refer to point 10.3 (3) page no. 642 (MTG

Loss suffered in path = 5 × 2 = 10 dB

Excel in Physics)

Total gain of both amplifier = 10 + 20 = 30 dB

(ii) Refer to point 10.2 (9) page no. 640 (MTG

Overall gain = 30 – 10 = 20 dB

P Excel in Physics)

Gain in dB = 10 log10 o

Pi

P

or 20 = 10 log10 o

Pi

23. (i) The ultra high frequency em radiations,

continuously emitted by a mobile phone, may harm

the system of the human body.

(ii) Values shown by her sister Anita Shows :

(a) Concern about her brother

(b) Awareness about the likely effects of em

radiations on human body

(c) Sense of responsibility.

(iii) The side bands are : (uc + um) and (uc – um)

or (1000 + 10) kHz and (1000 – 10) kHz

or 1010 kHz and 990 kHz

24. (i) Refer to point 9.3 (1, 2, 3) page no. 587 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

(ii) Refer to point 9.3 (7 (i)) page no. 589

(MTG Excel in Physics)

OR

Refer to point 9.3 (4, 5) page no. 588 (MTG Excel

in Physics)

comPrehension based questions class-Xii

Paragraph i 4. Which differential equation correctly represents the

A particle of mass m and charge q is accelerated by above process?

a potential difference V volt and made to enter a dN dN

(a) + lN = q0t (b) − lN = q0t

magnetic field region at an angle q with the field. At the dt dt

same moment, another particle of same mass and same dN dN

(c) + q0t = lN (d) + q0t = − lN

charge is projected in the direction of the field from the dt dt

same point. Magnetic field of induction is B. 5. Instantaneous power developed at time t due to the

decay of the radionuclide is

1. What would be the speed of second particle so that

q q

both particles meet again and again after a regular (a) q0t − 0 + 0 e − lt E0

interval of time, which should be minimum? l l

q0 q0 − lt

qV 2qV (b) q0t + − e E0

(a) cosq (b) cosq l l

m m

q q

qV qV (c) q0t + 0 + 0 e − lt E0

sinq cosq l l

(c) (d)

m 2m q q

(d) q0t − 0 − 0 e − lt E0 .

2. Find the time interval after which they meet. l l

2pm pm 6. Average power developed in time t due to the decay

(a) (b)

qB 2qB of the radionuclide is

3pm q t q q q

(c) pm (d) (a) 0 − 0 + 0 − 0 e − lt E0

qB 2qB 2 2

l l t l t 2

3. Find the distance travelled by the second particle q t q q q

(b) 0 + 0 + 0 − 0 e − lt E0

during that interval mentioned in the above problem. 2 2

l l t l t 2

Vm 2p 2Vm 2p q t q q q

(a) cos q (b) cos q (c) 0 − 0 + 0 + 0 e − lt E0

q B 3q B 2 2

l l t l t 2

q0t q0 q0 q0 − lt

2Vm 2p 2 Vm p (d) + + + e E0 .

(c) cos q (d) cos q 2 l l 2t l 2t

q B 3 q m

Paragraph iii

Paragraph ii

There is a uniformly charge ring having radius R. An

A radionuclide with decay constant l is being produced infinite line charge (charge per unit length l) is placed

in a nuclear reactor at a rate q0t per second, where q0 is along a diameter of the ring (in gravity free space).

a positive constant and t is the time. During each decay, Total charge on the ring is Q = 4 2 lR. An electron of

E0 energy is released. The production of radionuclide mass m is released from rest on the axis of the ring at a

starts at time t = 0. distance x = 3R from the centre.

Physics For you | december ‘16 63

The quantity on the left hand side is known as line

+ +

+ + integral of magnetic field over a closed Ampere’s loop.

+ +

R

+

+

+

+

B A 13. Only the current inside the Amperian loop

+ + contributes in

+ + (a) finding magnetic field at any point on the

+ +

+ ++ Ampere’s loop

(b) line integral of magnetic field

x 3R

(c) both of them

7. Magnitude of initial acceleration of the electron is

(d) neither of them.

el 3 − 2 2 el 3 + 2 2

(a) (b) 14. If the current density in a linear conductor of

pε0mR 4 6 pε mR 4 6 0 radius a varies with r according to relation J = kr2,

(c) el 3 + 2 2 (d) el 3 − 2 2 where k is a constant and r is the distance of a

.

pε0mR 4 3 pε0mR 2 point from the axis of conductor, find the magnetic

field induction at a distance r from the axis when

8. The distance from centre of ring on the axis where

r < a. Assume relative permeability of the conductor

the net force on the electron is zero is

to be unity.

(a) 2R (b) 2R 4 m kr 3

(c) R (d) none of these. (a) m0kpa (b) 0

4r 2

9. Potential difference between points A (x = 3R) m0kpa 4 m0kr 3

and B (x = R) i.e., (VA – VB) is (c) (d)

2r 4

l 1 ln 3 l 1 ln3 15. In the above question, find the magnetic field

(a) 1 + − (b) 1 − +

ε0 2 4 ε 0 2 4 induction at a point distance r from the axis when

r > a. Assume relative permeability of the medium

l 1 ln 3 l 1 ln 3

(c) 1 + − (d) 1 − − . surrounding the conductor to be unity.

pε0 2 4 pε 0 2 4

m0ka 4 3 m kpa 4 m0kr 3

(a) (b) m0kr (c) 0 (d)

Paragraph iV 4r 2 2r 4

In a mixture of H – He+ gas (He+ is singly ionized He solutions

atom), H atoms and He+ ions are excited to their respec-

1. (b) : The first particle will have a helical path and

tive first excited states. Subsequently, H atoms transfer

the second particle will move rectilinearly along the

their total excitation energy to He+ ions (by collisions). field. For the two particles to meet again and again,

Assume that the Bohr’s model of atom is exactly valid.

v || T = v′T where v′ is the speed of the second

10. The quantum number n of the state finally popu- particle.

lated in He+ ions is y-axis

(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5. p p p

v1=v sin

11. The wavelength of light emitted in the visible region

by He+ ions after collisions with H atoms is

(a) 6.5 × 10–7 m (b) 5.6 × 10–7 m x-axis

–7

(c) 4.7 × 10 m (d) 4.0 × 10–7 m. (q, m) v =v cos B

axis of

12. The ratio of the kinetic energy of the n = 2 electron (uniform) helix

for the H atom to that of He+ ion is

(a) 1/4 (b) 1/2 (c) 1 (d) 2. \ v′ = v|| = v cosq

1 2 2qV 2qV

Paragraph V mv = qV ⇒ v = \ v′ = cosq

2 m m

Ampere’s law provides us an easy way to calculate the

2. (a) : Both the particles will meet after the time

magnetic field due to a symmetrical distribution of

2pm

current. Its mathematical expression is ∫ B ⋅ dl = m0Iin. period of helical motion. T =

qB

3. (c) : Distance travelled = pitch of helical path Potential difference due to the ring between x = R

