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THEORYOFARCHITECTURE
I PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION
1. CONTRAST - the difference_ between the type of treatment wlc are introduced in a bldg. It is
t through contrast that we secure proper scale. proportion & unffy & consequently a satisfactory design.
It is tha opposffe of' similarity".
Types of Cotrast:
1 1. Contrast of Form : If form is used to mean merely of ~UrfBC8 or fo imply 8 2-dimensional areal there exist
only the element of shape. In order for a shape to be interesting there must be variety or contrast. If form is
more properly conceived in 3 dimensions, the Brchfledural result is mass or volume.

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2. Contrast of Line .' Unes may vary with reference to direction. It is possible to have a horizontal line
opposing a vertical or diagonal lines may form B composition. A.!i!J!l may also offer contrast on account of its
change in type or character. It may be CUNed or straight, regular or ilTegular, bro~en or continuous.

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3. Contrast of Size .' This type of contrast refers to object which may have the same shape and direction but
may vary in sizft If this change in size is gradual and uniform, the result is called gradation.
4. contrast of Tone : Tone may be done through~contra§..t - in texture, openings or planes.
Combinations: Various types of contrast are combined like:
1. Contrast of mass - contrast of vertical and horizontal volumes
2. Contrast of shape
3. Contrast of tone
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, Contrast ;s the opposite of similarity. If similarity is exist s to a marked degree, the eff&ct is monotony. On the
other hand, if contrast exists violently and profusely the result will be 8 restles~ and disorganizgd design which
lacks repose. Follow;ng the role on contrast, one has to observe that contrast be present in just the correct
amount:enough to give variety hut not an excess, which will cause confusion.
5. Conttast of Mass : Contrast of vertical & horizontal volumes giving a composition in abstract from w/c
becomes capable in housing human interests through the introduction of w;ndows doors & fir levels.
6. Contrast of Direction : Horizontal and vertical detai1~.
7. Contrast of Character : £1!Odion of a structure - church with a house.
8. Contrast of Treatment : Surface finisb .
When a dominating factor exist in contrast. this is called emphasis. But one rule in emphasis stated that
is should be done in a right amount. And that contrast to be effective should be done in a transition ma",.,er
not abrupt.
2. PROPORTION -is largely a matter of relationships _ It is evident by a comparison which the eye makes
between the size, shape, and tone of the various objects or parts of a composnion. There are certain
geometrical forms which have vsry definite proportions. These are the circles, triangle and square. The eye
judges them quickly and classifies them with no difficulty. They are dominant shapes in a composition and for
• that reason should be used for accents.
In a plan : a circular or square units acts as a focal point on the center for radiating lines.
On an elevation : these same shapes will give emphasis to that particular portion in which they aftlt"
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incorporated.
Often. a square is mistaken for a rectangle if a rect3ngle approaches a square's dimension. An obs8Ner
will have a doubt to ffs real geometric shape. On the other hand. if ff"s to long the obseNar would divide ff into
• 2 equal speces. Thus the rectangle has been designed this way to make the long sides of the mctangle equal
to the diagonal of a square based upon the short sides - and this is called the "Golden Mean". The equilateral
triangle. or one wffh aqual sides and angles. has long been accepted as a form wffh good proportivns. n is
J static and stable. Its center of gravity is low, and it tapers in a regular manner ~om the base to the apex.
canying the eye up to this focal point of the composffion.
The circle and the square have been found to posses certain properties which recommend them as a
base upon which to begin a design.ln this regard, whenever we talk of Proportion we often refer to the
• r;lassical Crders. The Renaissance mterpretation of Classical Architecture as develC"ped by Vigno/ia and
Palladio. is based upon standardized ploportions. The Greeks did not design in this manner, but it is possible
for Renaissance architects. by studying a large number of Roman examples. to. strike an average which would
represent the outstanding characterisUcs of ~'7ese Classical elements.
3. SCALE - has reference to proportions wlc are good for humans. Scale daa/s withe rela:ion of arch·l.motifs •
such as doors. wdows or mouldings. to each other & to human figura.Architecture must h. Bdopted to human
naads:
Design ;S 8 mattsr of the adju~!ment of architectural elements to meet the needs of the human race,
and proper scale should be present when this adaption is mads.
Classical & Gothic details & decorations have 8 reason for their existenc9 in lh9ir partiClller forms
& sizes, & they should be used in the same manner 8S they were in the pd of their dav't.
Ex : Doors should be big enough to maka one walk through the comfort but not so big as to require
an a/most impossible physica! effort to close them.
St6j}S should 00 of such B size as to permit easy ascent and descent.
Ceiling heights must be property proportioned to the siza and function of the room .
I Balustrade should be related to the human figure in such a way that safety is secured.
In making preliminary sketches of an elevation, one of the common fAuft.') of designers is to ever look that
matter of scals. One must always remember that a small building must necessarily contain few windows,
I but that a large structure have many openings. Gare should be taken that when using architeciural motffs
they should have tha same scale that we have accustomed to seeing them. Co/Jonades. which are
monumental in character. should not be reduced to garden architecture. C/assica/and Gothic details and
I decoration have a reason for their existence in their particular forms and sizes, and tlley should be used
in the same manner as they were in the period of their development. If they are increased or decreased,
many times in size the scale is then lost and ridiculous situations will result.
4. BALANCE - is also .!i9uafil¥..
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A. SYMMETRICAL - Balance is equality. It is composffion. It is the foundation upon which arrangement,

, harmony and adiustment of weights, tones, values, etc. are developed. Proper balance satisfies the eye
satisfies the eye With reference to the relative importance of the various parts of the design. The easiest and
simplest kind of balance is the purely symmetr;(;8/ type j,'1 which the elements are affanged in precisely the
same manner on eithar side of the central axis or line. Not only is the arrangement similar but each object is
exactly like the one occupying the corresponding position on the opposfte side. In this kind of balance, eye
I catches, a glance the equality of attraction on each side of the center of the composition. All elements are
duplicated - shape for shape, size for sae and tone. The Jeff half of the composition is identical with the right
half and the resun is called symmetrical balance.
I 1. Formal Balance - is a type of balance which approaches absolute symmetry but which
lacks some of the essentials of this kind of compos;Uon. Here, the general mass and grouping of p::uts may be
similar, but there are dissimilarities in plan, elevation of details. The volumes of the balancing units may
cOffespond, but there may exist a difference in their shape and surface treatments.
B . UNSYMMETRICAL (or occult balance) - more subtle and alusive and this more difficuU to a~ain. It
attempts to satisfy the eye withouJ any effort to place equal masses at similar distances from the centt3r of the
composition. It is the grouping, in an informal manner, or elements varying sizes and shape. One senses,
rather than sees, a stack of equifibrtJm.
In an informal arrangement the longer and heavier masses should be nearer the center of the group,
while the lighter, lower and more horizontal elements may constitute the long arm of the steelyard. Vertical
units may be introduced near the center of the interest, or the fulcrum, in order to create the desired accents.
5. RHYTHM - The different types of ari with which we are familiar may be dMded into 2 groups according to
the way in which the impressions are conveyed to our senses or according to the manifestations of their
qU3lfties. - ._'"
For example, in a poem the repetition of every end of a stanza, or evel)' two lines having rhymes is called
rhythm. Rhythm then is an organized movament. In archftecture, tha usa of windows in every unit if ft
is a townhouse or in every other unit is what we ca.1I unaccented rhythm. A town house unit wHh
variation in design say for example, before the next wdo. There is a moulding w/c will selVe as an
accant and it is called an accented rhythm.
Some may be permanent in their characien"stics, as those executed in stone. Others may be transitory, as is
sound. So the arts, whether fine or applied may be listed as follows .-
STATIC ARTS : Archftecture Uierature
Sculpture Decorative Arts Painting

