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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROCESS

Design in the context of Architecture: the activity of generating proposals that change something that already exists into something
that is better.

Initial Transformation Imagined


State Future State

DESIGN PROCESS

DESIGN STAGES

• Initiation: Problem identification

• Preparation: Collection and analysis of information

• Proposal-making: synthesis, bringing together a variety of considerations

• Evaluation: Based on goals

• Iteration: Cycles, Feedback

ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING

• The process of managing information so that the right kind of information is available at the right stage of the design
process and the best possible decisions can be made in shaping the outcome of the building designs.
• The process that creates the structure for fulfilling the dreams, hopes, wishes and desires of the building’s future
inhabitants.
• The orderly definition of the architectural problem and the articulation of project requirements in a manner that promotes
the creation of a responsible solution for the design of the building.
• The problem-seeking phase of the design process.
• The gathering, organizing, analyzing, interpreting and presenting of the information relevant to a design project.

Two main areas of concern:

• Analysis of the existing state


• Projection of what the future state should be
Existing State Future State

The Setting Mission


Cultural, Social, Political,
Historical, Economic Goals
Physical Conditions/ Site Data
THE Geography, Climate, Performance
Archaeology, Geology Requirements
PROGRAM Client/User Profile
Demography, Organizations, Concepts
DOCUMENT Needs, Behavior
Constraints
Legal, Financial, Technical,
Market

PARTS OF AN ISSUE-BASED PROGRAM

• Issue
• Fact
• Values
• Goals
• Performance Requirement
• Concept

ISSUE - any matter, concern, question, topic, proportion or situation that demands a design in order for a building project to be
successful for its clients and users.

FACT -are objective, specific and verifiable by some measurement or observation.

Their existence is not subject to judgment but their use and interpretation is based on values.

VALUES: different building types require different design responses for the same issues based upon the values of different users and
the needs of different activities.
Design issues, when processed through the filter of values of the client, user and designer yield goal statements about qualities the
design must have.

INTER-
TOPIC OF
INQUIRY
DISCIPLINAR
YSCREEN RESEARCHER/
DESIGNER

.Interpretive-Historical
Research

.Qualitative Research
.Correlational Research
.Experimental Research
.Simulation Research
.Logical Argumentation
.Case-study/ Mixed
methods

Goal: a statement of intention; an end that one strives to attain or that toward which effort or play is directed; an action statement
Project Goal - goals that relate only to the outcome of the project; these are based upon the underlying values of the designer, clients
and users.
Mission Statements- the overall purpose; a statement that concisely explains the need to undertake a project in the first place.
Performance Requirement – a statement about the measurable level of function that a designed object, building, or place must
provide for a good to be met; performance specification standard or criterion.

This statement is more specific than a goal since it relates to function ( a doing) instead of a quality (a being); must be general enough
to allow for multiple, alternative physical solutions or concepts

CONCEPT-a statement of an ideal set of relationships among several of the elements under an architect’s control such as form
(dimension and direction) material, texture, color (value, intensity) and adjacency.
A concept statement is made up of a single diagram and a few words.

CHECKLIST OF ISSUES

Audibility- the acoustic properties of an environment that contribute to one’s ability to hear what needs to be heard and to mask
unwanted sounds
Behavioral Settings- the units for describing the interdependencies of activity and physical settings
Circulation- movement or flow of people, objects, information or substances
Comfort - providing ease and enjoyment
Convenience - ease of access to places, materials and information
Durability - ability to endure the designed use over time

FACTS CONTEXT SITE USERS


Cultural Climate Activities
Demographic Air Quality Age Group
Economic Geography Anthropometrics
Ethical Hydrology Organizations
Political Geology Disabilities
Social Topography Perceptual Abilities
Vegetation Personalities
Facilities Roles
Utilities Values
Access Rules
Visual Resources
Codes
MISSION AND GOALS

Mission Statement : To create a residential environment that blends easily into a variety of urban settings,
and at the same time provides space and support features required by severely retarded/disabled adults.

Goal 1 (issue: social interaction/learning)


The meal preparation/dining areas should promote active participation by the residents and facilitate the
learning of daily living skills.

Goal 2 (issue: territory)


Bedroom should promote a sense of ownership and responsibility for the residents.

PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENT

Goal 1: The major portion of parking for the downtown core should be a short pleasant walk from most shopping destinations.

PR1: Shoppers coming to downtown should have to walk less than five minutes to get from their car to 90% of their destination.

PR2: Major pedestrian corridors between parking and downtown stores should be visually interesting and substantially protected from
rain and the afternoon sun.

PR3: Major paths should create impulse shopping and window shopping opportunities.

THE REQUIRED STATE PROGRAM

PRESENT REQUIRED
STATE STATE

THE
The The
environment DESIGN environment
without the PROCESS with the
project project

• The Design Philosophy and Overall Concepts

• The Concept Breakdown

• The Translation Guidelines

• The Synthesis

THE DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

a statement of the beliefs, values or viewpoints from which the development of design solutions take off. They are often formed out of
universally held principles, and thus become bases for socially desirable design objectives.
OVERALL DESIGN CONCEPT

- An initial generalized idea


- A germination which is to be expanded and developed later in some detail
- A perception about form or relationships among variables resulting from an analysis of the problem
- A mental image deriving from the project situation
- Rudimentary set of tactics for proceeding with design
- First ideas about building morphology

CONCEPT BREAKDOWN

This consists of sub-concepts that correspond to particular areas of architectural concerns.


An overall concept can be broken down into sub-concepts falling under one or more categories.
The mix varies depending on the research problem.
TRANSLATION GUIDELINES

- These are specific design guidelines formulated out of the sub-concepts


- They may be the refined versions of the chosen sub-concept or could also be the product of the consolidation of two or
more sub-concepts.
- The guidelines prescribe performance and quality standards that are based on the design parameters derived out of the
performance requirements.

Social and Academic Interaction


Goal : The facility should promote spontaneous social interaction among students of all years and departments, faculty and
administrators to allow frequent exchange of information

TRANSLATION GUIDELINES:

- There will be two entrances to the building and these shall be spaced twenty meters apart.
- The corridors shall not be less than 1.5 meters in width.
- All studio doors shall open to common spaces such as lobbies and corridors.
- Doors shall not be less than 2.1 meters in width.
TRANSLATION GUIDELINES:

- There will be five (5) student organization kiosks, each of which will have a floor area of at least ten (10) square meters.
- Student organization spaces shall be located in the two (2) minor lobbies adjacent to the stairs.
- There shall be provided two (2) home labs for every three (3) hot labs.
- Each wing shall have a mix of two (2) studios and two (2) faculty offices.

TRANSLATION GUIDELINES:

- The main lobby from where the four corridors would branch out shall be irregularly shaped such that no two corners would
have the same configuration.
- The main lobby shall have be 0.40 meters lower than the minor lobbies. The rooms shall be 0.20 higher than the lobby.
- Rooms 201 , 203 and 204 will have movable partitions. This will allow the use of these three (3) adjoining rooms as one
big hall during special occasions.
- Three hundred (300) square meters at the northeast corner will be dedicated for travelling exhibits.

PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES ON SPACES


THEORY ON NEEDS

Self-Actualization

MASLOW’S
HIERARCHY Esteem Needs
OF NEEDS

Social Acceptance/ Affiliation

Security

Physiological
SIGNS, SYMBOLS & MEANINGS

Cognition: the mental process by which knowledge is acquired

Symbol: something that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention, especially a material object used to
represent something invisible or immaterial, deriving its meaning chiefly from the structure in which it appears

Semiotics: the science of signs


• All cultural phenomenon are systems of signs
• Culture can be understood as communication

THEORIES ON PERCEPTION

Gestalt: objects observed have innate qualities that make them independent of the perceiver and the environment

The theory or doctrine that physiological or psychological phenomenon do not occur through the summation of individual elements, as
reflexes or sensations, but through gestalts functioning separately or inter-relatedly

Ecological: conditions in the environment affect the way an object is perceived


Transactional: recognizes the role of experience; there exists a dynamic relationship between the person and the environment;
perception is active rather than passive; perception is governed by expectancies and pre-dispositions.

Speculative Aesthetics: relies on the introspective analysis of the individual.


