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MODERNISATION OF INDIAN

STEEL DESIGN CODES – A BOON


TO THE CONSRUCTION INDUSTRY
INCLUDING BRIDGES

ARIJIT GUHA
Assistant Manager (Civil & Structural)
Institute for Steel Development & Growth
Kolkata

August 30, 2016 Institute for Steel Development & Growth 1


TOPICS COVERED
 Introduction
 IS: 800 – General Introduction

 Design Philosophies
 Allowable Stress Design method
 Evolution of Limit States method

 Discussion on Latest Steel Codes

 Revision of Codes in Bridge Construction


 Revision in the concept of Fatigue

 Steel-Concrete Composite Construction

 Codes for Steel-Concrete Composite Construction


 General Structures
 Bridges
 Composite Box Girders

 Future Actions in Codes

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INTRODUCTION

 The Construction Industry ----- most often guided and


controlled by steel, cement as the prime material of
construction.
 Cement ----- Requires a healthy partnership with
aggregates and steel to form the structural element
called concrete.
 Steel -----
a) It not only has an advantage of partnering with
concrete but
b) Also it can go alone as an individual structural
element.

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INTRODUCTION

DESIGN CODES
 Structural steel ---- Use as preferred material by
designers and builders increases with modern rational
codes.
 Codes -----
a) Should be updated with the scientific researches.
b) The codes should and also be user friendly.
c) The design engineers will only then be inclined in
deciding on using steel.
 Modern codes at par with other international codes ----
Automatically increase the steel consumption in the
country which plays a direct role in the country’s
economy.
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INTRODUCTION

IS: 800 – 2007


The basic Code for Steel Design and Construction in India

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IS: 800 – EVOLUTION IN LAST 15 YEARS
 The earlier edition of IS: 800 prepared in 1984 and reaffirmed in
1991 was out-dated.
 This code was based on Allowable Stress Design, which was in
vogue till the 1960’s all over the world.
 The modern Limit State Method had been developed and adapted
in advanced countries in the early 1970’s
 This method is technologically improved and results in a more
rational design.
 The general practice all over the world is based on Limit State
Method (LSM) or Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
Method.
 It was found essential during the year 2002 – 2003 that this code
should be modified to LSM similar to what had been done for
reinforced concrete structure codes back in 1984.
 The code was thus prepared and published by the Bureau of Indian
Standards (BIS) in 2007.

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IS: 800 – EVOLUTION IN LAST 15 YEARS

Countries and their design format:

Table 1: Countries and their Design Format.

Australia, Canada,
China, Europe, U. Limit State Method (LSM)
K., Japan

Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)


USA and Allowable Stress Design Method (ASD)

India Limit State Method (LSM) [Adopted in 2007]

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DESIGN PHILOSPHIES

 Major change in design philosophy in India -----


 With the introduction of Limit States Method (LSM)
 Attributing the existing Allowable Stress Method of
design gradually redundant.
 This LSM was introduced for all type of construction----
 reinforced concrete construction
 steel construction
 steel-concrete composite construction.
 However, it is important to understand the differing
philosophies of Allowable Stress Method of Design and
Limit State Method / LRFD as they apply to design of
steel structures

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ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN
 Linear Elastic Theory of Steel developed in 19th Century
 It enabled stress-strain behaviour of new materials like wrought iron
& mild steel to be accurately represented.
 It also enabled indeterminate structures to be analyzed.
 The distribution of bending and shear stresses could now be
computed correctly.
 The first attainment of yield stress of steel was generally taken to be
the onset of failure.
 The basic condition to be satisfied in design is factual < fallowable

factual = Actual Maximum Stress in a Section


fallowable = Allowable Stress in the Section

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ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN (ASD)
 Allowable stress has been defined in terms of a “factor
of safety“ (Fs),
 Fs represents a margin for overload and other unknown
factors which could be tolerated by the structure.
 The factor of safety (Fs) in ASD, is fixed,
 Ignoring variability of loads are, in terms of either frequency or
magnitude.
 Ignoring inconsistency of material and construction practices
 Fixed Fs makes the design rigid.
 It takes away the advantage of flexibility and more optimised
aspects of design.
 The value of factor of safety in most cases is taken to be
around 1.67.
 Variability of loads with time like seismic load or wind load Fs is
sometimes modified by a fixed amount depending on load
condition and combination.