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EMANESCENr ARTS : Music. Dance • Dramatics .
Alchffectura is compared to music: Music is an ert that is heard. It is a combination of ~unds arranged
in such 8 manner as to arouse various reactions Qf pleasure, interest or excitement. Architecture is an art
which is seen. It is B composition of elements so arranged as to serve a utilitarian purpose and in addftion, to
have an emotional appeal.
The music of the westem world is based upon rhythm. melody and harmony. Rhythm is the foundation of
music. Movement ;s the basis of rhythm. This movement which we call rhythm must be directed and
controlled. If windows and doors are thrown into the fa~8de of the building in 8 haphazard manner, there is no
sc.lwme or sense to the Brrangement and again no rhythm. .
Examples: 1. Movement of the eye across a painting from spot to spot similar color- the
rhythmic use of color.
2. It may be the repitition of similar type pf fine in B place of sculpture - tho rhythmic
use of lillA
3. It may be found in the continuity of a series of arches forming an arcade - the
• rhythm of direction
6. UNITY - is the culmination of all the elements of Design. If 8 structure has unity, it should have contrDst,
rhythm & scale. Unity suggests harmony. It means that all the unrelated parts of an arch 'f. arrangement
• are brought into proper relation to each other so that a satisfactory composition is obtained.
If unity prevails, all the imporlBnt parts must be kept in their places and bf3 made simply to assist the major
units in the roles which they are to play in the development of the structure.
The unity of simple geometric forms is easy to understand. They are elementary in their shapes, and no
• portion of the whole tends to ddtach itself and to create new forms, or centers of interest. Elementary
geometric (shapes) FORMS are compact and direct; they tell a single story in the.briefest possible mannar.
The simplest kind of unity dealing wfth motifs of more than' one member is to be found in the ordinary
• repititio;,. If thir unity would be more emphatic and interesting, an accent may be introduced into the
composition, so that a dominant note is added to the regularity of tho repitition. ·In other wOros, too highest
type of unfty ;s secured ff there exists no doubt as to the presence of a central motif.
• In architectural composition, the elements must be arranged in such a way 8S to insure the domination of
the less important parts by the major masses of the building. Afl the units should together form a compact and
coherent ensemble.
• Competition is one of the worst toes of uaity. In studying an architectural problem, the plan receives first
consideration, but not desirable to have the elements competing wffh each other for the place of importance.
However, the elements of the elevation mur.t be quickly seen and understood than those of plan.
Confusion exists because of the lack. of similarity between the various elements employed to create B
• building. It is a case of unorganized competition and contres:. Dissimilarity is too pronounced
7. CHARACTER-
Character grows out of the function of the building and the consideration of 811 the creative prircipl6s of
composition. It is something which should be J<ept in mind during the entire process of design. Throughout tho
development of project the designers must ever strive to express the purpose of the building, both in general
composition and in the use of details.
Buildings have points of similarity. They al/ have in some form or other, walls, doors and roofs. &It again
they em unlike in the purpose which they selVe end iIla appearance which they presant to msn.
Manifested character is the extemal expression of internal qualfties. In any architecture, which is worthy
of the name, the exterior of a building expresses the internal function.
- Charecter of archftecture may be divided into 3 types. depending upon the sou",e 0" fts inoeption end
upon whether this source dea's with the abstractor the concrete. The cfasses Bre :
Character from : .
1. Function. or usa of the building
2. Association, Qr influences of tradftionBI types
3. PersonalffY. or human qualffY or emoUonal appeal
I.FUNCnONAL CHARACTER - The mostimporlant kind of character in architecture is that which rasult from
the purpose of the building or the reason for its erection. The use of a struc,'ure naturally ~alls for 8 cerla;n
disposition of parls and this arrangement affects the appearance of the extedor by which we fargePI judge
character.

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Examples: A museum must have galleries wHh ample well space and top light, which eliminates
windows and nacessHates the use of skylights.
A school building must contain many windows to admH the neoassary side light and
to offer an interesting contrast with the possible monotony of the classroom walls.
A structure with large show wdows is usually 8 shop for the display & sale for merchandise.
A factory expresses the efficient operation of the manufacturing within.
A house reflects the informal intimacy of home lifo.
The external expression of these various internal functions gives the building the character which it ;s
intended to possess.
2. ASSOCtATED CHARACTER - This oomes from the inffuenoe of ideas .,ld
impressions relatad to or
growing out of past experiences. We have come to recognize buildings by features which have long been
associated with that particular structure.
Ex ; A spire atop 8 building with stained glass windows has always told us that it was 8 church.
Classic orders offen ind;cate the presence of 8 bank.
Collegiate Gothic frequently d;scloses the identity of an Educational insutution.
The contemporary movement ;n architecture has, however. caused many revisions in our association of
ideas. There are so many influences responsible for changing the character of our modem buildings.Materials,
our attitude towards physical comfort made possible the disassociation from the past.
i 3.PERSONAL CHARACTER - Buildings have qualities which Bre directly related to their functions, but, in
addition, they may possess charaderistics which have to do rather with the emotional reaction set up in the
mind of ob"setver. Buildings may be stem and forbkJding, light and playful or sedate and dignified with
i reference to the impressions which they are capable of giving. It is to these qualfties of vitalffy, repose, grace
restraint, festivity, dignity, etc. that we gwe the name of personal character. If the building is deSigned ;n the
proper spirit, this type of character will grow naturally from the strocture itself. It is quite essential that this

r intangible qualfly agrees wHh the function of the building. Nothing could be more disasfrous tha" to have
power plant look like an enfertainment pavilion - a substitute of festivity for effiCiency.
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TERMINOLOGIES:
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1. BAUHAUS - non - traddional forms & types.
2. BRUTALtSM -pot
beacddiJ[to the eyes.
3 . ClAM - (Congress Intemationaux D' Arch;(eciure Modeme).
4.. CONSTRUCTNISM - reconcile form and speoe ArchHecture.
5. CONTEXTUALtSM - 51endina Dew structure wi old existing ones.
6. DECONSTRUCTIVISM - .§Jibract forms & dismantling the bldg. inside & out
7. EXPIRICISM - a theory that all know/edge originates in sense e)(perience.
8. EXPRESSIONISM - ;ndWidual impression on a particular design.
,- 9. FORMALISM - a tendency in ArcMecture wlc emphasizes solution to the problems of forms
at the expense of the solutions to functional &techn;cal problems & ;n the process of wlc
the forms become meaninQ.lASS.
10. FUTURISM - a substHute wood, stone & brick for modem materials .
11. HUMANISM ,Ren8;ssa n c*,...in origin, inspired by ancient classical civilizations of Greece & Rome.
12. IMPRESSIONISM- conoarn was the study of representation ofJiJ1I1L
13. METABOLISM -human & society a continious dev't. from _starn to nebula, concentrated on f"l6W
order of relationships between man and environment.
14. MONUMENTALIS -Muse of monumental feature of classical ArcIJHecture.
15. NAT'L. ROMANTICISM - styl. that fed on particular. local historical motives.
16. NEO -PLASTICISM - use of right angle in a horizontal posHion & usa'7Jt1irimary colors
contrasted wi 3 non - colors (black. whHe & gray).
17. ORGANICISM - svmphatizes wi the environment & use of earth colors.
18. POST - METABOLISM - concerned wi th9 na~lra "f the hoUSS. in the cdy.
19. POST-MODERMSM-a new interest in vernacular terms adapted to /he modem need3.
20. RADICALISM - a shift in emphasis from past to modern times.
21. RATIONALISM - iCuiTent in Modem Arch wlc stresses qua@esofsystematicde'!1 conceived
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22. STRUCTURALISM - use of liteel & iron amstruction.
23. SUPREMA lISM· a derivetive of cubism, of Russian origin wlc used circle, rectangle, &
triangle as the besis for purely abstract style.
24. UTILrrARIAN/SM - for economic solution!£. in 1m': value & cheap forms of construction; use of pre
fabricated materials.
15. VERNACULAR/SM -Iocel or native style or domestics.
PHILOSOPHIES & FAMOUS WORKS OF FILIPINO ARCH'TS:
A. Leandro Locsin :" Creating Archftecture that is both modem & undeniably Filipino.'
Famous Worles:
1. Cuftural Center of the Philippines
11. PLOT Bldg.
2. Makati Stock Exchange 12. NPC Center
3. Manila Mandarin Hotel 13. Greenbeft Square
4. Manila Notel 14. Manila Intercon Hotel
5. Benguet Center 15. Ayala Museum
6. Davao Insular Hotel 16. Locsin Bldg.
7. Philippine Plaza Hotel 17. Church of St. Andrew
8. Ninoy International Airport 18. Chapel of Holy Sacrifice
9. Phil. Int'!. Convention Center 19. Folk Arts Theater
10. Palace of Brunei "ISTANA NURUL IMAN"
B. Francisco'Bobby"Manosa: -Architecture must res{XN1d to local conditions. "The Philosophy started
out wI the ~Nipa Hut ~. Local conditions include;the climate. the materials on hand, the techniques & the
budget available. .
Famous Worles :
1. San Miguel Head Office near Megamall
2. Las Pinas Bamboo Church 5. Our Ledy of peace shrine at Edsa
3.14 Station LRT Metrorail Trans~ 6. Moonwalk Church in Las Pinas
4.Coconut Palace "Tahanang Pilipino" at CCP Complex 7. National Eucharistic Congress Altar

