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PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


2016 Technical Symposium, Indonesia Exploration: Where From - Where To

CENOZOIC SUMATRA ACCRETIONARY PRISMS : A NEW GEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE


AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION

Widiastuti Nur Farida*


Yan Bachtiar Muslih*
Bagus Rachmad Irwansyah*
Tommy Supratama*
Bayan Novrian*
Dewi Mindasari*

ABSTRACT pelagic-mud drapes and carbonate rocks. Potential


migration and trap formation is related to anticlines
The Cenozoic Sumatra Accretionary Prism outcrops in the imbricate structures that prograde westward.
exposed in the chain of Simelue, Nias, Mentawai The Mentawai Strike-Slip Fault Zone can be
and Enggano Islands offshore Sumatra are not, at considered an additional potential trap formed
first glance, of interest to the explorationist. These between the accretionary prism and the forearc
areas represent different accretionary styles off the border. Continous subduction provides thickening
Sunda Margin. Since the Middle Eocene, older accretionary prism to build outer highs, and
subduction along the Sumatra margin began with an this structure is perhaps the most prospective for
oblique subduction. It was dominated by the hydrocarbon accumulation. Maturation occurred in
subduction accretion of the Indo-Australian basaltic the methamorphic zone outboard of the outer high.
crust, biogenic and non-biogenic sediments, in As a source rock mainly from marine planktonic,
addition to quartz rich-sediments of Bengal-Nicobar potential hydrocarbon is gas instead of oil.
Fan and volcanic material derived from Sunda Arc.
It is proposed that this hypothesis should be tested
The purpose of this study is to identify the structural to prove the Cenozoic Sumatra Accretionary Prisms
character, tectonostratigraphy and occurrence of play fairway, albeit with high risk!
petroleum system elements using the integration of
geological fieldwork in Pagai-Sipora Island, along INTRODUCTION
with the integration of seismic and the results of the
Ocean Drilling Project Well Legs 213 and 211. Cenozoic subduction along the west Sunda Margin
results in the partition of the geological provinces of
The proposed stratigraphic complexity within this Sumatra into a backarc basin, volcanic arc, forearc
region is divided into pre, syn and post-accretion basin, accretionary prism and trench (Figure 1). The
sequences. The Pre-accretion sequence consists of North, Central and South Sumatra back arc basins
the Wharton Basin (oceanward) and sediment are proven and productive basins, while no
overlying the Woyla Terrane (continentalward). The significant hydrocarbon discoveries have been made
Syn-accretion sequence (Tanahbala - Sipika in the Sumatra fore arc basin (Bengkulu A-1X,
equivalent) consists of tectonic melange, gravity- Bengkulu A-2X, Mentawai A-1, and Mentawai C-
mass transport and turbidites deposited in piggy- 1). Results of postmortem well in Sumatra fore arc
back and trench basins. The Post-accretion basins suggest the important conclusion that the
sequence (Rapa-rapa equivalent) consists of petroleum system was discovered within the
pelagic-mud drapes and carbonates. Bengkulu fore-arc basin (Sapiie et. al. 2015). In
frontal areas of subduction, the Sumatra
However, the geological complexities provide Accretionary Prisms are not an interesting area for
implications for petroleum system elements. Source exploration due to “unusual” geological
rock from marine plantonic mudstones are complexities and no associated continental crust
generated due to the upwelling in slope during that is usually required to accumulate source rocks.
accretionary growth. Potential reservoirs are
turbiditic sandstones, and fractured shale and The accretionary prism is a wedge of deformed
basalts. Seal rocks are intra-formational shales, sediment, and locally deformed basalt, that forms