• Sensory values
• Formal values
• Expression or associational values: Aesthetic, Practical, Negative Values

Sensory values- Generated by pleasurable sensations


Formal values- The object is perceived as a system of relationships that exist in patterns
Expression or associational values:- arise from images evoked by sensory values
Aesthetic, Practical, Negative Values
Empirical Aesthetics: relies on scientific techniques in the analysis of aesthetic experience

INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT
VARIABLE VARIABLE
The formal or People’s
structural aspects subjective
of objects feelings about
them

Information Theory: the environment as a set of that act as stimuli

ENVIRONMENT

PERCEIVER: processes and restructures EFFECT OF MESSAGES

Semantic Theory: focuses on the meaning of elements of the environment and not on the patterns of the structures per se

ENVIRONMENT

PERCEIVER: interprets meanings EFFECT OF MESSAGES

Meanings: learned associations between the object and an idea


Meaning of Built Environment: Results from the combination of FORM with a particular MEANING

Figure-ground: a property of perception in which there is a tendency to see parts of a visual field as solid, well-defined objects
standing out against a less distinct background.
SIGNS, SYMBOLS & MEANINGS

Cognition:
the mental
process by
which
knowledge is
acquired

BEHAVIOR SETTINGS

Behavior Settings: are stable combinations of activity and place

Behavior Settings consist of :


• a recurrent activity- a standing pattern of behavior
• a particular layout of the environment- the milieu
• a congruent relationship between the two- a synomorphy
• a specific time period

The same physical setting may be part of more than one behavior setting if different standing patterns of behavior occur within it at
different times
A standing pattern of behavior may consist of a number of different behaviors occurring simultaneously:
• overt emotional behavior
• problem-solving behavior
• gross motor activity interpersonal interaction
• manipulation of objects.
Rationale for Designing Spaces: to provide for some existing or potential set of human activities.
GENERAL SPECIFIC GROSS
NEED ACTIVITY ACTIVITY MOTOR
ACTIVITY

e.g. Self- Study Read Sit/ Hold a book


esteem

Social Interaction Attend Party Dance


Acceptance

The attainment of almost all human needs involves some sort of gross motor activity or Movement.
e.g., survival needs, access to other people, developmental opportunities

Ecological Psychology- forces of the extra-individual rather than on individual behavior.


• Behavior Setting
• Activity-Space Relationship

The Built Environment- consists of a structured set of surfaces of various qualities:


• Enclosure
• Aesthetic
• Affordance

Physical settings or milieus are usually architecturally differentiated

One behavior setting enables a person to achieve “multiplicity of satisfactions”


• Same behavior setting- meet different needs of different people

• Same behavior setting- meet different needs for an individual at different times

Behavior setting boundary- where behavior stops


• Boundary problem- insufficient segregation or too much segregation

• Individual differences/ Personalities- different boundary requirements

Demand Qualities: afford only one type of activity or a limited set of activities

Invitational Qualities: afford various types of activities


KINESTHETIC QUALITIES

SOCIETY AND ARCHITECTURE


Social Organization
Webster: A system of continuous purposive activity of a specific kind
Richard Hall: A collectivity with relatively identifiable boundary, a normative order, authority ranks, common system
Reciprocity between the built environment and behavior
Affording interaction functional distance functional centrality
Formal & Informal interactions opportunities to see and be seen- prerequisite to informal interaction
Collection Points
 
 
 
 


Socio-petal Space Layouts where it is easy to maintain face-to-face contact


Socio-fugal Layouts where it is easy to avoid interaction

PRIVACY,
TERRITORIALITY,
DEFENSIBILE SPACES

PERSONAL SPACE
• invisible boundary surrounding the person’s body into which intruders may not come

4 DISTANCE ZONES
• Intimate Distance
• Personal Distance
• Social Distance
• Public Distance

PRIVACY
• the ability of an individual or groups of individuals to control their visual, auditory, olfactory interactions with others
• the ability to have options and to achieve desired level of interactions

KINDS OF PRIVACY
Solitude: state of being free from observation by others
Intimacy: state of being with another person but free from the outside world
Anonymity: state of being unknown even in a crowd
Reserve: state in which a person employs psychological barriers to control unwanted intrusions
CROWDING
• associated with a feeling of lack of control over the environment
• leads to negative behavior because they are related to social overload
• results from overmanning of behavior settings
DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
• need for privacy greater for introverts than for extroverts
• extroverts like contrast with the environment
• introverts like courtyards

DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
• extroverts like strong central plans
• introverts like complex internal relationships and clear territorial patterns
• people under stress need more privacy for workplaces

LEVELS OF PRIVACY AND CULTURE


• traditional Islamic dwelling vs.traditional American dwelling
• the delineation of spaces in the traditional bahay kubo, the bahay the bato

LEVELS OF PRIVACY AND CLIMATE


• trade-offs between privacy and comfort
• physiological comfort vs. cultural requirements
PERSONALIZATION
• staking claims to places
• manifestation of desire for control and expression of aesthetic tastes
• effort to make an environment fit activity better
• done for psychological security

TERRITORIALITY
• a delimited space that a person or a group uses and defends as an exclusive preserve
• involves psychological identification with a place
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TERRITORIES
• ownership of and rights to a place
• personalization of marking of an area
• defense against intrusions
• serve functions ranging from physiological to self-actualization

SYSTEM OF HUMAN TERRITORIES


Defensible Space: a space that affords easy recognition and control of activities
Levels:
• visual access
• adjacency
• monitored by computers or cameras

TERRITORIAL VARIATION
as a factor of:
• social class
• civil status
• religion
SOFT ARCHITECTURE
• the building or environment can be personalized without damage to them or without difficult surgery
THE PRACTICE OF ARCHITECTURE

THE VALUE OF AN ARCHITECT

- “The Architect creates man’s environment through his awareness and sensitive handling of spaces that fit the scale of
human experience. The resulting quality of the form-envelope manifested as a structure or building gives rise to man’s
appreciation of beauty and order in the physical world”
- “The Architect’s deliberations determine how people will be placed in relationship to one another, how whole societies will
work, play, eat, sleep, recreate, travel, worship, or in short how people will live in consonance with their culture and
national aspirations.”
THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

POSITIVE PERCEPTION
• Order
• Outline
• Identifiable references
• Functional forms
• Familiarity
• Reliability
• Cultural identity
• Aesthetic objectives
FACTORS THAT CONVEY UNITY
• Proximity
• Similarity
• Closure
• Good continuance
• Closedness
• Symmetry
CONTRAST
HIERARCHY
PROPORTION
BALANCE
RHYTHM
CHARACTER
DATUM
CONTRAST as an adaptation to:

• function
• anthropometrics
• scientific laws and structural requirements
• to the natural environment
• to economics
• to the social order
CONTRAST OF LINE

CONTRAST OF FORM
CONTRAST OF MASS

CONTRAST OF COLOR CONTRAST OF CHARACTER

HIERARCHY
• imageability
• interest
• association
• emotional effects
• reflecting use and users
• reflecting values

PROPORTION
Bases:
• Natural Material Proportions
• Manufactured Proportions
• Structural Proportions
• Government Ordinances
• Traditions
Material Proportions- proportions are determined by the material’s distinct properties of elasticity, hardness and durability. Rational
proportions are dictated by their inherent strengths and weaknesses

Structural Proportions-the sizes and proportions of structural members are related to the tasks they perform. Beam depths, column
length, floor slab thickness are assigned to ensure building stability

Shape and Proportion

Manufactured Proportions-the sizes and proportions of architectural and structural members are determined by the commercially
available sizes

Government Ordinances
- Proportions determined by prescribed design guidelines or standards

Traditions
• Golden Section
• Golden Rectangle
• Regulating Lines
• Classical Orders
• Renaissance Theories
• Modulor
• Ken

GOLDEN SECTION
GOLDEN RECTANGLE

REGULATING LINES

PRINCIPLES USED IN CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE

CLASSICAL ORDERS
RENAISSANCE THEORIES

MODULOR

KEN

Relative Proportion Absolute Proportion


SCALE
Factors that affect perception of scale
• Association with nature
• Position in space relative to the object
• Experiences
• Values
• Scalar sequences
• Economics