C. Gilbert Yu : ' A Pragmatic APproach to Archfteclure"


His famous equations: 0 + 0 + 0 = 100
First 0 = The land owner who owns property but idle & undeveloped.
Second 0 = The man who has money in the bank but inflation is eroding
Its real worth faster than the interest it accrues.
Third 0 = The Architect wlo land and money ard still considered = o.
Add up alrthe a 's and ft ;to Perfect 100 (Land Owner, The Financier & the Archt.).
Famous works: .
1. Manila Stock Exchange Center 8. New City Plaza, Manila
2. Golden Bay Condominuim, Manila 9. YET
. .. Bidg., Manlia
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3 . Ch ateu De Balle I & II, Ortigas & Roxas Blvd. 10. Gaiseno Country Mall, Cebu City
4. Landmark Shopping Center. Makati 11. SM Manila
5. EVer - Gotesco Grand Central, Caloocan 12 Manila Diamond Hotol
6. 28 Stry. Asian Trade Glr. Twr, Greenhills Ortigas
7. Orient Pearl Plaza, Manila
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D. Ramon S, Licup:" Good Archfteclure is not based on DeSign but on the bldg's. func/ion."Good
Archfteclure is not based on design but on the bldg's. function. the environment, the people's needs,
the budget. & the climate.
Famous works:
1. Garden Island, N. Domingo, San Juan 7. Knots Reaky Town House, San Juan
2. Rainbow Garden, Ortigas 8. Makati Palace
3. Bayview Park Plaza Hotel, Roxas Blvd. 9. San Jual) Regency
4. Golden Bay Condominium, Manila 10. Pasig Tri Condominium
5. Princeville Condominium, Orligas
6. Verde De Pasadena Condominium, Ortigas
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1 E. Felipe Mendoza; • He Makes the fullest possible use of natural light .& vental/ation."
Famous worl<s:
1 1. BBtBS8ng PBmbBnsB Bldg. in Q.C.
2. OevelopmsQ! Acsdemy of the Phif. Bldg., PBSig, RizBI
3. RCBC Bldg., BuendiB MBkati, & 23 other branches
1 4. PCI Bldg.. T.M. KBlaw, Mia.
5. National Ubrary, T.M. Kalaw, Mia.
6. Feu Hosp#al, Nicanor Reyes, Morayta, Mia.

1 7. The Assumption Sc,'lool Bldg., Antipolo Rizal


8. Mormon Temple, Green Meadows, Q.C
9. San Jose Seminary Bldg. ,Atenso Os Mia. Universfly Cempus, Q.C.

1 10. Ubrary & Science Center of Xavier Unwers;ry, Cagayan De Oro


11.7 New Bldgs. For the Int'/. Rice ReSBarch Insmute, Los Banos (1976-1991)
12. National Govemment Center Constitution Hills, Q.G. .
13. Central Mindanao Univers;ty, Museum Bukidnon
1 14. Mariano Marcos Memorial Co/lege of Science & Technology. Batae. f1ocos Norte
15. 250 Rooms Suehiro Hotel & Safeway Market, Guam
F. William Varnas Coscolluela: ' More on Vertical Approac h . "
1 Famous worlcs:
1. Robinsons Commercia! Complex, Orfigas Q.c.
2. 32 Slorey One Palace, San Juan, MIa.
1 3. 30 Storey Wackwack Twin Towsrs, Mandaluyong C#y
4. Quezon Cffy Sports Club, E. Rodriguez, O.C.
5. Atrium in Makari

1 6. 22 Hectare Tutuban Station, DNis('ria


G. Ceasar Homero Concio: "The structure must be well oriented."
Famous works :

1 1. Oifimsn's Palma & Melchor Hills, u.P. DiLlMAN


2. u.P. College of Forestry Bldg.
3. Children 'S Memorial Hosp"sl, O.C.

1 THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE
Present day life is the result of the production and eXChange of:
1 TANGILBLES - which include such materials as those related to food, clothing, shelter or transportation.
Architecture pr.ovides shelter for MAN.
INTANGIBLES - which consist of information, such as the knowledge of law, medicine or design. Practice of
1 architecture as a profession in an intangible commodity which the architect offers in exchange for a
remuneration.
Man has several activities and these needs to be housect.Architecture is Shelter, protecting man's physical

1 interests and also expressing his emotional urges.The structures which represe,nt Architecture reflect the
civilization of the peopfe. Architecture thus comes to be a record of the progress of man.
INFLllENCES OF NATURE
1 Influences affectin1} art and arcMecture may be divided into 2 groups depending upon Ihe
source of their inception, They are:
Influences of nature - climate, topography, and resources upon people and architecture.
1
, Influences of Man
A. CLIMATE
Effect upon people
Effect upon Architectur..
Warmer Climates - vegetation is more luxuriant and this is reflected in the architecture - buildings are more
flamboyant, attention is paid to the color and texture of surface treatm ent. . Plain wall areas give an o;>Portunity

1 for contrast IN'ith the color of the foliage.


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- Colder Climates - architecture is more severe and designer depends less upon the landscape for his final
effect Colors are usually more subdued and there is often a feeling that the building repeats the strength and

- solidity necaesary to withstand the elements.


1) Plan
warm climate - plan more open; ex., patios, courts
l cold climate - plan is compact
2) Struclllral Elements ( walls are used to carry loads)
warm climate - thick walls but often patched with small openings

L cold climate - thick walls but often patched with large openings
3) Protective Elements
warm climate :.... flat and colorful; porch - for siesta

L cold climate - steep to drive off snow; porch - for protection against snow and wind
4) Circulatory Elements (windows - permit light and air circulation)
warm climate - small windoyvs to protect the interior from too much heat and glare of sun
cold climate - because of dull climate, large windows were provided (but during the Medieval period,
L before the use of glass,small windom were provided to keep cut cold)
·20" c saw the end of the influence of window sizes .
5) Decorative Elements
L warm climate - pronounced mouldings are unnecessary & undesirable. If there a ~e mouldings, curves
are flatter and more subtle to avoid too many shadows which gives an impression of restless:ness.
cold climate - sculptures and mOUldings are usually deeply carved and undercut to catch the maximum
L amount of light .
color: white or pastel tone were often used to allow the play of shaciows from projecting roofs
• Architecture should reveal more clearly the influences of climate.

L B. TOPOGRAPHY
Effect upon people
Effect upon architecture

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If the country is small and the topography is unrtorm there tends to be a similarity of character in the
architecture. It may be nationalistic and may assume traits common to the entire area. Mountanous region
results in the design of informal plan - related to the immediate site and to the spirit of the country.
Level site - an unsymmetrical or informal plan .
Site without irregular shapeS and sudden changes in grade - formal arrangement of units. Site is not regular
one in shape or contour - various elements of the plan should be arranged in an informal manner .
Prairies - Middle west in U.S.A.
On a slope, the building should cling on the side of the hill. If it crowns an eminence,ITs steep roofs and ertical
effects may serve as frtting termination to a commanding height.Topography should influence architecture and
architecture in turn should ascent topography.
C. MATERIALS
Climate and geological conditions have played their parts in developing the use of building materials of
many and varied kinds. Limestone, marble, clay for brick and later ore for metals were the natural gifts for the
structure of man. Stone and brick remain, popular with the different architectural period then later with the
Industrial Revolution came various materials produced in different sizes, shapes, colors, etc. Archit~ure
remains natural trait but the materials of man and nature belong to the world.

J THE INFLUENCE OF MAN


Architecture reflects the social structure of the period in which it is developed. The interest of a people
dictate the 1ype and appearance of its buildings.
j During the various historic period, a survey of social condition and intluences shows interesting
relationship between the ·way in which nations lived and the archi. Which they produced.
1. Classical - The religious interests and the culture of the Greeks are reflected in the beauty and

J simplicity of buildings on the Acropolis. Their structures reflected their national love and beauty.
The Romans, on the other hand, were famous on their outward expression of their nationallo'/e of povver
and this is evident in their magnif!cent structures like their basilicas, palaces, and baths 'lttlich goes to shaw
that they were lUXUry -loving people.
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Furniture was colorful, but the chairs were often straight & uncomfortable, in order not to crumpfe the finery of ~
the fonowers of the courts. Because of such cos!iime splendor, tt did not require simple settings thus :
arcMeeture had to be ornate in order to live up wtth the activities which tt housed. '
Buildings were filled with graceful curves 'tV~ich hid structural lines & often prevented truth of expression.
These structures were usually preceded with avenues decorated with fountains & gardens.
C.Victorian - was an era of ornateness. but of an ugly & drab variety. The flowing whiskers, beribboned
bonnets, button leg sleeves, & bustles were simply a reflection of the jig-saw ornament & sheet-metal cornices
of the buildings of that period.
D. Contemporary - even if present day civilizatior. is complex, Simple attire was recommended for ease of c,