* University of Diponegoro
along the edge of the overriding slab (Pluijm and analysis of metamorphic rocks samples to confirm
Marshak, 2004). (Figure 2) Cenozoic subduction at quantitative organic carbon from a source rock
the Sumatra margin started with oblique subduction perspective.
in the Middle Eocene (Hall, 2012). During this time
until the present day, accretionary prisms growth in RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
border of theEurasian Plate. The present
convergence rate of subduction in Sumatra is 52 Pre-accretion Sequence
mm/year in the north and 58 mm/year in the south
(Barber, 2005). The Sumatra Accretionary Prism is The Sumatra Accretionary Prisms are active
a result offscarping of Indo-Australian oceanic crust deformation areas, albeit the pre-accretion sequence
and deep sea sediment (ophiolitic series) at the not present within accretionary prisms. The
western limit of the Woyla terrane. This analogue for the pre-accretion sequence that
accretionary process formed without oceanic crust accreted at the Sunda Margin can be viewed in the
sliver or splinters trapped in these prisms. The Indian Ocean (Wharton Basin) where there are two
Woyla terrane acts as regional backstop which has welsl from the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP). Pre-
caused bivergence pattern of the prisms. accretion sequence of the Wharton basin is recorded
by site Legs 211 213 of the drilling project located
Integrated surveys along the offshore Sumatra south of the Java Trench and east of the Ninetyeast
Accretionary Prisms have previously been Ridge (Figure 3) . Site Leg 211 reached 447 meter
conducted by the Bundesanstalt fur in depth and divided into seven units : (1) clay rich
Geowissenschaften un Rohstoffe (BGR, Germany siliceous ooze with volcanic ash beds from a
1999; 2006). The area of interest of the Sumatra terrigeneous source aged Quaternary to Upper
Accretionary Prisms in this paper is along the NW- Pliocene, (2) clay rich radiolarian ooze with silt and
SE trend of Sumatra Accretionary Prisms from sand sourced from terrigeneous aged Pliocene, (3)
subduction in the south Andaman to the northeast silty sand to silty clay of Plio-Miocene age, (4)
of the Sunda strait (Figure 1). brown clay, amorphous iron oxide and pyrite-rich
ash of unknown age (5) diabase sill, 6) nannofossil-
The purpose of this study is to identify the structural rich clay and iron-rich ash of Campanian age, and
character, tectonostratigraphy and occurrence of (7) basaltic basement of unknown age (ODP, 1972).
petroleum system elements. Risk within this Site 213 reached 172 meters in depth, and is
complex setting are evaluated. However, it is divided into five units: (1) radiolarian diatom ooze
acknowledged that this preliminary study lacks aged Upper Miocene to Quaternary, (2) zeolitic
some crucial evidence and data, this paper is still clay, Mn-iron rich at the base, aged Middle
speculative on general assumptions and the Miocene, (3) Nannofossil ooze aged Late Paleocene
relationship to the regional evolution. to Early Eocene, (4) Iron oxide manganese, and (5)
basalt basement (ODP, 1972). Crystalline rocks
METHODOLOGY found towards the base of both boreholes at a depth
of 401 meter in site Leg 211 and 154 meter in site
Data from surface and subsurface investigations are Leg 213 are covered by sediment materials. From
utilized in this study. Surface data is primarily from these two wells, the sedimentological character of
geological fieldwork conducted in 2014 at Pagai the original material (pre-accretion sequence) inthe
and Sipora Islands to identify the structural geology Wharton Basin is dominated by fine grain materials.
and stratigraphic framework supplemented by rock The sediment provenance of the Bengal Fan
sampling for petrographic analysis. The seismic line originated from the Himalayan collision zone, in
used in this study is Line 3017-4A, and the theform of siliciclastics. The provenance
bathymetry is taken from the active margin cruise characteristics are mixed quartz-feldspar with
project report by BGR (1999, 2006) and percentage Q: 57 %; F: 28%; L: 14%. Part of the
reinterpretation of the seismic line previously Bengal-Nicobar Fan that accreted in the Sumatra
published by Kopp (2003). Stratigraphic data from subduction zone is the distal part of submarine fans
the geological map of the Simelue-Nias-Mentawai- which are entirely muddy sediments.
Enggano chain of islands was conducted by
Geological Research and Development Center Continentalward, sediment overlies the Woyla
(GRDC). No well drilling is reported in this terrane before intensive subduction occured not far
location. However, the Ocean Drilling Project Legs to the west. There is no Paleogene stratigraphic
211 and 213 are analogues for the original accreted section at the Woyla terrane below the accretionary
materials in the Indian Ocean. There are also TOC prisms (Pers. Comm. Susilohadi, 2016). Examples
 