PERCEPTION OF SCALE

SCALE AND ANTHROPOMETRICS SCALE AND CONTEXT

SCALAR EXPERIENCE SCALE AND FORM

URBAN SCALE SCALE & TIME


BALANCE
Balance vs.Proportion - Axis
Balance vs. Lack of Contrast - Emphasis
Axis- line established by 2 points in space about which forms and spaces can be arranged; regulates movement

Orientation as a factor of:


Climate
Religion/Culture
Natural views

Other Axes:
City- Landmarks, monuments, important buildings, infrastructure
Buildings- Property line, Landscape, Associated buildings
Interior- Doors and windows, columns and beams

Symmetrical Balance (Central) Symmetrical Balance (Formal)

Symmetrical Balance (Formal)

Symmetrical Balance (Radial) Unsymmetrical Balance


Unsymmetrical Balance Gravitational Balance

RHYTHM

RHYTHM of LINE TYPES AND DIRECTION

RHYTHM of LINE TYPES & DIRECTION RHYTHM of AREAS

RHYTHM of COLOR RHYTHM of MASSES


RHYTHM of MASSES ACCENTED RHYTHM

ACCENTED RHYTHM UNACCENTED RHYTHM

UNACCENTED RHYTHM

COLOR
The 3 dimensions of color:
Hue- the color itself
Tonal Value- lightness and darkness
Chroma or Intensity- brightness of dullness
CONCEPTS & PHILOSOPHIES

CONCEPTS
- Functional concepts
- Environmental concepts
- Structural concepts
- Cultural concepts
- Thematic concepts
- Time-based concepts
FUNCTIONAL CONCEPTS
Traditional definition of good architecture:

Vitruvius’s Utilitas, Firmitas,


Venustas

Existing State

The Setting Future State


Cultural, Social,
Architecture is a product of Political, Historical, Mission
programming Economic
Physical Conditions/ Goals
Site Data
Geography, Climate, Performance Requirements
Archaeology, Geology
Client/User Profile Concepts
Demography,
Organizations, Needs,
Behavior
Constraints
Legal, Financial,
Technical, Market

Durand:
There are only two problems in architecture :
- in private buildings, how to provide the optimum accommodation for the smallest sum of money
- in public building, how to provide the maximum accommodation for a given sum.

Ornament had nothing to do with architectural beauty, since a building was only beautiful when it satisfied a need.
“Whether we consult our reason, or examine ancient monuments, it is evident that the primary purpose of architecture has never been
to please, nor has architectonic decoration been its object.
Public and private usefulness, and the happiness and preservation of mankind, are the aims of architecture.
Temperature, ventilation, sound,
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCEPTS smell, texture

Light and color as a modifying


element of space; artificial or
natural, light can be manipulated
by adesign to identify places and
to give places particular
character

Using and modifying things that


are already there

Stratification and climate Passive Cooling


responsiveness

Rococo: multiplication of real effects of


parallax, which is the apparent displacement
of objects caused by an actual change in the
point of observation. Ex. Use of mirrors
Le Corbusier

“Architecture is the
masterly, correct and
magnificent play of masses
brought together in light.
Our eyes are made to see
forms in light.

Thus, cubes, cones,


spheres, cylinders or
pyramids are the great
primary forms which light
reveals to advantage; they
are not only beautiful
forms, but the most
beautiful forms.”
STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS
ARCHES

Frames Tube
Construction

Mushroom Construction Mushroom Construction


SUSPENDED SYSTEMS PREFABRICATION

Stretched Membrane

Stratification

EVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTURE
- Architecture can create as nature creates
- A building can be seen as a living organism with functional processes

The overriding objective is to reach the ultimate evolution of a design so that it is a perfected culmination of function, form
and purpose within limits of budget, materials, and so forth

CRITICAL
REGIONALISM
Factoring in cultural
CULTURAL CONCEPTS variations and
contextual realities.
ETHNOCENTRISM

Habitual disposition to
judge foreign peoples
or groups by the
standards and
practices of one’s own
culture or ethnic
groups.
Ledoux: the plan of an edifice was not
something resulting from its function
but was deliberately designed to
express its function by association of
deas.