movement for multiple activities. The design of simple attire was due to the awareness of the science of
medicine & health which calls for the necessity of fresh air, sunshine & exercise. In many respects there has
been a return to the details of the Greek in our desire for freedom of movement & our interest of athletics.
Contemporary movement in architecture is placing the emphasis upon plain wall surfJce::; with little decoration
& the use of considerable window space.
MAN'S INTERESTS
It has been pointed out that the activities and interests of man are directly refponsible for the type of
architecture which he develops. There are three (3) most typical structures of the present age:
Shelter - used by man during his hours of rest
Factory - offers a place in which to work & to produce a commodity of exchange
Church - place of worship and spiritual relaxation
. Social conditions have infiuenced the dev't. of these bldgs during the various pds in the following manner:
A. HOUSE
Earl~1 American House - This period &N; simple living & labor & materials were limited. Houses were
small and compact and were designs to provkle the bare es.1entials.
Colonial House - As the affairs of the colonies prospered their ideas of comfort increased & the houses
became more elaborate.Early Fann House - As the descendents of these colonial people grew restive of
life in the eastern states, they pushed westward to conquer the frontiers which challenged their courage &.
industry. Again, necessity dictated the type of shelter which was erected.
VictOrian House - Extravagance ' was the picture of the period. It was a period Of wealth, display &
pretense. The rich were inclined to show off their wordly belonging that their homes also displayed such
characteristics. Victorian homes had complicated plans.There were too many rooms of varia u's sizes and
shapes, disorganized and unrelated to human needs. .
Contemporary House - There wa's a tendency to design a place of habitation which :s very flexible in plan
so that it can be changed to suit the conditions of the moment
Ex. Sunlight and air were to take to its full advantage Low, movable partitions were .provided
B, FACTORY
During the early days, business relations were very simple and a man often worked at home. His work
shop was an extra room in his house. As his business increased, it was necessary to move to a bigger
location & to have less interference with his family activities. But still the shop or factory still had a domestic
character craftsmanship was still the signs of times.Business was personal rather than impersonal because
producers took pride in each article his fellowmen required.
There was a great change when the industrial period came. Smt'lll shops grew into factories and there
was no regard to efficient arrangement or pleasant working conditions. There was poor ventilation & lighting in
every factory which resulted to gloom and inefficiency. What happened then was simply enlarged shops for
these work places.
In the 20 h century, there was a great commercial growth which was marked by competition and mass
I production. Competitive prices and quality control were the dominant factors for succe'""~ful busine3S. And in
order to improve the factors it was necessary to provide proper working conditions in a well-planned factories
pleasant surroundings. '
J C. CHURCH
One of the natural impulses of man is that or worship. Early man carved idols & placed them about a
hearth and paid homage to them. Succeeding people were more skill full in representatio n of their gods and in
the structures in which they might be worshipped.
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Egyptians - Buin in a colossal & permanent way in order 10. preserve the bodies & perpetuate the i
memories of the dead & also to emphasize the supremacy of the denies. ::
Greeks - adopted the Egyptians sim~e fonms but mystery and gave way to refinement of detail. Even if · II
t;he G!eek's & the Roman's religious structure were called temples & the Xtians were called churches, both I
I
were also called religious buildings.
Greek - Temples were built in honor of the gods & each temple contained the statue of the god to whom it is
dedicated. Priests were the only persons allowed to go inside these structures & represent the people in
communicating with their god. The people simply worshipped from a distance & received their impression of
the power of tile god from the exterior appearance of the temple. And because of this, there was no
need to
provide space nor provide a large building to house the people. People were kept outside, thus the exterior
were given more importance in terms of architectural details rather than the interior.
Christian - The Xtian religion encouraged the participation of the worshipers in a personal & direct way.
Churches were built to hold congregations & for that reason the interior was given more importance than the
exterior.
Xtian churches were not only made places of worship but also places of learnin~. The people
learned from the sculptures & carvings of the exterior and chronology of Biblical events furnished in the
interior.
When the invention of the printing press came, the church lost some of its importance as an
educational center. Its primary appeal was to the spirit of worships. Sculptures decorative quality was
stressed. The plan has undergone the greatest change, particularly with those denominations whose rituals
are rather simple. The preaching type of church has developed, in which an attempt is made to seat the '
congregation in an aUditorium where their participation is a mental rather than a physical one. The cross-
shaped ;llan has either disappeared or has been greatly modified.
20th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
The 201h century has brought countless inventions and discoveries. Old standards of thought and living
have been modified or abandoned. New activities have called for structures to house them and new materials
and types of construction have made these buildings possible. Let as examine a few which have either been
developed or changed by the social system of our day.
TRANSPORTATION - This did not only make t/>e carrying of all kinds of bldg. maVs. from one end of the
earth to the other possible but it also has created structures unknown a few generations ago.
Automobile - has made necessary the building of garages, filling stations & bus terminal & besides rendered
almost obsolete narrow roads which were designed to let only the horse and buggy pass through .
Airplane - has brouQht about the development of airports.
Steamships - gave importance to the erection of docks and warehOUS€3.
Railroads - made possible the erection of passenger and freight terminals.
COMMERCE - Business needed a place ·in which to house.its activities thus commercial buildings started to
sprout at a fast phase.
EDUCATION - Mass educaton made possible the bldg. of schools & colleges. Not only schools & colleges '
II were treated as seats of academic but also museums and libraries were built to cope up with education.
REHABILITATION - Labor saving devices made n possible for man to find time for leisure and the need for
recreation . There is a universal interest in sports and entertainment, both by spectators and participants. As a
result, we have theaters and dance halls, arenas and ball parks, go~ clubs and ctty clubs - all the outgrowth of
an effort to get away from the cares of our exacting existence. For medicai services, ;1ospftais and ciinic were
built. Thus because of our multiple activities, it has influenced architecture.
THE ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE
The Evolution of Fonns
I. Function and History
The buildings of the past were developed because of definite and tangible needs. The fUnctions of the
various structures determined their plan, shape and treatment. The materials and types of construction
influenced their appearance, but the purposes of the building were the co r.trolling factors in their general
design. Before one could study the present day architecture, it ~ould be wise to study first the attempts of past
generations.

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When one has gone through the study of the past tl would be wise to exert an effort to solve today's I:
Problems. What archtlecture we have today were only the frutls of the past experiments. One should learn
people why of the past erected buildings the reason for such buildings. Of course one should consider 1:,.'
materials which were used by the early people in the erection of their structures. And these materials were..
existing proofs regarding their religion, science or philosophy. .
l Each perioa of development was once -modern-, The use of the true arch by the Romans was an
innovation which would have seemed strange to the Greeks. In turn, the builders of the Modern Ages erected
structures those unlike of preceding periods that they were doubtless regarded as daringly new.

l Contemporary designers in the so called functional manner may by paving the way for another style, 'but they
are not the first -modernists- in the evolution of architecture.
As we scrutinize the various historic styles we should search for the structural scheme. Instead of looking
for the faQade decorations - like pilasters and cornices - we should attempt to find the reasons for the
development of the basic principles of design thereby evolved, are the fundamental influenced behind
architectural movements.
Art & arChitecture went tilrough 3 very definitely recognized phases in the course of their development :
ARCHAIC - saw the grouping of the untried hands in an attempt to master new problems and nevi mediums,
on effort to find an expression for a new material.
MASTERY - the buildings or art produced during this time show that designer or artist has discovered how to
control his medium and is sure of his technique and performance. This is the height of the development.
• DECADENCE - is marked wtlh the artist becoming too sure of himse~ and begins to tal,e liberties with his
mat'ls. His designs were less struct'l.& were too ornate. It heralds the decline & is the beginning of the end.
II. European Precedents
• The architecture which preceded the Classical period must concern as little here. The heavy, massive
buildings of the Egyptians had a great influence upon that of the Greeks, but the architecture of Babylonians &
Assyrians has and little direct effect upon the structure of today. Early Xtian & Byzantine are omitted because
• they were only copies of the Roman architecture. The classification of the various historic styles are made
upon the basis of whether they are structural and creative or decorative and imitative as foltoVOlS :
1 . STRUCTURAL STYLES (Creative)
• a) Trabeated (post and lintel) Archtlecture
Classical, 7 111 c B.C. to 51h c AD. , inclusive
1) Greek
2) Roman (With beginning of round arch) Arcuated (arch and pier) Architecture
3)Romanesque (round arch) 6 t1 to 121'1 centuries Italian, French, English, German
4)Gothic (pointed arch) 13#1 to 151'1 centuries French , English, German, Flemish , Italian, Spanish "
2. IMITATIVE STYLES (Decorative)
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.a} Post & lintel & round arch Renaissance, 15 to 18 centuries Italian,French,English, German, Spanish,.
Flerflish (American Colonial) The drtf. periods of historic styles ceased with the Renaissance, & since then
architecture in Europe and America has consisted of the following :
r 1. Revivals, 19th c : Classical, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance
2. Eclectism, first 2 decades of the 20· c
This is the electing to work in any of the styles of historic development, depending upon the type of building
r and the inclinations of the architect and client.
3. Contemporary Movement: since circa 1920
Here is an architecture based upon the desire to allow function &materials to dictate form and ·style~. If from
this approach a new style is evolved, it will be as an -expression of steel and concrete - a new material
interpreted in many ways.
If we analyze the foregoing outline we can see that the architecture of the past had its major developments
related to a few countries of Europe. The relationship between Europe and America in the development of
architecture is not accidental; it is the result of the forces of nature working through the activities of man.
The development of architecture in the U.S. was the result of the follov-ling styles which emerged from the
following :
1. Classical : .Greece and Italy
2. Romanesque: Italy, France, England & Germany

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3. Gothic: France and England
4. RenaisSance : Italy
The following are characteristics of the various architectural movements from the classical period to the
present day: ..
i 1. Greek - more of the temple and theatre type of architecture. Attention of the design was founded on the
exterior to satisfy outside worship. The type of construction was the post and lintel. Greek architecture
stresses refinement of line and simpficity of detail. It has clarity, strength and repose.