of Paleogene stratigraphic sections are, however, Piggy back basin/slope basin/intra slope basins
found in the Bengkulu fore arc basin with fluvio- (Figure 4) are formed between anticlines as
lacustrine to transitional depositional setting numerous local isolated basins with narrow width,
(Yulihanto, 1995). and the length NW-SE parallel to defromation front.
Sediment supply in piggy-back basins comes from
The Sunda volcanic arc also supplied volcaniclastic submarine landslides (masswasting) due to slope
materials into the fore arc. The arc-trench gap is too failure on the anticlines side and also thrust sheet
far distance to support primary volcaniclastic planes. Sedimentation in piggy back basins occurs
materials being brought into the accretionary prisms continuously as the subduction continues. Typical
or ocean. Volcanic materials are deposited through sediment material is dominated by gravity-driven
pyroclastic airfall mechanism. Only big eruption of process (debris flow and turbidite of submarine
volcano that can supply of fine grained materials fan). The antecedent submarine channel already
into the prisms. After deposition in the prism, the pre-existing flowing to the west before new
volcanic materials are often reworked during accretionary growth in deformation front cuts the
accretionary growth. anticlinal crest (Figure 5). This channel will be a
major supply of sediment transport into the trench
Syn-accretion Sequence basin. The sediment transport direction in piggy
back basins is divided into four trends: to the west
Instability of material due to slope morphology and east it is controlled by the anticlinal limb
resulted from accretionary growth. During geometry; to the north and south it is controlled by
accretion, igneous rock and sedimentary materials the axial anticlinal tip. There are two type locations
became compacted and fractured. Exposed broken of piggy back basins in the Sumatra Accretionary
formation in subwater environment cause Prisms. Firstly, piggy back basins in lower
disaggregate of rock, all of mixing rock types seismicity areas is smooth topography become area
known as melange. Melange formed in the syn- of suspension material deposition and periodically
accretion sequence. Chert, veins, and volcanic submarine landslides. Secondly, piggy back basins
materials supplied quartz. Disaggregated basalt in higher seismicity areas has rough topography due
supplies the plagioclase. to intense submarine landslides (Figure 4). In Figure
6 we interprete the interaction between structural
Subduction of the Wharton Basin (Figure 3) within growth and sedimentation in piggy back basins.
western Sumatra creates a morphological distinction
Scally clay deposits predominate the syn-accretion
into trench basin, protothrust, and piggy back basin.
sequence. Based on surface data, scaly clays act as
The best location to understand the trench basin
the matrix in 65 % of syn-accretion sequencse,
filling of the Sumatra Accretionary Prisms can seen
along with 35% of olistolith blocks. Compression of
NW of Simelue Island. Trench basins are deep
these clays creates the fractures, which increases in
basins (~6000 m, lateral extent ± 9 km), continuous
intensity towards the thrust fault zone. (Figure 7).
along strike in a NW-SE direction (parallel with the
deformation front), with the basin floor generally
Post-accretion Sequence
expressed as a regular topography (flat). Subsidence
is controlled by two processes. Firstly, flexural The growth of older prisms result in the Outer High
response caused by the overburden accretionary as a new massive block of dynamic backstop
wedge can infer that the trench basin is a foredeep (Kopp, 2003). The lowest seimic intensity in this
depozone of the adjacent peripheral foreland basin. areas cause submarine landslide development, and
Secondly, extensional forces caused by oceanic when the areas become more stable they are
crust that subducted into the mantle can cause covered by carbonate reefs (Figure 8) that extent to
subsidence. The stratigraphic contact between the offshore. The surface of the Outer High which is in
trench basin sequence with the original stratigraphy the aphotic zone is covered by pelagic ooze , the
from the Wharton Basin is onlap contact. only Post-accretion sequence is found in the Outer
Sedimentation in the trench basin are mud-rich High.
submarine fans with coarser-grained materials
deposited in channel facies (picture “D” in Figure Exposed Crest of Sumatra Accretionary Prisms
12). Protothrust, as an earlier deformation of trench
basin sequence, creates an upslope morphological The Tectonostratigraphic framework in the onland
contrast that act as barriers at the eastern trench exposures is divided into Eocene-Pliocene aged
basin of Sumatra. Tanahbala equivalent as syn-accretion, and