2qV 2pm 2Vm 2p and x = 3 R

= v′T = cosq × = cos q

m qB q B −1 4 2lR 4 2lR −l 1

VAB′ = − = − 1

dN dN 4pε0 2R 2R pε0 2

4. (a) : = q0t − lN ; + lN = q0t

dt dt l 1 ln3

Net potential difference VA −VB = 1 − −

dN pε0 2 4

5. (a) : + lN = q0t

dt 10. (c) : Energy released by H atom in transition from

On solving the differential equation, we get

n = 2 to n = 1 is

qt q q

N = 0 − 02 + 02 e −lt 3

l l l DEH = × 13.6 eV

4

q q

Pinst = lNE0 = q0t − 0 + 0 e −lt E0 Let He+ ions go to nth state. So energy required

l l

1 1 3

t

q q −lt DEHe = 13.6 × 4 − 2 eV = × 13.6 eV

4 n 4

∫ q0t − l0 + l0 e E0dt So, n = 4

6. (a) : Pav = 0 11. (c) : Visible light lies in the range, l1 = 4000 Å to

t

∫ dt l2 = 7000 Å. Energy of photons corresponding to

0 these wavelengths (in eV) would be

q t q q q

= 0 − 0 + 0 − 0 e − lt E0 E1 =

12375

= 3.09 eV and E2 =

12375

= 1.77 eV

2 2

l l t l t 2 4000 7000

7. (a) : Electric field on the axis of ring at a distance x is, n=4 –3.4 eV n = 3 –1.9 eV

l Q x n=3 –6.04 eV n = 2 –3.4 eV

E= − + DE = 10.2 eV DE = 10.2 eV

2pε0x 4pε0 (R2 + x 2)3/2 n=2 –13.6 eV

n = 1 H atom –13.6 eV

(Considering right direction as positive) n=1 –54.4 eV

He+

l 1 x 4 2R

= − + (As, Q = 4 2lR) Z=2

2pε0 x 2(R2 + x 2 )3/2

From energy level diagram of He atom we can see

l 1 2 2 xR that transition from n = 4 to n = 3, energy of photon

= − x + 2 released will lie between E1 and E2.

2pε0 (R + x 2 )3/2

DE43 = –3.4 –(– 6.04) = 2.64 eV

Initially x = 3R

Wavelength of photon corresponding to this energy,

l 1 2 2 3

\ E= − + 12420

2pε0R 3 8 l= Å = 4.7 × 10–7 m

2.64

l −2 2 + 3 l 3−2 2 12. (a)

= =

2pε0R 3 (2 2 ) 2pε0R 2 6 13. (a) : Magnetic field at any point on Ampere’s loop

(−e)(E) el 3 − 2 2 can be due to all currents passing through inside

Acceleration a = =−

m pε0mR 4 6 or outside the loop. But net contribution in the left

8. (c) : Force on electron is zero at point where hand side will come from inside current only.

1 2 2 xR 14. (d) : For r < a, current passing through within the

E = 0 or = ; (R2 + x 2 )3/2 = 2 2 x 2R

x (R + x 2 )3/2

2 cylinder of radius r is given by

r r r

On solving, x = R kpr 4

I = ∫ JdA = ∫ kr 2prdr = 2pk∫ r 3dr =

2

0 0 0

DV = – E dx Now using Ampere’s law,

Potential difference due to line charge between m k pr 4 m kr 3

x = R and x = 3R B × 2pr = m0I = 0 ⇒B= 0

2 4

3R ldx l l ln 3 15. (a)

VAB = − ∫ − = ln 3 =

R 2pε0x 2pε0 pε0 4

6 Class XII

extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Optics

Total Marks : 120 Time Taken : 60 min

NEET / AIIMS / PMTs 3. The effective focal length of the lens Liquid

Only One Option Correct Type combination shown in the figure

1. A plane mirror coincides with a plane having is – 60 cm. The radii of curvature

equation x = 3. A particle is moving along a line of the curved surfaces of the plano-

with direction ratios 3, 4, 5. If speed of the particle convex lenses are 12 cm each and

is 2 , the velocity of its image is refractive index of the material of

3 4 1 3 4 3

(a) i + j + k (b) − i − j − k the lens is . The refractive index

5 5 5 5 5 2

3

of the liquid is 2

3 4 1 3 4

(c) i+ j− k (d) − i + j + k 3 5 8 4

5 5 5 5 5 (a) (b) (c) (d)

2 3 5 3

2. What is the optical path of light ray traversing the 4. A light ray is travelling between two media as given

path POQ across two media of refractive indices below. The angle of incidence on the boundary in

3 4 all the cases is 30°. Identify the correct sequence of

m1 = and m2 = (PR = a, RS = b, RO = x , SQ = y )? increasing order of angles of refraction.

2 3

(1) Air to water (2) Water to glass

P

(3) Glass to water

µ1 (Refractive indices of glass and water are respectively

R O 3 4

and )

µ2 2 3

(a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 2, 3, 1 (c) 3, 1, 2 (d) 1, 3, 2

S Q

5. Two coherent monochromatic light sources are

8 a 2 + x 2 + 9 b2 + y 2 located at two vertices of an equilateral triangle. If the

(a) intensity due to each of the sources independently

6 is 1 W m–2, then the resultant intensity (in W m–2)

3 a2 + x 2 + 8(b2 + ( y − x )2 ) due to both the sources at third vertex will be

(b) (a) zero (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 4

6

6. Image of an object at infinity is formed by a convex

3 a 2 + b2 + x 2 + y 2 − 4 b2 + y 2 lens of focal length 30 cm such that the size of the

(c)

3 image is 2 cm. If a concave lens of focal length

20 cm is placed in between the convex lens and the

9 a2 + x 2 + 8 b2 + ( y − x )2 image, at a distance 26 cm from the convex lens, the

(d)

6 size of the new image is

(a) 2.5 cm (b) 2.0 cm (c) 1.2 cm (d) 1.5 cm (b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not

7. A rainbow is formed when a ray of sunlight passes the correct explanation of assertion.

through a spherical raindrop. Then the total angle (c) If assertion is true but reason is false.

through which the ray deviates is (i and r denote the (d) If both assertion and reason are false.

angles of incidence and of refraction respectively) 13. Assertion : If objective and eye lenses of a

(a) 2i – 4r (b) p + 2i – 4r microscope are interchanged, then it can work as

(c) 2(i – r) (d) 2(p + i – 2r) telescope.

8. The velocities of light in two different media are Reason : The objective lens of telescope has small

2 × 108 m s–1 and 2.5 × 108 m s–1 respectively. focal length.

The critical angle for these media is 14. Assertion : Blue colour of the sky is due to scattering

−1 1 −1 4 of blue light.

(a) sin (b) sin Reason : Blue colour has the shortest wavelength in

5 5

the visible spectrum.

1 1

(c) sin −1 (d) sin −1 15. Assertion : Coloured spectrum is seen when we

2 4

look through a muslin cloth.

9. The distance between an object and a divergent lens Reason : It is due to diffraction of white light on

is n times the focal length of the lens. The linear passing through fine slits.

magnification produced by the lens will be

JEE MAIN / JEE AdvANcEd / PETs

1 1

(a) n (b) (c) n + 1 (d) Only One Option Correct Type

n (n + 1)

16. A convex lens forms the image of an axial point on a

10. An unpolarized light is travelling along z-axis screen. A second lens with focal length f cm is placed

through three polarizing sheets. The polarizing between the screen and the first lens at a distance

directions of the first and the third sheet are of 10 cm from the screen. To view the image,

respectively parallel to x-axis and y-axis whereas the screen has to be shifted away from the lens by

that of the second one is at 60° to the y-axis. Then, 5 cm. A third lens having focal length of the same

the fraction of the initial light intensity that emerges magnitude f cm is used to replace the second lens at

from the system is about the same position. But this time to view the image,

(a) zero (b) 0.093 (c) 0.031 (d) 0.28 the screen has to be shifted towards the lens by

11. An image is formed at a distance of 100 cm from d cm. The value of f and d respectively, are

the glass surface when light from point source in (a) 30 cm, 2.5 cm (b) 30 cm, 5 cm

air falls on a spherical glass surface with refractive (c) 7.5 cm, 2.5 cm (d) 7.5 cm, 5 cm

index 1.5. The distance of the light source from the 17. The angle of refraction of a very thin prism is

glass surface is 100 cm. The radius of curvature is 1°. A light ray is incident normally on one of the

(a) 20 cm (b) 40 cm (c) 30 cm (d) 50 cm refracting surfaces. The ray that ultimately emerges

12. A microscope consists of an objective of focal from the first surface, after suffering reflection from

length 2 cm and eyepiece of focal length 5 cm. the second surface makes an angle of 3.32° with the

The two lenses are kept at a distance of 10.5 cm. normal. The deviation of the ray emerging from

If the image is to be formed at the least distance of the second surface and the refractive index of the

distinct vision, the distance at which the object is to material of the prism respectively are

be placed before the objective is (a) 0.66°, 1.66 (b) 1.66°, 1.5

(Least distance of distinct vision is 25 cm) (c) 1.5°, 1.66 (d) 0.66°, 15

(a) 1.9 cm (b) 2.9 cm (b) 3.9 cm (d) 4.9 cm 18.

