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NRS 054:2013

Edition 1

GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF LARGE


POWER TRANSFORMERS UP TO 132 kV, IN
THE RATING RANGE OF 1,25 MVA TO
160 MVA

This document does not have the status of a South African National Standard.

N R S
NRS 054:2013

This specification is issued by


the Technology Standardization Section, Eskom
on behalf of the
User Group given in the foreword.

Table of changes
Change No. Date Text affected

Correspondence to be directed to Printed and electronic copies obtainable


from

The NRS Projects Manager SABS Standards Division


The Standardization Section Private Bag X191
Industry Association Resource Centre Pretoria 0001
Eskom
Private Bag X13
Halfway House 1685

Telephone : (011) 651 6832 Telephone: (012) 428-7911


Fax : (011) 651 6827 Fax : (012) 344-1568
E-mail : nrs@eskom.co.za E-mail : sales@sabs.co.za

Website : http://www.nrs.eskom.co.za Website : http://www.sabs.co.za

COPYRIGHT RESERVED

Printed in the Republic of South Africa


by the SABS Standards Division
1 Dr Lategan Road, Groenkloof, Pretoria
NRS 054:2013

Foreword
NRS 054 has been prepared on behalf of the Electricity Suppliers Liaison Committee (ESLC) and
approved by it for use by the supply authorities and other interested parties.

NRS 054 was prepared by a working group, which, at the time of publication, comprised the
following members:

P Busch Group Technology, Eskom


P Gerber EDNS, Eskom
P Almeida EDFS, Eskom
S van Zyl Group Technology, Eskom
M Hyde City of Cape Town
I Gamede City Power Johannesburg (Pty) Ltd
Y Nageshar eThekwini Electricity
V Nundlal Technology Standardisation
G Kingston City Power Johannesburg (Pty) Ltd

A Manufacturers Interest Group (MIG) was consulted on the contents of this specification and its
comments were incorporated where the working group was in agreement. The MIG comprised the
following members:

R Russell ALSTOM
A Wellard ABB
G Daines ZEST
J Koen Powertech Transformers
G Stanford Desta Power Matla
V Thorpe Alstom Power Transformers
L Liasides Alstom Power Transformers
NRS 054:2013

Introduction
This specification was prepared to give guidance to purchasers of large power transformers up to
132 kV, in the rating range of 1,25 MVA to 160 MVA.

The ESLC expresses the wish that, in the national interest and in support of government policy to
foster local manufacture and stimulate export, all supply authorities should be guided by the text of
this specification insofar as their particular conditions will permit. Any differences between the
requirements of this specification and the purchaser's requirements should, as far as possible, be
clearly indicated in schedules A and B, which can be compiled using the draft schedule set out in
annex C of this specification and, where appropriate, can be submitted for consideration in future
revisions of this specification.

Keywords
transformers, tap-changers, air-cooled, relays, core, breathers, temperature
1 NRS 054:2013

Contents
Page

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................... 3

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................ 3

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations .................................................................................... 5

3.1 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................. 5


3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................ 5

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Design details ............................................................................................................... 5


4.2 Rating and operating conditions ................................................................................... 6
4.3 Ability to withstand abnormal electrical conditions/loadings ......................................... 7
4.4 Standard tapping ranges .............................................................................................. 7
4.5 Acoustic noise……………………………………………………………………………….. 8
4.6 Clearances in air ........................................................................................................... 8
4.7 Physical arrangement ................................................................................................... 9
4.8 Transformer cores ........................................................................................................ 11
4.9 Windings and connections............................................................................................ 13
4.10 Oil for transformer and tapchanger .............................................................................. 16
4.11 Main terminals and bushings ........................................................................................ 17
4.12 Current transformers .................................................................................................... 22
4.13 Voltage variation and control ........................................................................................ 29
4.14 Auxiliary supplies, terminal boxes, wiring and cabling ................................................. 39
4.15 Tanks ............................................................................................................................ 44
4.16 Valves and oil sampling devices .................................................................................. 54
4.17 Oil conservator tank and connections .......................................................................... 57
4.18 Gas and oil actuated relays (Buchholz) ........................................................................ 59
4.19 Dehydrating breathers .................................................................................................. 61
4.20 Oil level indicators, alarm and signalling devices ......................................................... 64
4.21 Cooling arrangements .................................................................................................. 65
4.22 Quality and design review requirements ...................................................................... 71
4.23 Drawing and manuals ................................................................................................... 72
4.24 Component approvals .................................................................................................. 74
4.25 Condition monitoring/assessment equipment .............................................................. 74
4.26 Rating and diagram plates............................................................................................ 75
4.27 Adjudication of tenders ................................................................................................. 78
4.28 Special tools and equipment ........................................................................................ 78
4.29 Training of purchaser's staff ......................................................................................... 79
4.30 Erection......................................................................................................................... 79
4.31 Transport ...................................................................................................................... 80

5 Tests ..................................................................................................................................... 81

5.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 81


5.2 Test by the manufacturer.............................................................................................. 83
5.3 Tests applied to devices with alarm and tripping contacts ........................................... 85
5.4 Transformer tank test ................................................................................................... 86
5.5 Gas and oil actuated relay tests ................................................................................... 87
5.6 Digital thermometers .................................................................................................... 89
5.7 Specific test requirements ............................................................................................ 91
NRS 054:2013 2
Annex A (informative) - Guide to purchasers on preparing an enquiry ........................................ 93

Annex B (informative) - Model form for schedules A and B ......................................................... 95

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................. 105


NRS 054:2013 3

Guidelines for the design of large power transformers up to 132kV, in the rating
range of 1,25 MVA to 160 MVA.

1 Scope
This specification applies to air-cooled, network three-phase transformers with a primary winding up
to and including 132 kV with a rating 1,25 MVA up to and including 160 MVA.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For
dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the
referenced documents (including any amendments) apply. Information on currently valid national
and international standards can be obtained from the SABS Standards Division.

2.1 International and national standards


BS 1872, Specification for electroplated coatings of tin. BS 2562, Specification for cable boxes for
transformers and reactors.

BS 3523, Specification for silica gel, cobalt chloride impregnated.

BS 7668, Specification for weldable structural steels. Hot-finished structural hollow sections in
weather resistant steels.

BS 13601, Copper and copper alloys. Copper rod, bar and wire for general electrical purposes.

BS EN 1011-2, Welding. Recommendations for welding of metallic materials. Arc welding of ferritic
steels.

BS EN 1092-1, Flanges and their joints. Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories,
PN designated. Steel flanges.

DIN 2576, Flanges slip-on type for brazing or welding; Nominal pressure 10 max.steels.

DIN 2631, Welding neck flanges; nominal pressure 6 (max).

IEC 60034 (all parts), Rotating electrical machines.

IEC 60044-1, Instrument transformers – Part 1: Current transformers.

IEC 60068-2-1, Environmental testing – Part 2-1: Tests –Test A: Cold.

IEC 60068-2-2, Environmental testing – Part 2-2: Tests – Test B: Dry heat.

IEC 60068-2-30, Environmental testing – Part 2-30: Tests – Test Db: Damp heat, cyclic (12 h + 12 h
cycle)

IEC 60076-1, Power transformers – Part 1: General.

IEC 60076-2, Power transformers – Part 2: Temperature rise.

IEC 60076-3, Power transformers – Part 3: Insulation levels, dielectric tests and external clearances
in air.

IEC 60076-5, Power transformers –– Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit.

IEC 60076-7, Power transformers – Part 7: Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers.
NRS 054:2013 4

IEC 60076-10, Power transformers – Part 10: Determination of sound levels.

IEC 60085, Electrical insulation – Thermal evaluation and designation.

IEC 60137, Insulating bushings for alternating voltages above 1 000 V.

IEC 60156, Insulating liquids – Determination of the breakdown voltage at power frequency – Test
method.

IEC 60214, Tap-changers (all parts).

IEC 60255-5, Electrical relays – Part 5: Insulation coordination for measuring relays and protection
equipment – Requirements and tests.

IEC 60255-21, Electrical relays – Part 21: Vibration, shock, bump and seismic tests on measuring
relays and protection equipment (all sections).

IEC 60255-22, Electrical relays and protection equipment – Part 22: Electrical disturbance tests for
measuring relays and protection equipment (all sections).

IEC 60296, Fluids for electrotechnical applications – Unused mineral insulating oils for transformers
and switchgear.

IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code).

IEC 60751, Industrial platinum resistance thermometer and platinum temperature sensors.

IEC 61869-2, Instrument transformers – Part 2: Additional requirements for current transformers.

NRS 079-1, Mineral insulating oils (uninhibited and inhibited) – Part 1: Purchase, management,
maintenance and testing.

SANS I21/ISO 1461, Hot-dip galvanized coatings on fabricated iron and steel articles –
Specifications and test methods.

SANS 876, Cable terminations and live conductors within air-filled enclosures (insulation co-
ordination) for rated a.c. voltages from 7,2 kV up to and including 36 kV.

SANS 1091, National colour standard.

SANS 1507-2, Electric cables with extruded solid dielectric insulation for fixed installations
(300/500 V to 1900/3300 V) – Part 2: Wiring cables.

SANS 2001-CS1, Construction works –Part CT1: Structural timberwork (flooring).

SANS 10064, The preparation of steel surfaces for coating.

SANS 10111-1, Engineering Drawing — Part 1: General principles.

SANS 60529/IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).

SANS 60947/IEC 60947, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear (all parts).

SANS 61000-4/IEC 61000-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC): Testing and measurement


techniques (all sections).

2.2 Other publications


The following documents can be obtained from Eskom:

DSP 34-253, Distribution specification for electrical terminal blocks.


5 NRS 054:2013

DSP 34-465, Generic requirements with regard to distribution protection equipment enquiries and
contracts.

DSP 34-486, Specification for digital temperature instrument for power transformers.

DSP 34-1658, Corrosion protection specification for new indoor and outdoor distribution equipment,
components, materials and structures manufactured from steel.

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations


For the purposes of this specification, the terms, definitions and abbreviations given in IEC 60076-1
and the following apply.

3.1 Terms and definitions


approved/approval
approved by, or the approval of the purchaser, in writing

3.2 Abbreviations
CT: current transformer

CTC: continuously transposed conductor

HV winding: high voltage winding

MIB: marshalling interface box

MV winding: medium voltage winding

N/O: normally open

OLTC: on-load tap changer

ONAN rating: naturally-cooled rating

ONAF: oil natural air forced

PCB: polychloride biphenyls

PD: partial discharge

TV winding: tertiary voltage winding

4. Requirements
4.1 Design details
This specification gives detailed requirements for transformers for use under the following general
conditions:

a) out-of-doors;

b) at an altitude above sea level up to 1 800 m;

c) at ambient air temperatures;

1) maximum 40 °C

2) daily average 35 °C
NRS 054:2013 6

3) yearly average 25 °C

3) minimum 10 ºC

d) the average humidity: 30 % to 90 %;

e) a sinusoidal supply voltage wave shape at 50 Hz;

f) symmetrical three-phase supply voltages (negative and zero phase sequence voltages less
than 2 %);

g) the life expectancy at rated conditions should be at least 35 years; and

h) using modern good engineering practices.

NOTE Due to higher prevailing ambient temperatures, winding temperature rises / top oil temperature rises
should not exceed 55 ºC / 50 ºC respectively. In this respect, the above temperature limits differ from those
specified in IEC 60076-7.

4.2 Ratings and operating conditions


4.2.1 Power
The values of rated power specified in schedule A of an enquiry document are the continuous
ratings, in MVA, at which each of the windings of the transformer can operate on all tappings at a
voltage equal to the appropriate nominal system voltage, U n, without exceeding the temperature rise
limits specified in this specification. (The power rating of the transformer should be 100 %
throughout entire tapping range).

Where mixed-cooled transformers are specified, (see 4.21.1), the naturally-cooled rating (ONAN) of
each of the main windings should be at least 0,70pu of the rated power of these windings.

If a tertiary winding is specified, this should be capable of operating under the naturally-cooled
condition at any loading up to the rated power specified in schedule A of an enquiry document
provided that the loading in the input winding does not exceed its naturally-cooled rating.

4.2.2 Current
Power transformers should have overloading capabilities in accordance with table 4 of
IEC 60076-7:2005.

4.2.3 Voltage
4.2.3.1 Maximum continuous voltage on any tapping (overflux)

Over excitation should be limited to 5 % at full load and 10 % at no-load respectively. The
maximum flux density should be limited to 1,72 T at 50 Hz. Taking the frequency variation specified
in 4.2.4 into account, the flux density should not exceed 1,79 T at 48 Hz.

4.2.3.2 Maximum temporary overvoltage

Under switching conditions, the power frequency line voltage may exceed the maximum system
voltage (Um). The transformers should be designed to withstand the following overvoltages without
damage:

a) 1,00 Um for continuous;

b) 1,05 Um for 5 min;

c) 1,25 Um for 5 s;
7 NRS 054:2013

d) 1,5 Um for 1 s; and

e) 1,7 Um for 0,25 s.

4.2.4 Frequency
The transformer should be designed for a rated frequency of 50 Hz ± 2 Hz.

The under frequency condition may be sustained for 30 min and the over frequency sustained for
5 min. Each transformer should be supplied with its own V/Hz withstand curve.

4.3 Ability to withstand abnormal electrical conditions/loadings


4.3.1 Short-circuits
Notwithstanding the over current limits specified in IEC 60076-5, the transformer with the standard
minimum percentage impedances given in table 23, should be capable of withstanding the thermal,
mechanical and other effects using the following criteria for calculating the short-circuit withstand
condition:

a) Pre-fault voltage of 1,1Un;

b) Source impedance should be assumed to be zero, i.e. assuming an infinite bus;

c) Fault duration of 2 s;

d) The inner winding should be designed to withstand the free buckling criteria. However, the
specific stress (average) of the inner winding should not exceed 50 % of the copper conductor
yield strength. Whenever a reasonable application of epoxy bounded CTC is possible, this
would be the preferred solution;

e) The yield strength that should apply to the conductor of the outer winding should be 80% of
the copper conductor yield strength;

f) All material used for winding cylinders should be pre-dried and pre-impregnated with oil prior
to use; and
g) The blocks which are used to apply the axial compression should be pinned to the clamping
system.

The purchaser reserves the right to apply a short-circuit test to one transformer of any batch on site
or elsewhere where convenient, before taking over the batch, in order to prove the short-circuit
strength of the windings. Such tests will follow the guidelines given in IEC 60076-5. Should the test
fail, the manufacturer should be liable for all costs (re-design is mandatory).

The calculation of the short-circuit design should be verified during the purchaser’s design review.

Where specified in schedule A of an enquiry document, the zero sequence impedance of one unit of
each rating and type should be measured as detailed in 5.2 of this specification.

4.3.2 Heavy duty type transformers


If so specified in schedule A, the transformer windings and leads should be mechanically braced
accordingly to the manufacturer’s specifications in order to cater for all additional loadings. The
specific requirements and provisions should be evaluated during the transformer design review.

4.4 Standard tapping ranges

4..4.1 All on-load regulated transformers should have on-load taps from +5 % to -15 % of the HV
voltage in 16 equal steps of 1,25 % each.
NRS 054:2013 8

4.4.2 When an off-circuit tap switch is specified, the range should be +5 % to –5 % of the
HV voltage in 4 steps of 2,5 % each.

4.5 Acoustic noise


The transformer, tap changing equipment and supplementary cooling equipment should comply
with the values stated in table 1 and be verified in accordance with IEC 60076-10.

The transformer should be designed to meet the dBA noise level specified in schedule A of an
enquiry document.

Table 1 — Audible sound levels for oil-immersed power transformers

1 2 3 4 5
Equivalent Average sound level, (dBA)
two- Primary voltage 66 kV Primary voltage greater
winding and below than 66 kV
transformer
rating ONAN ONAF ONAN ONAF
(MVA)
1,25 59 60 61 62
2,5 62 63 64 65
5 65 66 67 68
10 68 69 70 71
20 71 72 73 74
40 74 75 76 77
80 77 78 79 80
160 80 81 82 83
NOTE For ONAF ratings, the sound levels are with the auxiliary cooling
equipment in operation.

4.6 Clearances in air


When assembled with connections as in service, electrical clearances in air should be adequate to
withstand the assigned impulse withstand test voltages. This should be demonstrated by the
impulse voltage routine tests given in 5.2, during the performance of which all relevant fittings
should be in position as for service conditions.

For three-winding transformers, the tertiary bushings should have the maximum practicable spacing
between phases but should be not less than 580 mm metal-to-metal.

NOTE The minimum requirements for tertiary bushings and bushings for transformers of 5 MVA and above
(see 4.11.3.6 ) also requires a minimum phase-to-phase clearance of not less than 700 mm (centre to centre of
the air terminals).

Care should be taken to ensure that fittings are located so as not to interfere with the external
connection to the bushing terminals, and the clearances to such connections should not be less
than the appropriate minimum phase-to-earth clearance given in column 2 of table 2. The lines of
approach of these connections may lie anywhere within the limits indicated in figure 1, and the
required phase-to-earth clearance should apply at all points along these lines, as shown at the
points marked 'L'. In addition, the minimum vertical working clearances from floor level to live metal
should be as listed in column 3 of table 2.
9 NRS 054:2013

Table 2 — Electrical clearances in air

1 2 3 4 5
System highest Minimum phase- Minimum 'X'-Dimension 'Y'-Dimension
voltage, Um to-earth vertical working (2,5 x L) (L + 3000)
clearance , 'L' clearance from (*Min 3 000 mm)
ground level to
live metal

kV Mm Mm mm mm
3,6 80 2 580 3 000 3 080
7,2 150 2 650 3 000 3 150
12 200 2 700 3 000 3 200
17,5 230 2 730 3 000 3 230
24 320 2 820 3 000 3 320
36 430 2 930 3 000 3 430
48 540 3 040 3 000 3 540
72 770 3 270 3 000 3 770
100 840 3 340 3 000 3 840
145 1 200 3 700 3 000 4 200
a
Dimension not applicable to standard bushings per se.
b
The minimum distance from the transformer base or ground level to the flange base of a bushing (or surge
arrester) should be 2 500 mm.

4.7 Physical arrangement


4.7.1 Bushings, cooler banks, conservator and maximum dimensions
Unless otherwise specified, the typical physical arrangement or layout (see figure 2) should be such
that:

a) separately mounted cooler banks, if provided, should be located to allow free withdrawal of
the transformer in the direction of the minor axis; and

b) the maximum overall dimensions (excluding surge arresters) for power transformers with a
highest voltage rating of 132 kV and below and ratings up to and including 160 MVA should
be as detailed in table 3.

4.7.2 Surge arrester brackets


The arrangement for surge arrestor brackets should be in accordance with 4.15.6.
NRS 054:2013
10

Figure 1 – External connections, clearances from lines of approach.


11 NRS 054:2013

Table 3 — Maximum overall dimensions for two winding transformers

1 2 3 4
HV rating, Un Height Length Width
(kV) (mm) (mm) (mm)
132 5 500 7 800 5 000
88 5 500 6 800 5 000
66 5 500 6 800 5 000
44 5 500 6 400 5 000
NOTE 1 The HV bushings should as far as possible be symmetrically arranged about the overall
transverse centre line of the transformer.
NOTE 2 The above dimensions exclude surge arresters and their mounting brackets.
NOTE 3 The following row is only applicable to auto transformers
HV rating, Un Height Length Width
(kV) (mm) (mm) (mm)
132 6 200 9 800 6 700

4.8 Transformer cores


4.8.1 Electrical continuity
Where the core laminations are divided into sections by insulating barriers or cooling ducts parallel
to the plane of the laminations, one tinned copper bridging strip should be inserted to maintain
electrical continuity between sections. This bridging strip should be as short as possible and as
close to the core cooling ducts as possible.

4.8.2 Insulation of the core


The insulation between the core and the clamping structure, including core bolts or bands, or both,
and buckles, should be able to withstand a test voltage of 2 kV a.c. or 3 kV d.c. for 60 s.

Designs requiring core bolts are not favoured but if used this fact should be clearly highlighted in the
tender documentation and, if accepted, the core bolts should be of non-magnetic material in order
to avoid local hot-spots and class F insulation sleeves should be used.

Figure 2 — Typical transformer layout

-
NRS 054:2013 12

4.8.3 Earthing
4.8.3.1 Core

The core should be earthed to the core clamping structure through a removable external link that is
suitably situated at one point only, and protected in order to allow testing after installation of the
transformer.

4.8.3.2 Core clamping structure

The bottom core clamping structure should be in electrical contact with the top core clamping
structure through the tie bars, by way of the tank, or by means of a connection placed on the same
side and end of the core as the removable core earthing link.

If a copper earthing connection is used between the core clamping structure and the tank, it should
be flexible, (e.g. laminated, stranded or braided), tinned at the ends, and should be located on the
same side and end of the core clamping structure as the removable core earthing link.

Care should be taken to ensure that contact resistance between mechanical members that form
part of intentional current paths (whether they are circulating or connected to earth), is not
detrimentally affected by the presence of paint.

There should be no sparking that may upset the dissolved gas analysis (DGA) monitoring of the
transformer between bolted mechanical members during inrush or other transient conditions.

A drawing that shows specific details of the earthing design should be included in the transformer
manuals, and should also be made available during the transformer design review.

4.8.3.3 Cross-sectional area of earthing connections

No core earthing connection should have a cross-sectional area smaller than 80 mm², with the
exception of the connections that are inserted between laminations which may be reduced to a
cross-sectional area of 20 mm² where they are clamped between the laminations.

4.8.4 Mechanical construction


4.8.4.1 Lock nuts

The core and core clamping structure should be of adequate strength to withstand, without damage,
the stresses to which it is subjected to during handling, transportation, installation and service.

All nuts should be effectively locked by means of locking plates, standard machined lock nuts or
other approved methods. The peining of bolt-ends or threads alone or the use of tempered pressed
steel nuts is not acceptable. Nuts and bolts of insulating material should be fitted by gluing or other
approved methods.