 
Pliocene-Holocene aged Rapa-rapa equivalent as serpentinized gabbro, serpentinite, basalt, schist,
post-accretion (Figure 9). This two tier shale, greywacke, conglomerate, breccia, limestone,
classification does not show of syn-accretion sandstone and chert; with a scaly clay matrix. The
sedimentation has stopped. It is clear that complex is interpreted to be formed during the
sedimentation of the syn-accretion sequence is still Oligocene- lower Early Miocene. The upper part is
present in recent accretionary prisms. Each the Lelematua Formation (Tml) is present,
succession of outcrops will now be described and comprising alternating sandstone, claystone,
discussed by island. siltstone, conglomerate and tuffs, with thin
intercalations of coal and shale; these are well-
Sinabang Island. Sinabang is located in the northern bedded and strongly folded. The age is Early
part of the Sumatra Accretionary Prisms. Based on Miocene to Late Miocene. This formation
Endharto and Sukido (1994), the lowest part of this interfingers with the Gomo Formation (Tpmg). The
section is the Kuala Makmur Melange (Tom(G)) or Gomo Formation consists of claystone, marl,
block of polymict rocks consisting of basalt gabbro sandstone and limestone, intercalated with
(G), metasediment, phyllite, slate and chert. No tufaceous marls, tuff and peat. This formation is
fossils were found, but probably the unit was unconformably overlain by the Gunungsitoli
formed during the Oligo-Miocene. The Sibigo Formation (QTg) comprising reefal limestones, silty
Formation (Tmsb), consisting coralline limestone, limestones, calcareous sandstones, calcareous fine-
calcarenite and calcirudite, is moderately to thicky grained quartz sandstones, marls and sandy clays.
bedded with sandstone intercalations. Operculina This formation is of Plio-Pleistocene age.
sp., Cycloclypeus sp., Lepidocyclina sp., Thereupon, alluvium was deposited.
Miogypsina sp. and Spiroclypeus sp. are identified,
indicating a Middle Miocene age. The Lasikin Telo Island. Based on Nas and Supandjono (1995),
Member (Tmls) of the Sigulai Formation was the lowest unit in this region is the Tanahbala
deposited unconformably as blocks of polymictic Melange (Tomm(m,ub)) composed of schist,
conglomerate, comprising rock fragments of phyllite and slate (m), serpentinite, pyroxenite and
ultramafic, gabbro, basalt, milky quartz, chert and dunite (ub). Ultrabasic and metamorphic rocks, and
fine-grained sandstone. Foraminifera from polymict some ultrabasic boudines embedded in
conglomerates indicate an Early Miocene Age. metamorphic rocks, can be correlated to the
Thereon, the Sigulai Formation (Tms) consists of Melange Group on Nias Island, thought to be
thinly to moderately bedded marls and quartzose emplaced between Oligocene-Early Miocene times
sandstones deposited in the Early Miocene to Late (Djamal et al., 1989; Nas and Supandjono, 1995). is
Miocene, interfingering with the Sibigo Formation the Tomm Formation is superceded by the Sipika
in the middle part of the sequence. The facies Formation (Tms) comprising interbedded
changes gradually upward into the Leyabaung sandstone, claystone and tuffaceous claystone
Formation (Tml). This formation consists of interfingering with the Middle Miocene- Late
tuffaceous sandstone, tuff and tuffaceous claystone, Miocene Hiligeho Formation (Tmh). Thereupon,
all rich of quartz and volcanic glass.No fossils are the Gunungbala Formation (Tmpg) was deposited in
found, but is estimated to be of Late Miocene to the upper part, comprising biocalcarenites, massive
Early Pliocene age. The Dihit Formation consists of and recrystallized in part, with the fossils indicating
bedded arenites with intercalations of siltstone and a Miocene-Pliocene age. The Rapa-rapa Formation
claystone, well developed in the lower part of the (QTr) in the uppermost part comprises corraline and
stratigraphy. Fragments of coal are very common reef limestones, calcirudites and calcarenite
within this formation.The planktonic fossils range conglomerates, which are well bedded to massive
in age from Late Miocene to Pliocene. The reef and consist of molluscs shells, coral and algae.
limestone (Qps) was deposited unconformably on These sediments interfinger with the Labuhanhiyu
the Dihit Formation, and comprisecoralline Formation (QTI) consisting of tuffs and sandy tuffs;
limestones, calcarenites andcalcilutites. Fossils are the uppermost part is alluvium (Qa).
indeterminate, and are estimated to be of
Pleistocene to Holocene in age. Thereafter, lake Siberut Island. The fourth region is Siberut Island.
deposits, swamp deposits and alluvium were Based on Mangga, S. A. et al. (1994), the lowest
deposited. part of this region is the Tarikan Melange Complex
(Tmbt) consisting of various blocks of graywacke,
Nias Island. Based on Endharto and Sukido (1994), shale, conglomerate, metasandstone, marl, tuff,
the lowest unit in Nias Island is a Melange complex meta siltstone, chert, phyllite, micaceous schist,
(Tomm) consisting of various blocks of peridotite, amphibolite, quartzite, pyroxenite, serpentinite,
 