4P S

4

Assertion & Reason Type 3 3

3

i 2

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of Q R

assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the

correct choice as : A long thin rectangular slab PQRS having refractive

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the 3

index is immersed in a liquid having refractive

correct explanation of assertion. 2

4 of the cylinder traversing through the film from

index . A ray of light is incident at the edge PQ of

3 air to glass get focused at distance f1 from the film,

the slab as shown in figure. What is the sine of angle while rays of light traversing from glass to air get

of incidence i such that the ray comes out from the focused at distance f2 from the film. Then

slab as shown in figure? (a) |f1| = 3R 1

(a) (b) (c) (d) Air 2

17 8 9 2 (c) |f2| = 2R

19. In Young’s double slit experiment, one of the slits (d) |f2| = 1.4R

is wider than the other, so that the amplitude of 23. Consider three

the light from one slit is double that from the other converging lenses µ1

slit. If Im be the maximum intensity, the resultant L1, L2 and L3 O O1 O2

µ2

intensity when they interfere at phase difference f having identical

is given by geometrical L3

I f I f

(a) m 1 + 2 cos2 (b) m 1 + 2 cos2 construction. The refractive indices of L1 and L2 are

9 2 3 2 m1 and m2 respectively. The upper half of the lens L3

Im 2 f Im 2 f

has a refractive index m1 and the lower half has m2.

(c) 1 + 4 cos (d) 1 + 8 cos

5 9 A point object O is imaged at O1 by the lens L1 and

2 2

at O2 by the lens L2 placed in same position. If L3 is

More than One Options Correct Type placed at the same place,

20. An object and a screen are separated by a distance (a) there will be an image at O1.

D. A convex lens of focal length f such that 4f < D, (b) there will be an image at O2.

is moved between the object and the screen to get (c) the only image will form somewhere between

two sharp images. If the two positions of the lens O1 and O2.

are separated by a distance L, then (d) the only image will form away from O2.

(a) L is equal to D(D − 4 f ). Integer Answer Type

(b) object distance in one position is numerically 24. The focal length of a thin biconvex lens is 20 cm.

equal to image distance in the other position. When an object is moved from a distance of 25 cm

(D − L ) in front of it to 50 cm, the magnification of its image

(c) the ratio of sizes of the two images is . changes from m25 to m50. The ratio m25/m50 is

(D + L )

25. In Young’s double silt experiment, two slits act as

(D − L)2 coherent sources of equal amplitude a and same

(d) the ratio of sizes of the two image is .

(D + L)2 wavelength l. In another experiment with the same

21. A light source, which emits two wavelengths set up, the same two slits are incoherent. The ratio

l1 = 400 nm and l2 = 600 nm, is used in a Young’s of intensity of light at the middle point of the screen

double slit experiment. If recorded fringe widths for in the first case to that in second case is

l1 and l2 are b1 and b2 and the number of fringes 26. Image of an object approaching a convex mirror

for them within a distance y on one side of the of radius of curvature 20 m along its optical axis

central maximum are n1 and n2, respectively, then 25 50

is observed to move from m to m in 30 s.

(a) b2 > b1 (b) n1 > n2 3 7

(c) from the central maximum, 3rd maximum of l2 The speed of the object in km h–1 is

overlaps with 5th minimum of l1. Comprehension Type

(d) the angular separation of fringes for l1 is greater A prism of refractive index m1 and another prism of

than l2. refractive index m2 are stuck together without a gap

22. A transparent thin film of uniform thickness and as shown in the figure. The angles of the prisms are

refractive index m1 = 1.4 is coated on the convex as shown. Refractive indices m1 and m2 depends on

spherical surface of radius R at one end of a long wavelength l as follows :

solid glass cylinder of refractive index m2 = 1.5, as 10.8 × 104 1.80 × 104

shown in the figure. Rays of light parallel to the axis m1 = 1.20 + and m 2 = 1 . 45 +

l2 l2

where l is in nm. 30. A monochromatic y

C

of wavelength l is O

x

70° incident normally on S1

µ2

the plane containing D

Screen

60° 40° such that intensity only due to one slit on screen

A B is four times that only due to the other slit. The

27. The wavelength l0 for which rays incident at an screen is placed along y-axis as shown in figure.

angle on the interface BC pass through without The distance between slits is d and that between

bending at the interface is the screen and slits is D. Match the statement in

(a) 500 nm (b) 600 nm (c) 650 nm (d) 700 nm column I with results in column II.

28. For light of wavelength l0, the angle of incidence on Column I Column II

the face AC such that the deviation produced by the (A) The distance between two (P) Dl

combination of the prisms is minimum will be points on the screen having 3d

(a) 30° (b) 45° equal intensities, such that

−1

(c) sin 3 (d) sin −1 4 intensity at those points is

4 3 1

th of maximum intensity.

Matrix Match Type 9

(B) The distance between two (Q) Dl

29. Four combinations of two thin lenses are given

points on the screen having d

in column I. The radius of curvature of all curved

equal intensities, such that

surfaces is R and the refractive index of all the

intensity at those points is

lenses is 1.5. Match lens combinations in column I

3

with their focal length in column II. th of maximum intensity.

9

Column I Column II (C) The distance between two (R) 2Dl

(A) (P) 2R points on the screen having d

equal intensities, such that

R intensity at those points is

(B) (Q)

2 5

th of maximum intensity.

9

(C) (R) –R (D) The distance between two (S) 3Dl

points on the screen having d

equal intensities, such that

(D) (S) R intensity at those point is

7

th of maximum intensity.

9

A B C D

A B C D

(a) P, Q, R, S Q, R, S P, Q, R, S P, R, S

(a) P Q R S

(b) P, R, S P, Q, R, S Q, R, S P, Q, R, S

(b) Q S R P

(c) Q, R, S P, Q, R, S Q, R, S P, Q, R, S

(c) S P Q R (d) P, Q, R P, Q, R, S Q, R, S, P, Q, R

(d) Q P R S

Keys are published in this issue. Search now! J

> 90% ExcEllEnt work ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% Good work ! You can score good in the final exam.

No. of questions correct …… 74-60% satisFactory ! You need to score more next time

Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% not satisFactory! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

PHYSICS MUSING

P hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment

the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / NEET / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who

send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through “Physics Musing” and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

one or more than one oPtion correct tyPe (c) If the particle is given a velocity along x-axis and

1. A long straight wire carries a charge with linear it performs oscillatory motion then amplitude

density λ. A particle of mass m and charge q is 7

of oscillation must be less than a.

released at a distance r from the wire. The speed of 3

the particle as it crosses a point at distance 2r from (d) If the particle is given a velocity along x-axis and

the wire is it performs oscillatory motion then amplitude

5

qλ ln r qλ ln 2 of oscillation must be less than a.

(a) (b) 3

π mε0 π mε0 3. To measure velocity of sound wave in air, a student

qλ ln 2 2qλ ln r performs air resonance column experiment with

(c) (d) . a tuning fork of frequency 500 Hz. He records

2π mε0 π mε0

length of air column for first three resonances.