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ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN (ASD)
Deficiencies of ASD
1. Consequences of material non-linearity,
2. Non-linear behaviour of elements in the post-buckled
state.
3. Rigid factor of safety,
4. Ability of the steel components to tolerate high
theoretical elastic stresses by yielding locally and
redistributing the loads.

These deficiencies as well as advanced knowledge of


strength of material beyond yield point and its plastic
plateau led to the development of an alternative to the
ASD based on the limit states of a material. Thus the
modern Limit States Method was evolved.

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EVOLUTION OF LIMIT STATE DESIGN
 Limit State Method (LSM) Design ---- Developed to address the
drawbacks of the existing ASD.
 ASD suffers from the inability of the factor of safety to adequately
address the variable nature of loading conditions.
 LSM has separate Factor of Safety both for
 the applied load
 the permissible loads/moments/shears etc.
 LSM makes use of the plastic range of material for the design of
structural members
 LSM considers the good performance of steel in tension compared
to compression and specifies variable factors
 The main advantage of the limit state method is that it takes into
account this variance by defining limit states, which address
strength and serviceability
 Concept of Limit State Design can be covered broadly under
 Ultimate Limit State Design (ULS)
 Serviceability Limit State Design (SLS)

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ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN
Rotational Capacity
MP

Compact Plastic moment


fy
MY fy
Moment ‘M’ fy Yield moment
Semi-Compact
<fy Slender
fy

<fy

Curvature

Flexural member performance using section classification

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LIMIT STATE DESIGN
 Design requirements are expressed as follows:
Sd  Rd
Sd = Design value of internal forces and moments caused by the
design loads,
Fd = f * Characteristic Loads.
f = a load factor which is determined on probabilistic basis

Rd = Characteristic Value of Resistance


m
m & f = Factors , which is also determined on a ‘probabilistic basis’.

f makes allowance for possible deviation of loads and the


reduced possibility of all loads acting together.
m allows for uncertainties of element behaviour and possible
strength reduction due to manufacturing tolerances and
imperfections in the material.

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LIMIT STATE DESIGN
 A Civil Engineering Designer has to ensure that the structures and
facilities he designs are (i) fit for their purpose (ii) safe and (iii)
economical and durable.
 Thus safety is one of the paramount responsibilities of the
designer.
 The uncertainties affecting the safety of a structure are due to
 Uncertainty about loading
 Uncertainty about material strength and
 Uncertainty about structural dimensions and behaviour.
 These uncertainties together make it impossible for a designer to
guarantee that a structure will be absolutely safe.
 Designer can only ensure that the risk of failure is extremely small,
despite the uncertainties.

An illustration of the statistical meaning of safety is given in Fig. 1.

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LIMIT STATE DESIGN

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DISCUSSION ON LATEST STEEL CODES
 IS: 800 – 2007 :---- The basic code for design and construction for
all steel structures
 This code has been prepared based on stipulations laid down in the
corresponding Euro Codes
 Modifications have been made based on
• Geographical parameters
• Indian construction practices
• resources available in India

 Few other codes have been revised or formulated in the recent past
under BIS and IRC and few are under preparation,
BIS Codes
 Revision of IS: 801:--- Cold Formed Sections ---- Under Preparation
 Revision of IS: 11384:--- Composite Construction --- Under Preparation
 Revision of IS: 806:---- Tubular structure ----- Under Preparation
 Revision of IS: 808:---- Sectional Properties --- Under Preparation ( It will
include parallel Flange Sections and thus IS: 12778 will get merged with
it).