serpentinized dunite, hornblendite and limestone; Accretionary Prisms.. Based on Amin T. C. et al.
this unit is presumed to be Middle Miocene-Late (1993), the lowest part of the Bengkulu Zone
Miocene in age. This is overlain by the Saibi consists of the Hulusimpang Formation (Toms)
Formation (Tmps) comprising tuff, claystone, consisting of andesitic-basaltic lava, volcanic
tuffaceous claystone, marl, tuffaceous sandstone breccia, tuff and intercalations of sandstone which
and calcareous sandstone lithologies. The fossils aregenerally altered, containing quartz veinlets and
range in age from Late Miocene to Early Pliocene. sulphide minerals,. Above this the Bal Formation
This formation interfingers with the Sagublek consists of dacitic volcanic breccia andtuffs,
Formation (Tmpsa) and the Kalea Formation intercalated with tuffaceous sandstones. The
(QTPk). The Sagublek Formation in its lower part is Lakitan Formation (Tmpl) comprises andesitic to
composed of tuff, the middle part consists of an basaltic volcanic breccias, tuffaceous sandstones
alternation of micaceous sandstone, shale, siltstone, and lava. In the Quarternary section there is the
claystone, calcareous sandstone and limestone with Posumah Formation (QTP) comprising a rhyolitic
lenses of calcareous sandstone; and the upper part welded tuff, the Serei Formation (QTs) consisting
comprises sandstone, claystone, calcareous of conglomeratic sandstone, sandstone and
sandstone andcalcareous claystone with thin layers claystone, and the Ranau Formation consisting of
of lignite. The Kalea Formation consists of pumice, volcanic breccia containing andesite and
alternations of marl, sandstone, claystone, tuff fragments, and andesitic to basaltic lava. The
tuffaceous claystone, tuff and calcareous sandstones Seblat Formation (Toms) comprises alternating
with concretions. The Recent stratigraphy is sandstone, siltstone and claystones with
composed of corraline limestone, swamp deposits intercalations of thin limestones is the lowest part in
and alluvium. the Bengkulu Zone. The upper part is the Lemau
Formation comprising dacitic breccia, sandstone
Pagai and Sipora Island.The lowest stratigraphy of andclaystone swith intercalations of thin coal,
Pagai and Sipora Islands is of ultramafic blocks calcareous sandstones and limestones The
(Tomu Formation) of serpentinite (Budhitrisna and Simpangaur Formation is composed of tuffaceous
Mangga S. A., 1990), along with piroxenite and sandstone, tuff, tuffaceous claystone, along with
serpentinized dunite. Besides the ultramafic blocks, sandstone containing molluscs and polymict
the undifferentiated melange of theTomb Formation conglomerates. The uppermost Bintunan Formation
constitutes the lowest part of the stratigraphy as is composed of pumiceous tuffaceous sandstone,
well. It made up blocks of rocks of greywacke, sandy tuff, polymict conglomerate and tuff. While
shale, conglomerate, quartz-arkosic sandstone, in the Mentawai Zone, the Kuwau Formation (Tmk)
serpentinite, gabbro, basaltic lava tuff, red chert, is in the lowest part consisting of alternating
calcilutite, metasandstone, slate, phyllite, mica sandstone, siltstone and claystone with
schist, amphibolite, granite gneiss, diorite, intercalations of nodule of calcareous sandstone.
granodiorite, diabas, andesite and nummulitic The upper part is the Kemiki Formation comprises
limestones in a matrix of very fine sand and scaly tuff, sandy tuff, tuffaceous siltstone. The uppermost
clay. The Tolupulai Formation (Tmt) is deposited part is the Serei Formation comprising
above these complexes. It consists of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstones, sandstone and
tuffaceous sandstone, siltstone, claystone and claystones. Lying within these units are Recent
micaceous sandstone with intercalations of corraline limestones, swamp deposits and alluvium.
conglomerate and limestone. Thereupon, the
Maonai Formation (Tmm) consists of interbedded Structure
tuffaceous sandstone, tuffaceous siltstone,
sandstone, tuffaceous claystone and calcareous The Sumatra Accretionary Prisms consist of
sandstones. The Batumonga Formation (Tmpb) monotonous imbricate structures (fold-thrust belts).
comprises alternations of marl, calcareous Thrust fault plane dips to the east (arcward), with a
sandstone, sandy limestone and tuffaceous backthrust dip to the west (trenchward). Based on
claystone. The uppermost stratigraphy is the Kopp (2003), the occurrences of backthrusts in the
Simatobat Formation (Qs), which consists of Sunda margin indicate a very weak basal
corraline limestone, calcirudite, calcarenite and detachment. The geometry of the anticlinal
polymict conglomerate, corraline limestone (Qcl) structures is wide (mega-anticline), which internally
and alluvium. consist of a micro fold-thrust belt. Differentiating
the stratigraphy of this syn-accretion sequence
Manna and Enggano Island.The southern part of within this imbricate structure is not considered
these islands has exposure of the Sumatra important. The internal heterogenity of lithological
 