2. There are two concentric and coplanar rings of First and third resonance lengths are 15.6 cm and

radius a and 3a with uniformly distributed charge 82.8 cm but second resonance length is not clearly

–Q and 8Q respectively, fixed in y–z plane with readable because of his casual writing. Then,

center at origin. (a) velocity of sound wave is 336 m s–1

A particle of small positive (b) velocity of sound wave is 342 m s–1

charge q and mass m is (c) second resonance length is 49.2 cm

at origin as shown in (d) second resonance length is 46.8 cm.

the figure then which of 4. A solid sphere of mass M and radius R is lying

the following statements on a rough horizontal plane. A constant force

is/are correct ? F = 4Mg acts vertically downwards at point P

(Neglect gravity) such that OP makes 60° with horizontal. Find the

(a) If the particle is given a small push along minimum value of coefficient of friction m so that

x-axis then it performs oscillatory motion of sphere does pure rolling.

3

(a) F = 4Mg

3π3a3mε0 7

time period, T = 12 . P

19qQ 4

(b)

7 60°

(b) If the particle is given a small push along O

x-axis then it performs oscillatory motion of 2

(c)

7

7π3a3mε0 2

time period, T = 12 . (d)

19qQ 5

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for Jee main & Advanced, Professor, IITians PAce, mumbai.

5. A uniform rod of mass M and length L is hinged (d) If switch is closed then charge Q flows from

at point A about which it can rotate freely. The rod sphere to ground.

is kept horizontally by means of a vertical string as 7. A spherical ball of mass m moving with initial

shown. A small block is placed at other end B of the velocity v collides elastically with another ball of

rod. Now string is cut, then mass m, which is fixed at one end of L shaped rigid

massless frame as shown in figure. The L shaped

frame contains another mass m connected at the

other end. The speed of the striking mass after

collision is

v

(a) backwards

(a) just after cutting relative acceleration between 2

block M and end B of the rod is g/2. (b) v in same direction

(b) just after cutting relative acceleration between 5

block m and end B of the rod is zero. v

(c) in same direction

(c) tension in the rod at its mid point when the rod 3

9Mg v

becomes vertical is . (d) backwards.

8 7

(d) tension in the rod at its mid point when the rod integer ansWer tyPe

3 Mg

becomes vertical is . 8. Two factories are sounding their sirens at 400 Hz

4

each. A man goes from one factory to the other at a

6. A solid conducting sphere of radius R is initially

speed of 2 m s–1. The velocity of sound is 320 m s–1.

uncharged. Charge Q is brought from infinity to

Therefore what will be the number of beats heard by

point A which is at distance 2R from centre of the the person in one second ?

sphere. B and D are points on sphere as shown in

figure and switch S is initially opened. 9. Where should a convex lens of focal length 9 cm

Which of the following statements is/are correct? be placed (in cm) from nearest source between two

point sources S1 and S2 which are 24 cm apart, so

that the images of both sources are formed at the

same place?

10. A system consist of a uniformly charged sphere

and surrounding medium is filled by charge with

a

volume charge density ρ = ; where a is a positive

r

constant and r is distance from centre of the sphere.

It is found that electric field outside sphere is

VD 5

(a) = ; where VB and VD are potential 3a

VB 2 − 5 constant and given by E = then m =?

mε0

at B and D respectively due to induced charge

on the sphere.

Q 1 1 MPP-6 CLASS XI ANSWER KEY

(b) VB − VD = − ; where V B and

4πε0R 2 5 1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (c)

VD are potential at B and D respectively due to 6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (c) 10. (b)

induced charge on the sphere. 11. (a) 12. (c) 13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (c)

Q 16. (d) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. (d) 20. (a,c,d)

(c) If switch is closed then charge flows from

2 21. (a,d) 22. (a,b) 23. (a,b,d) 24. (8) 25. (9)

sphere to ground. 26. (4) 27. (a) 28. (d) 29. (d) 30. (c)

ON

R-C Circuit

Er. Sandip Prasad

charging of capacitor Transient state

Consider a circuit in which a R e C As time passes, i decreases

+q C –q

+

resistor of resistance R is gradually so does instantaneous R

A B

connected in series with a voltage across resistance, VR VC

i i

capacitor of capacitance C, VR also decreases gradually,

the combination is connected K but instantaneous voltage

across a battery of emf ε. across capacitor VC increases

When key is closed, electrons from plate A swings gradually till it reaches at its

to plate B as shown in the figure. The voltage across maximum value or steady state value ε. Although VR and

capacitor rise to ε exponentially and not linearly. VC are variable, their algebraic summation at any instant

Charging current i is maximum at the start, i.e., when always equal to ε, i.e., at any time t, ε = VR + VC .

capacitor is uncharged, then it decreases exponentially Final state (Steady state)

and finally ceases when potential difference across As charging continues, charging current i decreases

capacitor plate becomes equal and opposite to the gradually and it becomes zero at final state or steady

battery voltage. Hence as charge q on capacitor increases, state, hence at steady state condition, the circuit appears

current i in the circuit decreases. In other words, as as an open circuit (i = 0), which implies VR = 0 and

the time passes, potential difference across resistor VC = ε. At this state capacitor gets completely charged

(V R) decreases and difference across the capacitor and the value of charge becomes maximum and its

(VC) increases. maximum value is q0 = Cε.

Whenever a R-C circuit connected with a DC source,

R +q0 C –q0 R

goes from initial state to final state (steady state

condition), it passes through a transient state which is VR = 0 VC =

i=0

initial state and final state (steady state condition).

Initial state

Calculation of current in the R-C circuit in transient

When key is closed, i.e., at t = 0, R-C circuit is in its

state

initial state. In this state, current in the circuit i is R +q �q

maximum because there is no potential difference

across capacitor to oppose the applied voltage, i.e., it i

behaves like being short circuited. If you wish to find

K

initial current, short the terminals of the capacitor.

Hence at t = 0 the circuit can be redraw as shown in

the figure. For the closed loop;

R C R As, ∑∆V = 0

q dq q dq

VR = VC = 0 \ + ε − iR − = 0; ε = R + i =

im im =

C dt C dt

R q dq 1 dq

ε − = R; dt = q

C dt R ε−

C

Sandip Physics Classes, Girish Park-1/1 Shiv Krishna Daw Lane, Kolkata-700007

Integrating both sides, Hence, the time constant of an R-C circuit is

q t defined as the time during which charge on the

dq 1

∫ q ∫ R dt = capacitor actually rises from zero to 0.632 of its

0ε− 0

C final steady value (maximum value) of the charge.

q It means after one time constant, 63% of total

1 q 1

ln ε − = t charge is accumulated on the capacitor.

−1 / C C 0 R

As, q = q0(1 – e–t/τ)

q At t = 0, q = q0(1 – e0) = q0(1 – 1) \ q=0

− RC ln ε − − ln(ε − 0) = t

C Hence at t = 0, capacitor can be treated as short

q q circuit, i.e., capacitor provides zero resistance.

ε− ε− At t = ∞,

C= t C = e −t /RC

ln ;

ε −RC ε 1 1

q = q0(1 – e–∞) = q0 1 − = q0 1 −

q q e ∞ ∞

ε − = εe −t /RC ; ε − εe −t /RC =

C C \ q = q0

−t / RC q −t / RC Hence t = ∞, i = 0, i.e., capacitor acts as an open

ε(1− e ) = ; q = Cε (1 − e )

circuit.