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REVISION OF CODES IN BRIDGES
 Major Codes that have been revised or formulated in the recent past
or under preparation for Indian Roads congress (IRC)
 IRC: 24–2010 ---- Basic Steel Code for Construction of Steel Bridges
 This code deals with steel Bridges and has been prepared in line with
IS: 800 – 2007.
 The basic design philosophy is the LSM.
 Design against Fatigue has been introduced based on stipulations laid
down in IS: 800 and the existing design procedure using IS: 1024 – 1979
has been discarded.
 IRC: 22–2015 ---- Basic Steel Code for Construction of Steel Bridges
 This code deals with Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges and has been
prepared in line with IS: 800 – 2007.
 This was first published in 2008 and later revised in 2015
 The basic design philosophy is the LSM.
 The properties and stipulations corresponding to Concrete has been
adopted based on recently revised code IRC: 112 - 2011.
 Earlier code dealt with only composite Beams. New construction
technology pertaining to columns and beams have been adopted for the
first time in this code
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REVISION OF CODES IN BRIDGES
 Other Codes / Guidebooks that have been revised or
formulated in the recent past or under preparation for Indian
Roads Congress (IRC)
 Explanatory handbook to IRC: 22
 Design Handbook to Steel-Concrete Composite Box Girder
Bridges
 Guidelines for Cable Supported Bridges
 Guidelines for fabrication and erection of Steel Bridges
 Guidelines for Condition Monitoring of bridges
 Guidelines for Connection Design
 Other important and Relevant Codes revised in the recent
past.
 IRC: 112 – 2011 --- Concrete Bridges
 IRC: 6 – 2014 --- Loads on Road Bridges

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REVISION OF CODES IN BRIDGES

NEW REVISION/MODIFICATION OR INTRODUCTION

The most important introduction in the latest Limit


States Codes, IS: 800 – 2007 or IRC: 22 – 2015 & IS: 24 –
2010 is the

STRESS RANGE Concept in FATIGUE DESIGN

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FATIGUE

 FATIGUE ---- It applies to changes in properties which occur in


a material (Quite Prominent in Steel) due to the repeated
application of stresses or strains.

 Fatigue Stress ---- The additional stress in a structure or


structural member due to the intermittently occurring variable
(Cyclic) load.

 In effect, anything subjected to repeated loading, arising, for


example, from waves, wind, live loading, pressure or
temperature fluctuations, vibration, etc., is potentially at risk
from fatigue
 These fatigue problems are extremely critical in terms of safety
and cost.

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FATIGUE

 Before IS: 800 -2007, Fatigue Assessment was done


based on IS: 1024 – 1979.

 IS: 800 -2007, for the first time introduced a complete


chapter on Design against Fatigue

 IRC: 24 – 2010 and IRC: 22 – 2015 introduced the


same concept for steel and composite road bridges.

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FATIGUE

Stress Ratio Concept

 The two parameters on which permissible fatigue stress is


dependent is Stress Ratio (fmin / fmax) and number of stress
Cycles during the design life “N” (IS: 1024 – 1979) .
 Hence Dead Load plays an important role in determining
fatigue strength

Stress Range Concept

 The two parameters on which permissible fatigue stress is


dependent is Stress Range (fmax – fmin) and number of stress
Cycles during the design life “N” .
 Hence Transient Load plays an important role in determining
fatigue strength

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FATIGUE

Range, R = fmin / fmax


fe = Alternating stress
S fe fmax amplitude
t
fr = Stress range
r
e fm =Mean stress
s fr fm fmax =Maximum stress
s One load cycle
fmin fmin =Minimum stress

Time

Fig - 3

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STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
 Steel-concrete composite construction combines the
compressive strength of Concrete with the tensile strength of
Steel
 It evolves an effective and economic structural system.
 Over the years this specialized field of construction has become
more and more popular in the western world
 It has developed into a multifaceted design and construction
technique.
 It is only recently getting popularized in India in the last few years
 Still limited to commercial structures like multiplexes, some
industrial structures and a few multi-storied constructions.
 More recently gained popularity in the bridge sector in India,
mostly in the eastern region in Kolkata and in the northern sector
in New Delhi in the form of flyovers and ROB’s.