4.8.4.2 Mechanical supports

Where the core and winding assembly is attached to the transformer cover plate, it should also be
supported by the tank bottom. Hand holes should be provided in the attachment to the cover plate,
for the regulation of mechanical distances.

Members that are provided in order to support the cover or side walls during vacuuming should be
able to withstand transport movements without being damaged.

The special parts of support members that are removed after vacuum or transport should be
considered part of the transformer and should be handed over to the purchaser. Drawings that
provide details of the designs of these parts and a description of their use, should be included in the
transformer manuals.
13 NRS 054:2013

4.8.4.3 Lifting facilities

Lifting lugs or other methods should be provided for lifting the core and windings and, no undue
stress should be imposed on any core bolt or its insulation or on the tank cover plate when they are
lifted.

Unless otherwise approved in writing, continuous vertical tie rods (without any joints or plates)
should be provided between the top and bottom core clamping structures.

4.8.5 No-load losses and current


All core, shunts and construction parts should be designed to withstand the fluxing conditions which
results from the continuous and temporary over-voltage conditions and the frequency deviations, as
specified.

The no-load losses and the no-load current of each transformer should be measured as given in
4.8.5, as well as at an agreed overflux condition to demonstrate compliance with this specification.

4.9 Windings and connections


4.9.1 Winding arrangement
For all two winding transformers the winding arrangement (reference from the transformer core)
should be MV winding, HV winding and regulating winding.

For auto-transformers the winding arrangement (reference from the transformer core) should be
tertiary winding, common winding, regulating winding and series winding.

4.9.2 Winding insulation


The paper used should be of the thermally upgraded type. The axial spacers for disk windings
should be at least 3 mm.

4.9.3 Bracing of windings


All winding insulation should be processed to ensure that there are no detrimental shrinkage after
assembly.

Windings should be provided with clamping arrangements that will distribute the clamping forces
evenly over the ends of the winding. Unless otherwise approved, winding clamping arrangements
should permit adjustment of the pressure and shrinkage that may occur in service.

The bracing of the windings and connections should be such that these parts should safely
withstand the cumulative effects of stresses that may occur during handling, transportation,
installation and service, including line-to-line and line-to-ground faults.

Full details of the winding clamping arrangements, and their adjustment to and from the tank, and
the relevant drawings and values, should be submitted for approval and should form part of the
transformer manual.

4.9.4 Methods of making winding connections


4.9.4.1 General

All connections should be rounded off to prevent sharp edges.

4.9.4.2 Soldered and brazed connections

Soft solder should not be used to make winding connections.


NRS 054:2013 14
If brazed connections are used, all traces of acidity should be eliminated on completion of the
process.

4.9.4.3 Welded connections and joints in winding body

All welded copper connections should be made by the metal-inert gas method or by another
approved method. This requirement applies particularly to conductor joints in the body of windings.
All such joints should be properly controlled by an approved quality control procedure.

4.9.4.4 Bolted connections

The mating faces of bolted connections should be appropriately finished and prepared in order to
ensure, suitable and durable, electrically stable and re-makeable contacts.

All nuts should be locked by standard machined lock nuts, or by using approved locking plates.

4.9.4.5 Crimped connections and other methods

Connections made by ―compression‖ and ―cold-welding‖ techniques may be used where the
particular method has been approved by the purchaser.

All compression fittings should be the correct size for the conductors and the correctly sized
compression dies should be used.

4.9.5 Winding terminations onto bushings


Winding termination interfaces with bushings should be designed to allow for repeatable and safe
connection under site conditions without jeopardizing the in-service integrity of the transformer.

The winding-end termination, insulation system and transport fixings should be so designed that the
integrity of the insulation system is not easily compromised during repeated work in this area.

Allowances should be made for accommodating up to 100 mm tolerances on bushing axial


dimensions. Bushings may have to be rotated to get oil level inspection gauges to face in a direction
that allow easy inspection from ground level. In particular, rotation or straining of insulated
connections should be avoided during the fastening of conductor pads from the winding onto the
termination surfaces of the bushing.

Suitable inspection and access facilities into the tank should be provided to minimize the possibility
of creating faults during the installation of bushings.

4.9.6 Insulation, fault and creepage levels


4.9.6.1 General

Table 4 specifies the insulation levels that apply for the various voltage levels.
NRS 054:2013

Table 4 — Minimum insulation, fault and creepage levels for power transformers

1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
System System System Lightning impulse 60 s power frequency Bushings
highest nominal fault voltage withstand level voltage withstand level at Line Neutral
voltage voltage level at sea level sea level
Tap changer
Um Un (BIL) (60 s 50 Hz)
(kVrms) (kVrms) (kV peak)
(kA) Creepage
(31mm/kV)
Line Neutral Separate Induced BIL 60s BIL 60s System BIL 60 s
terminal terminal source 50 Hz 50 Hz nominal 50 Hz
(kV peak) (kVrms) (kV (kVrms) voltage (Un) (kV peak) (kVrms)
peak) (kVrms)

15
3,6 3.3 20 45 45 16 6,6 200 70 200 70 110 3,3 45 16
7,2 6.6 25 75 75 22 13,2 200 70 200 70 220 6,6 75 22
12 11 25 95 95 28 22 200 70 200 70 375 11 95 28
17,5 16 20 110 110 38 32 200 70 200 70 540 16 110 38
24 22 20 150 150 50 44 200 70 200 70 740 22 150 50
36 33 20 200 200b 70 b 66 250 95 250 95 1100 33 200 70
48 44 20 250 200 b 70 b 95 350 140 250 95 1500 33 200 70
72 66 20 350 250b 95 b 140 380 150 350 140 2250 44 250 95
100 88 25 380 250 b 95 b 150 550 230 350 140 3100 44 250 95
145 132 40 550 250 b 95 b 230 650 275 350 140 4500 44 250 95
145 132 40 550 110 a 38 a 230 650 275 350 140 4500 16 110 38
NOTE 1 Phase-to-phase values specified in this table for all transformer windings should be designed to withstand the appropriate test voltages, and should be tested as specified in 5.2.
NOTE 2 145 kV values specified in the last row of this table are for auto transformers only.
NOTE 3 For non-uniform insulation, aindicates a fully graded insulation and b indicates a partially graded insulation ( see 4.9.6).

NRS 054:2013
NRS 054:2013 16

4.9.6.2 Surge protection of non-earthed HV neutral of YNd1-connected transformers

The neutral ends of the HV windings of all YNd1-connected transformers with partially graded HV
winding insulation (132 kV, 88 kV, 66 kV and 44 kV HV windings) should have surge arrester
protection in cases where their neutral terminals are not earthed (see note in 4.9.6.3).

4.9.6.3 Arrester rating

This following information should appear on the rating and diagram plate and should bear the
following cautionary instruction:

"HV winding insulation partially graded. HV neutral should be solidly earthed or protected by a
......... kV r.m.s. continuously rated (MCOV) metal oxide surge arrester with a .......... kV peak
residual voltage (10 kA)".

The continuous voltage rating and residual voltage (10 kA) of the required surge arrester should be
inserted as follows:

a) For a 66 kV, 88 kV and 132 kV partially graded insulation transformer the values should be a
minimum of 48 kV r.m.s. and should not exceed 165 kV peak, respectively.

b) For a 44 kV partially graded transformer the values should be a minimum of 36 kV r.m.s. and
should not exceed 125 kV peak, respectively.

NOTE This reduction in insulation has been adopted in order to effect a worthwhile saving in the cost of these
transformers, whose neutrals would generally be earthed but may occasionally be unearthed.

The insulation levels chosen are adequate to meet the voltages impressed on the neutrals of these
transformers during the works tests, but may be inadequate to ensure the safety of these windings
in the case of transformers where the neutrals are unearthed in service, e.g. in the case of
simultaneous voltage surges entering the star windings from two or more HV line terminals. For
this reason provision is made for surge arrester protection.

4.10 Oil for transformer and tapchanger


4.10.1 Type and quality
4.10.1.1 Only new napthenic-based oils, which must be certified as such prior to filling, should be
used.

4.10.1.2 Where the first filling of virgin oil is to be supplied by the contractor, the oil should at least
be as specified in NRS 079-1, without any additive. The colour coding of the drums containing the
oil should comply with the requirements of NRS 079-1.

4.10.1.3 Under no circumstances should poor quality oil be filled into the transformer and only
thereafter be brought up to specification by circulation within the transformer.

4.10.2 Dielectric strength


4.10.2.1 The power frequency dielectric breakdown strength of the oil in any part of the transformer
and on-load tap-changer should meet the transformer manufacturer's requirements. But should, in
any case, not be less than 70 kV/2,5 mm for virgin oil prior to filling and not be less than
60 kV/2,5 mm at time of take over.

4.10.2.2 Dielectric strength should be determined in accordance with the method prescribed in
IEC 60156.

4.10.3 Moisture content


The moisture content should be determined in accordance with NRS 079-1.
17 NRS 054:2013

4.10.4 Oil-filling or impregnation under vacuum


4.10.4.1 When a transformer is designed to be oil-filled under vacuum, an instruction should
feature prominently on the rating-and-diagram plate or on a separate plate mounted adjacent to it.

4.10.4.2 All transformers installed in vacuum-proof tanks should be oil impregnated and filled
under vacuum.

4.10.4.3 Oil impregnation or drying under vacuum should be done with the transformer and oil at a
temperature of at least 60 C.

4.10.4.4 The duration of the treatment should be such that the results of the moisture content are
as specified in NRS 079-1.

4.10.4.5 Procedures should be submitted for approval and full instructions should be included in
the transformer manual.

4.10.5 Preservation system


See 4.17.9 for the detail requirements of the conservator systems.

4.10.6 Polychloride biphenyls (PCB)


4.10.6.1 All oils used in the transformer and its accessories should be free of PCBs (zero ppm).

4.10.6.2 A formal test certificate should be included in the transformer manual.

4.10.7 Contact with bare copper


Bare copper in contact with transformer oil should be minimized by using appropriate paper
covering or painting.

4.11 Main terminals and bushings


4.11.1 Position of open terminals
4.11.1.1 HV/MV terminals

The high-voltage bushings should be approximately parallel to the major axis of the transformer;

The intermediate-voltage bushings or, low-voltage bushings for two-winding transformers, should
be approximately parallel to the major axis of the transformer, and symmetrical with the high-
voltage bushings.

All terminal groups should be so arranged that when viewed in the direction of power flow, the
neutral terminal should be on the left, followed by the line terminals in alphabetical order, as shown
in figure 3.

The power should always be assumed to flow from the winding with the highest voltage rating
towards all other windings.

4.11.1.2 Tertiary terminals

Tertiary winding terminals should be on the right-hand end of the transformer when viewed from the
HV side.
NRS 054: 2013
18

Figure 3 — Position of terminals for system transformers

4.11.2 Terminal markings


4.11.2.1 The terminal markings on the diagram plate should be as specified in IEC 60076-1.

4.11.2.2 Terminals should be positioned as indicated in 4.11.1.

4.11.2.3 Terminal markings characters should be in relief, adjacent to their appropriate terminals.

4.11.2.4 The characters may be of brass, steel or other acceptable metal and should be
permanently fixed to the tank by means of brazing or welding.

4.11.3 Bushings
4.11.3.1 Terminals

Unless otherwise specified in schedule A of an enquiry document (see annex B), air-side bushing
terminals should be solid copper or copper alloy cylinders of the diameter and length specified in
table 5. They should be electro-tinned in accordance with BS 1872, Classification Cu/z/Sn/10/b
without subsequent heat treatment or machine cleaning being necessary. Dimensional tolerances
should be as specified in BS 13601. Neutral terminals should be fitted with terminal connectors
and bolted clamping plates, all tinned or plated, and suitable for connecting two undrilled 50 mm x
3 mm flat copper bars.

Table 5 — Dimensions of open air-side bushing terminals

1 2 3
Bushing type Diameter Length
mm mm
Primary 26 125
Primary Neutral 26 125
Secondary/Tertiary 38 125
Secondary/Tertiary Neutral 38 125

4.11.3.2 Continuous and overload currents

Bushing conductors should be capable of safely carrying the currents implied by the short term and
emergency overloading requirements in 4.2.2 without exceeding the temperature rise and hot spot
limits specified in IEC 60137.

4.11.3.3 Short-time current

Bushing conductors should be capable of safely carrying, for 3 s, the short-circuit currents resulting
from the faults detailed in 4.3. This time factor allows for the possibility of having repetitive system
short-circuits in quick succession.

4.11.3.4 Insulation levels and creepage distances

All bushings should be able to withstand 10 % more test voltages than those specified in table 4.
19 NRS 054:2013

The specific creepage for all terminals should be 31 mm/kV minimum.

The protected creepage distance will be specified in schedule A, and is the value of creepage
distance in the rain shadow at an angle of precipitation of 90º to the bushing axis. This value should
not exceed 50 % of the total creepage.

4.11.3.5 Bushing types

Unless otherwise stated in schedule A of an enquiry document, all open bushings should be
outdoor immersed bushings. For transformers that are cable connected on either the HV or LV side
or both, consideration should be given to the use of plug-in connectors.

Connections from winding leads into cable boxes or oil filled disconnecting chambers should be
effected using completely immersed bushings.

Only capacitance graded bushings should be supplied for all applications with nominal voltages of
44 kV and above in accordance with this specification.

Either resin impregnated paper (RIP) or resin impregnated synthetics (RIS) bushings should be
supplied with silicon rubber housings.

Non-fluid filled capacitance graded bushings will only be accepted with specific approval.

4.11.3.6 Tertiary bushings — minimum voltage ratings, stems and spacing

For three winding auto transformers the low-voltage (tertiary) bushings should, despite their actual
operating voltage, have at least an insulation level corresponding to a nominal system voltage of
33 kV. These bushings should be equipped with a terminal stem of 38 mm diameter and 125 mm
length, have a minimum metal-to-metal phase spacing of 580 mm and a centre-to-centre spacing of
not less than 700 mm.

4.11.3.7 Minimum insulation, spacing and terminals for bushings on transformers of 5 MVA
and above

For all transformers of 5 MVA and above in this specification, with a secondary voltage of 33 kV
and below, the line-end bushings should have a minimum insulation level corresponding to a
nominal system voltage of 33 kV. These should also be of the capacitance graded type if PD
testing is specified.

These bushings should have the same terminals and spacing in accordance with 4.11.3.6.

4.11.3.8 Test tappings

Pressure contacts against the outer earth layer of the bushing condenser are not acceptable.

The test tap contact and earthing system should be adequately designed so as not to be damaged
by repetitive fast transient currents during the life of the bushing.

Test tappings of approved design and materials should be provided on all capacitance graded
bushings.
NRS 054: 2013
20
4.11.3.9 Safe mounting height

For compliance with safety regulations, open bushings should be arranged and mounted on the
transformer in such a manner that the minimum vertical working clearances listed in table 2 are
provided from finished ground level to live metal.

4.11.3.10 Mechanical forces

The minimum withstand values of cantilever load that may be applied to the external bushing
terminals of standard transformers, are given in table 6.

Table 6 — Maximum cantilever forces on bushing terminals

1 2 3 4 5

Highestsystem Cantilever force on bushings (N) for nominal line current, In (A)
voltage

Um I <800A Up to 1 600A Up to 2 500 A I >2 500A

(kV)

3,6 to 48 1 000 1 250 2 000 3 150

72 to 100 1 000 1 250 2 000 4 000

145 1 250 1 600 2 500 4 000

4.11.3.11 Gaskets

Gaskets should be of nitrile rubber or better material. All gaskets or O-rings should be replaced
after they have been disturbed but designs should nevertheless be such as to be forgiving should
this not be done.

No metal should bear directly on porcelain.

4.11.4 Cable sealing boxes and disconnecting chambers


4.11.4.1 General

Cable boxes should be supplied if specified in schedule A of an enquiry document. Where


applicable, cable boxes should comply with SANS 876.

Cable boxes should be complete with all the fittings necessary for attaching and connecting the
cables specified in schedule A of an enquiry document.

4.11.4.2 Construction of cable-box shells

Cable box shells should be constructed to minimize the danger of fragmentation under internal
arcing fault conditions. Cast metal construction is not acceptable.

Where mild steel is used, the thickness of metal should not be less than that specified in table 7.
21 NRS 054:2013

Table 7 — Minimum thickness of mild steel plate for cable box shells

1 2

Part Thickness
mm
Shell 3
Gland plate 3
Cover plate 5
Bushing plate 8

4.11.4.3 Filling hole

Notwithstanding the requirements of BS 2562, the filling hole should be not smaller than 80 mm in
diameter and should have a bolted and gasketted cover, designed to protect the outer edges of the
gasket from the weather.

The filling hole should be placed to allow the filling medium to fall directly to the bottom of the
cable box.

4.11.4.4 Cable-entry and connections

Unless otherwise specified, cables should enter cable boxes vertically from below. Where cable
stands are provided, these should be equipped with suitable cable saddles vertically aligned with
the cable gland positions on the cable boxes and spaced to suit the cable manufacturer's
recommendations, but in any case not more than 1 m apart.

Copper strip used for the laminae of flexible connections should not exceed 0,5 mm in thickness.

4.11.4.5 Armour cable clamps

Cable boxes for armoured cables should be provided with suitable armour clamps.

4.11.4.6 Single-core cables and cables with insulated sheaths

Suitable 10 mm earthing terminals fitted with all required washers, nuts, lock nuts and removable
copper earthing links should be provided on the cable boxes and on the insulated cable glands
required for single-core cables, for the purpose of bridging the gland insulation.

Stud holes should not break through the metal of the gland or cable box to the inside.

Where a higher insulation level is required for the glands for cables having an anti-electrolysis
finish, the gland insulation should withstand a test of 5 kV d.c. for 60 s.

4.11.4.7 Interchangeability

For identical transformers, the cable boxes and disconnecting chambers should be jig drilled and
fabricated so as to permit interchangeability of the transformer.

4.11.4.8 Corrosion proofing and colour

Surfaces should be treated and finished to correspond with the transformer in all respects.

4.11.4.9 Sealing during transport and storage

All apertures giving access to the interior of cable boxes, and cable glands should be sealed during
transport and storage, to exclude the ingress of water and foreign matter.
NRS 054: 2013
22

4.12 Current transformers


4.12.1 Number and location
The number, ratings and location of current transformers associated with each power transformer,
should be as specified in tables 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12.

4.12.2 Applicable standard


Current transformers should comply with the requirements of IEC 60185 and IEC 60044-1 and
should be of the ―Class PX type‖.

4.12.3 Transformer short-circuits and overload


Current transformers should be capable of mechanically and thermally withstanding the same
overcurrents and overload, for the same periods, as the associated windings of the power
transformer.

4.12.4 Insulation levels and short-circuiting for testing


4.12.4.1 Current transformers (including the neutral bushing CTs on partially graded neutrals)
should withstand all dielectric tests applied to the power transformer windings, and should be in
position and in circuit during the power transformer voltage withstand and impulse tests.

4.12.4.2 Open circuits should be avoided during testing of the transformer.

4.12.4.3 All current transformers should be shorted and earthed in the factory and delivered to site
in that condition.

4.12.5 Tests
The current transformer should be tested and test certificates provided as specified in 5.2.

4.12.6 Connections
4.12.6.1 Terminals and locknuts

Current transformer secondary terminals, where applicable, should complywiththe requirements of


4.14.4 and should be indelibly marked for identification as indicated in 4.12.8.2 and figure 4.

All current transformer terminals inside the power transformer should be of the stud type and all
connections should be securely locked using lock nuts or locking plates. Steel lock washers are not
acceptable.

4.12.6.2 Secondary connection wiring and termination

The beginning and end of each secondary winding and all secondary tappings should be wired to
terminals in a terminal box accessible from ground level and then to the free standing marshalling
box, all as specified in 4.14.3.

4.12.6.2 (a) Termination of leads

Particular attention should be paid to the termination of leads inside the transformer tank with a
view to ensuring secure connection of current carrying lugs, and the elimination of all possible
tension in the leads (see 4.14.3.6).
23 NRS 054:2013

4.12.6.2 (b) Conduit or armour

Where a current transformer’s secondary leads are taken through armoured cables, all leads from
one winding should be included in one particular armoured cable. Wiring should not be placed in a
conduit due to the problem of water ingress.

4.12.7 Protective current transformers


4.12.7.1 Type

Protective current transformers should be of the low-reactance type on all ratios.

4.12.7.2 Ratio

In the absence of specific CT ratios, tables 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 will apply.

The nominal ratios for protective current transformers are specified in tables 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12.

4.12.7.3 Turns compensation

Protective current transformers should not be turns compensated.

4.12.7.4 Required data

The following information relating to protective current transformers should be submitted for
approval:

a) magnetization curve;

b) secondary winding resistance; and

c) secondary winding leakage reactance.

4.12.7.5 Designation

Where more than one protective current transformer is provided in any one phase, the current
transformer designated "main protective current transformer" should be located furthest from the
transformer windings. In addition, protective current transformers together with current
transformers in general, should be given designations as indicated in figures 4 and 5. Current
transformers with a wound primary should be shown on the rating-and-diagram plate as exemplified
by current transformers 1YN and 2B. Ring type current transformers with an integral bar primary
should be shown in the same way as current transformers 1-3B and 1B. Ring type current
transformers mounted on bushings or positioned over an independent connection should be shown
as exemplified by current transformers ―1a‖, ―1b‖ and ―1c‖.

4.12.7.6 Current transformers for delta-connected windings

The arrangement of protective current transformers associated with delta-connected power


transformer windings, is indicated in figures 4 and 5.

4.12.7.7 Winding temperature indication for delta windings

Where the current transformer for a winding temperature indicator is associated with a delta-
connected winding, it should be located inside the delta so that it can detect all over-current
conditions of the delta winding, including those circulating current conditions resulting from external
earth faults on the associated power systems.
NRS 054: 2013
24
4.12.7.8 Type and accessibility

Current transformers should preferably be of the bushing type. Separately mounted CTs should be
located above the core and winding assembly and be provided with adjacent handholes in the tank
side or cover of a size adequate for their removal and replacement.