C

q = q0 (1 – e–t/τ) Just at the start of the charging, charge on the

Here, q0 = Cε is the maximum charge on the capacitor capacitor is zero. As, charging continues, charge

and τ = RC is time constant of the circuit. on the capacitor changes according to the equation

At t = τ, q = q0(1 – e–1) = 0.63q0 q = q0(1 – e–t/τ). It becomes maximum (q0) when

Hence, time constant is defined as the time in which t = ∞, though it is almost charged to this value in

about five time constants (5τ).

charge in the capacitor grows to 63% of its maximum

q

value. As, q = q0(1 – e–t/τ)

dq d ε Graph showing the C

Now, i = = [Cε(1 − e −t /RC )] = e −t /RC variation of charge q 0.632C

dt dt R

with time t

i = i0 e–t/τ

O t= t

ε As, i = i0e–t/τ

Here, i0 = = maximum current in the circuit.

R ε

Here, i0 = = imax

Important points R

Charge on the capacitor at time t is, If t = τ, i

q = q0 (1 – e–t/RC) i = i0e −τ /τ = i0e −1

q0 is the maximum charge on the capacitor, i.e., i0

i = 0.37i0

charge on the capacitor at steady state.

Graph showing the 0.37 i

\ q0 = Cε, where ε is the emf of the cell applied 0

variation of current i

to the circuit. O

with time t

Here, τ = RC is the time constant of the R-C circuit.

Voltage across resistance at time t,

Its unit is second.

VR = iR = i0 Re–t/τ

Hence, charge at time t becomes,

ε VR

q = q0(1 – e–t/τ) VR = εe −t /τ i0 =

R

We know that charge in the circuit at time t is,

Graph showing the

q = q0(1 – e–t/τ)

variation of voltage

If t = τ, i.e., after one time constant, charge in the 0.37

across resistance VR

circuit is,

with time t O

\ q = q0(1 − e −τ /τ ) Voltage across capacitor at time t,

1

= q0(1 − e −1) = q0 1 − q q0(1 − e −t /τ ) Cε

e VC = = = (1 − e −t /τ )

\ q = 0.632 q0 C C C

VC Important points

\ VC = ε(1 − e −t /τ )

Charge on the capacitor at time t is,

Graph showing the variation 0.632 q = q0 e–t/RC

of voltage across capacitor q0 is the initial charge on the capacitor, i.e., charge

VC with time t O t= t on the capacitor at t = 0.

Here, τ = RC is the time constant of the R-C circuit.

Heat dissipated: Its unit is second.

By energy conservation, Hence, charge at time t becomes,

Heat dissipated = work done by cell – ∆Ucapacitor As, q = q0 e–t/RC

1 1 We know that charge in the circuit at time t,

= Cε(ε) − Cε2 − 0 = Cε2 q = q0 e–t/τ

2 2

Alternatively: If t = τ, i.e., after one time constant, charge in the

∞ circuit is,

Heat = H = ∫ i 2Rdt \ q = q0 e–τ/τ; q = q0 e–1 = 0.37 q0

0 Hence, the time constant of an R-C circuit is defined

∞ 2 −2t as the time during which charge on the capacitor

ε ε2 ∞ −2t /RC

= ∫ e RC Rdt = ∫e dt falls to 0.37 of its initial value (maximum value)

0 R2 R 0

of the charge. Time constant can also be defined

∞

−2t as the time in which charge on the capacitor falls

ε2RC RC ε2C

= e 0 = to 37% of its maximum value during discharging

2R 2 process.

Discharging of capacitor As, q = q0 e–t/τ

In the previous case, suppose battery +C At t = 0, q = q0 e0 = q0

is shorted after the capacitor is fully \ q = q0

K At t = ∞,

charged and the capacitor is allowed

1 1

to discharge through a resistor or q = q0e −∞ = q0 ∞ = q0

R e ∞

a capacitor carrying a charge q0 is allowed to discharge \ q=0

through a resistor. Just at the start of the charging, charge on the

Suppose the key is closed at t = 0, let q be the charge capacitor is maximum and equal to q0. As,

discharging continues, charge on the capacitor

on the capacitor and i be the current in the circuit at

changes according to the equation q = q0 e–t/τ.

any instant of time.

It becomes zero when t = ∞, though it is almost

By Kirchhoff ’s voltage law, discharged to zero in about five time constants (5τ).

q

− iR = 0 Graph showing the variation of charge q with

C

dq time t

q

But i = −

dt

Negative sign indicates that charge on the capacitor q0

is decreasing.

0.37 q0

q dq dq −q

\ + R = 0; =

C dt dt RC O

q

dq 1 dq 1 t As, q = q0(e–t/τ)

=− dt ; ∫ =− ∫ dt

q RC q0

q RC 0 dq i = − q0 (e −t /τ )

And i = − ;

q 1 dt (−τ)

ln = − t ; q = q0e −t /RC

q0 RC q

\ i = 0 (e −t /τ )

dq ε τ

Again, i = − = e −t /τ = i0e −t /τ

dt R or i = i0e −t /τ

Graph showing the variation of current i with time t q ε − i1R

i

\ − i1R − + R=0

C 2R

2q 2q

i0 −2i1R − + ε − i1R = 0 ; 3i1R = ε −

C C

dq

Again, we know that i1 =

0.37 i0 dt

dq 2q dq 1

\ 3 R=ε− ⇒ = dt

dt C 2q 3R

ε−

Voltage across resistance at time t, C

Integrating both sides,

q

VR = iR = 0 Re −t /τ VR

q

dq t

1

τ ∫ = ∫ dt

2q 3R

VR = εe −t /τ ( q0 = Cε) 0 ε− 0

C

q

Graph showing the 1 2q 1

0.37 ln ε − = t

variation of voltage −2 / C

C 0 3R

across resistance VR 2q

with time t ε−

ln C = 2t

Voltage across capacitor at time t, ε −3RC

q q e −t /τ Cε −t /τ ε−

2q

As, VC = = 0 = e

C C C C = e −2t /3RC ; ε − 2q = εe −2t /3RC

VC ε C

\ VC = εe–t/τ −2t /3RC 2q 2q

Graph showing the ε − εe = ; ε(1 − e −2t /3RC ) =

C C

variation of voltage Cε −2t /3RC

across capacitor VC 0.37

q = (1 − e )

2

with time t Method-II: Another method can be used to find

Example-1: Initially the capacitor the charge on the capacitor of R-C circuit as a

R C function of time. Before going to the method-II,

is uncharged, find the charge

on the capacitor as a function R we need to learn a very important concept related

of time, if switch is closed at to electrical circuit or network. This concept is not

R

K only used to solve the problems of R-C circuit but

t = 0.

you can apply it any type of electrical circuit.

Soln.: Method-I:

Consider the circuit as r1

By applying KVL R C i1 shown in figure.

in loop (1) r2

2 i2

The circuit can be converted A B

R

As, S ∆V = 0 to a single source of battery r3

i

\ +ε – iR – i2R = 0 ... (i) i by using the following

R 1

By applying KVL in loop (2) K

formula : Equivalent emf,

As, S ∆V = 0 ε1 ε2 ε3

r + r + r

q

\ − i1R − + i2R = 0 ... (ii) εeq = VA − VB = 1 2 3

C 1 1 1

Hence from both the equations, we can write an r + r + r

1 2 3

expression in terms of i1.

Where, ε1, ε2 and ε3 are the net emf of the branches

From equation (i)

1, 2 and 3 respectively and r1, r2 and r3 are the net

ε – (i1 + i2)R – i2R = 0 resistances respectively.