facies (caused by multi-reworking process during 2001). Productivity really influences the organic
syn-accretion sedimentation) is difficult to matter occurence in the Sumatra Accretionary
differentiate, therefore the stratigraphy in each of Prism. In productivity, nutrient availability would
the structural blocks is assumed to be homogenous depend on water circulation patterns. Nutrients
(Figure 10). Older/fossil accretionary prisms of dissolved in waters below the photic zone therefore
Eocene-Oligocene age act as adynamic backstop to go unutilized, because under normal circumstances
the younger, Late Pliocene-Recent accretionary they cannot move upward into the zone of
prims. The arbiter plane of this structural photosynthesis (Rondeel, 2001). The upwelling of
compartment is an out of sequence thrust (Kopp, subsurface waters is the only way that can circulate
2003). Continous subduction in the Sumatra the nutrients back to the photic zone. This processes
Accretionary Prisms has resulted in lateral thinning usually occurs along the slope, and by considering
and vertical uplift thrust sheets. The oldest prisms the morphology of the accretionary prism itself, the
are buried at the lowest level contact with the upwelling of subsurface waters plays an important
subducting slab. Below the Outer-high role in preserving the organic matter in this area.
metamorphism zone (LT/HP), there is a change to a Piggy back basin configuration from near the
syn-accretion sequence of blue/green schist. deformation front aids the upwelling process to
Exposed green schist in South Sipora Island shows occur.
that the metamorphic rock was uplifted and
reworked. The growth of imbricate structures Organic matters in the accretion prism zone were
coincides with internal material circulation (Figure assumed to contain a lot of methane. The
11) in accretionary prisms (Pluijm and Marshak, assumption refers to research that was conducted by
2004). BGR (1999). Heat location in accretionary prisms
is expected of metamorphic zone, a deep part of
Mentawai Strike-slip Fault Zone (MSFZ) Outer High. The metamorphic processes of the
source rock affects organic matter and the
The MSFZ is an ambiguous structure. In seismic, hydrocarbons that will be formed. The temperature
the MSFZ represents a linear structure parallel to of the oil-generative window ranges from ± 1150 C,
the accretionary prisms, possibly as a diapiric while the temperature of the gas-generative window
structure (Pers. Comm. Susilohadi, 2016). This ranges from ± 3200 C. Based on the theory of
structure formed by a slip-partitioning mechanism geothermal gradient, the depth of the accretion zone
of Sumatran oblique subduction. Displacement and was beyond the maximum temperature of oil
tectonic activity of the MSFZ is at a lower rate than generation. This two heat sources (metamorphic
the Semangko Fault. A positive flower structure zone and geothermal gradient) act simultanously.
uplift of older accretionary prism which have been Therefore, metagenesis processes that occur at high
covered by the Neogene stratigraphic section of the temperaturse formed an asphalt (dead carbon) and
fore arc basin. This structure is undeveloped in the other gases such as methane (dry gas).
northern of Nias Island.
The Occurenece of Mud Volcanoes
Organic Matter Preservation and Maturation
The exposed accretionary prism in the Sunda
Based on laboratory analysis, the TOC value of margin is a rare geological feature that is only found
slate is 0.52 % wg, which is potentially of economic along the margin of Sumatra. Seismic reflection
significance as source rock potential. The process of show the massive earthquake that occurred in the
preservation of organic matter that make up this margin of Sumatra (Singh et. al., 2012).
potential source rock occurs because the shells of Strengthening of this seismic reflection signals may
organic matter, such as radiolarians and diatoms, be due to the increasing of fluid pressure along the
have a silica composition. When the silica shell backthrust. The seismic data also shows the
passes through the CCD phase (Carbonate backthrust constantly turning into the ocean crust
Compensation Depth), the silica shell is not (Singh et. al., 2012). In the southern part of Sumatra
destroyed. Shells that are deposited are buried by on Mentawai Island, it is known that the backthrust
sediment so that the organic matter can be preserved relates to the dome of mud diapirs (Mukti. et al.,
as well. 2012). Karig (1980) interpreted the melange as a
result of debris flows and the reactivation of
In order for organic-rich rocks to be preserved, accretion complexes. Marschall & Schumacher
there are several factors influencing the process; (2012) tried to combine the results of petrological,
productivity, preservation, and dilution (Rondeel, geophysical, geochemical and numerical model
 