4.12.8 Data for rating and diagram plates


4.12.8.1 Where current transformers are built into the transformer, the combined rating and
diagram plate should provide full details of the location of each current transformer, its polarity,
secondary terminal markings and also all the information required by IEC 60044, with the provision
that no information is duplicated.

The following symbols may be used on rating and diagram plates:

a) IL = Secondary insulation level (d.c. 3 kV);

b) Hz = Rated frequency;

c) Ith = Rated short-time current and rated time kA-s;

d) Rs = Secondary winding resistance at 75 ºC;

e) N = Turns ratio;

f) Vk = Kneepoint voltage;

g) Im = Magnetizing current;

h) Ip = Primary current;

i) Is = Secondary current; and

j) VA = Output in (VA).

4.12.8.2 Terminal markings

The system of marking used to identify the terminals for current transformers supplied with power
transformers, shown in figure 4 should indicate:

a) the polarity of the primary and the secondary terminals, or, where no primary terminals exist
as such, the orientation of the current transformer; and

b) the current transformer designation, viz.

1) the connection in which it appears (e.g. a phase or neutral connection); and

2) the sequence relative to other current transformers appearing in the same connection.

The current transformer winding (primary and/or secondary) and its polarity should be denoted by
the letter P and/or S and the numerals 1 and 2 as specified in IEC 60044-1.

The convention used should always place P1 (and/or S1) nearer the external terminal of the
transformer and P2 (and/or S2) nearer the winding.

The winding alpha-numerics and the polarity alpha-numerics should be prefixed by letters denoting
the phase or neutral connection (see figure 4) in which the current transformers appear and these
alpha-numerics should be prefixed by numerals giving the sequence of the current transformers
relative to other current transformers in the particular phase or neutral connection, as indicated in
figure 4. These numbers should be counted in the case of star-connected windings, from the
power transformer external terminal towards the neutral point connection, and, in the case of delta-
connected windings, in a direction from the external terminal through the particular phase winding
towards the junction with another phase.
25 NRS 054:2013

Figure 4 — Current transformer terminal markings


NRS 054: 2013
26

Figure 5 — In-built current transformers

See tables 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 for CT particulars.

Table 8 — In-built current transformers for figure 5(A) (Auto transformers)

1 2 3 4
Transformer In-built current transformer cores
kV MVA Cores 1, 2, 3 Core 4
132/88 160/20 1600/1 800/1
80/10 1000/1 400/1
40/10 800/1 400/1
20/5 400/1 200/1
132/66 160/20 2400/1 800/1
80/10 1000/1 400/1
40/10 800/1 400/1
20/5 400/1 200/1
132/44 80/10 1600/1 400/1
40/10 1000/1 400/1
20/5 400/1 200/1
88/44 80/10 1600/1 400/1
40/10 1000/1 400/1
20/5 400/1 200/1
NOTE For Class "PX" specification core details, see table 12.
27 NRS 054:2013

Table 9 — In-built current transformers for figure 5(B) (Star/delta transformers up to 20 MVA)

1 2 3 4 5
Transformer In-built current transformer ratios
kV MVA Core 1 Core 2, 3 Core 4
132/33 20 200/1 300/1 400/1
10 200/1 300/1 200/1
132/22 20 200/1 300/1 600/1
10 200/1 300/1 300/1
132/11 20 200/1 300/1 1200/1
10 200/1 300/1 600/1
132/6.6 20 200/1 300/1 2400/1
10 200/1 300/1 1200/1
88/44 20 100/1 300/1 300/1
88/33 20 100/1 300/1 400/1
10 100/1 300/1 200/1
88/22 20 100/1 300/1 600/1
10 100/1 300/1 300/1
5 100/1 100/1 200/1
88/11 20 100/1 300/1 1200/1
10 100/1 300/1 600/1
5 100/1 100/1 300/1
88/6,6 20 100/1 300/1 2400/1
10 100/1 300/1 1200/1
5 100/1 300/1 500/1
66/22 20 200/1 300/1 600/1
10 200/1 300/1 300/1
5 200/1 100/1 200/1
66/11 20 200/1 300/1 1200/1
10 200/1 300/1 600/1
5 200/1 100/1 300/1
2,5 100/1 100/1 200/1
66/6.6 20 200/1 300/1 2400/1
10 200/1 300/1 1200/1
5 200/1 100/1 600/1
44/22 20 100/1 300/1 600/1
10 100/1 300/1 300/1
5 100/1 300/1 200/1
44/11 20 100/1 300/1 1200/1
10 100/1 300/1 600/1
5 100/1 300/1 300/1
2,5 100/1 300/1 200/1
44/6,6 20 100/1 300/1 2400/1
10 100/1 300/1 1200/1
5 100/1 100/1 600/1
2,5 100/1 100/1 300/1
NOTE For these ratings the 100/1 ratio has been selected as the lowest ratio to avoid wound
primary current transformers on the basis that modern low burden protection can be set with
adequate sensitivity using these current transformers.
NRS 054: 2013
28
Table 10 — In-built current transformers for figure 5(B) (Star/delta transformers above 20 MVA)

1 2 3 4 5
Transformers In-built current transformer ratios
Kv MVA Core 1 Cores 2,3 Core 4
132/33 80 300/1 500/1 1 600/1
40 200/1 300/1 800/1
132/22 40 200/1 300/1 1 200/1
132/11 40 200/1 300/1 2 400/1
88/44 40 200/1 400/1 600/1
88/33 80 300/1 500/1 1 600/1
40 200/1 400/1 800/1
88/22 40 200/1 400/1 1200/1
88/11 40 200/1 400/1 2 400/1
66/22 40 200/1 400/1 1 200/1

Table 11 — In-built current transformers for figure 5(C) (Star/star transformers)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Transformer In-built current transformer turns ratio
kV MVA Core 1 Cores 2 and 3 Core 4 Cores 5 Core 6
132/11 40 200/1 200/1 2400/1 2400/1 2400/1
20 100/1 100/1 1200/1 1200/1 1200/1
66/11 40 400/1 400/1 2400/1 2400/1 2400/1
20 200/1 200/1 1200/1 1200/1 1200/1
33/22 5 100/1 200/1 150/1 200/1 150/1
33/11 20 400/1 800/1 1200/1 1600/1 1200/1
10 200/1 400/1 600/1 800/1 600/1
5 100/1 200/1 300/1 400/1 300/1
2,5 100/1 200/1 200/1 200/1 300/1
33/6,6 10 400/1 800/1 1200/1 1600/1 1200/1
5 200/1 400/1 600/1 800/1 600/1
2,5 100/1 200/1 300/1 400/1 300/1
22/11 20 400/1 800/1 1200/1 1600/1 1200/1
10 200/1 400/1 600/1 800/1 600/1
5 100/1 200/1 300/1 400/1 300/1
2,5 100/1 200/1 200/1 200/1 300/1
1.25 100/1 200/1 100/1 200/1 300/1
22/6,6 10 200/1 400/1 1000/1 1000/1 800/1
5 100/1 200/1 500/1 500/1 400/1
2,5 100/1 200/1 300/1 400/1 200/1
33/3,3 5 100/1 200/1 1000/1 1000/1 300/1
2,5 100/1 100/1 500/1 500/1 400/1
22/3,3 5 100/1 200/1 1000/1 500/1 400/1
2,5 100/1 200/1 500/1 500/1 400/1
29 NRS 054:2013

Table 12 — In-built current transformers (Class "PX" specification core details)

1 2 3 4
Class "PX" core specification
Turnsratio Im max Vk min Rs max
Np/Ns
mA V 
1/ 100 500 150 0,4
1/ 200 500 200 0,8
1/ 300 330 300 1,2
1/ 400 250 400 1,6
1/ 500 200 500 2
1/ 600 170 600 2,4
1/ 800 125 600 3,2
1/1000 100 650 4
1/1200 83 650 4,8
1/1400 71 650 5,6
1/1600 63 700 5,6
1/2000 50 700 8
1/2400 42 750 9,6
Im= CT excitation current Vk = knee-point voltage
NOTE The knee-point of the excitation curve is the point
where an increase of 10 % of the secondary EMF results in a
100 % increase of excitation current.

4.13 Voltage variation and control


4.13.1 Tapping ranges
4.13.1.1 For the standard tapping ranges refer to 4.4.

4.13.1.2 For two winding transformers (Y-connected primary) the tap changer should be positioned
on the neutral side of the primary winding.

4.13.1.3 Tap-changers should be installed in the HV series winding (MV potential) at the line of
common winding (in the case of auto transformers).

4.13.2 Off-circuit tapping switch


4.13.2.1 When specified, the transformer should be provided with a ganged off-circuit tapping
switch, that is operated by an external handle which is situated in an unobstructed position, not
more than 1,5 m above ground level.

4.13.2.2 The contacts should be positively self-locating in each tapping position without constraint
from the operating mechanism, which should provide for padlocking in each position.

4.13.2.3 The tapping positions should be indelibly marked to correspond with the data given on the
rating-and-diagram plate and a person standing at ground level should be able to read these
markings.
NRS 054: 2013
30

4.13.3 On-load tap-changing equipment


On-load tap-changing equipment should

a) comply with IEC 60214; and

b) be designed to be maintenance free.

NOTE 1 The term ―maintenance free‖ is defined as the monitoring of the moisture content and dielectric of oil
at intervals dictated by the supplier that excludes the replacement of the oil, filtering and untanking.

NOTE 2 Units smaller than 20 MVA should be deemed maintenance free for 100 000 operations.

NOTE 3 Units having a rating of 20 MVA and above should be deemed maintenance free for 300 000
operations.

4.13.3.1 Ratings

The rated through current of the tap-changer, as defined in IEC 60214, should not be less than the
maximum current through the tapping winding. It should be able to operate at the emergency and
overload ratings of the transformer without damage.

The minimum current rating for non-vacuum type tap-changers should be 300 A.

In addition to the requirements of IEC 60214 for on-load tap-changers, tap-changing equipment
should be capable of carrying the same currents as the transformer windings with which they are
associated in the case of external short-circuit (see 5.2).

Tap-changing may be inhibited during transformer overload conditions above1,5 p.u.

On-load tap changing equipment, including all insulating and barrier boards, should withstand the
impulse and dielectric test voltages applicable to the part of the transformer windings with which
they are associated (see table 4).

In the case of specific critical phase-to-phase insulation situations in the transformer the
purchaser’s surge arresters will only limit incoming surges on a phase-to-earth basis and phase-to-
phase insulation will therefore be protected by two surge arresters in series. This situation
particularly applies to three-phase line end tap-changers and their leads, and to the leads of single-
phase tap-changers. The transformer design should cater for this situation.

The current breaking contacts of diverter switches should be easily replaceable.

NOTE This is not necessary for tap changers employing vacuum bottle type switches.

Drop-down tanks that necessitate the provision of pits in the foundations shall not be used.

Each diverter and selector switch compartment should be provided with an oil drain valve or plug.
31 NRS 054:2013

Care should be taken to close the drain valve or plug of the diverter compartment before operating
the tap-changers on load in the factory or after installation. Failure to do so will require full
reprocessing of the oil in the transformer at the contractor’s cost.

Current breaking switches (e.g. diverter and selector switches as distinct from tap selectors and
change-over selectors) should not operate in the insulating oil of the main transformer.

The insulating oil for these switches should be completely segregated in an oil and gas-tight
compartment which is separate from that in the main transformer tank, and the oil conservator for
maintaining the oil level in the compartments that contain such switches should be separated from
the main transformer oil conservator. Where a common conservator tank construction is employed
in order to serve both the main tank and the tap-changer switching compartment, the two bodies of
oil should be segregated by an oil and gas tight steel partition. Each body should have its own
separate dehydrating breather and oil level indicator that should be clearly labelled to relate it to the
corresponding oil body.

Protective functions should be provided for the diverter switch and selector switch compartments
and they should effect the tripping of the circuit-breakers that controls the transformer in the case of
following:

a) a low oil level (may be omitted if a surge relay, that fulfils this function, is provided).

b) a surge of oil produced by a fault inside the compartment, or a rise in pressure or temperature
as a result of such a fault, whichever one of these three is most appropriate to the design of
the apparatus.

Transformers with ratings below 100 MVA, should be equipped with one protective device.
Transformers with a rating of 100 MVA and above should be equipped with two approved
protection devices, or alternatively, one device with two sets of contacts.

Where a pressure sensitive device is provided, its contact should close under steady increase of
pressure at a value not less than 100 kPa or as recommended by the manufacturer, taking the
head of oil into consideration.

The oil in diverter switch and selector compartments should only communicate with the atmosphere
through a dehydrating breather containing a silica gel charge of at least 2 kg.

Where tap selectors and change-over selectors are contained in compartments separate from
current breaking switches, those compartments should be protected by the Buchholz relay serving
the main transformer tank, unless separate oil surge and low-oil level relays are provided.
Provisions should be made for filtering and draining the oil in those compartments.

The contacts should comply with the requirements of 4.13.3.9.

Tap-changer compartments and insulating barriers should have adequate strength to resist, without
suffering significant permanent distortion or damage of any sort, the forces resulting from the
application of a full internal vacuum at sea level.
NRS 054: 2013
32
In the case of insulating barriers, the vacuum is unequal (i.e. applied from one side only, against
atmospheric and oil pressure on the other side), and applied internally from either side, with the
following provisions:

a) in the case of tap-changers energized at voltages below 88 kV, the vacuum requirement
applicable to the tap-changer compartment will be limited to that which produces a pressure
differential between the tap-changer compartment and the atmosphere of not more than
65 kPa; and

b) where such insulating barriers serve tap-changers mounted wholly within the transformer
tank, (e.g. diverter switch cylinder) the application of the vacuum or pressure may be
equalized on both sides of a diverter switch compartment by interconnecting the two
conservators.

Where it is necessary to remove parts or the whole of the on-load tap changer for transport
purposes, it should be possible, unless otherwise approved, to complete erection on site with the
transformer windings and terminal insulation covered with oil.

4.13.3.2.9 Tie-in resistor

Should a tie-in resistor be used on the selector switch, the value of the tie-in resistor should be
provided in schedule A. The schematics on the rating and diagram plate as well as the schematics
on the transformer manuals should show the position and value of the tie-in resistor.

4.13.3.3 Driving mechanism, control and indicating equipment

The driving mechanism should be enclosed in a ventilated, dust-proof, weather-proof and vermin-
proof cubicle provided with a 230 V a.c., separately fused, anti-condensation heater and switch
(with a solid withdrawable link in its neutral lead), and, at its lowest point, with a 25 mm diameter
gauze covered drain hole (see 4.15.3.2 for internal corrosion proofing).

Where a gland plate for cables is provided, ample space should be allowed from the terminal strip
for arranging the entry of the cable cores (see 4.14).

NOTE Unless otherwise specified, the automatic and remote control panels and equipment for the on-load
tap-changer will be supplied and installed by the purchaser.

The driving mechanism should be so designed that once a tap-changing operation has been
initiated, the diverter switch or selector switch contacts will not remain in an intermediate position
should the power supply for the driving unit fail.

The design should include a means to ensure that the tap-changers that fitted to three single-phase
units, or units that operate in parallel, remain in step. Mechanical stops should be provided to
prevent the mechanism from overrunning its end position.

For maintenance and emergency operation of the tap-changing equipment, a readily detachable
handle should be provided for manual operation. Adequate provision should be made to prevent
the diverter switch or selector switch contacts from being left in an intermediate position when
operated manually.

To prevent power operation with the handle in position, a normally closed contact in the control or
motor circuits should be provided that opens when the handle is inserted (see figure 6).
33 NRS 054:2013

The tap-changer should be accessible from ground level ( 1,2 m from base plate), i.e. all operating
inspection points should not be positioned higher than 1,8 m in order to ensure that the operator
does not have to leave ground level.

Clauses 4.13.3.3.4.1 to 4.13.3.3.4.11 give the minimum requirements for the equipment that should
be mounted in the driving mechanism enclosure or other suitable kiosk, mounted near the
transformer (see also figures 6 and 7 and table 13).

The following should be complied with:

1) Control relays should only respond to control initiation pulses of 150 ms duration or longer.

2) The rating of control relay contacts should be in accordance with 4.13.3.9.

3) All contactor operating coils and trip coils should be rated at either 110 V d.c. or 220 V d.c. The
voltage will be specified in schedule A.

4.13.3.3.4.1 Tap-changer drive motor

A tap-changer drive motor rated at 400 V a.c, three-phase, 50 Hz should be fitted (see motor ―a‖ in
figure 6).

4.13.3.3.4.2 Tap-in-progress indication

A terminal should be provided for the neutral of the 400 V a.c supply and one terminal of the motor
should be connected to an external terminal for a "tap-in-progress" lamp (see figure 6).

Alternatively, a "tap-in-progress" indication contact similar to contact 'A' of 4.13.3.3.4.8 should be


provided.

4.13.3.3.4.3 Circuit-breaker for motor protection (see "b" in figure 6).

i) For a three-phase drive motor, a circuit-breaker fitted with three-phase thermal overload
protection and single-phasing protection and a separate d.c. shunt trip coil should be
provided. The trip coil should be provided with a contact to break its own current if the coil
rating exceeds 50 W. The trip coil rating should be stated in watts on the OLTC drive
schematic diagram.

ii) Where "raise" and "lower" contactors are fitted, both the circuit-breaker and the d.c. shunt trip
coil should be provided.

4.13.3.3.4.4 Protection of tap-changer during system faults

A self-resetting contactor should be provided in the motor circuit for overcurrent blocking of the tap-
changer drive under system fault conditions. The contactor should be fitted with a d.c. operating
coil, and normally closed contacts capable of interrupting motor starting currents. Contactors with
normally open contacts that require the coil to be continuously energized are not acceptable.

4.13.3.3.4.5 Local control

"Raise" and "Lower" push-buttons or a control switch for local control, mechanically or electrically
interlocked, should be provided (see "d" in figure 6).

As shown in figure 6, these raise/lower control devices should be connected to separate terminals
for use in the purchaser’s control scheme. They should not be connected for direct control of the
OLTC drive.
NRS 054: 2013
34

4.13.3.3.4.6 "Raise‖ and ―Lower" motor-operating contactors

Direct-current operated "Raise" and "Lower" contactors for controlling motor direction should be
provided (see "e" in figure 6).

4.13.3.3.4.7 Completion of tap-change operations

Auxiliary contacts should be provided for sealing "Raise" and "Lower" contactors and mechanism
contact "A" for controlling the sealing of the "Raise" and "Lower" contactors (see "f" and "g" in figure
6).

4.13.3.3.4.8 Step-by-step and parallel operation

See "h" and "i" in figure 6 and figure 7. The manufacturer should provide and install all the
appropriate equipment and circuitry inside the driving mechanism i.e. contacts, relay(s) etc. in order
to perform within the mechanism box the full step-by-step function (see figure 8 for the step-by-step
typical circuit). For operation of step-by-step relay(s), single or two contacts should be provided.
When a single contact is used, this must close in either the ―Raise‖ or the ―Lower‖ direction. When
two contacts are used, one contact should close only when the drive moves in the "Raise" direction
and the other should close only when the drive moves in the "Lower" direction.

These contacts may take the form of mechanism contacts or (alternatively) the auxiliary contacts on
the "Raise" and the "Lower" contactors may be used. In the latter case an additional mechanism
contact, similar to 'A' in 4.13.3.3.4.7 should be provided for the step-by-step circuit if the 'A'-contact
is the normally open type, i.e. if the mechanism contact through which the "Raise" and "Lower"
contactors are sealed is the type that is open in the rest position and closed during operation.

The essential features of the contacts provided for the step-by-step circuit are that they should not
operate the step-by-step relays before the "Raise" and "Lower" contactors have had time to seal.

Two sets of coded, voltage free contacts should be provided (see figure 7).

A tap position switch should be provided for use in the parallel checking circuit. This switch may
take the form of either a change-over switch that changes its position at the end of each tap-change
operation or a multi-position rotary switch with as many contacts as there are taps on the
transformer. These switches should be of the break-before-make type (see l in figure 7).

4.13.3.3.4.9 Limit switches (See ―n‖ in figure 6.)

Limit-switch contacts should be provided in order to prevent the tap-changer from overrunning the
end positions.

These contacts should be provided where indicated in the initiating circuits and should preferably
also be provided in the motor circuits in the case of single-phase motors if motor contactors are
provided.

NOTE The preceding clauses list the purchaser’s minimum requirements, but if the contractor wishes to add
further relays (e.g. for step-by-step control), this is acceptable though not desirable.

The essential features of the contacts provided for the step-by-step circuit are that that they should
not operate the step-by-step relays before the ―Raise‖ and ―Lower‖ contactors had time to seal
themselves in, and that they should remain closed throughout a tap-change operation, and,
preferably, also throughout a transition step. If they do not remain closed throughout a transition
step, then a spare mechanism contact should be provided and wired to separate terminals.
35 NRS 054:2013

4.13.3.3.4.10 Tap position indication, supervision and monitoring

Two sets of coded, voltage free contacts should be provided (see figure 7).

The tap position switch for use in parallel checking the circuit may take the form of either a change-
over switch that changes its position at the end of each tap-change operation or a multi-position
rotary switch with as many contacts as there are taps on the transformer. These switches should
be of the break-before-make type. (see l in figure 7).

4.13.3.3.4.11 Approval of components

All contactors, switches, circuit-breakers, relays and contacts incorporated in the electrical control
of tap-changers should be subject to the purchaser’s approval.

4.13.3.4 Mechanical tap position indicators

An externally visible mechanical tap position indicator should be provided on the driving
mechanism.

The tap-changer should be accessible from ground level ( 1,2 m from base plate), i.e. all operating
inspection points should not be positioned higher than 1,8 m so as to ensure that the operator does
not have to leave ground level.

4.13.3.5 Maximum and minimum tap position indicators

Maximum and minimum tap position indicators that are arranged for manual resetting should be
fitted to the driving mechanism in order to register the operating range that is encountered in
service.