ε – i1R – 2i2R = 0 Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be

ε − i1R ... (iii) given by following formula,

\ i2 =

2R 1 1 1 1

From equations (ii) and (iii) = + +

req r1 r2 r3

Suppose we have to convert the given circuit into Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be

an equivalent battery, where ε1 = 3 V, ε2 = –2 V, given by following formula,

ε3 = 1 V and r1 = r2 = r3 = 1 W. 1 1 1 1 A B

= + + R 1

Equivalent emf of the battery can be written as, req r1 r2 r3

+3 −2 +1 Here there are two parallel

+ +

1 1 1 =2 V branches 1 and 2 in between R

εeq = VA − VB = 2 K

1 1 1 3 the terminals A and B. So,

+ +

1 1 1 0 +ε ε

Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be + ε

given by following formula, εeq = VA − VB = R R =

1 1 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 +

= + + = = + + \ req = 3 W R R

req r1 r2 r3 req 1 1 1 Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be

Hence the given network becomes as a single given by following formula,

2 1 1 1 1 1 R

source of voltage V and having an internal = + = + \ req = .

3 req r1 r2 R R 2

resistance 3 W. Here req is the resistance between the terminal A and

r1

3V B, i.e., it is considered as the internal resistance of the

equivalent battery.

r2 req A B

2V

B = A B R 1

A

2 req = R

eq = V 2

r3 3 A B

1V R

eq =

2 K 2

For problems related with R-C circuit with DC source,

it is easier to convert the R-C circuit having a number

of parallel branches into a R-C circuit of single voltage Step-III: Now, the temporarily removed branch is

source with a series resistance. It makes the solution of connected back across from where it was temporarily

removed earlier. From this arrangement we get an R-C

complicated networks quite quick and easy.

circuit containing a single source.

Steps for converting an electrical circuit between two R C R C

terminals into a single battery: A B

Step-I: First of all, temporarily remove the branch R

containing capacitor and redraw the remaining circuit.

The remaining circuit has a number of parallel branches R req = R

K 2 K

containing voltage source (battery) and resistance. A B

C R C ε εeq = ε

R 2

A B Hence, from the above circuit it is clear that charging

R A of capacitor takes place, in this case the value of charge

R B

at any time t is given by

R q = q0(1 – e–t/τ)

K R

K

Here, q0 = the maximum charge on the capacitor, i.e.,

ε

charge on the capacitor at steady or final state = C

2

Step-II: To convert the remaining network into a single R

equivalent battery, apply the following formula : and τ = time constant of the circuit = ReqC = R + C

2

Equivalent emf, 3R

\ τ= C

2

ε1 ε2 ε3

r + r + r Hence the equation of charge is given by,

εeq = VA − VB = 1 2 3 Cε

q = (1 − e −2t /3RC )

1 1 1 2

r + r + r

1 2 3 To be continued in next issue…

OLYMPIAD

PROBLEMS

1. A heavy particle is tied to the end A of a string of

length 1.6 m. Its other end O is fixed. It revolves as a

t but of different refractive indices as shown in

figure. Considering the intensity of the incident

conical pendulum with the string making 60° with beam on the slits to be I0, find the distance on the

the vertical. Which of the following statements is screen from central maxima at which intensity is I0

incorrect ? (Assume that there is no change in intensity of the

4π light after passing through the films.)

(a) Its period of revolution is s.

7

(b) The tension in the string is double the weight of

the particle.

S1 3

(c) The velocity of the particle is 2.8 m s–1. 1 =

2

(d) The centripetal acceleration of the particle is d

10 m s–2. 4

S2 2 =

2. The gravitational potential changes uniformly from 3

D

from x = – 1 m to x = +1 m. Mark the incorrect Screen

statement about gravitational field intensity at the

Consider t = 6 mm, d = 1 mm, and D = 1 m, where

origin.

d and D have their usual meaning.

(a) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 must be

(a) 20 mm (b) 30 mm

equal to 10 N kg–1.

(c) 25 mm (d) 15 mm

(b) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 may be

equal to 10 N kg–1. 5. A man of mass m on an initially stationary boat

(c) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 may be gets off the boat by leaping to the left in an exactly

greater than 10 N kg–1. horizontal direction. Immediately after the leap, the

(d) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 must boat of mass M, is observed to be moving to the

not be less than 10 N kg–1. right at speed v. Then,

1

3. A uniform magnetic field of (a) work done by the man on boat is mv 2

induction B fills a cylindrical volume 2

(b) increase in the mechanical energy of the system

of radius R. A rod AB of length 2l

is placed as shown in figure. If B is 1 M2

of man and boat is + M v2

changing at the rate of dB/dt, the emf that is 2 m

produced by the changing magnetic field between (c) velocity of centre of mass of system is v

the ends of the rod is M2 2

dB dB (d) increase in kinetic energy of man is v .

(a) l R2 − l 2 (b) l R2 + l 2 m

dt dt

6. A rod of mass m, uniform L

1 dB 2 2 1 dB

(c) l R −l (d) l R2 + l 2 cross sectional area A and x

2 dt 2 dt length L is accelerated by F

4. A monochromatic beam of light of 6000 Å is used in applying force F as shown in Smooth

Young’s double slit experiment set-up. The two slits figure on a smooth surface. Young’s modulus of

are covered with two thin films of equal thickness elasticity of the material of rod is Y. Which of the

following statements is correct? (Consider x is in succession with wavelengths 1085 Å and 304 Å.

measured from the right end.) The principal quantum number of the excited state

(a) Tension in rod as a function of distance x is is

Fx (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 7

.

2L 10. A right angled ⊗ ⊗ ⊗ ⊗

F

(b) Strain in rod is . triangular loop as a v a v

AY shown in figure enters ⊗ ⊗ ⊗ ⊗

(c) Elastic potential energy stored in the rod is uniform magnetic

a a

⊗ ⊗ ⊗ ⊗

F 2L field (at right angle to x

. 0 a 2a 3a

6AY the boundary of the

(d) There is no stress in rod. field) directed into the paper at constant velocity.

7. Figure shows the variation U (J) Draw the graph between induced emf e and the

of the internal energy U distance along the perpendicular to the boundary

A C of the field, (say x) along which loop moves.

with density r of one mole

of an ideal monatomic B

ρ (kg m–3)

gas for a thermodynamic

cycle ABCA. Here process AB is a part of rectangular (a) a 2a 3a x (b) a 2a 3a x

hyperbola. Then,

(a) process AB is isothermal and net work in the

cycle is done by gas

a 2a 3a

(b) process AB is isobaric and net work in the cycle (c) a 2a 3a x (d) x

is done by gas

(c) process AB is isobaric and net work in the cycle

is done on the gas

solution oF noVEMBEr 2016 crossword

(d) process AB is adiabatic and net work in the 1 2

H R A

D I O L Y S I S

cycle is done by gas. E

3

L M I C R O W A V

A P S E R A T E

4

E

8. A homogeneous rod AB of length L = 1.8 m and A

5

P H O B O S

6

BA

7 8

mass M is pivoted at the centre O in such a way that T

9

P I T O T T U B

E U B

D J FM A

it can rotate freely in the vertical plane as shown in 10

Z E T T A FU R

figure. The rod is initially in the horizontal position. A N 11

P O L A R I

S C O P E R

An insect S of the same mass M falls vertically with T S 12

F RS E

H K E C T

speed v on the point C, midway between the points 13 14 15

H Y R B D A P O I N T

P L A M

O and B. Immediately after falling, the insect moves I N R U L E

towards the end B such that the rod rotates with a G 16

F O U C A U L T P E N 17

D U L U M R

18 19

constant angular velocity. If the insect reaches the G A I N S I P

20

S C S T E C A I

end B when the rod has turned through an angle of 21

B S O N E I

24 22 23

A S T E R S C A

S N

D R

90°, then the value of v will be O U E T H RO H T

S S S F M A YG Y E

O T F O P R

I M R

v 25 26

N L I N K A G E M I F CA E F

C C E N A EV T A

27

S T G R A V I

T O N I E C

A O C B E I T R E

L L L 28 29

2 4 4 I S O B A R F L A S H O V E R N Y

(c) 10 m s–1 (d) 1.5 m s–1 • Jyoti rathour, Haldwani

9. A 100 eV electron collides with a stationary helium Solution Senders (October 2016)

ion (He+) in its ground state and excites to a higher

• Santoshi Rawat, Delhi • Bhavesh Bisht, Lucknow

level. After the collision, He+ ion emits two photons

3. (b) : Suppose q is the required angle.