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STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Major Components of Composite Construction

 Composite Beams:--

Fig. 4 Typical Composite Girder

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STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Major Advantages Composite Beams (General construction in


Buildings and Structures) :--

1. Considerable savings in weight of steel components over


non-composite construction.

2. Greater stiffness of composite beams results in shallower


depths for the same span.

3. Thus, lower storey heights are adequate resulting in


a) Savings in cladding costs
b) Reduction in wind loading
c) Savings in foundation costs.

4. Faster rate of construction.

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STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Major Components of Composite Construction

 Composite Slabs:--

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STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Major Components of Composite Construction

 Composite Columns:-- (Two Types)

1. Fully or Partially steel encased concrete sections (Fig. 6)

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STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Major Components of Composite Construction

 Composite Columns:-- (Two Types)

2. Concrete in-field Steel Hollow Steel Columns (fig. 7)

Fig. 7 Concrete in-filled Steel Hollow Sections

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
General Structures

IS: 11384 – 1985:


Code for General Construction in Steel-Concrete Composite
Structures.

 This code was prepared using LSM philosophy


 It catered to only Composite Beams
 This code is presently under revision under the purview of
CED – 38 committee of Bureau of Indian standards (BIS)
 Major revision would include latest provisions and design
techniques for Composite Beams
 New introduction would include Composite Slab and
Composite Columns

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
General Structures

Fig. 8 Construction Stage of Indira Pariyabaran Bhawan

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
General Structures

Fig. 9 Indira Pariyabaran Bhawan

Fig. 10 New Office of INSDAG

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
General Structures

Fig. 11 Handloom House

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Bridges

IRC: 22 – 2015:

Code for Construction in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures


for Road Bridges

 The last edition of the code was in ASD philosophy


 This code has been recently revised to LSM philosophy
 It caters to Composite Beams and Columns

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Bridges

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Box Girder Bridges

 Obligatory spans of a grade separator is generally to the tune


of 40-50 metres.
 Steel-concrete composite box girder system suits best for
these spans.
 A very old practice as far as the developed countries are
concerned.
 Typical cross section include concrete deck on steel box
section.
 Used aplenty in grade separators and flyovers in Kolkata
 They have been found to be better than standard PSC box
girder in terms of performance and reduced
 Dead weight
 Load on Foundation
 Seismic Action

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Box Girder Bridges

Fig. 13 Components of Box Girder Superstructure

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Box Girder Bridges

1. IRC: 22 – 2015:
2. Guidebook For Design and Construction of Composite Box
Girder Bridges

 This Guidebook is presently under preparation


 Major provisions of IRC:22 – 2015 is utilized to prepare this
guidebook
 A worked-out Example as guideline is being included in this
guidebook for the benefit of the designers

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CODES FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Box Girder Bridges

Fig. 14 Box Girder for Gariahat Flyover in Kolkata

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FUTURE ACTIONS ON CODES
 Codes and standards are the backbone for design and
construction.
 The code stipulations covers
 The basic fundamentals based on which the design has to be made
 The guidelines and limitations for a particular design or
construction based on various conditions associated with the
geographical location of the structure and the function of the
structure itself.
 The codes have been revised or prepared mostly to make them at
par with other international codes.
 There are still some grey area in the codes which may be improved
in the near future after proper feedback from users as well as from
research and experimental data.
 The codes developed in the last 10 to 15 years or that are under
preparation are mostly a synergy of research findings both in India
and abroad
 These codes are illustratively and accurately conducive for Indian
design and construction spectrum.
August 30, 2016 Institute for Steel Development & Growth 41
Thank You

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