4.13.3.6 Operation counters

Externally visible mechanical counters (e.g. cyclometers) should be provided to register the number
of tap-change operations. These recorders should have at least five digits, and should have no
6
provision for resetting. These counters should be of suitable quality for at least 10 operations. This
feature should be supported by a type test certificate. The tap-changer should be accessible from
ground level ( 1,2 m from base plate), i.e. all operating inspection points should not be positioned
higher than 1,8 m so as to ensure that the operator does not have to leave ground level.

4.13.3.7 Drawings and technical data

The main features of tap-changers, including the fittings and protective devices specified, should be
indicated on the transformer outline drawings.

Schematic diagrams should be supplied of the transformer on-load tap changer drive that shows
the rating in watts of the d.c. shunt trip coils that is fitted to the driving motor circuit breakers. The
contractor should indicate compliance on this diagram (see 4.13.3.3.4).

A diagram or chart that indicates the relative timing of all contacts during both a regular tapping
step and a transition step should be provided.

4.13.3.8 Tap position numbering

The tap position should be numbered in the case of both off-circuit and on-load tapping
arrangements as an increase in tap position number represents an increase in the controlled, or
outgoing voltage. (Controlled secondary voltage is defined as the voltage that is changed as a
result of the change in tappings.) In the case of interconnection or coupling transformers involving
power flow in both directions the controlled voltage will be specified in schedule A.
NRS 054: 2013
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NOTE Transition steps that give the same outgoing voltage should all take the same tap position number,
distinguished in each instance by a lower case letter; e.g. 9(a), 9(b) and 9(c) where there are three transition
steps.

4.13.3.9 Alarm, control and tripping contacts

4.13.3.9.1 General

Alarm and tripping contacts should be provided with electrically independent and unearthed circuits
and should be insensitive to vibration and earth tremors. This insensitivity should not depend on
the method of mounting, but should be an inherent feature of the contact assembly.

Auxiliary relays should not be used.

Contacts providing alarm output should be rated as follows:

Make and carry for 200 ms: 5 A at 250 V d.c.


Carry continuously: 2 A at 250 V d.c.
Break (inductive L/R = 40 ms): 30 W or 0,2A at 250 V d.c.

Contacts providing trip outputs should be rated as follows:

a) Make and carry for 200 ms: 30 A at 250 V d.c.

b) Carry for 1s: 10 A at 250 V d.c.

c) Carry continuously: 5 A at 250 V d.c.

d) Break (Inductive L/R = 40 ms): 30 W or 0,2 A at 250 V d.c.

Devices fitted with alarm and tripping contacts should be tested as specified in 5.2.
37 NRS 054:2013

4.13.3.10 Standard on-load tap-changer control schemes: minimum requirements for driving
mechanisms

Figure 6 — Control circuits for three-phase OLTC motor drives

NOTE 1 If the motor is continuously rated for the stalled condition, the thermal overload protection may be
omitted.

NOTE 2 Where‖Raise―and‖Lower‖ contactors are not provided and the motor current does not exceed 5A
when starting or running, the separate d.c. shunt trip coil may be omitted.

NOTE 3 In the case of single-phase motors continuously rated for the stalled condition and with a motor
current not exceeding 5 A when starting or running, the circuit-breaker may be omitted entirely, provided no
‖Raise‖ or ‖Lower‖ contactors are fitted.
NRS 054: 2013
38

Figure 7 — Common circuits for OLTC control


39 NRS 054:2013

Table 13 — Contact state at each tap position

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Position 20 10 8 4 2 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
2 0 0 0 0 1 0
3 0 0 0 0 1 1
4 0 0 0 1 0 0
5 0 0 0 1 0 1
6 0 0 0 1 1 0
7 0 0 0 1 1 1
8 0 0 1 0 0 0
9 0 0 1 0 0 1
10 0 1 0 0 0 0
11 0 1 0 0 0 1
12 0 1 0 0 1 0
13 0 1 0 0 1 1
14 0 1 0 1 0 0
15 0 1 0 1 0 1
16 0 1 0 1 1 0
17 1 1 0 1 1 1
0 = contact open 1 = contact closed

4.14 Auxiliary supplies, terminal boxes, wiring and cabling


4.14.1 Auxiliary supplies
The auxiliary power supply should be rated at 400/230 V a.c., three-phase, 4-wire, 50 Hz. The
unearthed d.c. supply should be 110/220 V d.c.

4.14.2 Terminal boxes


4.14.2.1 Terminal boxes and covers

Marshalling boxes and terminal boxes with an IP55 rating with easily removable covers fixed by not
more than two screws should be provided.

Covers for terminal boxes may be of the slip-on type and those for marshalling boxes should
preferably be hinged in a vertical plane.

Covers in a vertical plane should, in addition to a gasketted seal, be provided with a double-curved
flange along the top edge and sides. The door opening in the box should have a double-curved
flange around its entire perimeter, the outer face of which should form the gasketted joint. The top
of the box should be made to overhang the cover, except in the case of slip-on covers. These
should be double-curved and fitted with drip ledges to prevent internal corrosion.

Where applicable, access to equipment from the rear should be provided subject to the purchaser’s
approval.

NOTE Hinged panels are acceptable.


NRS 054: 2013
40
4.14.2.2 Venting and draining

Marshalling boxes and terminal boxes, arranged in a vertical plane, should be provided with a
25 mm vent and drain hole covered by a fine mesh of non-corrodible wire that is fitted at the lowest
point. The non-corrodible wire should be fitted flush inside the boxes in order to allow total
drainage.

4.14.2.3 Earthing terminal

An earthing terminal consisting of a boss with a M16 stainless steel or brass bolt should be
provided in each terminal box and marshalling box on both the inside and outside of the box.

4.14.2.4 Spare terminals

Each marshalling box should be provided with 10 % spare terminals and a minimum number of
twelve spare terminals, unless otherwise agreed.

4.14.2.5 Incoming auxiliary circuits

To prevent entry of water, the auxiliary wiring from the gas- and oil-actuated relay, current
transformers and other auxiliary apparatus, should be arranged for side or bottom entry into the
marshalling box. If bottom entry is adopted, the gland plate used should be independent of that
which is provided for the purchaser's outgoing cables.

4.14.2.6 Provision for outgoing cables

The marshalling box should be provided with a separate, removable, undrilled 4 mm thick brass
gland plate to take the purchaser's cable glands that should be mounted at least 100 mm below the
bottom of the terminal blocks, or other equipment, in such a manner as to facilitate the entry of the
purchaser's cables.

The gauze covered drain and vent hole may be fitted to this gland plate.

4.14.2.7 Contactors

Contactors should not be mounted directly on the back plate of winding temperature or oil
temperature indicators, as vibration can cause these indicators to read incorrectly.

4.14.3 Wiring
4.14.3.1 Insulation

Wiring insulation should be oil- and moisture-proof and should have thermal characteristics at least
equal to class 'A' of IEC 60085, when affected by temperatures above that of the ambient air..

4.14.3.2 Insulation test voltage

All auxiliary circuits should withstand a test voltage of 2 kV r.m.s. to earth and to all other circuits.

4.14.3.3 Type of conductor

All secondary wiring that is used on the transformer for current transformer secondaries and other
auxiliary equipment should have a minimum cross-section of 2,5 mm² with a minimum of 30
strands. The wiring should be flexible and of 660/1000 V grade in accordance with SANS 1507-2 or
should meet the purchaser's requirements.

As an alternative 4 mm² wire, with a minimum of 7 strands may be used.


41 NRS 054:2013

4.14.3.4 Protection of external wiring

External wiring should be either, in conduit in a metal protective channel or in the form of armoured
cable. Mineral insulated copper sheathed cables should not be used.

4.14.3.5 Fixing of wiring

All wiring should present a neat appearance and should be either braced, clipped or laced or
placed in rust-proof troughing or conduit. Armoured cables should be supported away from the
transformer surfaces on cable rails.

All terminals and labels should be easily accessible after wiring and cabling has been completed.

4.14.3.6 Termination of wiring

4.14.3.6.1 Connections

Where insulation is stripped from the wires in order to make connections, the conductors should be
left clean and undamaged. Only the required minimum length of insulation should be removed,
preferably with a thermal stripping device.

4.14.3.6.2 Termination of internal wiring and terminal boxes

All wiring connected to the terminals of auxiliary apparatus within the transformer tank should be
terminated at the terminals of a terminal box on the tank wall or cover plate.

These terminals or the tags that are permanently attached to them, should be indelibly marked as
the corresponding terminal of the internal apparatus and also its wiring designation (see 4.12.8.2).

The terminal marking tags, where used, and the terminals themselves should be so fixed to their
respective bushings or barrier board that there is no possibility of the internal connection or the
terminal slackening, or of the removal of the terminal marking tag during the process of applying or
removing the external connection.

All wiring from alarm and tripping contacts, current transformer secondary terminal boxes or any
other apparatus on the transformer that requires connection to external circuits, should be
terminated in a marshalling box that is situated on the transformer at a height of approximately
1,5 m above ground level.

4.14.3.7 Identification of wiring

The boundary or interface terminals of all equipment and the equipment wires connected to those
terminals should have a unique wire or terminal number in accordance with the purchaser's
drawings (see table 14). The wires should be marked with black letters impressed on a white
background or black letters on a yellow background providing that the colour selected is consistent
throughout the panel or suite of panels and is to the purchaser's approval.

4.14.3.8 Marshalling interface box

A marshalling interface box (MIB) with a standard terminal layout that includes all transformer
terminals and tap change drive terminals for transformers with ratings up to 160 MVA should be
provided. The MIB should consist of a single box that houses at least 116 terminals and should be
mounted on the side of a transformer. The manufacturer of the transformer should supply and
terminate a cable between the tap-change drive and the MIB in order to transfer the tap change
functions, as specified in the MIB layout. All normal transformer functions as specified in the MIB
layout should also be cabled to the MIB either directly or through a transformer terminal box.
NRS 054: 2013
42
Spare terminals may be used by the manufacturer to terminate any extra functions if so agreed by
the purchaser. The manufacturer may however not deviate from the prescribed allocation of the
terminals. Terminals indicating functions that are not provided by the manufacturer should be left
open. The manufacturer should fit partitions between terminals X1.26, X1.27, X1.28, X1.29, X1.30,
X1.31, X1.32, X5.1, X5.2, X5.3, X5.4, X5.5, X5.6, X6.1 and X6.2.
2
Unless otherwise specified, the purchaser will supply and terminate four 19-core 2,5 mm , one4-
2 2
core4,0 mm , 4-core 16 mm and two 10-pair twisted pair telephone cables between the MIB and
the transformer protection and tap change control cabinet in the substation control room.

Table 14 — Standard layout for marshalling interface box fitted to transformers

1 2 3 4 5
Device Abbreviation Terminal Wire Application
number Marking
Gas and oil relay G.O.R. X1.1 - X1.2 X1.1 - X1.2 Trip
X1.3 - X1.4 X1.3 - X1.4 Alarm
Pressure relief valve P.R.V X1.5 - X1.6 X1.5 - X1.6 Normal open contact
X1.6 - X1.7 X1.6 - X1.7 Normal closed contact
On load tap O.L.T.C. Prot. X1.8 - X1.9 X1.8 - X1.9 Normal open contact
change protection X1.9 - X1.10 X1.9 - X1.10 Normal closed contact
Oil temperature O.T.I X1.11 - X1.12 X1.11 - X1.12 Trip
indicator X1.13 - X1.14 X1.13 - X1.14 alarm
HV winding H.V.W.T.I X1.15 - X1.16 X1.15 - X1.16 Trip
temperature indicator X1.17 - X1.18 X1.17 - X1.18 alarm
MV winding L.V.W.T.I X1.19 - X1.20 X1.19 - X1.20 Trip
temperature indicator X1.21 - X1.22 X1.21 - X1.22 alarm
Tertiary winding T.W.T.I X1.23 - X1.24 X1.23 - X1.24 Trip
temperature indicator X1.25 - X1.26 X1.25 - X1.26 alarm
Oil O.L.I X1.27 - X1.28 X1.27 - X1.28 Oil level alarm
level indicator High/Low
Tap-change oil O.L.T.C.O. L.I X1.29 - X1.30 X1.29 - X1.30 Oil level alarm
level indicator High/Low
Cooler abnormal X1.33 - X1.34 X1.33 - X1.34 Common alarm for
cooler
Fans/pumps/thermomet X1.35 - X1.38 R, S, T ,N 3  Control supply
er
Fans/pumps X1.39 - X1.41 X1.39+ - X1.40- 110/220Vd.c Cooler
X1.41 stop and thermometer
supply
MIB heater X1.42– X1.43 X1.42 – X1.43 AC supply for MIB
heater
Thermometer failure X1.48– X1.49 X1.48 – X1.49 Thermometer failure
alarm
Analogue output – oil X1 50 – X1.51 X1 50+ – X1.51- Analogue output 4–
temperature 20mA(IDC Terminals)
Analogue output – HV X1.52 – X1.53 X1.52+ – X1.53- Analogue output 4-
winding temperature 20mA
(IDC Terminals)
Analogue output – MV X1.54 – X1.55 X1.54+ – X1.55- Analogue output 4-
winding temperature 20mA
(IDC Terminals)
Analogue output – X1.56 – X1.57 X1.56+ – X1.57- Analogue output 4-
tertiary winding 20mA
temperature (IDC Terminals)
43 NRS 054:2013

Table 14 — Standard layout for marshalling interface box fitted to transformers (continued…)

1 2 3 4 5
Device Abbre- Terminal Wire Application
viation number Marking
HV ―A‖ phase CT X2.1 – X2.2 1AS1 - 1AS2 Protection
HV ―B‖ phase CT X2.3 – X2.4 1BS1 - 1BS2 Protection
HV ―C‖ phase CT X2.5 – X2.6 1CS1 - 1CS2 Protection
MV ―a‖ phase CT X2.7 – X2.8 1aS1 - 1aS2 Protection
MV ―b‖ phase CT X2.9 – X2.10 1bS1 - 1bS2 Protection
MV ―c‖ phase CT X2.11 – X2.12 1cS1 - 1cS2 Protection
HV neutral CTs X2.13 – X2.14 1YNS1 - 1YNS2 Protection
X2.15 – X2.16 2YNS1 - 2YNS2 Protection
MV neutral CTs X2.17 – X2.18 1ynS1 - 1ynS2 Protection
X2.19 – X2.20 2ynS1 - 2ynS2 Protection
Tertiary ―a‖ Phase CT X2.21 – X2.22 1-3AS1 - 1-3AS2 Protection
Tertiary ―b‖ Phase CT X2.23 – X2.24 1-3BS1 - 1-3BS2 Protection
Tertiary ―c‖ Phase CT X2.25 – X2.26 1-3CS1 - 1-3CS2 Protection
HV ―A‖ phase CT X2.27 – X2.28 2AS1 - 2AS2 Protection
HV ―B‖ phase CT X2.29 – X2.30 2BS1 - 2BS2 Protection
HV ―C‖ phase CT X2.31 – X2.32 2CS1 - 2CS2 Protection
MV ―a‖ phase CT X2.33 – X2.34 2aS1 - 2aS2 Protection
MV ―b‖ phase CT X2.35 – X2.36 2bS1 - 2bS2 Protection
MV ―c‖ phase CT X2.37 – X2.38 2cS1 - 2cS2 Protection
X3.1 – X3.4 x 3  motor supply
X3.5 – X3.6 L, N 1  heater and encoder
supply
X4.1 – X4.2 +, - Tap change control d.c.
supply (when required)
X4.3 – X4.4 X4.3 – X4.4 Parallel check for even taps
X4.5 – X4.6 X4.5 – X4.6 Parallel check for odd taps
X4.7 – X4.9 X4.7 – X4.9 Local control switch
(7 Com, 8 Raise, 9 Lower)
X4.10 – X4.11 X4.10 – X4.11 Seal in for raise operations
(when required)
X4.12 – X4.13 X4.12 – X4.13 Seal in for lower operations
(when required)
X4.14 X4.14 Initiate raise operation
X4.15 X4.15 Initiate lower operation
X4.16 – X4.17 X4.16 – X4.17 Energize O/C block
contactor (Negative may be
commoned)
X4.18 – X4.19 X4.18 – X4.19 Trip motor supply MCB
(Negative may be
commoned)
X4.20 – X4.21 X4.20 – X4.21 Motor supply MCB has
tripped
X4.22 – X4.23 X4.22 – X4.23 Indication for tap-change
in progress
X5.1 – X5.6 X500, X501, X502 Binary coded decimal output
X504, X508, X510 to tap position indicator
X5.7 – X5.12 X600, X601, X602 Binary coded decimal output
X604, X608, X610 remote indication
X6.1 – X6.2

Interlocking "slip-on" types of ferrules are preferred and should match the size of wire onto which
they will be fitted.

For heavy conductors and very light wiring (telephone type) where the preferred type of marking
ferrules is not available, other methods may be approved.
NRS 054: 2013
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Ferrules should be arranged to read upright on cable terminal strips and to read from terminal to
insulation in the case of relay apparatus and instrument connections.

4.14.4 Secondary terminals


All terminals and associated mounting rails and markers used for the connection of external circuits
should be in accordance with DSP 34-253, subject to the purchaser's approval. Not more than two
conductors should be connected to any side of a terminal. The size of all terminals should be
suitable for the termination of two external cables of 4 mm² each.

The standard terminal block should be of the 10 mm screw clamp insertion type. Terminal blocks
bearing insulation displacement connectors (IDC) on one side should be applied to interface with
twisted pair telephone wires, as indicated in table 14.

An appropriate stud-type terminal should be applied for heavy duty supplies (e.g. cooler fan
supplies).

4.15 Tanks

4.15.1 Component approvals

The components and fittings associated with transformers covered by this specification should be
subject to the purchaser's approval. Samples, technical literature, drawings, test reports and lists of
the names of the principal users and an indication of their experience with regard to the design of
large transformers, should be supplied on request. The contractor may only submit components for
approval to the purchaser if the components have been approved by the manufacturer for use on
this transformer. Standardized, approved components that are already used by the purchaser are
preferred in order to minimize spares holdings.

4.15.2 Materials and welding

Unless otherwise approved, metal plate, bar and sections for fabrication should comply with
BS 7668. Welding should comply with BS EN 1011-2. Welds exposed to the atmosphere should be
continuous.

Dye-penetration tests should be carried out on load bearing joints. All sharp edges should be
rounded in the manufacturing process prior to coating.

4.15.3 Corrosion protection and paint finish

4.15.3.1 General

The interior and exterior surfaces of the tank, the tank cover and (when fitted) the conservator
should be either abrasive blast-cleaned or pickled, rinsed and dried, both in accordance with the
procedures given in SANS 10064 and, immediately, prior to coating, should be free from rust,
grease, oil and moisture. Abrasive blast cleaning should only be used where the thickness of the
steel plate is 3 mm or greater.

Special attention should be given to the surface preparation of the welded areas of the covers and
tank rims of sealed transformers. All spatter, slag and flux should be removed and the areas
cleaned back to bare metal immediately.

NOTE SANS 10064 recommends that after the surfaces have been blast-cleaned, a coating should be
applied before contamination or oxidation of the surfaces can occur. For guidance, a coating should be applied
not later than 4 h after blast-cleaning.
45 NRS 054:2013

4.15.3.2 Coating of interior surfaces

The interior surfaces of the tank, the cover and the cooling equipment should be clean and dry
immediately prior to filling the transformer with oil. Interior surfaces (other than those of cooling
tubes and headers) above a line that lies at least 50 mm below the oil level that corresponds to an
oil temperature of 20 °C should be corrosion-protected by varnishing, priming or painting, using
materials that are not affected by, or will not adversely affect the electrical or chemical properties of,
the insulating oil.

NOTE The remainder of the interior surfaces should be temporarily protected from corrosion (by varnishing,
oiling or applying a corrosion preventative) until the transformer is filled with oil.

4.15.3.3 Coating of exterior surfaces

All transformer tanks and accessories (excluding radiators) should be in accordance with table B.2
(annex B) of DSP 34-1658:2011 for coastal applications.

All external surfaces, with the exception of the oil conservators should be finished with a cloud grey
(NCS 2305-R99B) outer coat of enamel in accordance with SANS 1091.

The conservators should be finished with an outer coat of cloud white (NCS 0704-G38Y) colour in
accordance with SANS 1091.

4.15.3.4 Nuts and bolts

All nuts and washers should have stainless steel grade of 304.

All bolts should have a stainless steel grade of 316.

4.15.4 Tank construction


4.15.4.1 Shape

The shape of the transformer tank and fittings, including the underbase should be such that no
water can be retained at any point on their external surfaces. Furthermore the lid on the inside
should be shaped to ensure that all free gas generated inside the transformer escapes to the
conservator by way of the gas and oil actuated relay.

4.15.4.2 Cooling corrugations

Corrugated tanks will not be accepted unless approved in writing.

4.15.4.3 Guides for core and winding assembly

Guides should be provided inside the transformer tank to correctly locate the core and winding
assembly in the tank.

4.15.5 Tank strength and oil tightness


4.15.5.1 Rigidity

Transformer tanks and their associated components should have adequate mechanical strength
and rigidity to permit the complete transformer, filled with oil, to be lifted, jacked and hauled in any
direction, and to be transported without structural damage or impairment of the oil tightness of the
transformer, and without the necessity for the special positioning of sliding rails in relation to the
tank. Tank stiffeners should not cover welded seams, to enable the repair of possible oil leaks. The
tank and transformer as a whole should be suitable for transport by low-bed or beam wagon.
NRS 054: 2013
46
4.15.5.2 Internal pressure and vacuum

Transformer tanks, complete with all fittings and attachments normally in contact with the
transformer oil, and filled with oil of the specified viscosity, should withstand the pressure and the
leakage tests prescribed in 5.4.1.When empty of oil they should withstand the vacuum test
specified in 5.4.2.

In the case of type tests for strength and oil tightness, the fittings (e.g. pressure relief valves and
bushing stems) may be tested separately.