studies, and showed that the melange in exploration, as. mud diapirism in the Sumatra
accretionary prisms was formed by two main Accretionary Prism is thought likely to form traps.
processes. Firstly, melange formation was formed in
subduction area. Secondly, melange materials with CONCLUSION
low density will step into the surface as mud
diapirism. In the case of the western islands of The Sumatra Accretionary Prisms comprise a broad
Sumatra, the melange complex was formed by mud range of the respective petroleum system elements,
diapirs in accretionary prisms. but further evaluation is clearly required. The
occurence of dry gas potential in low entrapment
Petroleum Systems Implications quality (seimic-triggered leaking). Therefore, this
hypothesis should perhaps in the Cenozoic Sumatra
The Sumatra Accretionary Prism geological Accretionary Prisms, albeit exploration targets will
complexities provide some insights and have a very high risk of exploration success.
implications for petroleum systems elements.
Source rock are from marine plantonic shales, with ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
preservation related to upwelling on the slope
during accretionary growth. Potential reservoirs The authors would gratefully acknowledge to
comprise turbiditic sandstones deposited in piggy- Susilohadi Susilohadi (P3GL, Bandung) for
back and trench basins. Unconventional reservoirs permitting the authors to publish seismic data.
may exist as scally clays of the syn-accretion Carolous Prasetyadi (UPN Veteran Yogyakarta) for
sequence, and fractured basalts. Basalt has the best constructive discussion on the accretionary prism.
fracture conectivity (Figure 12). Seals comprise Awang Harun Satyana (SKK Migas) who
intra-formational shales, pelagic-mud drapes and enlightened the authors. Edi Bambang Setyobudi
carbonate rocks. Trap formation is related to (ex. Medco) for the limitless support and
anticlines developed within imbricate structures that encouragement. Teuku Muhammad Mifdhal Ridho
prograde westward. The Mentawai Strike-Slip Fault for providing the field data of Pagai-Sipora Island,
Zone can be a potential additional trap in as well as HMTG “Magmadipa” University of
accretionary prisms and forearc borders. Diponegoro and colleagues for the support.
Furthermore, the authors also would like to thank to
A potential area with all the complete petroleum the organizing committee for the great chance to
elements is the Outer High. Source rock presence is present this research at the IPA Technical
mainly from marine planktonic shales, which are Symposium, 8-10 November 2016.
most likely to be gas-prone rather than oil prone
source rocks. Potential entrapment of gas in the REFFERENCES
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Figure 1 - Simplified geological map of Sumatra (modified from Barber, et.al, 2005). Green color is the
scope of the area explained in this paper. The onshore area with red box is the geological
fieldwork location.