• 2. Roman - where the appeal of Greek architecture is spiritual, that of the Romans is often pretentious. The
builders of the Roman Empire are rather tagged as engineers than architects. They felt magnificent temples,
palaces and baths with large span and covered with' concrete vauHs. They developed the round arC'.h and pier.
Romans structured were exactly the opposite of the Greek architecture in the sense that their temples were
richly ornamented but less fundamental.
3. Romanesque - this is a church architecture period. Instead of depending upon stability imparted by sheer
mass, it employed the round arch and vault in such a manner as to give equilibrium by the adjustment of
~ thrusts. This architectural style is honest in its use of brick and stone; direct and vigorous in its arrangement of

,I mass and detail.


4. Gothic - the activity of the Gothic Age was the result of intense religious fervor - the spiritual urge which
found an outlet in the consummation of the soaring vertical quality of the cathedral. In solving the problem of

, concentrating vault thrusts, pointed arches, slender piers and flying buttresses, together with stained glass
windom, were substitute for thick walls. Gothic architecture was a system of construction, religion and
philosophy. 4

, 5. Renaissance - it was so easy for Italy to revert to a classical type of architecture. Gothic never had a firm
root in the place and with the Medieval style which was in contrast to Italy's climate. Renaissance designers
did not always copy Roman's forms, rather they adapted them to their own needs. In spite of the freshness

,
and originality which often resulted, it was nevertheless the least creative of the styles. Pldns of churches,
palaces and villas were usually in formal arrangements making them the chief contributions of the Italian phase
of development.

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Reflections in the U.S.
1. 17th century - The early houses built in this country were based upon English traditions of timber
framing. Overhanging second stories, beamed ceilings and narrow windows contributed to the informality of
this period.
2. Colonial - The Renaissance movement reached the eastern coloniesthrough the Georgian sf'jle by the
way of England. The style was of a Simple, symmetrical architecture which combined refined, delicate

~ mouldings with slender, graceful columns.


3. Greek Revival - Greek forms and details were applied to all types of bldgs. Even if the result was a
structure which was pleasing to the eye, they were often quite illogical in regard to function . The style was·too
inflexible to permit an easy adaptation. What happened was only an archrtecture offaoade arrangements.
4. Gothic Revival - The peeple began to tire of the formality of the Greek style. thus they turned to the
informality of the Gothic.They began to adapt the Gothic but were not successful in capturing the spir~ of the
style.So the resu~ was rather cold & hard structure which also lacked the flexible quality of European buildings.
5. Victorian - This was the name given to the attempt during the 70's & 80's to bring romance through the
medium of architecture & interior decoration into the lives of those who lived during the period of industrial
depression. The architects believed that in order to give beauty to a building, it seemed necessary to load it
meaningless turrets, gables & jig-saw ornaments. The result was an architectur~ with no structural sense and
was exemplified by the so-<:alled "Eastlake" style & the Victorian Gothic.
6. Romanesque Revival - H.H. Richardson was respcnsible in introducing this style in the U.S. This
architecture was marked with bold, massive details.
7. Renaissance Revival- This period saw the exodus of student to Paris to study architecture. The vogue
then in France· was Renaissance & so it was just so natural that structures in the U.S. reflected the
Reneissance style. -:-he French chateaux also influenced the design of the mansions of the wealthy in the U.S.
Howe'Jer, it was that mother arr.M:ecture uf the Renaissance, the Classical, which rescued U.S. from the
artistic depths in which rt had been floundering for half a century.

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Antecedents of the ContemPC1rary : . .
1. SrEEL - Library of the SI. ~enevieve, Paris .was designed with barrel vaults supported by exposed Iron
columns. Same pattern of design was followed by the Sibliotheque Nationale. The building of these brought , ,
speculation that a new b~ !ilding material and a new type of construction would someday revolutionize the ,',
character of architectural design. , ,
2. L'ART. NOUVEAU - Segan in Europe about 1900 & iasted for a few short years. it was based on a
I
romantic theory that curved natural forms of flowers & animals were more satisfactory than a straight lines and j
abstract designs. Instead of function or use governing the design, as in corltemporary architecture, the lines of
the building were distorted to frt the theory of curved surfaces. The idea did not developed into a style because I
it was not fundamental.
3. THE EARLY MODERNISTS - Louis Sullivan & later his student, Frank Lioyd Wright waged a war
against tradition in architecture. Both sought to reveal the structural scheme of the buitding.
Contemporary Reflections: The Contemporary Movement c.:an be said to be made up of 3
attitudes of mind reflected in their representative structure: ,
1. Traditional Eclectics - They work in any style of the past & their Dev'l. is only in the direction of the use I
of traditional motifs. They may be Classicists - preferring formality & purity of form, or Romanticists - clinging
• to the picturesqueness of the medieval. i
2. Traditional Modernists - These are those who give first consideration to the use of the building but who
use the historic style as the basis for the design. The old and the new style were merged to produce an
architectural style of this age.
3. Non - Traditional Modernists - Believes in functionalism . Believed in ~form follolNS function - - the use
of the building and the characteristics of materials should influence the appearance of the structure.

• MODERNISMS
The chief characteristics of 20'" century architecture is its plurality. Some critics have erroneously suggested
that there has been a single evolutionary Modern Movement in modern architecture as such. Indeed there
have been many modern movements. The main revolution in architecture began with the new master
• problems that emerged as long as the 1780's when a vast amount of monumental symbolistic building began &
when new problems of a specifically public architectural character were .not by the architects of the period.

• It was not until the 1880's that a desire for a truly modern style eme(ged and even then it was by no means
articulate, although in some ways it prefaced the wno1e of the work of the early 2011"1 century. By the turn of the
century, architects sensible to the changes that were gOing in society, science, technology and 'psychology,
were struggling with the problems of identification of architectural ideas and the increasingly important notion
• of providing an architecture appropriate to its time. The Art Nouveau did not successfL:lly produce the
necessary transition from the stylistic Revivalism of the 1911"1 century into the new world of the 20th . It did,
however, provide a bridge'- via Expressionism - between the individuals of the Art Nouveau designers and the
• collective work of the archriects who were associated with the International Modernism movement of the late
1920's.
1. ECLECTICISM '
It is usually applied to any building that incorporates a mixture of the historical styles.
Personalities: of the 19th century & of early 20th century
a) Un~ed States : Nenry Richardson, Louis H. Sullivan
b) Slitain : Auguste Pugin ,Richard Shaw
Sir George SCott , Alfred Waterhouse
c) France : Eugene Viollet - La - Due
• d) Germany : Gottfried Semper
2. STRUCTURALISM
Iron construction, initiated by Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace, brought about a trend in architecture.
Numerous exhibition halls, locomotive sheds & other large - scale -engineering- types of structure followed.
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3. MONUMENTALISM
In architecture, one aspect of individualism stand out: the idea of building monuments. This was
based on a general notion that (from Adolf Laos) "the form of an object should last anu tnat simplicity there are
some forms which have eternal validity.