The ability of the tank to withstand overpressure should be coordinated with the pressure relief
valves.

4.15.6 Brackets for surge arresters

The surge arrestor brackets that are used to mount the primary, secondary and tertiary surge
arrestors to the transformer should comply with the following requirements:

a) The surge arrester mounting brackets should be provided to suit the dimension shown in
figure 8.

b) The outline and dimension drawings provided in terms of a contract, should show the surge
arresters mounted on the transformer with all necessary clearances and sizes dimensioned.

c) All dimensions of theuniversal surge arrester mountings, should be shown in an inset on the
general arrangement drawings.

d) See 4.15.12 for the earth continuity requirements of the surge arrester brackets.

4.15.7 Magnetic flux effects

4.15.7.1 The tank and cover should be designed so that local heating due to stray flux in any
structural part should not exceed the top oil temperature limit specified for the transformer, by more
than 10 °C.

4.15.7.2 Heating, due to stray flux, should also not cause local temperature elevations of more
than 15 °C relative to the oil temperature at that level.

4.15.7.3 Thermometer pockets should be located so as to avoid errors in temperature indication


due to the heating effects resulting from stray flux.

4.15.8 Underbase

4.15.8.1 The underbase should be suitable for the movement of the transformer in any direction,
by sliding on greased rails, and should be provided with four hauling eyes not less than 50 mm in
diameter, as near as possible to the extremities of the length and width of the tank with not less
than 100 mm working clearance above them.

4.15.8.2 Unless otherwise approved, transformer underbases should have a thickness not less
than that specified in table 15. Fabricated bases should not retain water. The position of the axial
and transverse centre lines as shown on the dimension and foundation drawings should be
accurately stamped onto the tank at the base level, on both sides and at both ends, and indicated
by means of a red enamelled mark at each point. For foundation plinth tolerances refer to 4.30.2.

4.15.9 Jacking pads

4.15.9.1 Four suitably and symmetrically placed jacking pads should be provided in positions that
should be accessible when the transformer is loaded on to the transport vehicle, except where
jacking pads are used as transport pads on vehicles with built-in jacking.
47 NRS 054:2013

Figure 8 — Surge arrester bracket dimensions


NRS 054: 2013
48
Table 15 — Minimum thickness of transformer tank base plates — mild steel

1 2
Length of tank Minimum plate thickness
M mm
Fabricated bases,
not exceeding 2,5 10
exceeding 2,5 12
Flat bases,
not exceeding 2,5 12
over 2,5 m but less than 5 20
over 5 m but less than 7,5 26
exceeding 7,5 32

4.15.9.2 The position of the jacking pads should be such that they do not restrict the direction in
which the transformer could be moved (forward, backward and sideways) once off-loaded on site.

4.15.9.3 Each jacking pad should be designed to support, with an adequate factor of safety at least
half of the total mass of the transformer filled with oil, allowing maximum possible misalignment of
the jacking force in relation to the centre of the working surface.

4.15.9.4 Unless otherwise approved, the heights of the jacking pads above the bottom of the
transformer base, and the unimpeded working surface of the jacking pads should be as in table 16
(read in conjunction with figure 9).

Table 16 — Jacking pad dimensions

1 2 3 4 5
Transformer Min/max height of Overhang to Unimpeded Width of symmetrical
mass complete jacking pad above centre of working surface unimpeded access to
with oil base jacking pad of pad jacking pad
"A" "C" "D"
mm "B" mm Mm
metric tons Mm
60 and below 460/530 115 170 x 170 230
Above 60 650/700 150 210 x 210 300
NOTE Access in direction 'E' should be unrestricted.
49 NRS 054:2013

Figure 9 – Arrangement of jacking pads

4.15.10 Lifting lugs

4.15.10.1 Four symmetrically placed lifting lugs should be provided so that it will be possible to lift
the complete transformer when filled with oil without structural damage to any part of the
transformer. The factor of safety at any one point should be not less than 2.

4.15.10.2 The lifting lugs should be arranged and located so as to be accessible for use when the
transformer is loaded on the transport vehicle, and so as not to cause fouling of any of the
transformer fittings and accessories.

4.15.11 Centre of gravity

The centre of gravity should be clearly visible and indicated on all sides of the transformer tank.

4.15.12 Provisions for earthing

Provision should be made for earthing the transformer and associated apparatus as follows:

a) Transformer tank earthing

1) At a height not less than 300 mm from the base of the transformer tank and near each
end of each of the two major sides of the tank (i.e. in four positions).

2) These provisions should take the form of earthing pads integral with the tank walls;
where the pads are attached by welding, such welding should be continuous around
the perimeter of the pads. Earthing pads should be stainless steel.
NRS 054: 2013
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3) Provision should be made for connection to the earthing pads of four galvanised steel
straps (one per corner) of 80 mm x 6 mm, laid one upon another and clamped in
position by a heavy clamping plate fastened by not less than two M12 studs or
setscrews with hexagonal heads and fitted with lock washers, spanning the width of
the copper straps.

b) Transformer neutral(s) earthing (direct)

1) A stainless steel pad that has the same clamping arrangement as the transformer
earthing pads and that is integral to the transformer tank should be provided for
earthing each transformer neutral terminal.

2) This pad should be mounted as near as possible to the corresponding neutral terminal
in order to ensure a short and steady connection to earth.

3) The manufacturer should supply a suitably rated corrosion protected connection


between the neutral bushing and the tank.

c) Transformer surge arrester earthing (line and neutral surge arresters)

1) The surge arrester mounting brackets should be used as the earth path for discharging
the surge arrester to earth by means of the transformer tank (i.e. copper earth tails
should not be used for surge arresters).

2) Where brackets for phase and neutral surge arresters are to be fixed to the tank using
tank mounted bolts, stainless steel pads (similar to the transformer tank earthing pads
that form an integral part of the tank) should be used. These pads should be attached
by means of continuous welding around the perimeter of the pads.

3) Where brackets are not directly mounted onto the tank (on radiators), a separate
suitably rated corrosion protected connection should be provided to the earthing
pad on the tank.

NOTE The bolted down surface contact areas of transformer surge arrester support brackets and earthing
pads should be free of any paint or metal spray coatings.

d) All tank attached apparatus, including cable marshalling boxes, tap-changer operating gear
and mechanism boxes, and fan and pump motors should be bonded to their supporting
structures.

e) Earthing pads should also be provided on each end of the supporting structures for all
separately mounted cooler banks and oil conservators and on all free-standing cubicles (see
4.15.12(a)).

f) Copper should not be used in connections that are used for the purpose of earthing.

NOTE Integral pads that suit the fault levels are indicated in table 4.

4.15.13 Main tank covers

4.15.13.1 Shape

The main cover of the transformer tank may be flat, domed or of the "bell type".

Positive provision should be made to guide any gas that may be developed toward the Buchholz
relay.

This provision should take into account the possible slopes of the plinth on which the transformer
will be mounted.
51 NRS 054:2013

The effectiveness of guiding gas in the transformer should be tested by injection of a known
quantity of gas into the bottom drain valve furthest away from the Buchholz relay.

In order to avoid the undesirable and possible dangerous entrapment of gas in the transformer, this
test should be carried out prior to the final vacuum treatment of the transformer oil.

4.15.13.2 Lifting

Lifting lugs or eyes should be provided, and the cover so arranged that it may be lifted and handled
without permanent distortion.

4.15.13.3 Gas venting

The transformer cover, and generally the internal spaces of the transformer and all relevant oil
connections, should be designed as to provide for the venting of gas from any part of the
transformer to the gas and oil actuated relay.

Attention is drawn to the foundation tolerances specified in 4.30.2 and the testing requirement in
4.15.13.1.

4.15.13.4 Vacuum connection

All transformers with voltage ratings of 132 kV, with a minimum rating of 160 MVA should have a
150 mm nominal diameter pipe flange, with bolted blanking plate and gasket, fitted at the highest
point of the transformer cover plate, sufficiently clear of the latter to permit the manipulation of the
nuts for the mating flange fixing bolts.

The position of the flange on the transformer cover plate should provide easy access (e.g. between
the transformer bushings) for the flexible vacuum pump tube.

The flange should comply with the requirements of BS EN 1092-1, or with DIN 2576.

The face of the flange should always be in the vertical plane, and should be suitably finished to
provide an effective seal with an 'O'-ring housed in the mating flange.

4.15.13.5 Cover identification

The manufacturer’s serial number should be indelibly stamped below the edge of the ―C"-phase
bushing onto the main tank cover and also in the adjacent position on the edge of the main tank
flange.

4.15.13.6 Thermometer pockets

A minimum of three thermometer pockets should be provided including one fitted with a captive
flanged screw plug and they should be suitably positioned for use with a thermometer to verify top-
oil and winding temperatures.

The thermometer pockets should be located so as to avoid errors in temperature indication due to
the heating effects resulting from stray flux.

4.15.13.7 Currents flowing in tank cover and bushing turrets

The tank cover and bushing turrets should be fixed to the transformer in such a way that good
electrical contact is maintained around the perimeter of the tank and turrets. This procedure is
necessary in order to allow for the effect of induced loop currents and capacitive surge currents.

Special care should be taken in the vicinity of high current terminals.


NRS 054: 2013
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4.15.13.8 Support

The cover may be supported from, but should not support, the core and winding assembly
(see 4.8.4.3).

4.15.13.9 Welding of cover

Joints, other than those that may have to be separated during transport or for maintenance in
service, should be welded. The main tank/cover joint should be welded. A fire-proof gasket should
be included to prevent foreign matter from entering the transformer during welding or un-welding.

The welded joint should be designedto permit the removal of the weld with minimum damage to the
mating flanges and to leave them suitable for re-welding.

4.15.14 Gaskets: types, material, re-tightening and welding

4.15.14.1 General

Gasketted joints should meet the following requirements:

a) all gasketted joints should be designed, manufactured and assembled in order to ensure
long- term leak and maintenance free operation.

b) gasketted joints that need not be removed for normal maintenance or transport should be
welded in accordance with 4.15.13.9.

c) details of all gasketted joints should be submitted for approval.

4.15.14.2 Gasket types

The following types of gaskets can be identified:

a) Subject to clause (b), all gasketted joints should be of the O-ring and groove type. The O-
ring should be manufactured from nitrile rubber or better.

b) Bolt-on type tap-changers and selector tanks that have to be removed for transport or
maintenance are specifically excluded for the use of O-ring type gasket joints. In these
applications rectangular cord and groove joints where the nitrile rubber cord is not joined but
passed twice around the perimeter with the loose ends at the bottom, are acceptable.
Alternatively a flat nitrile rubber gasket with stoppers to prevent over compression will be
acceptable.

Approved non O-ring gaskets that need re-tightening in order to avoid oil leaks as a result of
shrinkage, should be re-tightened after 6 months of service by the contractor at no extra cost to the
purchaser. All costs to maintain a leak-free system should be for the contractor’s account during the
guarantee period.

4.15.14.3 Attachments to the transformer tank

Attachments to the transformer tank should only be fixed by bolting them to the prepared flat
surface of a flange facing. Attachments should be fixed either integral with or should be welded to
the tank and should be sealed by a gasket or O-ring to the mating flange of the attachment. Joints
that are dependent on the sealing of screw threads and the direct welding of fittings to the tank, will
not be accepted.
53 NRS 054:2013

4.15.14.4 Pipe joints

Oil pipes above 15 mm bore should have flanged, gasketted and bolted joints. Flexible
compression joints will not be accepted unless they are specifically approved. Joints that are
dependent on the sealing of screw threads will not be accepted.

4.15.14.5 Drilling of pipe flanges

Except where otherwise stated, the drilling and bolting of pipe flanges and the mating flanges of
fittings should comply with the requirements of BS EN 1092-1 or DIN 2631.

4.15.15 Access openings and covers


An appropriate number of suitably proportioned hand holes and manholes should be provided for
easy access to the upper portions of the core and windings assembly, the lower ends of bushings,
internal current transformers and the oil side of their terminal boxes (see 4.9.5).

4.15.15.1 Handles

Manhole covers should be provided with stout handles to facilitate their removal.

4.15.15.2 Lifting lugs

Covers with a mass greater than 25 kg should be provided with symmetrically arranged lifting lugs.

4.15.16 Pressure relief devices

Transformers rated below 100 MVA should be equipped with one spring operated pressure relief
device (PRV). Each device should:

a) maintain its oil tightness under a static oil pressure equal to the static operating head of oil
plus 20 kPa;

b) attain its full opening in not more than 2,5 ms when subjected to an internal pressure impulse
equal to the static operating head of oil plus 50 kPa;

c) be capable of withstanding full internal vacuum at sea level;

d) be fitted with a visual operation indicator plainly visible from ground level, and arranged for
manual resetting;

e) be equipped with normally open contacts that may be used to give electrical indication that
the device has operated (see 4.13.3.9); and

f) have an opening diameter of at least 100 mm.

Pressure relief devices should be mounted so as not to entrap gases that may be generated or
released inside the transformer. These devices should be fitted directly to the side walls of the
transformer tank at a level as near as possible to the top of the windings. Where one device is fitted
it should be positioned as close as possible to the centre phase. Where there are two devices, they
should be arranged on opposite sides of the transformer, i.e. between 'A' and 'B' phases on one
side and between 'b' and 'c' phases on the other (see figure 3). Alternative mounting positions, such
as on the tank cover, may be considered if adequate mechanical protection can be provided to
avoid inadvertent damage by the personnel who erect the transformer. This arrangement should be
subject to approval by the purchaser.
NRS 054: 2013
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A combined weather guard and oil deflector should be fitted to ensure free deflection of the oil
towards the ground and provide adequate protection from the environmental elements. Enclosed
ducting should be provided to channel any released oil down to ground level in the event of oil
being released from the transformer during operation of the PRV.

Pressure relief devices are recognised to have a limited response in the case of severe internal
faults. Alternative well-proven devices that only detect pressure waves resulting from internal faults
but that do not provide any pressure relief may therefore be submitted for consideration by the
purchaser.

The overpressure device should not be influenced to generate invalid trip signals by tank vibrations
and the magnetic fields generated during normal operation and through faults.

4.16 Valves and oil sampling devices


4.16.1 Isolating valves
Suitably dimensioned isolating valves should be provided:

a) at each point of connection to detachable cooling apparatus; and

b) at each point of connection to tap-changer compartments, cable disconnecting chambers and


cable sealing boxes that are supplied from the transformer tank.

4.16.2 Filtering and drain valves


Not less than two 50 mm double-flange valves should be provided. Where only two filtering valves
are provided, one valve should be located at the top of the tank adjacent to the oil conservator, and
another at the bottom of the tank at the opposite end in order to provide a cross current of oil
during filtration. The lower valve should be a combined drain and filtering valve and, as such,
should be positioned so that it drains, as far as possible, all the oil from the transformer tank.

No valves should be fitted by means of stud welding or welding to the main tank.

The tap-changer diverter chambers should be fitted with 25 mm drain valves for maintenance
purposes. If inaccessible from ground level, they should be piped down to 1,5 m above ground
level.

All drain valves should be protected against mechanical damage. The means of mechanical
protection should be indicated on the general arrangement drawing.

4.16.3 Oil sampling devices

An oil sampling device consisting of a flange and drain plug (see figure 10) or other approved
device should be provided in the following locations where applicable:

a) at the bottom of the transformer tank, bolted and fitted with O-rings to the free flange of the
50 mm drain valve specified in 4.16.2;

b) at the bottom of each separate tap-changer selector compartment;

c) on the free flange of the tap-changer diverter chamber; and

d) at the end of the main Buchholz relay sample pipe.

These points should all be numbered on the sampling point with the number corresponding to the
same point on the valve function plate (see 4.16.8).

All oil sampling devices to be accessible from ground level.


55 NRS 054:2013

4.16.4 Strength and oil tightness

Valves and oil sampling devices should be of adequate strength to withstand the hydraulic and
mechanical loads imposed upon them during testing, processing and transporting of the
transformer and when it is in service. Pewter and similar low strength materials will not be
accepted.

Valve discs, wedges, wedge facing rings, seats and seat rings, stems and spindles should be of an
approved non-corrodible material. Valves and oil sampling devices should withstand the tests
specified in 5.4.

4.16.5 Valve stem seals

Valve stem seals should be capable of adjustment in service without draining the transformer oil. In
this connection, and generally, aluminium (or aluminium alloy) threads should not mate with threads
of brass valve stems.

4.16.6 Padlocking

Suitable means should be provided for padlocking valves in both the open and closed positions.

4.16.7 Blanking plates

All valve entries communicating with the atmosphere should be sealed using bolted and gasketted
blanking plates, or captive screwed caps, or plugs, as the case may be.

4.16.8 Valve function plate

A schematic diagram plate indicating all valves, vent plugs and sampling points should be provided
in the same manner as the rating and diagram plate (see 4.26) indicating the position of each, the
total number, the function and the required position during operation.

4.16.9 Valve position indication

The position of each valve, i.e. either fully open or fully closed, should be clearly and
unambiguously visible on inspection. Where this is not so, e.g. in the case of lever operated valves,
the ―open‖ and ―closed‖ positions of the lever in relation to a clearly recognizable part of the
transformer should be depicted on the valve function plate specified in 4.16.8
NRS 054: 2013
56

Figure 10 — Oil sampling flange interfaces

.
57 NRS 054:2013

4.16.10 Labelling of oil sampling devices

All the oil sampling points, as specified in 4.16.3, should be numbered the same as on the valve
function plate with exception of the two routine sampling points that should also be labelled as
follows:

Sampling point Label


* Main tank MAIN TANK
* Tap-changer compartments TAP
CHANGER
* Tap-changer diverter chamber TAP
CHANGER DIVERTER
* Buchholz relay BUCHHOLTZ

4.17 Oil conservator tank and connections

4.17.1 Capacity

The capacity of the oil conservator should be such that the oil level will not fall below the top of the
feed pipe to the transformer at a top oil temperature of –10 °C and should, as a minimum, not
overflow at a top oil temperature of 115 °C. The requirements for the sump in 4.17.4 should also be
noted.

The transformer should nevertheless also be able to carry the overloads specified without
overflowing.

4.17.2 Strength

The conservator should be designed and tested to meet the requirements of 4.15.5.

4.17.3 Mounting

Oil conservators should be mounted on the transformer tank.

Conservators should be bolted on brackets to facilitate the complete removal of the conservator for
whatever purpose.

The oil conservator should fall in the direction of its main compartment drain valve by not less than
25 mm over the length of the conservator.

4.17.4 Sump

The connection to the transformer should be positioned so that a level of oil not less than 10 % of
the internal vertical dimension of the conservator (with a minimum of 50 mm in the case of
transformers with ratings up to and including 20 MVA and 75 mm for larger units), remains in the
conservator after it has been drained to the transformer.
NRS 054: 2013
58
The conservator should not have pockets that are not drained by the drain valve.

4.17.5 Removable end cover

The end cover of the conservator adjacent to the drain valve should be attached by a bolted and
gasketted external flange to facilitate internal cleaning of the conservator. In the case of a
conservator that is partitioned to supply the tap-changer switch compartment(s), both end covers
should be removable.

These covers should be provided with integral lifting lugs. The removal of these covers should not
be obstructed by pipework or fittings when the transformer is erected.

4.17.6 Filling aperture

A filling aperture of not less then 65 mm diameter, that is fitted with an air tight gasketted cover
should be provided at the top of each conservator.

4.17.7 Isolating/drain valves

The following requirements apply in respect of the isolating/drain valves:

a) A suitably dimensioned isolating valve should be directly attached to the outlet of each oil
conservator by a bolted and gasketted flange.

b) A 50 mm double-flanged valve should be provided to fully drain each main tank conservator.
This valves should be mounted approximately 1,5 m above ground level on an extension
pipe, if required.

c) A 25 mm double-flanged drain valve should be provided in order to fully drain each tap-
changer oil conservator.

d) Valves, flanges and flange facings should comply with the relevant requirements of 4.16.

4.17.8 Pipework connections


Pipework connections should be the correct size for their duty and should be as short and direct as
possible. Only radiused elbows should be used. Pipework should not obstruct the removal of tap-
changers for maintenance.

The feed pipe to the transformer tank should enter the transformer cover plate at its highest point
and should be straight for a distance not less than five times its internal diameter on the transformer
side of the Buchholz relay, and straight for not less than three times its internal diameter on the
conservator side of the relay. This pipe should rise toward the oil conservator, through the relay, at
an angle of not less than 5°.

For transformers containing up to 10 000  of oil, the feed pipe diameter should be not less than
50 mm, and for larger transformers it should be not less than 75 mm.

Gas-venting pipes, as referred to in 4.15.13.3, should be connected as nearly as possible in an


axial direction to the final rising pipe to the Buchholz relay, and preferably not less than five pipe
diameters on the transformer side of the relay.

4.17.9 Sealed oil preservation system


Transformers of 40 MVA and above should be equipped with a bagged main conservator. The
materials, design and construction should be subject to approval by the purchaser.

The design and materials should take the long life expectancy of the transformer into consideration.
59 NRS 054:2013

High and low oil level alarm contacts should be provided together with the oil level indication.

The bag or system should not prevent or restrict the normal draining of the conservator or the flow
of oil to the transformer.

The oil filling aperture should be clearly marked to prevent oil filling into the bag.

The system should be air tight.

The bag should allow expansion without increasing the pressure or creating a partial vacuum over
the full specified temperature range.

The rating and diagram plate should bear a warning statement that the conservator is fitted with a
bag.

The transformer manual should give clear instructions on the operation, maintenance, testing and
replacement of the bag.

4.18 Gas and oil actuated relays (Buchholz)

4.18.1 General

An approved gas and oil actuated relay should be interposed in the connecting pipe between the oil
conservator and the transformer tank in such a manner that all gas from the tank must pass through
the relay as it rises to the oil conservator. The relay should be suitable for operation in transformer
oil as specified over the temperature range from –10 °C up to 115 °C.