THEMATIC CONCEPTS

TIME-BASED CONCEPTS

ARCHITECTURAL PHILOSOPHIES

ARCHITECTURE-ENVIRONMENT

MAN OVER ENVIRONMENT


The Ten Books of Architecture by Vitruvius

“The man of learning… can fearlessly look down upon the


troublesome accidents of fortune. But he who thinks himself
entrenched in defenses not of learning but of luck, moves in
slippery paths, struggling though life unsteadily and insecurely.”

The Poetry of Architecture by John Ruskin

“ Everything about it should be natural, and should appear as if the influences and forces which were in operation around its had been
too strong to be resisted, and had rendered all efforts of art to check their power, or conceal the evidence of their action, entirely
unavailing… it can never lie too humbly in the pastures of the valley, nor shrink too submissively into the hollows of the hills; it
should seem to be asking the storm for mercy, and the mountain for protection; and should appear to owe weakness, rather than
strength, that it is neither overwhelmed by the one, nor crushed by the other.”

Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism by Rudolf Wittkower

Explores Renaissance use of ideal geometric figures and ratios in their designs. Also discusses why they believed that such figures and
ratios were powerful. Bases are the relationship of the human body with nature.
ARCHITECTURAL FORM
Le Corbusier “The plan proceeds from
within to without; the exterior is the
result of the interior”

ORNAMENTS
The New Architecture and the Bauhaus by Walter Gropius

The ultimate goal of the new architecture was ‘the composite but inseparable work of art, in which the old dividing line between
monumental and decorative elements will have disappeared forever’

Bauhaus: Aim was to unite art and technology under a purified aesthetic that removed all ornament and articulation from form and
stressed the beauty of expressed function.

Ornament was considered a bourgeois decadence, if not an actual crime- Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer and Josef Albers

“Less is More”
– Mies Van der
Rohe

“Less is Bore”
– Robert Venturi

“Less is More”
– Mies Van der Rohe CONTRADICTIONS

“An Architecture of complexity and contradiction has a


special obligation toward the whole- its truth must be in
its totality or implications of totality.

It must embody the difficult unity of inclusion rather


than the easy unity of inclusion”

- Venturi

De Stijl: pursuit of social renewal


DE STIJL through ideal abstraction;

Close relationship between architecture


and the fine arts; pristine, geometric
but more decorative than the Bauhaus:

Painter Piet Mondrian, Design Critic


Theo Van Doesburg, Architects J.J.P.
Oud, Gerrit Rietveld and Mart Stam
INTERNATIONAL STYLE The house is a machine to live in.”
• the program for building a house should be set
out with the same precision as that for building
a machine;
• structural frame should be separately identified
from the space-enclosing walls;
• house should be lifted on pilotises so the
garden may spread under it;
• roofs should be flat, capable of being used as a
garden;
• interior accommodation should be freely
planned

TECTONICS
Tectonics- the art and science of shaping, ornamenting or assembling materials in building construction.

REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTURE (1800s)

- Eclecticism or Indiferrentism- designing without considering that any matter of principle was involved
- The new tendency to plan buildings geometrically or symbolically without close reference to functional requirements

HISTORIOGRAPHY
Historicism and Exoticism: Notion of evolution and chronology
Passion for Archaeology
INFLUENCE OF THE PICTURESUE

Sculptural and picturesque

The villa concept- multiplicity, relatively modest dimensions, unrestricted


sites, assymmetry, irregularity of plan, fenestration and silhouette

Intricacy defined as the disposition of objects which, by a partial and


ROMANTICISM uncertain concealment, excites and nourishes curiosity

REVIVALISM

AWARENESS OF STYLE

Style : the fashion which each generation can promptly recognize as its own; what ties together the aesthetic achievements of the
creative individuals of one age;

the expression of a prevailing, dominant or authentically contemporary view of the world by those artists who have most
successfully intuited the quality of human experience peculiar to their day, and who are able to phrase this experience in forms deeply
congenial to the thought or matter expressed

PRIMITIVISM AND PROGRESS

Issues of birth, growth and decay were tackled


The value of historical study was that it showed by what gradual steps the transition had been made from the first simple efforts of
uncultivated nature to a state of things which was ‘so wonderfully artificial and cultivated’

Glorification of the ‘noble savage’

ECLECTICISM (1830s)