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Loos' contribution to this is his entry to t!>e Chicago Tirbune Tower competition In 1922 Which was In
the lorm 01 a huge Doric column.
Monumentalism took hod among the German pioneers of modern arch., notable among them :
a) Kari Friedrich Schinkel
b) Peter Behrens - Turbine Shop, AEG Factory, Berlin
c) Hans Poelzig - Posen Tower; 8reslare Centennial Exhibftion
d) Mies van der Rohe
e) Le Corbusier
f) France: Tony Carnier
g) Auguste Perret
4. NATIONAL ROMANTICISM (Irom 1860 to 20th c)
Bolstered by ideas of national aggrandizement, this self - emulating style fed on pa~1icular local
historical motifs and devi~es as well as the associative aspects of the great historical periods in architecture so
beloved by the eclectics. In some cases it parallels the work of those architects normally referred 10 as Art
Nouveau designers, but its aspirations were much wider than those of the international ·photo modernists".
a) In Glasgow - Charles Rennie Mackintosh
b) Finland - Eliel Saarinen , Lars Sonck ,Gallen - Kallela
c) Brrtain - Richard Norman Shaw; Cha~es Voysey
d) Spain - Antoni Gaudi
e) Germany - Paul Bonatz , Albrt Speer
5. FIN DE SIECLISM (Art Nouveau).-
a) Belgium - Victor Horta
b) Glasgow - Charies Rennie Mackintosh
c} Vienna - Joseph Ma. Olbrich, Josef Hoffman
6. RACICALISM
It was largely the individualists who demanded a radical shift in emphasis fro the bldgs. of the 1
• past to the design of those which met demands of modern life. .1
a) Henry van de Velde
b) Walter Gropius - model factory at Werkbund Exhibition
7. CONSTRUCTIVISM .
It was a passionate pleading for ideas on form & space in arch . as well as in tho::! other arts.
Exponents : Vladimir Tatlin . Naum Gabo
Antoine Pevsner Kasimir Malevich
AI Ussitzky Marcel Breuer
Mart Stam James Sterling
8. EXPRESSIONISM
• This term is used to describe the work of those architects who prefigured the International and
Functionalist Period of the Modem Movement.
Personalities : German Hans Poelzig
• Bruno Taut ·
Finsterlin
, Hans Scharoun
Waner Gropius (for a short time)
~ Mies van der Rohe - though some of his works shoed and Expressionist idiom like a .... 'i,
!' skyscraper project sheathed in glass with reinforced concrete cantilevered floors &
a concrete parking lot

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9. FUTURISM
Filippo Marinetti (a poet) co-opted with the archrtect Antonio SanfElia who, unfortunately was killed in action.
However the former published the Futurist Architecture Manifesto which proclaimed that Futurist architecture

i "is the architecture of calculation , of audacity and simplicity; the architecture of reinforced concrete, of Iron, of
glass & all those substitute for wood, stone and brick which make possible maximum elasticrty & lighteness" &
in a rhetorical manner, it stated: "Let us throwaway monuments, sidewalks, arcades, steps. Let us sink
squares into the ground, raise the level ofth'e city".

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. The maoffes\o had a lim~ed influence at the time bui ~ was rediscovered & reactivated in the 1950's by
arch~ect-p1a~ners.
10,NEOPU\STICISM
In its precise meaning this term relates to the theory of pure Plastic art which had a pro~ounced influence
on Dutch architects. It consisted in the exclusive use of the right angle in the horizontal position, & thA use of
the 3 primary colors contrasted with or incorporating in various canvasses the 3 non--oolors : white, black &
gray. The first fully integrated neoplastic house which is still existing can be found in Utrecht & designed by
Gerril Rietneld.
Other designers using this style were: Theo van Doesburg (founder of De Stiji group) & Cor van Esteren.
11, BAUHAUS STYLE (Walter Gropius) ,
The Bauhaus was the creative center of artistic experiment during the 1920's & rt became
internationally known through its publications and exhibitions, & also, most importantly. through the vvorks of its
architect heads who were in the front line of the European avant-garde.
Bauhaus - School of art and design, founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius; in 1927, the 2nd head was Hanes
Meyer and later, Mies van der Rohetook the resigns from the latter, i
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12. ClAM & International Modernism (Congress Internationaux d' Architecture Moderne) set up by
Le Corbusier & Siegfried Giedion
This was the major organization through wlc the ideas of modern architecture & urbanism
became known to the wor1d , The ClAM style of architecture was characterized by cubic , white surface,
flat-roofed architecture , usually set in 'an arid landscape , '
13. ORGANICISM ( or OrganiC ArcMecture )
It is used as desCription of architecture that sympathizes wI its environment wlc is shown ,
I'

in the earlier works of Frank Uoyd Wright & the Prairie School , It is the very antithesis ,f the .I
geometrical organized facadism of those architects who believed that the architecture shC"'uld intrude on
the environ ment in the Classic, Neo-Classic & Gothic sense ,
Other followers of 'Organtcism are : 4, Han Scharoun ( Germany)
1. Claude Bragdon ( U.S.) 5. Bruce Goff
2. Henry Russel Hitchcock (U.S. ) 6. Paolo Soleri
3. Hugo Haring ( Germany) 7. Herb Greene
14, UTILITARIANISM
Sought for economic solution for low value sites as well alternative cheap fonns of construction in timber, brick
and metal. Low<ost housing was referred to as utilitarian architecture, In Britain the utilitarian house par
excellence Vias known as the ·PREFAB", The idea was to fabricate these units in factories and brought to file
sited ready- built for immediate assembly, The effect of this eventually was to create an atmosphere in which
"system bui I ding~ take over the role of individually designed dwellings,
15. THE NI EW BRUTALISM
Originally, it: was meant to indicate a certain type of arch~ecture of the 1950·s. It was introduced by British
Architects Peter and Alison Smithson, although the Swedish Erik Asplund lays daim to an version, "Nee-
Brutalism",
Brutalism was first referred to the vvorks of Mies van der Rohe V'o'hose structured showed a display
o~ his proce ,;,.g technology of glass & steel. All the servicing systems of a building (like pipes) were openly on
display and not concealed in ducts and by covers. later ~ was applied to buikJings whioh im~ed the exposed
concrete fin i shed in Le Corbusier's works, Engineers renamed it th~ bunker style,
16. META. BOLISM _
The term metabolism was first applied to the arch~ecture at the Wo~d Design Conference, Tokyo,
1960, This concerns 'Ntth the problems of cities such as Tokyo, Among its advocates are: Luyonuri Kikutake
'.
Masato otaka, Kisho Kurokawa , Fumihoko Maid
Its early & important concern was Kenzo Tange, Metabolist causs regarded "human society as
a vital process, a continous development from atom to nebula·, The group concentrated on the new order of
relation s hi~ beween man & the environment.
The early me~bo[jst terminology was based on orgsnic & cybernetic analogies, Ho~ever, as
th~ir ideas developed they soon came to resemble earlier historical visionary projects & by tht3 time they came
to be built t he visionary clement was lost in the face of the need to build realistic earthquake-proof, concrete
buildings, E xample: Tanged's radio & press center at Kofiu;'Kurokawa's Nagakis Capsule Tower, Tokyo,
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17. POST - METABOUSM


Its use Implies an attempt to summarize some of the very divergent currents that characterized the Japanese·
architectural scene at the moment tt was a reaction to ttie -meta-architecture- of the earlier Metabol~ms. ,
Post-metabolism interests in explaining such things ~ the nature of the small sites polemical schemes.
18. POST - MODERNISM ,..
This is an alternative to Modern Movement ideas like revivals of pattern book principles of the '.
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19 century, a new interest in vernacular forms adapted to modern needs, a much more strict interpretation of
the theatrical element in Modem Movement architecture proper, a distinctly confused revival of F . ~. Wrighfs
organic viem, and a return to the low-rise high-density develot>ments of the interwar period.
Example of this new phase:
A city on the mes~ at Acrosanti by Paolo Soleri
Medical Faculty ofWolume nr. Brussels, Belgium by Lurien Kroll
19. CONTEXTUALISM - Blending of a new structure with an old.
Plan and Volume
A study of the past and the present shows man 's desire to satisfy his need for shetter and this is done by the
combination of recognized architectural elements. These architectural elements are:
1. Horizontal Plan Area
2. Space - Enclosing Surfaces
Their combination resutts in the creation of useful volumes, through the development of mils, columns, doors
and windows. Arch~ecture itse~ is VOLUME , but tt has tts beginnings in the plans.
The Nature of the Plan
1. The plan in an architectural is the graphic projection of the volume of the bu ilding upon a horizontal plane.
2. It is the pattern, dictated by the requirements of thP. building, from which the elements of the elevation and
section emerge.
Qualities of Plan
1. The arrangement of units according to practical req'mts, determined by size, shape and use of rooms. .
2. The arrangement according to the rules of abstract des~gn .
Examples:
1. Rooms poorty related to each other fr. the. standpoint of use will not be corrected by beautiful cpmposition .
2. If the client specifies a railroad station and what comes out of the plan is museum, then the blrlg is a failure.
3. If the plan calls for a library, there should be ample lobbies for circulation and isolated reading room$i for
quiet meditation.
4. For office buildings - all floors must be well lighted, close to vertcal circulation and flexible in planning for
the use of future tenants .
A plan must function in a logical manner.
Abstract design in plan adjustment involves an understanding of the composition & this will ·be discussed later.
The Growth of Volume
Mass, or volume, and its relation to plan is revealed when the building seems to grow fran the
plans, as if they had sprung from the foundations below.
Plan Types
1. The Square Plan - this type is perhaps the simplest one but rt offers many variations in tr,81ment in
spite of its simplicity.
2. The Octagonal Plan - as the number of the potygon increases, its approaches the circle, The_ I
creation of the octagon as one of the first moves away from ttid area with 4 equal sides and angles but the
octagonal is one of the steps in the development of the circular plan from the square.
3. The Circular Plan - the isolalec circular plan forms the basis for a graceful and beautiful btilding. Its
curving wall catches the light in a brilliant or subdued manner, depending upon the material of which it is
composed. The ever-changing shadows on its surface are intriguing in their elusiveness.
4. The rectangular Plan - there are 2 common variations of this type - the symmetrical or formal and
the unsymmetrical or informal.
5. Combinations - planning involves the arrangement of these elements in such a manner that the
activities housed in the building may function in an efficient manner and that the resulting compostion may
meet the demands of aesthetic design. Simplicity in planning is more desirable than complexity, and