Contacts as specified in 4.13.3.9 should be provided to close as follows:

a) the gas alarm signalling contacts should be closed by the oil level falling to a predetermined
point in the relay due, either to the deficiency of oil, or to the presence of gas in the relay;

b) the gas tripping contacts should close on a further lowering of the oil level to a point before
the gas escapes to the conservator.

If this cannot be achieved, the gas alarm signal should be used for a gas trip signal in which case
this arrangement should be subject to approval by the purchaser;

c) the surge tripping contact should close when there is a surge of oil through the relay towards
the conservator with a rate of flow not less than that given in table 17.

Table 17 — Gas and oil actuated relay oil flow rates for closure of surge contacts

1 2 3
Transformer total oil content Relay nominal size Limits of minimum steady oil flow rate

 mm mm/s
Up to 1 000 25 Between 700 and 1 300
1 001 to 10 000 50 Between 750 and 1 400
10 001 to 50 000 75 Between 900 and 1 600
Above 50 000 75 Between 1 500 and 2 500

The performance of the relay should be demonstrated as specified in 5.5.


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4.18.2 Relay stability

In addition to the tests specified in 5.2, the relay should withstand the contact tests specified in 5.3.

Faulty operation of the relay should not result from starting or stopping the transformer oil
circulating pumps under various oil temperature conditions. Stability, in this regard, should not be
achieved by the use of pipe or relay aperture baffles in order to reduce the sensitivity of the relay to
oil surges as specified.

4.18.3 Magnetic influence

The relay should not operate during fault conditions or be influenced by the magnetic fields around
the transformer under normal or external fault conditions regardless of the requirements that are
stated in this specification.

4.18.4 Mounting and marking of relays

Pipe mounting flanges and relay lengths between flange facings should, unless otherwise
approved, meet the requirements relevant to figure 11 and preference will be given to relays that
are interchangeable in these respects. The conservator end of each relay should be clearly
indicated.

4.18.5 Windows
Unless otherwise approved, two graduated windows should be provided on opposing sides of the
relay and should be so arranged that the oil level in the relay can be clearly gauged. The internal
surfaces of the relay should be finished in glossy white, oil resistant enamel.

4.18.6 Gas release and oil sampling cock


An oil tight gas release cock, (that is terminated in a threaded (6 mm) air connection which is fitted
with a captive screw cap, and that communicates by means of a small bore non-ferrous tube to the
top of the relay body), should be located approximately 1,5 m above ground level. The tubing
should be protected from physical damage by appropriate routing and fastening or protective
conduit, or both.

4.18.7 In-situ testing


Each Buchholz relay should have an internal test nozzle for simulating the gas alarm, gas trip and
surge trip signals by injecting gas into this nozzle. The nozzle should be piped down to a height of
1,5 m above ground level in the same manner as in the case of the gas release cock specified in
4.18.6.

Alternatively, an approved mechanical device that operates the float mechanism and not just the
switch contacts, may be provided.

4.18.8 Oil tightness and strength


The relay should withstand the internal pressure and vacuum conditions specified in 4.15.5.2
without damage and without leakage of oil, either externally or into its terminal box, and, in the case
of the application of vacuum, without ingress of air.

4.18.9 Electrical connections, terminals and terminal box


In general, these should comply with the requirements of 4.14. The gauze covered drain and vent
hole in the terminal box on the relay (see 4.14.2.2) is, however, not required.

The terminal box cover gasket should be confined to the perimeter of the cover where sealing is
required, i.e. the central area of gasket material over the terminals should be removed.
61 NRS 054:2013

A suitable water-tight and weather resistant electrical conduit threaded cable entry should be
provided.

The alarm signalling and the tripping contacts should be electrically separate and independent, and
should be externally connected as specified in 4.14.3.6.

4.18.10 Devices for the protection of relay contacts


Where the contractor deems it necessary to protect the relay contacts (see 4.13.3.9) from the
effects of cable capacitance or electromagnetic relay inductance by means of resistor-capacitor
snubber circuits or diodes, he should provide and fit these items, preferably in the relay terminal
box, or alternatively in the marshalling box on the transformer. Such designs should be subject to
the purchaser's approval.

4.18.11 Type and routine testing


The Buchholz relays should meet the requirements of the tests specified in 5.5.

A standard test card bearing the manufacturer's serial number for the relay should be included with
each of the operating instruction manuals supplied for each transformer.

4.18.12 Assembly, operating and maintenance instructions


Original and fully detailed instructions for assembly, operation and maintenance of the relay should
be included with each of the operating instruction manuals for the transformer.

4.18.13 Floats
The buoyancy of the floating elements should be due to their specific gravity and should not
depend on the sealing of a hollow float. The materials should not be affected by hot transformer oil.

4.19 Dehydrating breathers


4.19.1 General
With the exception of oil-filled bushings and bushing mounted, tap-changer diverter switch
compartments operating at line or tapping potential, the oil in conservators and other oil-filled
compartments should only be in contact with the atmosphere through a dehydrating breather
approved by the purchaser.

No single breather should carry a silica gel charge in excess of 12,5 kg. Where the required
quantity exceeds this mass it should be subdivided into a sufficient number of individual
compartments arranged in series. A single atmospheric oil seal should be provided to serve the
entire breather group. The breather should be carefully designed for easy and frequent changing of
the silica gel charge by non-specialist maintenance personnel.

4.19.2 Type of breather


Unless otherwise approved, a desiccating breather using cobalt impregnated silica gel, complying
with BS 3523, should be provided.
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4.19.3 Breather proportions

The silica gel charges contained in the dehydrating breathers should not be less than 0,3 kg per
1 000  of total oil content, with a minimum of 2 kg.

4.19.4 Diffusion of air through the desiccant


The silica gel charge should be so supported and positioned that the air passing through the charge
should be diffused throughout the charge so as to contact all gel particles in the charge and, in
particular, those that can be seen from the outside or through the window provided for this purpose.

Figure 11 – Bucholtz relay outline drawing and sizes

4.19.5 Air intake during starting of oil circulating pumps


The positioning and proportions of the dehydrating breather should be such that air inhaled during
the starting of the oil circulating pumps should receive adequate dehydration and should be such
that the oil in the atmospheric seal should not be drawn into the breather unit(s) during this
operation, nor blown out of the oil seal when the oil circulating pumps are stopped.
63 NRS 054:2013

4.19.6 Containing of the silica gel charge


The silica gel charge should preferably be contained in a transparent and independent container of
weatherproof, UV and heat resistant (115 °C) material,that may be simply and easily removed and
replaced without the use of special tools.

In the case of multi-unit breathers, each separate charge should be independently retained upon
removal of the oil seal.

4.19.7 Visual inspection of the desiccant


Unless the container for the silica gel charge is transparent an inspection window, at least 50 mm
wide, should be provided in order to allow for inspection of the colour and condition of the silica gel.
The inspection window should be so positioned as to make the desiccant visible at both ends and
for the full length of each cartridge.

Windows or containers of heat resistant glass or other fragile material should be protected using
metal grids.

4.19.8 Seals
The breather desiccant should not be in contact with the atmosphere unless the transformer is
breathing, but should be sealed by a device containing a quantity of transformer oil. The designed
oil level in this device should be clearly marked. The seal should preferably be constructed of heat-
resistant glass. All other seals on the breather should be oil-proof. The air tight gaskets should be
effectively retained when dismantling the breather for the purpose of changing the desiccant
charge.

4.19.9 Castings
Where cast components are used they should be high quality, non-porous castings.

4.19.10 Corrosion proofing


Corrosion should be eliminated by the use, wherever possible, of non-corrodible materials, and by
avoiding the contact of dissimilar metals.

The corrosion proofing should be in accordance with 4.15.3.

4.19.11 Mounting and pipework connections


Dehydrating breathers should be mounted approximately 1,5 m above ground level.

Connection should be made to a point in the oil conservator not less than 50 mm above the
maximum working oil level (i.e. top oil temperature of 115 °C), by means of a pipe with a minimum
diameter of 20 mm in the case of breathers less than 10 kg in total mass, and a minimum diameter
of 25 mm for units of 10 kg and above.

Breathers with a mass less than 10 kg may be supported by the connecting pipe, whereas units of
10 kg and above should be supported independently of the connecting pipe.

Connecting pipes should be securely cleated to the transformer, or other structure supplied by the
contractor, in such a manner as to eliminate undesirable vibration and noise. In the case where a
breather of less than 10 kg is supported by the pipe, there should be a cleat directly above the
breather flange.

Pipe connections should comply with 4.15.14 unless otherwise approved.


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4.20 Oil level indicators, alarm and signalling devices

4.20.1 General

The oil level in conservators and oil-filled chambers with a free oil level, should be clearly indicated
when viewed from ground level by approved weatherproof oil level indicators. The indicators
should be suitable for the design, i.e. free breathing or bag type conservators.

4.20.2 Range of indication

The oil level indication should be continuous over the range of top oil temperature from –10 °C to
+115 °C.

The level of oil in the conservator corresponding with the –10 °C index should be not less than
25 mm above the transformer feed pipe entry.

4.20.3 Graduation of indicator

The oil level indicator on the oil conservator connected to the transformer tank should bear the
following markings:
If the indicator is the dial-type, the words ―FULL‖ and ―EMPTY‖, should be appropriately placed.
(Dial-type indicator pointers should move from "Empty" to "Full" in the clockwise direction).

Graduations indicating the normal oil levels at oil temperatures of 15 °C, 30 °C, 45 °C, 60 °C,
75 °C and 90 °C.

4.20.4 Dial-type indicator

These should be the magnetically operated type in which breaking the glass will not expose the oil
to the atmosphere.

The buoyancy of the floating element should be due to its relative density and should not depend
on the sealing of a hollow float. The materials used should be unaffected by the hot transformer oil
in the long term.

The vibration of the transformer should not produce wear and damage to the mechanism of the
indicator.

4.20.5 Gaskets

Gaskets should be as specified in 4.15.14.

4.20.6 Mounting

Oil level indicators should be arranged for front-end mounting without requiring access to the inside
of the oil conservator or chamber.

4.20.7 Low and high level alarms

Transformers should have low and high level alarm contacts fitted, and these contacts should be
paralleled.A pair of circuit-closing, potential free, low oil level alarm signalling contacts should be
provided in each oil conservator. These contacts should be set to close at the 10 °C point.

A pair of circuit-closing, potential free, high oil level alarm signalling contacts should be provided in
each oil conservator. These contacts should be set to close before the oil is pushed into the
breather pipe (see 4.19.11). Contacts should comply with the requirements of 4.13.3.9.
65 NRS 054:2013

4.21 Cooling arrangements

4.21.1 Type of cooling required and ONAN rating

Cooling arrangements should be provided for the transformers as follows:

for transformers with a maximum rating of 20 MVA: ONAN cooling;

for auto-transformers with a maximum rating of 40 MVA: ONAN or ONAN/ONAF cooling; and

for system and other transformers: ONAN/ONAF cooling.

4.21.2 Hot oil connection point

Hot oil to the transformer oil cooling apparatus should be drawn off, as far as practicable, from the
highest point in the transformer tank to eliminate stagnant oil volumes below the cover-plate.

4.21.3 Electrostatic charging tendency

The manufacturer should guarantee that the transformer will be free of any deleterious electrostatic
charging tendency throughout its life, under all operating conditions and in particular with all cooling
and oil circulation systems simultaneously in operation. The purchaser will not accept any
restrictions on the maximum number of cooling systems or pumps, or both, that may be operated
simultaneously, irrespective of the cooling demand. Furthermore, the purchaser will not accept any
restrictions in the type of oil that may be used in the transformer.

The manufacturer should submit evidence or tests to prove that there is no electrostatic charging
tendency in the design of his transformers.

4.21.4 Oil and winding temperature measurement and settings

4.21.4.1 General requirements

One or more digital-type thermometers, fully compensated for the effects of ambient temperature,
should be provided. The thermometers should allow for the measurement of the transformer ―top-
oil‖ temperature and the winding hot-spot temperature. Where possible, the oil and winding
temperature measurements shall be effected by a single instrument. Unless otherwise specified,
winding temperature thermometer(s) should be either mechanical or digital in accordance with
DSP 34-486.

The device(s) should include mass storage of a complete database of all oil and winding
temperature readings with an internal data RAM capable of storing 6 months of half hourly data.
The database should not be lost in the event of a loss of auxiliary supply to the instrument.

The instrument(s) should be rail mounted within the marshalling interface box. The instruments
should employ Pt100 sensors for temperature measurement in accordance with IEC 60751.

The device/s should include the following features:


a) Serial interface utilising RS485 and supporting the DNP3.0 Level 2 networking protocol.
Where more than one device is installed, the RS485 port of each device should be ―daisy
chained‖ to the other devices.

b) An RS232 serial interface of local communication to a personal computer.

c) An analogue output signal in the range of 4 mA to 20 mA for each oil or winding


measurement. The 4 mA to 20 mA output range should correspond to -20 °C to +140 °C.
Accuracy should be 0,5 % of full range or better.
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d) Windows based software.

e) Self diagnostic functions, including a normally-open watchdog contact. The watchdog should
be opened in the event of a loss of auxiliary supply to the device, an internal device failure, or
for a defective temperature sensor.

f) Dual rated auxiliary supply of 110 V d.c. and 220 V d.c. The latter requirement may be
achieved using a suitable dropping resistor together with the 110V d.c. device.

g) The device enclosure should be rated to IP53 or higher in accordance with IEC 60529.

The following sections of DSP 34-465 should apply:

Section 4.4 Software and IED firmware;

Section 4.10 Performance requirements; and

Section 4.11 Warranty requirements and equipment repairs.

4.21.4.2 Oil temperature measurement

This instrument should provide local and remote indication of the transformer "top-oil" temperature.
A typical overall measurement accuracy of 1 °C is expected.

The instrument should record the maximum oil temperature in a given time period, should have
arranged-for manual resetting, one-alarm signalling and one-tripping contact (see 4.13.3.9) that can
be manually set to close at predetermined temperatures, which, unless otherwise specified, should
be activated at the following temperatures:

Alarm — 95 °C Trip — 105 °C

The oil temperature instrument should include a suitable hysteresis characteristic so as to avoid
hunting or output contact jitter.

4.21.4.3 Winding temperature measurement

A digital-type winding temperature thermometer, fully compensated for the effects of ambient
temperature, should be provided and should have a load-temperature characteristic that is
approximately the same as that of the hottest part of the windings. The current transformer(s) that
is used for operating the thermometer(s) should be built into the main transformer tank and should
be located so as to reflect the maximum hot-spot temperature of the respective windings.

This device should provide local and remote indication of transformer winding temperature.
The hot spot temperature and transformer lifetime should be calculated in accordance with
IEC 60076-7.

The device should cater for a programmable rated gradient, a load current exponent and a winding
constant for up to 4 cooling groups. Devices that utilize the calculation methods stipulated in
IEC 60076-7 will be preferred to ones that utilize the methods indicated in IEC 60351 when such
devices (which meet customer requirements) become commercially available.

A separate winding temperature calculation should be made for each loaded winding of the
transformer, except in the case of two-winding transformers which should use a single winding
temperature calculation in order to provide a thermal image of the maximum overall winding hottest-
spot.

The instrument should record the maximum winding temperature in a given time period, have
arranged-for manual resetting capabilities and alarm signalling and tripping contacts. An alarm
contact, that can be set to close at a predetermined temperature, should be provided in addition to
67 NRS 054:2013

a contact that is to be used for tripping purposes. Alarm and tripping contacts should comply with
the requirements of 4.13.3.9.The alarm contact circuits of all winding temperature measuring
instruments should be paralleled, the trip contact circuits should be paralleled and all of them
should be brought out to a pair of terminals. Unless otherwise specified, the alarm and trip settings
should be the following:

Alarm — 110 °C Trip — 120 °C

Where supplementary forced cooling is provided, an additional pair of contacts, or an additional


thermal or auxiliary relay should be provided to automatically start the oil pump or fans in order to
cool the transformer. These contacts should be self-resetting. Alternatively, the start signal may be
derived from a current relay. The winding temperature instruments should include suitable
hysteresis characteristics to avoid hunting or output contact jitter, or both.

Terminals should be provided in the marshalling box or, where provided, the cooler controller
cabinet, in order to check the output of the current transformer or the functioning of the heater coil
by means of an external supply, or both.

4.21.5 Construction details

The requirements of 4.15 should, wherever they are relevant, apply equally to the cooling
apparatus provided for the transformer.

Pipework and coolers should be arranged in order to permit free access to oil conservators, tapping
mechanism boxes, terminal and marshalling boxes and any items requiring inspection or
maintenance in service.

In order to facilitate painting of non-detachable (non-galvanized) cooler tubes on site, a minimum of


80 mm should be allowed between adjacent tubes and between these and the transformer tank.

All joints between tubes and the header should be welded outside the header in order to reduce the
possibility of corrosion in the seams.

4.21.6 Detachable radiators

Detachable radiators should be provided with:

a) lifting lugs,

b) drain valves or plugs, at the lowest points,

c) vent plugs, at the highest points, and


d) flanged and bolted isolating valves at both points of attachment to the transformer tank or
cooler bank.

4.21.7 Radiator corrosion protection

Radiators should be coated by a system in accordance with table B.2 (annex B) of


DSP 34-1658:2011 for coastal applications. Where radiator tubes of 1,6 mm thick walls are used,
and the minimum coating thickness of hot dip galvanizing is at least 100 microns (see SANS 121),
then no additional painting is required

4.21.8 Separately mounted cooler banks

Drawings should indicate the maximum overall dimensions of the transformers including separate
cooler banks.
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It should be assumed that separately mounted cooler banks will be mounted on separate plinths
from the transformer tank and that the maximum relative movement between these plinths will not
exceed 10 mm.

Expansion couplings, used in connection pipework between transformers and separate cooler
banks, should be subject to the purchaser's approval see 4.24.

The arrangement of the cooler banks should comply with 4.7 and the earthing provisions should
comply with 4.15.12.

A filtration valve (see 4.16.2) should be provided at the top and bottom of each separately mounted
cooler bank.

4.21.9 Forced cooling

4.21.9.1 Cooler control and settings

Forced cooling equipment for system transformers should be designed for automatic operation by a
winding temperature thermometer or current level contacts set at predetermined
temperatures/currents. Generally the manufacturer’s standard settings for the starting of fans and
pumps should be used, otherwise a setting of 65 °C or 0,6pu current should apply.

The cooler switches should be suitably labelled.

4.21.9.2 Cooler control equipment

All the necessary automatic control, motor contactors, protective devices, and switches for the
forced cooling equipment should be housed in an IP55 rated cabinet. This cabinet should be
mounted on the transformer tank using approved anti-vibration mountings on the transformer tank.
Hinged door(s), handle(s), locking facilities, a separately fused 230 V single-phase heater and
switch, and a separately fused lamp with door switch should be provided.

The heater should be rated and located so that none of the apparatus in the cabinet will suffer
damage due to prolonged operation of the heater at high ambient temperatures.

Tap-changer control equipment may also be housed in this cabinet.

4.21.9.3 Additional cooler equipment

The cooler control equipment should also include:

a) an isolating switch rated to carry and break full-load current for each group of fan and pump
motors;

b) a "manual"/"auto" change-over switch;

c) a magnetic contactor for each group of fan and pump motors. Contactor coil leads should be
wired to the terminal board. A set of normally open contacts should be provided to initiate an
alarm circuit if the contactor is tripped by its overload element. All such contacts of the
various groups should be paralleled and wired to a pair of terminals in the control cabinet;
and.

NOTE: Magnetic contactors should maintain supply to motors at supply voltage down to 0,85 pu of the rated
supply voltage at their terminals. Tripping should only occur on a controlled basis and there should be
automatic restarting in the staggered mode if the voltage recovers while the transformer is in service;

d) provision for disconnection of all cooling pumps and fans in the case of the closure of a pair
of contacts that is provided by the purchaser on the master tripping relay that controls the
isolation of the transformer when a fault occurs.
69 NRS 054:2013

The ratings of these contacts will be:

a) Make and carry continuously : 1 250 W at maxima of 5 A and 660 V.

b) Make and carry for 0,5 s : 7 500 W at maxima of 30 A and 660 V.

c) Break : 100 W resistive

The arrangement for disconnection of the oil pumps and fans should not be self-resetting.

The cooler failure relay is to monitor all three phases and the cooler supply failure alarm to have a
4 s to 10 s timer fitted to prevent unnecessary signalling.

A change-over relay should be provided in the control scheme. A contact of the trip relay, on the
purchaser's protection panels will energize the operating coil of this change-over relay which in turn
should isolate the contactor control circuits. A reset push button should be provided in the
marshalling kiosk for resetting the change-over relay. The operating coil of the relay should be
continuously rated, or a make contact of it should be wired in series with the operating coil and a
break contact in series with the reset (see figure 12).

Where a contactor is supplied for this purpose, the operating coil should be suitable for operation
by way of the above mentioned contacts and should operate and reset correctly between 80 % and
120 % of the d.c. auxiliary supply voltage specified in schedule A of an enquiry document. The
contactor should have one set of normally closed contacts, which should isolate the fan or the oil
pump motor control circuit(s), or both. A N/O contact is to be provided for alarming purposes.

Contactors should comply with the provisions of IEC 60947 with regard to the following aspects:

a) for staggering the starting times of oil pumps and fans, or of individual groups of fans as
required;

b) for overload and single-phasing relays;

c) for winding temperature and oil-temperature indicators, that should be visible through a
window in the door of the cabinet if installed in the same cabinet;

d) for links for testing winding temperature relays, and interposing current transformers;

e) for fuses, links and terminal boards (see 4.14) to make a complete assembly; and

f) for labelling of all apparatus, that should be inscribed indelibly in black lettering on a white
background and that will not discolour while in long-term service.

4.21.9.4 Fans

Fans and fan-motors should not require concrete foundations.

Fan blades and fan ducting should be of aluminium alloy, stainless steel, galvanized steel or other
corrosion-resistant material and should be designed to keep noise and vibration to a minimum. All
fans should be provided with galvanized wire-mesh guards. The rotation and air flow directions
should be clearly and indelibly indicated by appropriate arrows.