A composite system of thought made up of views selected from various other systems.Eclectics claim that no one should accept
blindly from the past the legacy of a single philosophical system to the exclusion of all others but each should decide rationally and
independently what philosophical facts used in the past were appropriate to the present and then recognize and respect them in
whatever context they might appear.
ROMAN REVIVAL

• Influences of the Roman monumental


compositional forms
• The new tendency to fit public buildings into
antique temples
• The tendency to incorporate the compositional
REVIVALIS forms of Antique temples into public buildings
GREEK REVIVAL
• Importance of ruins and archaeological studies

Acknowledgement of the idea


of the Parthenon as the most
perfect building ever
constructed; its qualities have
been interpreted to justify
every change in architectural
fashion,

from the servile duplication of


its composition and details to
the most individualistic
creations in reinforced
concrete and steel.
GREEK REVIVAL
• Traditional use of plumb lines, squares and levels
• Regard for public buildings as objects in space rather than objects
enclosing space.
• Making pediments correspond to the structural reality of the
pitched roof

RENAISSANCE REVIVAL

the renaissance revival allowed an architect to select and even to invent for himself such compositional and decorative forms as might
be considered suitable for the occasion.

Introduced common sense into architectural design.


RENAISSANCE REVIVAL

Skill of architects not to be found


in archaeological accuracy of
facades but in the orderly
sequences of accommodation on
awkward sites, skillful
combination of different and new
RENAISSANCE REVIVAL materials

Picturesque and lacked order and symmetry of


classical architecture.

GOTHIC NATIONALISM

Buildings with pseudo-mediaeval details


Ideals with which to justify Gothic revival were immensely varied and often diametrically opposed.

GOTHIC NATIONALISM

Neglect of practical comforts and


functional planning; spaces were
planned more with an eye to their
scenic effect than to their
workability
POLYCHROMY

Introduction of variegations into the exterior design of facades.


Exteriors should display colors of various hues.

Structural Coloration: architectural form was necessarily structural form, and hence, effects of color should result from the structural
materials by which an edifice was actually built.

FUNCTIONALISM
BIOLOGICAL ANALOGY
SYMBOLS OF FUNCTION

• BIOLOGICAL ANALOGY • Architecture based on anatomy


• Concept of Organic Architecture
• MECHANICAL ANALOGY • Parts of a whole
• Morphology: science of form
• GASTRONOMIC ANALOGY • Form follows function
• LINGUISTIC ANALOGY • Influence of the environment

MECHANICAL ANALOGY

• Scientific evolution and artistic evolution


follow the same laws
• Movement and function
• Collaboration in the progressive
accumulation of technical knowledge
• Precise destination and expression of
potentialities

GASTRONOMIC ANALOGY

Demands the combination of


materials of strength, ideal
sequence or plan, analysis and
testing of efficacies

Goes beyond scientific analysis;


requires intuition, imagination,
enthusiasm, immense amount of
organizational skill

INFLUENCE OF THE ALLIED ARTS


LINGUISTIC
ANALOGY
• Decorations and ornaments
Eloquence and expression • Abstract patterns on space layout
Emotions and experiencing • Furniture design on Architectural
emotions composition
Vocabulary and
composition

INFLUENCE OF ENGINEERS
• Importance of mathematical studies in
constructional design
• Straightforward, unadorned building
unless needs of decorum demanded
ornament
• Classical proportions were modified in
accordance with new materials
• Architecture of iron
HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING CONCEPTS
EKISTICS
Doxiadis:
A human settlement is made up of five ekistic
elements, which are interactive and
interdependent with each other. These are man,
nature, shells, networks and society.”
URBAN DESIGN CONCEPTS
- Linear and Nodal City- Le Corbusier
- Broadacre City- Frank Lloyd Wright
- Chandigarh – Le Corbusier
- The Freestanding Building/ Functionalism- Sigfried Giedion (Space, Time and Architecture)
- The Ideal City- Ludwig Hilberseimer
- City of Setback Skyscrapers- Louis Sullivan
- Garden City-Ebenezer Howard
MODERNISM
- A series of discontinuous movements in the 19th and 20th centuries;
- opposes both the Zeitgeist and the Single Strand theories that propose continuous evolution of styles.
- Modernism is characterized by multi-valence or by the presence of multi-valued levels of meaning