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organization Is infir~ely better than confusion. If the first step is to be taken toward a sucoessful solution of a
problem, the principles governing the use of axes should be followed. The relative Importance of the various
plan un~ should be established, and the un~ should then be allowed to fail Into place upon inteillgen~y
disposed li~es which will give an organic qual~ to the design.
The Elements of llie Visible Structure
Arranged according to the function or use In llie completed building
I. Structural Elements
1. Walls 2. Coiumns 3. Beams
II. Protective Eler.oents
1. Roofs - pyramidal, gambrel, conical, gable, hipped, combinations
2. Domes - high, low, pointed, hemispherical, flat (saucer-like)
3. Ceilings - flat or slightly curved, and are plain, beamed or coffered
4. Vaulting - barrel, rib and panel vaulting
5. Balustrades
III. Circulatory Elements (movement of light and air)
The horizontal and vertical elements of circulation are as follo\NS:
1. Openings, to permit passage.from the exterior to the interior or from one room to another.
2. Corridors, to allow travel from one part of the building to another.
3. Stairs. ramps or elevators w/c makes it possible the necessary communication bet. the various users.
IV. Decor.atlve Elements
1. Mouldings - classified according to their purpose. It may:
Terminate- the ones which crawn a group of mouldings or a cornice (direction is horizontaij
Support - mouldings more sturdy in character (direction is v.ertical)
Separate - those concave, convex and flat surfaces which give interest to a composition by reasons
of introducing a ch;;mge of cfr:-ection between 2 or more important elements.
Translate - usually have an outward and dolMlward direction to their contours. Tt:eyare used at a
base of a column or will help and translate the weight above to the broader area of the plinth below.
2. Ornament - maybe analyzed with reference to its character
Abstract - has no reference to any particular object, or at least at any familiar, easily recognized object
Example: c onsists of a pleaSing arrangement of geometrical forms to produce a pattern or composition.
Pictorial - has less connection with arch. than WIth some o ther forms of expression. TeUs a story.
1. Naturalistic - pictorial decoration like biblical or secular history are sometimes depicted in the sculpture of
the church .
2. Conventionalization - should consist of the simplification of the design and its reduction to a basic
structural pattern Which VoIiIl express the character of materials to be used
Another approach to decoration is by way of the form which rt assumes, as:
1. Two --Dimensional: Painting - Painted DecOration Murals, Frescoes, MosaiCS, tiles, marbles, In lays of ~
metals, wOood, etc.
2. Three - Dimensional: Ornament, carved, cast or hammered - high relief, Hew r~lief , Sculpture - Low
Relief ,In the Round , Freestanding
The basic elements and situation into which decorative forms have organized are as follows:
1. Origin: Straight Line - free, zigzag, diaper, square, triangle, etc. .
Curved Une - wavy line, spiral, scroll, oval, cirde, etc.
2. C:omposltlon: Arrangement - with in a border, within an area; allover pattern .
3. r reatment ";:'variation of size, shape and tone -Informal ,Formal- repetition ,alternation ,gradation
Radiation, balance, emphasis, etc.
Character Istic of the Lines:
1. Stralghlt Line - is sturdy. It is masculine and belongs to archrtecture wrth a determined mission to fulfill.
However, ht has its moods.
a) vertic:::alline - expresses the spirit" of the Gothic; rt is proud and exalted; inspiration
b) horizClntalline - represents the horizon of the seascape; is calm and peaceful, it is repose
c) diag~nalline - symbolizes the flight of geese; it is vigorous or even angry, it is action
2. Curv~ line - more subtle than the straight It is more graceful an:j sensitive. It is feminine and represents
that archit~cture which caters to the emotional rather than the physical.

17
. The Principle of Design
r.,. Essentials of the Structure
Architecture is represented by a buildil1Q which meets in a satisfactory manner the requirements:
a) of logical function b) sound construction c) beautiful composition
Whenever we talk of architecture which is shelter we do not only mean a dwelling place for man but shelter
during the various hours of his daily existence - during work, recreation and sleep.
In providing shelter ~ is to be observed that buildings have walls and roofs, doors and windcMs and that
these elements are assembled in a simple or complex manner. Whatever the type or character of the building,
parts of it are more evident to the observer than the arrangement of the rooms which is C2llled the ~an . Thus
there exist the visible and the invisible structures, or the plan pattern and the apparent volume.
I. The Invisible Structure
The plc::n is the beginning of the building - it is the foundation. It relates the various units to each other. It is
the most important element of volume. We should proceed from within to without - from the relating of this
units to the enclosing of this units by the shell which is ca!led the exterior. To the uninitiated, the plan is the
invisible structure while the exterior is the visible structure.
II. The Visible Structure
Visible structure is composed of the following:
1. Fonn: Mass - volume, or evidence of the 3rd dimension
Direction - vertical or horizontal axis of mass
Sflape - geometric qualities (ex: rectangulaf, cylindrical, conical, pyramidal)
2. Surface: Area - surface with 2-dimensions, as the facrade of the building

- Texture - surface treatment, identified with materials, rough or Smooth, etc.


Tone -light and shade caused by openings, projections, etc.
Color - inherent or applied cclors caused by spectrum hues.

- Mass - In an architectural discussion the accepted definition of form deals with shape. If 'a shape is 2-
dimensional, the figure is called an area or surface; but if it is 3-dimensional , it becomes mass. In architecture,
mass is usually volume, and the surfaces which enclose space have areas. Architectural surfaces are areas of
mate-rials whiCh enclose a bui lding and that th ey are of secondary irnportance to the masses which they create'.
This is quite true but in order that a building maybe wholly satisfactory in its appeal, the necessary attention
must be given to the treatment of the exterior. The surface of a structure have texture, tone and color.
Texture - Refers to the quality of surface treatment Texture is usually associated with materials. Thus
texture depends largely upon the choice and use of materials. The selection of a definite material fixes, to
some extent, th e character of the final effect, but the treatment 'Wh ich is given to that material often produces
startling results. There should be a consistency in the selection of the texture of materials - a harmonious
relationship between the various surfaces. Contrast and variety must be present but the character and quality
of the different textures should agree. The character of each particular type of room building calls for a
corresponding type of texture. The ingenuity of the present age has brought out unlooked for effects by
combining stone, metal and glass.
Examples: Stone - may be polished and reflect light in a sparkling manner or it may be rough and coarse
and give to the building a feeling of strength and simplic~.
Stucco - used in Various treatments to catch the sunlight is often used nor homes of Meditteranean c~aracter_
Polished marble and bright chromium are sympathetic with each other but usually do not combine well with
rough fieldstone or brick.
Tone - rt is the variety in the use of the gradation from black to white. Tone comes from the change of
impressions carried to the eye as a result of the exposition of dark and light areas. Tone, or the 'creation of
I;ght and shade, may be secured by the used of deors and windows or by shadows cast by projecting parts of
the buHding. Tone gives interest to an interior and, if the results are to be entirely sa~isfactory, reqlJires the
same careful study that was devoted to the general massing.
Color -as distinguished from tone, results from the hues of the spectrum . -It may be inherent or as in marble
which is colored by nature or it may be applied, when rt is painted or decorated by man.
Color requires intelligent harl dling and a thorough knowledge of harmonies and values. The color sch2me of a
building should be carefully studied, with an understanding of the character of the· materials whim are to