4.21.9.5 Motors

All motors should be suitable for direct starting and continuous running from the 400 V supply
voltage. Three-phase motors are preferred but single-phase motors of 0,5 kW and less will be
acceptable.
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All motors should comply at least with IEC 60034 and should be of the totally enclosed weather-
proof type. Three-phase motors should be of the single-cage squirrel cage type. Bearings of all
motors should be of the ball or roller bearing type. With the exception of oil-pump motors, the
bearings should be grease lubricated.

Figure 12 – Preferred cooler stop circuit

Each motor should be equipped with a terminal box arranged to accommodate the incoming cable
provided by the contractor (see 4.14). If necessary, a suitable cable box should be provided to
terminate the cable.

Motors should be provided with starters, overload protection (three-phase where applicable) and, in
the case of three-phase motors, single-phasing protection.

All motors should be labelled indicating kW and A ratings.

4.21.9.6 Maintenance

Fans, pumps and motors should be installed to facilitate their easy removal in the event of failure.
Although very low maintenance is desired, lubrication and servicing instructions, if required, should
be clearly stated in the transformer manual. If deemed necessary by the purchaser, labelling should
be provided at each pump or fan.
71 NRS 054:2013

4.22 Quality and design review requirements

4.22.1 Quality

The purchaser reserves the right to inspect the manufacturers’ and subcontractors’ works and
processes at any stage after receiving tenders in order to assess the manufacturer’s capabilities
and the quality of his products and processes. In addition, the overall quality assurance
requirements of SANS 9001 should apply as appropriate.

4.22.2 Technical evaluation and design review

Technical evaluation and design reviews will be conducted by the purchaser at different stages of
the procurement process.

A technical evaluation will be conducted after tender closure as part of the technical adjudication of
the tenders. The information given in schedule B of a tender will be reviewed. Visits to the
manufacturer's works to inspect design, manufacture and test facilities may also take place. During
this stage the tenderer will have the opportunity to ensure that the specification has been
interpreted correctly.

The design review will commence after the order has been placed, but before manufacture
commences. These reviews will be more detailed and related to the specific design of the
transformer on order. For this stage the design control element of SANS 9001 should apply.

The scope of such a review should include the following:

1. Core design
2. Winding and tapping design
3. Thermal design
4. Insulation co-ordination
5. Tank and auxiliaries
5.1 Bushings
5.2 Tap-changers
5.3 Protective devices
5.4 Oil preservation system
6. Corrosion protection
7. Processing and assembly
8. Testing
9. Sensitivity of specified parameters
10. Short-circuit withstand capability
11. Transient withstand capability
12. Noise
13. Overload capability
14. Operation capability beyond nameplate specification
15. RAM (Reliability, availability and maintainability)
16. Drawings:
16.1 Outline
16.2 Rating and diagram plate
16.3 Wiring diagrams
17. Manufacturing facility and capability
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4.23 Drawings and manuals

4.23.1 Contract drawings

Drawings should comply with SANS 10111-1, and should be submitted in duplicate for approval.
Drawing sizes required are indicated in table 18.

The contractor should supply the drawings as listed in table 18 with his tender for approval. When
the electronic copies (DXF or DGN files) of the manufacturer's standard drawings are supplied, they
should bear the purchaser's drawing number and the purchaser's order or contract number.

In addition to the standard drawings, the following drawings should also be supplied with the
tender:

a) diagrammatic arrangement of windings and tappings;

b) sectional drawings of core and windings which should clearly indicate the methods of coil
clamping;
c) shipping and transport drawings including manufacturing drawings for all transport blanking
plates;

d) outline drawings of bushings.

The same device references should be used on schematic, wiring and cabling drawings.

4.23.2 Instruction manuals

Four hard copies and one electronic copy of approved instruction manuals should be supplied for
each transformer. The manuals should be complete with all approved drawings that should be
sufficient to enable the equipment to be assembled, checked and overhauled.

Only original documentation, especially from sub-suppliers, should be provided.

A complete set of all drawings submitted during the contracting stage should also be included in the
manual (see 4.23.1).

Each manual should bear the following information on the front cover:
a) the substation name;

b) the order number;

c) the manufacturer’s serial number; and

d) the rating and ratio.

The following information should be included:

a) a completed copy of the purchaser's order specification (schedules A and B);

b) theon-site checking and erection procedures;

c) the mechanical operation of tap-changers and cooling apparatus;

d) the electrical control of tap-changers, fan motors, pump motors etc.;


73 NRS 054:2013

Table 18 — Drawing sheet numbers

Size Description
A3 Outline and general arrangement drawing (fully dimensioned including overall dimensions), including
the following details:
a) Position of MIB, tab-changer, radiators, conservator, bushings and surge arrestor brackets;

b) Figure 2 – Typical transformer layout.


c) Centre of gravity;
d) Details of underbase and jacking points to permit the design of plinth and off-loading facilities;
e) Indication of all auxiliary equipment;
f) Numbered legend;
g) Drawing should be in shown in plan, side and front elevation.
A3 Rating and diagram plate (see 4.26 Rating and diagram plates)
A3 Valve location plate ( see 4.16.9)
A3 MIB mechanical layout
A3 Schematic and wiring diagrams for on-load tap-changer circuits (if applicable) , including a diagram of
the complete timing cycle for the tap-changer that provides the following information:
1 Time in s for normal tap-changer operation stepping in:
1.1 raise direction after previous raise; and
1.2 lower direction after previous raise.
2 Time in s for tap-changer operation where a transition step is involved when stepping in:
2.1 raise direction after previous raise; and
2.2 lower direction after previous raise.

The schematic drawing should include:

2.3 motor power and control circuits;


2.4 tap position indicator circuit: and
Location of each item of equipment either by means of suitable terminal marking or legend.
A3 Cooling control circuit arrangement (if applicable)
Cabling drawings for fan motor;
A3 MIB electrical layout

e) the assembly, adjustment and routine maintenance procedures for on-load tap-changers and
cooling apparatus;

f) drawings of tap-changer circuit diagrams including the tie-in resistor with its value (if used);
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g) drawings of oil-filled bushings and outlines of HV, MV, tertiary and neutral bushings;

h) full details for the calibration of oil and winding temperature thermometers;

i) a set of A-5 sized colour photographs of the specific transformer that is completely assembled
and that shows all the details on the sides and the top;

j) the specification sheets, setting and testing guides for the winding and oil temperature
thermometers and the gas and oil actuated relays;

k) the serial number of the transformer unit;

l) details of the permissible vacuum and site processing (the drying-out procedures);

m) a copy of the certificates of all the tests that were carried out by the manufacturer, including
the results of winding and core insulation resistance tests;

n) an internal arrangement of the core and windings, that shows lead supports and winding
clamping arrangements;

o) details of the core and the core clamping;

p) a sectional arrangement drawing of the windings that shows sufficient details of the conductors
and insulation for local maintenance purposes; and

q) a list of manufacturers recommended spares for normal maintenance purposes.

The manual should be designed from a user’s point of view. It should be organized in a logical
sequence and all maintenance instructions should be collected from the relevant subsections and
presented in a simplified/summarized format as a complete unit, while maintaining reference to
subsections that may contain more details.

These instructions should refer to specific maintenance time periods, e.g. 3 m, 6 m, 12 m, 3 years,
6 years, etc., for the life of the unit. Specific attention should be paid to bushing installation,
transport, tap-changer maintenance, processing and site tests.

A fifth copy should always accompany the transformer to the site and should be handed over to the
site manager.

4.24 Component approvals

The components and fittings associated with transformers covered by this specification should be
subject to the purchaser's approval. Samples, technical literature, drawings, tests reports and lists
of the names of the principal users, with experience gained, should be supplied on request.

The contractor should submit components for approval to the purchaser only after these have
already been approved by the contractor himself for use on the transformer.

NOTE The purchaser has a preference for standardized and approved components already used in order to
minimize the spares holding.

4.25 Condition monitoring and assessment equipment

The transformer should be designed to accommodate the installation or retrofitting of modern on-
line condition monitoring equipment. Unless specified, the transformer manufacturer should
propose monitoring equipment and detailed constructional designs for approval suitable for his
design of transformer and he should provide for the facilities and fittings for optimum interfacing,
installation or the retrofitting of such monitors.
75 NRS 054:2013

On-line gas monitoring that is connected into remote indication or alarm facilities, is of particular
interest.

4.26 Rating and diagram plates

4.26.1 General

Rating and diagram plates should comply with the requirements of IEC 60076 (all parts) except
where otherwise stated in this specification.

4.26.2 Materials and methods of marking

Rating and diagram plates should be of stainless steel not less than 1,2 mm in thickness.

The required information should be engraved on the plate and the engraving filled with a glossy
black, baked enamel.

Other arrangements should be specifically approved.


4.26.3 Mounting

The rating and diagram plates should be mounted on the door of the marshalling interface box,
finished in accordance with 4.15.3, situated in an accessible position not more than 1,5 m above
ground level, and secured by stainless steel screws.

4.26.4 Information to be displayed

The minimum information to be displayed on the rating and diagram plate should be in accordance
with the requirements of IEC 60076 with addition of the following information as provided in
figure 13:

a) the tapping current values (see 4.2.2) should be shown for HV, MV and tertiary terminals for
all tapping positions;

b) the capability of the transformer (including bushings and tap-changers) to carry overloads in
accordance with the emergency duties detailed in IEC 60076-7 should be shown;

c) the system fault levels in kA for which the transformer is designed (as specified in table 4);

d) the zero sequence impedances in the case of three-winding auto transformers;

e) the current transformer data detailed in 4.12.8 should be shown;

f) a statement that the manufacturer deems it necessary for the transformer to be oil-filled
under vacuum;

g) a statement that the transformer will withstand full vacuum at sea level;

h) the purchaser's reference number should appear on the rating and diagram plate;

i) values for all relevant parameters used by the digital temperature gauge for the winding hot-
spot and transformer lifetime calculations in accordance with IEC 60076-7 as applicable in
4.21.4.3;

j) the temperature probe hole diameter(s) and depths;

k) a blank space for the purchaser's asset number should be provided;


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l) the type, make and designation numbers of all bushings, to enable full identification (relating
to stock spares) while the transformer is energized;

m) the valve and oil sampling point functions and positions;

n) a warning statement that the conservator contains a bag or other sealing systems if it is the
case;

o) the type of corrosion protection: corrosive or low corrosive;

p) initial DP value; and

q) tie-in resistor schematic and value (if used).

Whilst a single plate is preferred, separate plates mounted adjacent to the main plate are
acceptable for the information required by items (f), (g), (h), (m), (n), and (o).
77 NRS 054:2013

Figure 13 — Typical rating and diagram plate


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78

4.27 Adjudication of tenders

Tenders will be on the following basis:

a) capitalized cost:

C = P + AF + BL, where:

P = first cost of one unit delivered and erected (or as specified in schedule A of an enquiry
document).
F = No-load loss in kW {calculated as 0,5 NLL(Un) + 0,5 NLL (Um) }.

L = Average load loss as specified in schedule A in kW at 75 °C and at rated current.

A = no-load loss factor.

B = load loss factor.

NOTE For auto-transformers, the load loss with the MV fully loaded but the tertiary unloaded, will apply.

The values of the net present value coefficients A and B should be determined from the purchaser's
prevailing kWh and kVA maximum demand charges, a net monetary discount rate and a probable
loading curve.

Typical loading cycles are used in the calculations for system transformers over an assumed
transformer life of 25 years.

b) To assist in the evaluation, the following typical tender drawings and descriptive data as
specified in schedule A and as deemed applicable by the tenderer should be provided:

1) outline drawing showing the position of terminals, conservator and gauge glasses and control
cubicle and surge arresters where applicable,

2) type test certificates of identical units should be submitted when available,

3) outline drawings of bushings, and

4) all drawings mentioned in 4.23.1.

Tender information should be submitted relating to the pre-treatment and sizing of windings and the
assumptions made for the calculation of short-circuit strength.

Tenders should include descriptive data and illustrations in sufficient detail to enable the equipment
offered to be fully considered in respect of materials, design and construction of the individual parts.
This information should be furnished before the closing date of tenders.

4.28 Special tools and equipment

The contractor should provide, as part of the contract, free of charge, all the special tools and
equipment that will be required for the normal maintenance of the transformer. The contractor
should provide a complete listing of such equipment and tools with their specific characteristics,
including the type and the manufacturer and purpose at the tendering stage and the tools should be
handed over with the transformer. Tools and equipment may be used for the erection of the
transformer but should essentially be in as good as new condition when handed over. The
purchaser should have the right to demand new equipment and tools of good quality if they are not
in a satisfactory condition.
79 NRS 054:2013

4.29 Training of purchaser’s staff

The contractor should propose an appropriate training programme for the purchaser's operating
and engineering staff. This should include the nomination of an appropriate venue and an indication
of the duration of the training period.

If the proposed training involves travelling, accommodation and subsistence away from the
purchaser's home country, the purchaser should be responsible for all the direct travelling and
subsistence expenses involved for a maximum number of four of the purchaser's staff.

The purchaser should have the option, at his own expense, to add a further two staff members to
the number of persons who are to be trained.

The contractor should provide a complete and detailed schedule of the training schedule but it is
expected that formal training should last not less than 5 consecutive working days, but not more
than 10 consecutive working days.

The contractor should advise the purchaser of the minimum level of education of the employees
who are to participate in the training programme.

In addition to any formal training, the programme should include, a minimum on-site component
that covers the following aspects:

a) on-site preparation for transportation;

b) loading and off-loading procedures and precautions;

c) fitting of accessories such as tap-changers, bushings and testing;

d) sensors and protective devices and testing;

e) vacuum treatment, drying filtering and impregnation; and

f) testing of the completed system in order to ensure that it is ready for service.

Special emphasis should be placed on quality control processes and on maintaining the oil and
insulation system in the best possible condition in order to ensure maximum transformer life and on
the underlying theoretical aspects.

4.30 Erection

4.30.1 General

Erection of the transformer (if required in schedule A), should include off-loading, lifting, handling,
positioning on the foundations that were prepared by the purchaser, oil filling and the installation of
the transformer, together with the provision of all materials and ancillary equipment that are needed
in order to complete the installation. All work should be performed in accordance with the relevant
safety standards.

4.30.2 Foundation tolerances and site details

The foundations that are provided by the purchaser will be levelled to within a tolerance of  3 mm
in 3 m in all directions. Newly constructed pedestal foundations for separate cooler bank
arrangements will be 15 mm lower than in the case of the main transformer plinth in order to
facilitate the line-up of the cooler pipes by using spacers.
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4.30.3 Processing on site

The erection process should include the filtering of oil, any drying-out, testing and checking
procedures that are necessary to ensure that the transformer is ready for operation before it is
handed over to the purchaser. The necessary materials, apparatus and instruments for these
processes should also be provided to the purchaser.

4.30.4 Testing on site

See 5.1.5 for details on the relevant test that should be performed on site.

4.30.5 On-site painting


Damage to paintwork sustained during transport or erection (or both) should be rectified by the
contractor. If on-site site re-spraying is necessary, labels and all other areas not to be painted
should be carefully masked. Any overspray that occurs despite masking should be removed by the
contractor. The on-site painting should be such as to restore the corrosion protection to that
specified in DSP 34-1658.

4.31 Transport
4.31.1 General conditions, blanking plates and gas filling
4.31.1.1 It should be the contractor’s responsibility to make all arrangements for the transportation
of the transformer(s) to the site with the appropriate authorities.

4.31.1.2 The purchaser will only accept delivery from the contractor on site. It should be the
contractor’s responsibility to co-ordinate the arrangements for all stages of the transport of the
transformer from the manufacturer’s works to site, including shipping where necessary.

4.31.1.3 Where off-loading is required, all apparatus, materials and packages should be addressed
to the contractor, who should take delivery of the same at the site.

4.31.1.4 The dimensions of the transformer should be such that, when packed for transport, it will
comply with the requirements of the loading and clearance restrictions that apply for the approved
route.

4.31.1.5 All metal blanking plates and covers that are specifically required to transport the
particular transformer, should be considered part of the transformer and should be handed over to
the purchaser after the erection of the transformer was completed. A listing of all the relevant items
and drawings should be included in the manuals in order to enable the purchaser to have
duplicates of the plates manufactured, if required. The dimensions and quantities of items that are
required for transport should be indicated on the drawings.

4.31.1.6 Where the supply of oil is included in the contract and where transport weight limitations
permit, the transformers should be transported with sufficient oil to cover the core and windings of
the transformer(s) during all transport and storage conditions. The tank should be sealed for
transport in order to prevent all breathing. Alternatively, where this method is not applicable, the
contractor should continue to maintain the transformer under positive pressure of dry air of at least
10 kPa during transport and storage until the final installation is completed. The pressure and the
temperature at the time of filling the transformer should be documented as part of the quality
system. A pressure gauge and non-return valve, that is fitted directly to the transformer tank and is
suitably mechanically protected, should be attached to each transformer to facilitate checking of
gas pressure during transit and on site. If another gas, such as nitrogen is used, appropriate safety
labelling should be provided by the contractor.

4.31.1.7 The total period that the unit is filled with dry gas should be limited to three months after
which the transformer should be appropriately processed and filled with oil as would be done if it
was to be serviced. Dehydrating breathers should be fitted to the transformer(s) at this stage.
81 NRS 054:2013

4.31.1.8 Every precaution should be taken to ensure that the transformer arrives on site in a
satisfactory condition so that it can be put into service, after proper oil processing and filling. The
need for an extensive drying out process is therefore eliminated if oil quality requirements are met.
4.31.1.9 Full details of the proposed method of transport should be submitted for approval.
4.31.1.10 The costs of extensions or improvements (or both) to existing facilities for transportation
to site and the escort and permit fees should be included in the contractor’s prices.
4.31.1.11 All transformers 5 MVA and above should be transported without the attaching following
items:
a) radiators;

b) conservator;

c) piping; and

d) bushings.

4.31.2 Accelerometer limits (impact recorders)

4.31.2.1 An accelerometer should be attached to the top of each transformer tank as well as the
active part for the duration of the transport process. The accelerometer should continue to record
the acceleration of the transformer in three directions perpendicular to each other, the main is that
of transport. These recordings should be date and time stamped.

4.31.2.2 The recording should continue until the unit is in its final position. The traces should be
inspected as part of the quality process.

4.31.2.3 The manufacturer should specify the acceleration limit in any direction (see schedule
A).The purchaser should verify this limit once the transformer has been installed.

4.31.3 Road transport


The transport arrangements should include any necessary extensions or improvements, or both, to
road routes, bridges, and civil works, and also the assurance that any abnormal loads comprising
the transformers, their transporters, ancillary apparatus and plant and equipment required for
erecting the transformers should pass without obstruction along the selected route.

4.31.4 Availability of lifting lugs and jacking pads

The lifting lugs and jacking pads should not be prevented from fulfilling their functions when the
transformer is arranged for transport on the vehicle, or when being moved on site with all
attachments connected.

4.31.5 Transport support brackets

Attention is drawn to the need to obtain approval for the design and spacing of transport support
brackets in order to avoid overstressing the relevant trailer carrying beams.

5 Tests
5.1 General

5.1.1 Manufacturer’s testing capabilities

The manufacturer should be fully responsible for performing or having performed all the required
tests as specified. Tenderers should confirm the manufacturer’s capabilities in this regard when
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submitting tenders. Any limitations should be clearly stated. The manufacturer should bear all
additional costs that are incurred by him as a result of not being able to conduct the tests as
reflected in the tender documents at his own works. [Type a quote from the document or the
summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the
Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]

5.1.2 Witnessing of tests

The purchaser reserves the right to witness any of the tests specified.

The contractor should ascertain the sequence of the tests required in each particular case and
whether witnessing of tests is required, and, the contractor should after completion of all
preliminary tests, give the purchaser not less than 14 days notice of the firm date when the
purchaser will be able to witness the testing of the transformers and associated apparatus. For
overseas suppliers the minimum required notification time period is 8 weeks. As many tests as
possible should be conducted on the same day.

No transformer should be despatched from the manufacturer's works if the purchaser's has not
approved its overall quality and has not indicated that it may be tested.

Any costs incurred by the contractor as a result of abortive or protracted visits by the purchaser's
representatives or owing to poor organization on the part of the manufacturer or test failures,
should be for the contractor's account.

The purchaser should be notified as soon as possible of all test failures and corrective measures.
Notification should take the form of abbreviated reports that should, upon request, be supported by
more detailed reports. It is desirable that the purchaser is notified of test failures in order to allow for
in situ inspection if so desired.

5.1.3 Test instruments and apparatus

The testing apparatus should be subject to the purchaser's approval, and, where required,
instruments should be re-calibrated by an agreed-upon independent body at the contractor's
expense.

All apparatus should be arranged and operated with due regard to the safety of personnel and so
as to minimize damage to the test object in the case of breakdown.

5.1.4 Test certificates

Four copies of test certificates in English should be supplied to the purchaser within 30 days of the
completion of the works tests.

A copy of the test certificate should be incorporated into each maintenance or operating manual
that is provided for that transformer.

5.1.5 On-site tests

The results of the all the site tests done during commissioning should be documented and a copy of
the results should be incorporated into the transformer manual. These tests should include the
verification of the following:

a) voltage ratios on all three phases for each tap position;

b) the vector group;

c) measuring the insulation, HV to tank, MV to tank, HV to MV (5 kV);


83 NRS 054:2013

d) a functional test for all alarm and trip contacts;

e) CT insulation, HV to tank at 5 kV, secondary to tank at 1 kV, max magnetizing curve of the
cores to be used, ratio tests for all taps and polarity;

f) the fan and oil pump directions and the operation of starting and overload protection relays;

g) the control or power cabling insulation (min 1 kV), or both ;

h) the correct operation and indication of tap-changers and timing checks;

i) the correct position of all valves in the oil circuits;

j) nameplate impedance;

k) wiring to the marshalling interface box terminals and to the tap change mechanism box
terminals;

l) winding and oil thermometer accuracies;

m) tan delta tests performed on all bushings with test taps;

n) disconnecting the transformer core earth and megger to tank in order to ensure that the core
is not bonded to the tank, 1 kV max. Ensure that the core earth is reconnected upon
completion of testing;

o) to check the main tank and tap change oil levels;

p) to check if the main tank to conservator valve is open;

q) frequency response analysis; and

r) to check silica gel.