ISSUES:
• relativity
• evolutionary
• diversity

COMMON NOTIONS
• soulless ASSOCIATED TERMS:
container Functional
Industrial
• absence of
relationship with Innovative/ Novel
the environment Technology
Revolutionary and Opposing
• arrogant
• unarticulated
• monstrous
• speculative
• mass-produced

Modernism is marked by the following: Van Doesburg:


• Renunciation of the old world “Every machine is a
• Addressed mass housing spiritualization of an
organism… the machine
• Explored potentials of materials
is par excellence, a
and new forms
phenomenon of spiritual
• Technological determinism and disciplines… The new
structural rationalism spiritual artistic sensibility
• Aesthetic self-expression of the 20th century has not
• Belief in the power of form to only felt the beauty of the
transform the world machine but also taken
• Sleek machined surfaces cognizance of the
unlimited expressive
• Mass production and cost reduction
possibilities for the arts.”
• Skyscrapers and capitalism
• Grand urban projects

The Metaphysical School of Architecture- the quasi-mystical spirit of ‘what the building wants to be’.
Les Corbusier:
“The frame of a building or buildings is like the laws that govern society. Without these laws there is anarchy and without the frame
there is visual anarchy.”
Thomas Ava Edison
experimented with Portland concrete and subsequent mass production of pre-fabricated houses made of concrete. Then came the
technology of casting with the use of scaffolding that allowed for variation and alteration
POST-MODERNISM
A diverse and unstable
concept that started in the
United States after 1965 then
spread to the rest of the
industrialized world.

Post-modernists focused on
the differences and brought to
fore that which had been
marginalized by dominant
cultures. In other fields, the
movement is characterized by
a rejection of a unitary world
view Urban planning under
Architecture came with post-modernism
cartoon-like trivialization celebrated heterogeneity
and packaging in place of central, grand
statues

Venturi:
“An Architecture of
complexity and
contradiction has a
special obligation toward
the whole- its truth must
be in its totality or Venturi and Scott Brown:
implications of totality. It Jacques Derrida- the founding “the architect’s task was to
must embody the difficult father of Deconstruction express meaning to the
unity of inclusion rather general public, whether in the
than the easy unity of “Something has been design of a house or a civic
inclusion” constructed, a philosophical building; people became
system, a tradition, a culture, mobile bearers of meaning.”
and along comes a de-
DECONSTRUCTION constructor (who) destroys its
stone by stone, analyzes the
structure and dissolves it…
One looks as systems… and
examines how it was built,
which keystone, which angle…
supports the building; one shifts
them and thereby frees oneself
from the authority of the system.
STRUCTURALISM & POST-STRUCTURALISM

Structuralism- study of relationships between say, words in a language, etc.


Post-structuralism- was concerned with questions of meaning and how individuals order the world. In architecture, PS focused on
meaning rather than process.

FORDISM AND POST-FORDISM

Fordism- refers to the state-regulated system of mass production and mass consumption which, undergirded by welfare and security,
dominated advanced capitalist societies in the west, roughly from the Depression to the crisis of the 1970s.
Post-Fordism- characterized by:
• flexible communication
• niche market consumption
• flexible machinery equipment that can be adapted to different tasks relatively quickly
• flexible accumulation of goods in order to respond quickly to demand
• more temporary and part-time labor
• geographical clustering of information, transnational cultural and population flows
• information superhighways

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCEPTS

ELEMENTS OF COMFORT ZONE: The


CLIMATE NEEDED range of conditions under which
IN DESIGN most people feel comfortable;
It is a function of many variables,
Dry-bulb Temperature among which is the annual mean
(DBT): This is the temperature
measurement of the temperature
of the air and as far as possible CHARACTERISTICS OF
excludes any radiant temperature TROPICAL CLIMATE
Relative Humidity (RH): Warm Humid: High Temperature;
The amount of water in the air High RH; Heavy rains esp. during
Precipitation: This is monsoon
mainly rainfall but could also be Hot Dry: Very high DBT; low
dew humidity; low precipitation; little or
Sky: Cloud cover no cloud; sparse/bare ground
Composite: mixture of warm, humid
Wind: The direction, frequency
and hot/dry
and force of the wind throughout Macro and Micro: region and site
the year