18
produce the colors. There also should be a sympathotic comprehension of what Is called "the emotional use of
color". Color Is definitely related to the fives of Individuals and to the materials things with which they .re
associated. It influences human reactions in a psychological sense.
Psychological Significance :
Red - orange - hea~ stimulation, activity, richness, splendor & dignity
Pink - daintiness, gaiety, animation
Yellow, yellow - green - dryness, crispness, relaxation, warmth, light, cheer
Green - blue - coldness, spaciousness, passivity, tranquility
Violet - coolness, limpness, dullness, daintiness, reservation, femininity
Brown - warmth
Decorative Uses and Effects :
Red - stimulating or cheering to the mefancholy or lazy; upsetting to the nervous or overactiVe; attention
compelling. Use in small quantities in dining room lib kitchen
Blue - soo ing to the nervous; depressing to the morose. Inspirable mentally with iIIim~bility - the cold
immensity of spoce infinity. It has an intellectual appeal. Symbolically, ~ is the color of trutI1, which is the
result of calm reflection and never of healed argument
Yellow - in certain hues, the sensation of glory, cheerfulness in other variations, cowardice, cheapness .
Connotes splendor, radiance vividness. It is of great healing value to the brain . Use in masses & small
quantities where light is poor)
Green - cooling, not productive of extreme reactions. Symbolic of serenity & rebirth; suggestive of hope.
Orange - associated 'Nith life, well- being, energy (avoid bright orange in masses)
Brown (ta n-golden brown) - depressing ~ used alone, best combined of orange, yellow, gold (use sparingly to
avoid drabness in living room , library)
Purple (plum, mauve, orchid) - associated with heroism, or with passion and mystery, pomp, gorgeousness.
It has a soothing influence (use sparingly in Hving room, library)
~ender. violet - (lavender may be used in bedrooms)
Pink - sHghtty stimulating (use in masses, or in bedrooms, or nursery)
Black, wh ite, gray - intensity other color in rooms
This relationship between the color and character of a building results from the oombining of warm and cool
colors in the proper amounts. One should remember that the warm colors, t~e reds 2nd yelloV§, tend to
advance toward the observer while the cool colors, the blues and greens, appear to recede. /JJso the more
neutral colors should be used for larger areas, reserving fOr the more bomant accents those bright colors which
over powe r the composition unless sparingly used.
Thus the visible arChitectural structure develops from a logical plan - the invisible structure _ & groINS into a
well- corn posed mass with interesting & pleasing surface treatments.
The Process of Space Organizations
In develOping a set of basic principles for the production of living archttecture, the designer should think
of space vvtthin space, and not of so~ds in space. The principles of space organization for architectural
purposes are concerned with:
1 The use of space (utility) Service to occupants
2 - The collaboration of materials (strength) Permanence & security
3 - The contributions of aesthetics (beauty) ArcMecture as distinguished fr mere bldg.
With these basic considerations in mind, the architectural designer is ready to proceed with the organiz:nion of
space. Tl"'ae designer can think directly in terms of spatial relationships & can arrange ill. his mind the variouS 3-
dimension al form in arcMecture. Combination of required various spaces & putting them together Is celled
design fro :In spatial compositions. ArcMectural volume is simply space surrounded by .urfaces - usually In
number & they are the following: (Components of an arch~ectural volume)
Horizontal base -the floor
4 vertica=1 surfaces - the walls
top cove.".ring - the ceiling or roof
the floor - most important where man walks
the walls=. - provides boundaries between interior & exterior; segregated areas
roof - protect & shelter

t9
When 'the designer visualizes volume, he must do in terms of size, proportion & relationship, ne most I
Important aspect 01 a volume has to do I'ith its horizontal dimensions, Thus Design from HOrizontal
Dispositions or the evolution 01 volume from area has the lollowing sequential steps: I
1. horizontal disposition (2-<limensio~~I)
a. arrangement of units according to function
b. arrangement according to plan composition
2, vertical growth (3-dimensional)
a. creation of volumes & space relations
b, development 01 mass & its composnion
c. relation of type OJ" construction
3. conditioning process
a. space organized for convenience selection of materials introduction of circulatory elements : doors,
windows, stairs, corridors
b. space organized for comfort introduction of mechanical equipment for light, heat & sanitation . I,
c. space organized for appearance interior & exterior surfaces & volumes conditioned according to /Xirlciples
of composition .
Horizontal Disposition - The various units of plan are first arranged in a horizontal manner inorder to
secure a workable relationship between the different areas. This pattern is dictated by the functicn of the
building & the desirable size & shapes of the units: themselves. Units must be laid out to facilitate moVtment
through the building. This is called planning for potential circulation & preferably the niost inportant
consideration for all types of architecture. Architecture thus, begins with a 2~ di l"Densional plan 'N hich is
translated in foundations for vertical development.
Vertical Growth - A floor plan alone dt)es not produce shelter. It is necessary to extend the originl of walls
vertically in order to enclose space & to begin the creation of volume.
Conditioning Process:
1. Condrtioned for convenience
a)Areas and volumes must be translated into brick stone or wood to provide a permanent shelter.
b) Dividing areas must be pierced with openings for horizontal circulation while stairs must be added fir vertical
travel,
2.Conditioned for comlort I I
a) Must be provided with the proper facilities lor natural and artificial Ughting.
b) Heating, air conditioning & sanitation must be added
3. Conditioned for aesthetic enjoyment
a) Should have pleasing texture & color & proportion which are the result of the application of the pnciple of
composition.
b) Contrast, scale, balan ce & unity should pe correctly interpreted inOrder to insu re beauty of line, form & o lor.
The Creative Principles
The previous lecture were involved with the growth of mass, surface & volume from the hor.ontal
arrangement of arcMectural units. Now, we shall study the principles by which these elements, bol plan
& exterior develop & by which they are combined.
The practice of architecture involves both the conception of an ideas & its ultimate expression inn ateri~ls.
The process of de....eloping this idea to a point at which a solution of a problem at hand is reached ial ,own as
arcMectural design. Design must concem itsell with both the practice and the aesthetic.
Functional Design - deals with the developmeoJ of a plan arrangement to serve in a purely mectn;'cal way
the functions of a building.
Examples : 1 - it discovers the proper sizes of rooms & their relations to each other
2.- tt lurnishes the elemen1s 01 comfort -ligh~ heat & ventilation
3 - it determines the current size & location of the structural
members which give the building strength
NO'N, even if all of these requirements are me~ it does not necessarily mean that architecture fS.ts. The
building may remain only eng'g, structure which is vllo the spirit 01 archITecture wlc is called logic81111 uty.
Aesthetic Design - works together with practical design to the end that out 01 this collaborali< grows a
building which is not only functional but also pleasing in appearance. Architecture. to be distinglhed from

20

Q iiE!ll'
I

mere building, must have beauty - not beauty which is appli.ed to the surface 88 an afterthough~ but beauty
which comes from an Intelligent consideration & combination of function & structure.
I
::l
The principles by which modern archHecture should be developed are concerned, therefore, wHh
function, strength & appearance, as follows:
1. Function of the Structure - functional architecture is the result of arranging volumes in such a way that
they are adopted to human use.
a) Relationship of units - it is necessary that there he a correct relationship of the units with comprise the
structure (correct placing for proper circulation between) ,
b) Physical qualtties of unKs - should also be adjusted to the activities which are to be housed. (correct size
& shape for equipment, furniture & circulation within)
2. Strength of the Structure - other principles require that materials & construction be used economically &
logically
a) Correct use of materials & construction
·1
1. Relation to function - there should be a simple structural scheme & one which is related to the purpose of
the building & to the desired character & appearance
2. Economy of materials - the plan elements should be arranged to eliminate a complicated system of
construction & an uneconomical use of materials
3. Adequacy of structures - the structure, whether it consists of simple bearing wans or a complex skeleton
iron work,shld be adequate to provide for the strength & protection
4. Honesty of expression - this is another principle to be observed in connection with the use of materials.
Materials should be used in a truthful manner & not to hide or imitate. Materials & construction should
express, in addition , the' function of the building. Humble materials should be used With Simple structures an'd
the more ornated reserved for ambitious buildings.
3. Appearance of the Structure - architecture does not necessarily result from the development of
functionaluuildings. It is only upon the importance of materials. It is necessary that a building be organized
for appearanoes.
a) CompoSition of mass, volume, areas & details - the plan & the resultant masses, volumes, surfaces & ,
details should be developed according to the rules of composition . I,
1. organized according to contrast, proportion , scale, balance, rhythm , unity & character
. The -principle of co mposition may be ap·plied alike to the 2-dimensional plans & surfaces or to t'1e 3-
dimensional volumes.
Plan Composition
A logical plan must have a reason behind it - a -parti· , or scheme .1f a structure tends toward symmetry (or
monumentality" the plan elements may be arranged in a balanced manner about a centrel axis.
Regardless af the complexity which plans may assume, they may be all be reduced to the simple geometrical
shapes which form the basis for all architecture.
Plans have direction & their direction is related to the shape & ta the relative importance of the sides which
bound the pfan.This development or direction leads to the establishment of axis or lines about which the
composition is organized. (axial arrangement)
In a symmetrical composition, this is the axis about which the elements are arranged in a balanced manner
(those on the left is duplicated to those on the right). The prin ci p~1 minor axis usually extend at right angles to
the major axis through the center of the important element which tends to parallel tha main elevation.

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