 
Figure 2 - Plate tectonic settings of Indonesian region and Indian ocean at 55 Ma (Early Eocene) and 45 Ma
(Middle Eocene). During the Middle Eocene, subduction started with oblique subduction west of
Sumatra (Hall, 2012).

 
Figure 3 – Well Site Legs 213 and 211, located in the Wharton Basin (after Hall, 2012).

 
Figure 4 – Offshore bathymetry northwest of Simelue Island, with the interpretation of submarine
masswasting and location of piggy back basins. The N-S trending ridge is a manifestation of
theanticlinal crest (the blue color indicates deeper bathymetry than the yellow color).

Figure 5 – Submarine channel (black arrow) cut into the slope off Simeulue Island (blue color indicates
deeper bathymetry than yellow color).
 
Figure 6 - Interacti on between the growth of imbricate thrusts and sedimentation in piggy-back basins. This
process is continous, and progressively caused the Sumatra Accretionary Prisms to become more
complex (Line S0137-42A).

Figure 7 – A. Scaly clay dominates the exposure in the Tolopulai area (100.3352945° E, 2.9503055° S). B.
Petrographic thin section of the scaly clay show connected fractures (red lines) dominantly filled
with minerals (qv: quartz vein) and open fractures (of).

 
Figure 8 - Stratigraphic contact between syn-accretion and post-accretion sequences exposed on Sipora
Island. The post-accretion sequence of carbonate reefs is capped by basalt and chert, indicating
that the exposed carbonate reef shows that the uplift of the crests of outer high is continous until
the present day. (the hammer for scale).

Figure 9 – Internal circulation scheme of the Sumatra Accretionary Prism. The syn-accretion sequence is
deformed and reworked from the pre-accretion sequence. The height of the accretionary column
in the Outer High allows methamorphism by vertical and lateral pressure. This scheme is a
modification of the common model by Pluijm and Marshak (2004).

 
Figure 10 - Composite tectonostratigraphic framework based on the exposed Sumatra Accretionary Prism
exposures on the Simelue- Nias-Mentawai- Enggano Islands. This study focuses on the
exposures of the Pagai and Sipora Islands.

 
Figure 11 - Seismic interpretation along the Sumatra Accretionary Prism (after Kopp, 2003). Note the fold-thrust belt structure (blue line) with antithetic thrust
occurrences (orange line). An out of sequence thrust (red line) marks older and younger prisms.

 
Figure 12 - (A), (B), (C) and (D) is an olistolith of the syn-accretion sequence in South Sipora Island. (A)
fractured Basalt. (B) fractured chert, no layers are preserved. (C) Mica schist shows the uplift of
metamorphic rock which formed below the Outer High. (D) Meta-turbiditic sandstone. The
composistion consists of quartz (Qz-from quartz vein), rock fragments (Lt) and plagioclase (Plg-
from basaltic igneous rocks).