At extreme position the velocity

of the ball is zero, thus normal

solution set-40 l

ve2 l cos

acceleration an = = 0, and

1. (a) : Mass per unit area of the disc, l h

Mass M M tangential acceleration at = g sinq. g sin

s= g g cos

= =

(

Area p (4 R)2 − (3R)2 7 pR2) \ Total acceleration at extreme

position ae = g sinq

Consider a ring of radius

P At mean position, the velocity of the ball

x and thickness dx as

shown in the figure. 4R vm = 2 gh = 2 g (l − l cosq )

Mass of the ring, and displacement of ball, h = (l – l cosq)

dx 3R

dM = s2pxdx

4R

v2

x The normal acceleration at this position, an = m

2pMxdx l

= 2 g (l − l cos q)

7 pR2 = = 2 g (1 − cos q)

Potential at point P due to annular disc is l

and tangential acceleration at = g sin q = g sin0° = 0

4R

GdM GM 2p 4 R xdx Thus total acceleration at mean position

VP = ∫ − =− 2 ∫

7 pR 3R 16R2 + x 2 am = 2g (1 – cos q)

3R (4 R)2 + (x )2

According to given condition, we have

Solving, we get, VP = − 2GM 4 2 − 5 ( ) ae = am ⇒ g sin q = 2g (1 – cos q)

7R

q 1 1

Work done in moving a unit mass from P to ∞ ⇒ tan = ⇒ q = 2 tan −1

2GM 2 2 2

= V∞ – VP = (4 2 − 5)

7R 4. (c) : Let n number of men are required for the

2. (d) : In presence of electric field, in equilibrium, block to just start moving up the plane

Force on the drop due to electric = Weight of the drop nF = mg sin q + f nF

field(E), = mg [sin q + ms cos q]

4 1

qE = mg = pr 3ρg ...(i) = 200 × 10 sin 45° + cos 45°

3 2

In the absence of electric field, drop acquires equilibrium.

So, Viscous force on the drop = Weight of the drop 200 × 10 × 3

or n = ≈5

4 3 2 2 × 500

6phrvT = mg = pr ρg ...(ii)

3 A

2 18 × h × vT

5. (b) : Q = Tα

or r = A − 4

4×ρ× g

Substituting the given values, we get ⇒ Tα = Q A − 4 = 5.5 216 = 5.4 MeV

A 220

18 × 1.8 × 10 −5 × 2 × 10 −3

r2 = 6. (c) : Impulse = change in momentum Dp = 50 N s

4 × 900 × 9.8 6rvT

and Dp = p – 0 \ p = 50 N s

3

r = × 10 −5 m Velocity along vertical direction

7 4 pr 3ρg

From equation (i), we get q = p sin60°

3E vV = = 25 3 m s −1

m

Substituting the given values, we get mg

Velocity along horizontal direction,

3

3 p cos60°

4 × p × × 10 −5 × 900 × 9.8 vH = = 25 m s −1

7 m

q= = 8 × 10–19 C

81p 5 Since, the impulse is applied tangentially, the ball will

3× × 10 take parabolic path.

7

2vV Volume of the gas is constant as it is kept in a closed

Time of flight, T = = 5 3s vessel.

g

\

P1V

=

P2V T2 (1.6 × 106 ) × 675

L r×p 50 × 0.2 × 5 or P2 = P1 =

Also, w = = = = 625 rad s–1 T1 T2 T1 300

I 2 2 2 × 1 × (0.2)2

mr or P2 = 3.6 × 106 N m–2

5

w 625 9. The motion of the sphere is similar to projectile

As 2pu = w \ u = =

2p 2p motion. The components of its acceleration are;

Now, total number of rotation during the time of flight 0. 9

ax = = 1.80 m s −2 and a y = 0

3125 3 0. 5

= u ×T = when the sphere crosses the y-axis, its displacement

2p

V Q component along x-axis is zero.

7. (i) VA = VB = V, E = and V =

d C ay = 0 y

2Q

e = 2V = ...(i)

C

Q′ Q′ Q′ ax = 1.8 m s–2

(ii) VA′ = = ; VB′ =

C′ K C C

30°

Q′ 1 ...(ii)

Hence e = 1+

C K

From (i) and (ii), we get x

2K

Q′ = Q , since K > 1, Q′ > Q 1 1

1+ K 0 = ux t + ax t 2 = 3 sin 30° t − (1.8)t 2 or t = 1.66 sec

2K 2 2

2

VA′ = V and VB′ = V 10. Let Mmix be the molecular weight of the mixture.

1+ K 1+ K

V′ 2V m m

Electric field E A′ = A = m1 + m2 = 1 + 2 M mix ...(i)

d (1 + K )d M1 M2

VB′ 2KV

EB′ = = γRT γRT

d (1 + K )d As v1 = or M1 = 2

Change in electric fields M1 v1

2V V V 1 − K γRT γRT

DE A = E A′ − E = − = and v2 = or M2 = 2

(1 + K )d d d 1 + K M2 v2

2KV V V K − 1 γRT

DEB = EB′ − E = − = Similarly, Mmix =

(1 + K )d d d K + 1 v2

The amount of charge that flows into the circuit m + m2

From (i), Mmix = 1

m1 m2

2K 1 K − 1 +

DQ = Q ′ − Q = − 1 Q = Ce M1 M2

1+ K 2 K + 1

γRT m1 + m2 m1v12 + m2v22

8. According to gas equation, PV = nRT or = ⇒ v=

v2 m1v12 m2v22 m1 + m2

PV

6

(1.6 × 10 ) × 0.0083 16 +

\ n= = = γRT γRT

RT 8.3 × 300 3

5R 3R

CP − CV = R \ − CV = R or CV = Solution Senders of Physics Musing

2 2

Amount of heat supplied = nCV dT Set-40

2.49 × 10 4 × 3 × 2 1. Nikita Pandey, Dehradun (Uttrakhand)

\ dT = = 375 K 2. Jisha Nair, Kota (rajasthan)

16 × 3 × 8.3

\ Final temperature, T2 = 300 + 375 = 675 K 3. Sabhya Sanchi, Asansol (West bengal)

CLASS XI Series 6

CP (5 / 2)R 5

Specific heat ratio, g = = = = 1.67

CBSE CV (3 / 2)R 3

Contd. from Page No. 30

(b) (i) Diatomic molecules such as N2, O2, etc.,

Force exerted on the wall of area A behave as rigid rotator at moderate temperatures.

Dp Such molecules have 5 degrees of freedom : 3

= = nmv 2x A translational and 2 rotational. According to the law

Dt

2

Force nmv x A of equipartition of energy, the total energy of a mole

Pressure on the wall = = of such a gas is

Area A

or P = nmvx2 5 5

U = kBT × N A = RT

As the molecules move with different velocities, so 2 2

we replace vx2 by its average value v x2 in the above dU 5

\ CV (rigid diatomic) = = R

equation. dT 2

7

\ P = nmv x2 CP (rigid diatomic) = CV + R = R

2

Again, the gas is isotropic. So the molecular

(7 / 2)R 7

velocities are almost equally distributed in different g(rigid diatomic) = = = 1.4

directions. By symmetry, (5 / 2)R 5

(ii) If the diatomic molecule is not rigid but has

v x2 = v y2 = vz2 = (

1 2

) 1 2

v + v y2 + vz2 = v

3 x 3

also a vibrational mode, then each molecule has

1

where v 2 is the mean square velocity of the an additional energy equal to 2 × kBT = kBT,

2

molecules.

because a vibrational frequency has both kinetic

1

Hence, P = nmv 2 ...(i) and potential energy modes.

3

Mass nm 5 7 7

Density of gas, r = = = nm \ U = kBT + kBT N A = kB N AT = RT

Volume 1 2 2 2

1 dU 7

\ P = rv 2 CV (diatomic with vibrational mode) = = R

...(ii) dT 2

3 CP (diatomic with vibrational mode)

OR 9

= CV + R = R

(a) In case of a monatomic gases, like He, Ar, 2

etc., a molecule has three translational degrees of g (diatomic with vibrational mode)

freedom. According to the law of equipartition of (9 / 2)R 9

= = = 1.28

energy, average energy associated with each degree (7 / 2)R 7

1 (c) (i) A non-linear triatomic gas molecule has six

of freedom per molecule = kBT

2 degrees of freedom.

Let R = gas constant per mole of a gas 6

\ U = kBT × N A = 3RT

NA = Avogadro's number i.e., the number of 2

atoms in one mole of the gas. dU

CV = = 3R; CP = CV + R = 4R

dT

Then the total internal energy of one mole of a

C 4

monatomic gas, g = P = = 1.33

CV 3

3 3

U = kBT × NA = RT (Q kB NA = R) (ii) A linear triatomic molecule has seven degrees

2 2

of freedom.

The molar specific heat at constant volume will be

7 7

dU d 3 3 \ U = kBT × N A = RT

CV (monatomic) = = RT = R 2 2

dT dT 2 2 dU 7 9

The molar specific heat at constant pressure, CV = = R ; CP = CV + R = R

dT 2 2

3 5 C (9 / 2)R 9

CP (monatomic) = CV + R = R + R = R g= P = = = 1.28

2 2 CV (7 / 2)R 7

82 Physics For you | DECEmbEr ‘16

Y U ASK the cheese). As the tops of these bubbles are thin

during bubble growth, the tops can absorb enough

thermal energy to turn brown.

WE ANSWER

If the pizza is topped with fat-free cheese, the water

evaporates very quickly from the cheese, and the

dried-out individual strands of cheese never melt

Do you have a question that you just can’t get and fuse, but instead just burn. To remedy this,

answered? fat-free or low-fat cheese is sprayed with an oil

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the film when the pizza is prepared. Then the oil film

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly, slows the evaporation of water from the cheese, so

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the that melting, fusing, bubbling, and browning can

questions, easy and tough. all occur.

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in Q4. When the sky is overcast, why is snow at the

this column each month. horizon brighter than the adjacent sky?

– Nustrat Khan, Hyderabad

Q1. What are fermions and bosons? Ans. During an overcast day, snow at the horizon is

– Aditya Yaligar (Dharwad, Karnataka) brighter than the adjacent sky for three reasons

Ans. Fermions are the half spin particles. These particles (1) Drops in the cloud scatter sunlight primarily

cannot exist at the same place having exactly the in a forward direction, and so you intercept more

same properties. Electron, proton, neutron etc. light from the overhead portion of the overcast

are fermions. sky than a portion near the horizon. Thus, the sky

Bosons have whole number spins. These particles near the horizon is comparatively dark.

can exist at same place and in same physical state. (2) Snow scatters light strongly in all directions,

Photons, mesons etc. are bosons. and so you intercept significant light from snow

Q2. We can tune radio only on a AC source, then near the horizon. Thus that snow is bright.

how are we able to hear FM radio in our mobile (3) When you view a border separating regions

phones? – Seetharaman differing in brightness, your visual system will

Ans. Tuner receive a mixture of signals of different enhance that difference in order to make the

frequencies and able us to choose a particular border more distinct.

frequency whereas detector is responsible for Q5. Why are the hairs on polar bears hollow?

separating audio information from the carrier – Deepika Tyagi, Surat

wave. For AM signals, this can be done with a Ans. The white hairs on a polar bear trap the visible

diode but for FM signals, the detector circuits and infrared portions of sunlight, because those

are specially designed. Detectors are basically portions are reflected and transmitted down into

demodulators, FM demodulators convert the pelt to reach the skin. There it is absorbed which

frequency variations of the input signal into increases the thermal energy of the skin. (The

amplitude variations at the output. ultraviolet portion of sunlight is also absorbed by

Q3. Why does pizza develop a nicely melted cheese the hairs, but ultraviolet light contributes little to

surface, with lightly browned spots, if topped the warming of a bear). The thermal energy of the

with real cheese but not with fat-free cheese? skin is maintained partially because the hairs are

– Harlin Engtipi, Guwahati hollow and conduct thermal energy poorly. (The

Ans. A pizza is cooked on the hot pan by conduction notion that the hollow hairs somehow function as

of infrared radiation from the oven walls optical fibres is just a myth.)

surrounding it, and convection of hot air across

MPP-6 CLASS XII ANSWER KEY

its top (especially if the air is being forced to

move by a fan). As thermal energy is gradually 1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (d)

transferred to the interior, largely to cook the 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (b)

dough, the cheese is supposed to melt uniformly 11. (a) 12. (b) 13. (d) 14. (c) 15. (a)

over the top and then lightly brown. The browning 16. (a) 17. (a) 18. (b) 19. (d) 20. (a,b,d)

occurs where bubbles form in the cheese (where 21. (a,b,c) 22. (a,c) 23. (a,b) 24. (6) 25. (2)

water vaporizes to form bubbles of steam inside 26. (3) 27. (b) 28. (c) 29. (b) 30. (c)

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.

Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

2. An instrument for measuring changes in 1 2 3 4

5 6 7

magnetic flux. [9]

8 9

3. A semiconductor device that acts as a

10

storage location in processing unit of a

11 12 13

computer. [8]

8. A unit of frequency equal to 1012 hertz. 14 15 16

[7] 17

sudden or oscillatory motion of a moving 18 19

12. A device used for separating two isotopes 20

22 23

impedance to alternating current. [5]

17. An electronic instrument for measuring 24

very short time intervals. [11]

20. A particle made from glass is being 25

23. An equation that predicts the degree of thermal ionization 9. A highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a

in a gas. [4, 8] beam of electromagnetic radiation. [6]

24. The variable voltage dividers with a shaft or slide control for 10. An electronic device in which a single bit of data is stored

setting the division ratio. [13] temporarily. [5]

25. A machine invented by E.O. Lawrence in 1934. [9] 13. A rule for determining the direction of lines of magnetic

26. The process of boiling or bubbling up of a liquid. [10] force around a wire carrying a current. [9, 4]

27. The forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the 14. An instrument for measuring the inclination of a surface to

relative fluid flow velocity. [4] a horizontal plane. [12]

28. The reciprocal of the force constant. [10] 15. The special arrangement of molecules in a liquid crystal.

DOWN [9]

1. Father of electrodynamics. [5, 5, 6] 16. An optical system that produces a beam of parallel

4. A spinning wheel in which the axis of rotation is free to light. [10]

assume any orientation by itself. [9] 18. The reciprocal of capacitance. [9]

5. An electrical device permitting only one way current flow. 19. An instrument for measuring optical transmission or

[5] reflection of a material. [12]

6. A mode of computer processing and output in which a large 21. An instrument that measures the rate of flow of fluids. [9]

proportion of the output is in pictorial form. [8] 25. The streams of gas and dust surrounding the nucleus of a

7. A part of the electromagnetic spectrum comprising low comet. [4]

energy X-rays. [5, 4]

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