The results of the tests in 5.1.5 should be documented, signed off as part of the quality process and
included in the transformer manuals. All tests should be witnessed by the purchaser or his or her
representative.

All equipment provided for erecting the transformer(s) should be removed from site when the work
is completed and the site should be cleaned of any debris and oil spillage.

5.2 Test by the manufacturer


The manufacturer should perform the routine tests on each unit during the various stages of
manufacturing and a complete type test for each design. The type test should be reviewed during
the design review as described by 4.22.2
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Table 19 — Routine, type and special testing requirements

1 2 3 4 5
Test Description Specification Routine Type Special
Winding resistance test IEC 60076-1 
Voltage ratio and check of phase displacement IEC 60076-1 
Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load IEC 60076-1 
losses
No-load loss and current measurements IEC 60076-1 
Temperature rise tests (see also 5.7) IEC 60076-2  
Dielectric (impulse test) IEC 60076-3 
Chopped wave IEC 60076-3 
Dielectric (short duration AC) IEC 60076-3 
Dielectric (separate source) IEC 60076-3 
Dielectric (long duration AC – partial discharge) IEC 60076-3 
On-load tap-changer tests IEC 60214 
Tests applied to devices with alarm and tripping 5.3  
contacts
Transformer tank tests 5.4 
Bushing tests IEC 60137  
Testing of current transformers IEC 61869-2  
Gas and oil actuated relay tests 5.5  
Digital thermometers 5.6  
Acoustic noise level measurement IEC 60076-10 
Determination of capacitances, windings to earth and IEC 60076-1 
between windings
a
Zero sequence impedance measurement IEC 60076-1  
Short-circuit withstand tests IEC 60076-5 
Measurement of insulation resistance to earth and IEC 60076-1 
between windings.
Sweep frequency response analysis 
Corrosive sulphur test on the oil IEC 60296 
DP test on transformer insulation after the process 
cycle
a
NOTE: Only applicable to star-connected and zig-zag connected windings as well as auto transformers.
85 NRS 054:2013

5.3 Tests applied to devices with alarm and tripping contacts


5.3.1 Routine tests

The manufacturer’s routine tests should be performed to confirm that individual protection
instruments or relays have been correctly manufactured and set up.

5.3.2 Type tests

The following type tests should be carried out on one complete instrument or relay of each design
and rating, and equipped with alarm and tripping contacts and mounted as in service.

5.3.2.1 Contact life test

With the contacts loaded as in service and monitored by electrically operated counters, the device
should be operated over 2 500 complete cycles during each of which the making and breaking
capabilities of the alarm and tripping contacts should be demonstrated without sign of distress or
failure.

5.3.2.2 Additional tests

The device(s) should comply with the following additional type tests as indicated in table 20:

Table 20 — Additional tests

1 2 3 4 5

Item Test Standard Test level Compliance criteria


Power frequency magnetic field
1 Steady state SANS61000-4-8 Class 5 100 A/m continuous, 1000 A/m
short duration, 50 Hz
2 SANS Class 1000 A/m (6.4 /16 µs
waveshape
3 Damped oscillatory SANS 61000-4-10 Class 5 100 A/m, 100 kHz and 1 Mhz
Insulation resistance
4 Dielectric withstand IEC 60255-5 - 2 kV rms 50 Hz for 1 minute
between terminals to case
earth
5 Insulation resistance IEC 60255-5 - Insulation resistance greater
than 20Mῼ when measured at
500 V dc.
Environmental tests
6 Cold IEC 60068-2-1 -10 C or less Operates within tolerance at -
10
7 Dry heat IEC 60068-2-2 + 55 C or more Operates within tolerance at +
55 C
8 Cyclic temperature IEC 60068-2-30 Test Db 25 C and 95 % relative
and humidity humidity / 55 C and 95 %
relative humidity , 12 + 12 h
cycle.
9 Enclosure protection SANS 60529 IP53 Protected against ingress of
dust particles, spraying water.
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Table 20 — Additional tests (continued…)

1 2 3 4 5

Item Test Standard Test level Compliance criteria


Mechanical tests

10 Vibration IEC 60255-2 Class 2 Response: 1 g, 10 — 150 Hz,


(response and 1 sweep energized. Contacts
endurance) should not close for longer
than 2 ms.
Withstand: 2 g 10 — 150 Hz,
20 sweeps, unenergized .
Contacts should not close for
longer than 2 ms
11 Shock IEC 60255-21-2 Class 1 Response: 5 g, 11 ms, 3
(response and pulses in each direction,
withstand) energized.

Withstand: 15 g, 11 ms, 3
pulses in each direction ,
unenergized.
12 Bump IEC 60255-21-2 Class 1 10 g, 16 ms, 1000 pulses
unenergized.
13 Seismic IEC 60255-21-3 Class 1 Test method A (single axis sine
sweep test) 1 — 35 Hz, 1
sweep.

5.4 Transformer tank tests

5.4.1 Routine oil leakage test

5.4.1.1 Tank and fittings

Each transformer tank complete with all the fittings and attachments normally in contact with the
transformer oil, and filled with oil with a viscosity of not greater than that specified in NRS 079-1,
should withstand, for 24 h, at room temperature, without leakage, a hydraulic pressure that is not
less than 35 kPa above the maximum working pressure at every point in the transformer.

5.4.1.2 Pressure relief valve

One pressure relief valve of each make and type, set to open at the specified pressure, should
withstand without leakage, for 24 h, at room temperature, an internal oil pressure of 20 kPa above
the maximum working pressure at the position of the valve.

5.4.2 Strength tests

5.4.2.1 Internal hydraulic pressure withstand

One tank, radiator and oil conservator of each type and size should be subjected, for 1 min, to an
internal hydraulic pressure equal to 70 kPa or the maximum operating pressure plus 35 kPa
87 NRS 054:2013

(whichever is the greater), without suffering permanent deflection, measured after a first application
greater than the amounts specified in table 21.

After a second application no further permanent deflection should be measurable.

5.4.2.2 Vacuum withstand

One tank, radiator and oil conservator of each type and size, all empty of oil, should be subjected
for 1 min to an absolute internal pressure of 1,5 kPa, against atmospheric pressure at sea level on
the outside, without suffering permanent deflection, measured after a first application greater than
the amounts specified in table 21 of this specification. After a second application no further
permanent deflection should be measurable.

NOTE The tests specified in 5.4.2.1 and 5.4.2.2 may, by agreement, be combined.

Table 21 — Maximum permanent deflection of steel tank panels between stiffeners

1 2
Maximum permanent deflection Major dimension of fabricated assembly
m mm
16  3 000
14 > 2 700  3 000
12 > 2 300  2 700
10 > 2 000  2 300
8 > 1 650  2 000
6 > 1 300  1 650
4
> 950 1 300
3
> 750  950
2
> 600  750
1
> 450  600
0
 450

5.4.2.3 Dye-penetration testing

To avoid leaks, dye-penetrant testing should be done prior to corrosion proofing of the tank and to
other manufactured fittings after any welding.

5.5 Gas and oil actuated relay tests

5.5.1 General

Routine and type tests are carried out on the relays.

5.5.2 Routine tests

These tests should be carried out on each relay while completely assembled as in service.

5.5.2.1 Oil-tightness

The relay should be subjected to an internal hydraulic pressure of oil of 70 kPa for 24 h, at room
temperature, without leakage.
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88
5.5.2.2 Insulation

The insulation of all circuits (which include contacts of switches, relays or contactors for isolation
functions) should be tested for insulation resistance. This resistance should be not less than 20 M
when measured at 500 V d.c.

The relay circuits should withstand, for 60 s, an applied voltage of 2 kV r.m.s. applied in turn
between each electrically independent circuit and the casing of the relay, and between the separate
and independent electrical circuits.

5.5.2.3 Alarm signalling

Air should be introduced into the relay mounted as specified in 4.18.4, and at a minimum angle of
5° rising towards the oil conservator, but at the same angle as it would be in service, until the alarm
signalling contacts close. This should take place before air escapes freely from the relay towards
the oil conservator, but, not before a minimum quantity of air has been collected in the relay
housing. This minimum should be, in the case of a 25 mm relay, approximately 0,2, and in case of
50 mm and 75 mm relays 0,3  and 0,4  respectively.

The quantity of air in the relay at the point of closure of the alarm signalling contacts should be
recorded on the relay test card specified in 4.18.11.

5.5.2.4 Tripping

With the relay mounted as in 5.5.2.3, the tripping functions should be verified by tests to prove that
the tripping contacts will close as follows:

a) with steady rates of oil flow at room temperature through the relay within the limits given in
table 17 ;

b) with an oil surge through the relay, produced by the rapid opening of a lever operated valve,
preferably also within the limits given in table 17.

In both a) and b), the closure of the relay contacts should be unaffected by the presence in the
relay of sufficient gas to escape freely through the oil conservator pipe connection;

c) with further accumulation of gas in the relay, but before gas escapes to the conservator.

The results of these tests and flow rates that produce contact closure at a 5° rising angle should be
recorded on the standard relay test card.

The quantity of gas in the relay at the point of closure of the trip contacts should be recorded on the
relay test card specified in 4.18.11.

5.5.3 Type tests

One relay of each make, size and type should, after routine testing, be subjected to the following
tests (unless acceptable certificates of previous tests on identical relays are available):

5.5.3.1 Vacuum

The empty relay should be subjected to an internal pressure of 1,5 kPa against atmospheric
pressure at sea level without damage.

5.5.3.2 Contact life, vibration and shock

The alarm signalling and tripping contacts should be tested as specified in 5.3.

Routine testing of the relay should be repeated after these tests had been carried out.
89 NRS 054:2013

5.6 Digital thermometers

5.6.1 Routine tests

These tests should be carried out on each assembled instrument as would be the case if it was in
service.

5.6.1.1 Insulation

The insulation of all circuits which include contacts of switches, relays or contactors for isolation
functions should be tested for insulation resistance. This should be not less than 20 M when
measured at 500 V d.c.

All device circuits should withstands, a voltage of 2 kV r.m.s that alternates for a period of
60 s between each electrically independent circuit and the casing of the relay, and between the
separate and independent electrical circuits

5.6.1.2 Alarm and trip signalling

The device should include the facility to simulate rising oil and winding temperatures so as to force
operation of the alarm and trip contacts. This facility should be used to confirm the thresholds at
which the various contacts operate and reset.

5.6.2 Type tests

One relay of each make, size and type should, after routine testing, be subjected to the following
tests (unless acceptable certificates of previous tests on identical relays are available):

5.6.2.1 Auxiliary power supply

The instrument should operate with the auxiliary supply voltage in the band VNominal ± 20 %.

For supply interruptions lasting less than 10 ms, the device should function as if no interruption had
occurred.

5.6.2.3 A.C. current inputs

Current transformer inputs should preferably be rated at 1 A nominal with the following overload
capabilities:

a) 50 x In for 3 s or 100 x In for 1 s; and

b) 2 x In continuously

where In refers to nominal current.

5.6.2.43 Additional type tests

The type tests specified in 5.3 should apply. In addition to these, the device should comply with the
type tests in table 22:
NRS 054: 2013
90
Table 22 — Type tests

1 2 3 4 5
Item Test Standard Test level Compliance criteria
Impulse
1 Electrical impulse (1,2/50 IEC 60255-5 - 5 kV 1,2/50 s waveform, 0,5J
s)
Electromagnetic compatibility
2 1 MHz Disturbance burst IEC 60255-22-1 or Class 3 2,5 kV common mode, 1 kV differential
SANS 61000-4-12 mode, 2 s total test duration, 6 – 10 bursts
3 Fast transient IEC 60255-22-4 or Class A (IV) 4 kV, 2,5 kHz
2 kV, 5 kHz on Comms ports
SANS 61000-4-4 Class 4 4 kV, 5 kHz (power port)
2 kV, 5 kHz (I/O signal, data and control
ports)
4 Electrostatic discharge IEC 60255-22-2 or Class 3 6 kV contact discharge, 8 kV air discharge
SANS 61000-4-2
5 Surge immunity IEC 60255-22-5 or 2 kV
SANS 61000-4-5
Class 3
6 Radiated radio frequency IEC 60255-22-3 or 10 V/m, 80 MHz – 1 GHz
EM field immunity SANS 61000-4-3 Class 3
7 Conducted radio IEC 60255-22-6 or 10 Vrms, 150 kHz – 80 MHz
frequency EM field SANS 61000-4-6
immunity Class 3

5.7 Specific test requirements


5.7.1 Temperature rise test requirement

At the end of the temperature rise test the tank thermal image should be determined with an infra-
red camera.

Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) samples should be taken before any test is conducted. Samples
should thereafter be taken at the conclusion of the dielectric test, the temperature rise test, and
finally the overload test.

The overload test should be carried out immediately after the temperature rise test with a overload
rating of 1,3 p.u. for 1 h. The tank should be observed at 15 min intervals with an infra-red camera
in order to determine whether any hot spots develop.

5.7.2 Acceptance criteria

The following acceptance criteria should be applied to the results of this test:
a) The hot-spot temperature of the windings and any metallic parts that are in contact with the
oil should not exceed 140 °C, subject to the conditions in 4.15.7.

b) The top oil temperature should not exceed 115 °C.

c) No exorbitant gas development should occur.


NRS 054:2013

Table 23 — Standard impedances for transformer

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
HV/MV impedance HV/Ter
(%) referred to impedance (%)
Nominal Voltage Standard MVA Rating primary power rating referred to
Impedance tertiary power Vector
Type rating group
Nom Min at tap Nom Min at
Primar Second
Tertiary 160 80 40 20 10 5 2,5 1,25 at tap 17 at tap tap 17
y ary
5 5
132 88 22 STD 160/20 80/10 40/10 20/5 9 8 YNA0d1
132 66 22 STD 160/20 80/10 40/10 20/5 10 9 YNA0d1
132 44 22 STD 80/10 40/10 20/5 11 10 YNA0d1
88 44 22 STD 80/10 40/10 20/5 9 8 YNA0d1
132 11 HIGH X 22 20 YNd1
132 6,6 HIGH X 22 20 YNd1

91
88 11 HIGH X 22 20 YNd1
88 6,6 HIGH X 22 20 YNd1
66 6,6 HIGH X 22 20 YNd1
44 6,6 HIGH X 22 20 YNd1
132 33 STD X X X 11 10 YNd1
132 33 STD X 10 9 YNd1
132 22 STD X X 11 10 YNd1
132 22 STD X 10 9 YNd1
132 11 STD X X 11 10 YNd1
132 11 STD X 10 9 YNd1

NRS 054: 2013


132 6,6 STD X 10 9 YNd1
132 6,6 STD X 11 10 YNd1
88 44 STD X X 11 10 YNd1
88 33 STD X X X 11 10 YNd1
88 33 STD X 10 9 YNd1
88 22 STD X X 11 10 YNd1
88 22 STD X X 10 9 YNd1
NOTE Transformers with a rating of 20 MVA and above that is ordered as heavy duty transformers should comply with the requirements of 4.3.2.
NRS 054: 2013
92

NRS 054: 2013


2 3 13 14 15 16 17
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1
Nominal Voltage HV/MV Impedance HV/Ter
(%) referred to Impedance (%)
Standard MVA Rating primary power rating referred to
Impedance tertiary power Vector
Type rating Group
Nom Min @ tap Nom Min @
Primar Second
Tertiary 160 80 40 20 10 5 2,5 1,25 @ tap 17 @ tap tap 17
y ary
5 5
88 11 STD X X 11 10 YNd1
88 11 STD X X 10 9 YNd1
88 6,6 STD X 11 10 YNd1
88 6,6 STD X X 10 9 YNd1
66 22 STD X X 11 10 YNd1
66 22 STD X X 10 9 YNd1
66 11 STD X 11 10 YNd1

92
66 11 STD X X X 10 9 YNd1
66 6,6 STD X 11 10 YNd1
66 6,6 STD X X 10 9 YNd1
44 22 STD X 11 10 YNd1
44 22 STD X X 10 9 YNd1
44 11 STD X 11 10 YNd1
44 11 STD X X X 10 9 YNd1
44 6,6 STD X X X 10 9 YNd1
33 22 STD X X X X 6 5 YNyn0
33 11 STD X X X X X 6 5 YNyn0
33 6.6 STD X X X X 6 5 YNyn0
22 11 STD X X X X X 6 5 YNyn0
22 6.6 STD X X X X 6 5 YNyn0
NOTE 1 Transformers with a rating of 20MVA and above that is ordered as heavy duty transformers should comply with the requirements of 4.3.2.
NOTE 2 Users are cautioned to specify the minimum impedances based on the design short-circuit levels of the networks to be connected by the transformer.
NOTE 3 For paralleling with existing transformers in networks, the user should match the impedance values to the existing system transformer.
93 NRS 054:2013

Annex A
(informative)

A.1 General
A model form is given in annex B in order to provide the purchaser with a convenient aid to
purchasing. The aim of the form is to obviate the need for preparing a detailed technical
specification.

The purchaser only need to specify compliance with this specification, to provide the tenderer with
details of his particular requirements, and to set out the information he requires the tenderers to
provide.

A.2 Schedules
A.2.1 General
The model form for purchasing schedules provides the purchaser with examples of a schedule A
and a schedule B. In his enquiry, the purchaser should provide his own schedule A and schedule B,
based on these examples.

A.2.2 Schedule A
Schedule A lists the requirements the purchaser should specify in enquiries and orders. These
requirements include references to the relevant subclauses in this specification in order to assist the
relevant parties in compiling the schedules.

The purchaser should set out his particular requirements and choices in schedule A.

NOTE 1 In the interests of standardization, purchasers are encouraged not to deviate from the
preferred items, values and quantities listed in schedule A.

NOTE 2 When preparing his own schedule A and schedule B from the examples in the model form in annex
B, the purchaser need include only the items he considers to be relevant or necessary.

NOTE 3 The purchaser’s schedule A, when completed, is intended to be issued as the technical schedule of
an enquiry specification.

A.2.3 Schedule B
In schedule B, the tenderer will state compliance with this specification and provide the information
requested by the purchaser.

NOTE These schedules, when completed, are intended to form the technical schedules of a tender
submission and the subsequent contract, if applicable.

A.3 Commercial conditions


A purchaser will furthermore need to indicate the commercial conditions that apply and has to draw
up a price schedule. Requirements for delivery, storage, packaging and marking should be included
in this part of the enquiry.
94 NRS 054:2013

A.4 Quality assurance


This specification does not cover the purchaser’s possible requirements in respect of quality
assurance, quality control, inspections, etc., since each purchaser needs to consider the criticality of
the application of each component and his own policy towards these matters. Purchasers are
referred to SANS 9001 for guidance.

A.5 Testing
Attention should be paid to the subject of testing and the related costs. Tests should be carried out
by an accredited laboratory and tenderers should be requested to provide formal assurance in this
regard. Price schedules should be so drawn up and covering letters so worded that the costs of all
services, such as tests, delivery and spares, are declared and provided for in the tender. Before
type tests, routine tests and sample tests are carried out, the number of samples used and the
frequency of sampling should be agreed upon with the supplier.

A.6 Revisions of standards used as normative references


This specification, as has been indicated, is based on a set of defined standards, which might have
been revised or amended. All standards are regularly reviewed and amended, and most purchasers
would, in principle, wish to employ the latest standards. However, in some cases a blanket
commitment to work to the latest versions and amendments of standards might create legal
difficulties of interpretation and risks for both parties. For example, if a new edition of a referenced
standard is about to be approved or published during the tendering process, there could be
misinterpretation as to which edition of the referenced standard is applicable.

To avoid such misinterpretation, the purchaser should obtain an undertaking from the supplier to
identify the editions and amendments of the reference standards applicable during the tendering
process. Where so agreed, if applicable, these specific editions and amendments would become
the basis of the subsequent contract.
95 NRS 054:2013

Annex B
(informative)

Model forms for schedules A and B


This model form is provided as a convenient aid to purchasing. Guidance on preparing an enquiry
using this form is given in annex A.

Schedule A: Purchaser's specific requirements


Schedule B: Particulars of equipment to be supplied (to be completed by tenderer)
1 2 3 4 5
Item Sub-clause of Description Schedule A Schedule
NRS 054 B
1 Delivery and off-loading
 Transformer delivered to xxxxxxxxx _________
 Delivery effected not before xxxxxxxxx _________
 Off-loaded from transport vehicle by xxxxxxxxx _________
supplier Yes / No
 Transformer transferred to intended xxxxxxxxx _________
operating position by supplier Yes / No

2 Erection and oil filling


 Erected ready for service Yes _________
 Erection completed not later than date xxxxxxxxx _________
 Place 3 ply Malthoid on plinth Yes _________

3 Site details
 Access to site Road xxxxxxxxx
 Distance from off-loading position m xxxxxxxxx _________
 Rise or fall to off-loading position m xxxxxxxxx _________

4 Operating environment
Corrosion protection: Yes/No _________ xxxxxxxxx
Pollution level: Medium/ Very Heavy _________ _________

5 Quantity of units required

6 4.2.1 Rated power


 HV MVA _________ _________
 MV (with LV unloaded) MVA _________ _________
NRS 054: 2013
96

Annex B
(continued)

1 2 3 4 5
Item Sub-clause of Description Schedule A Schedule
NRS 054 B
 LV (with HV fully loaded) MVA _________ ________
7 4.2.3 Nominal system voltage ―Un‖ and rated
voltage on principal tapping
 HV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
 MV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
 LV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
8 Vector group
 Type xxxxxxxxx ________
9 4.16.3 Tap-changers
 Type OLTC/OCTS xxxxxxxxx ________

10 Bushing
 Type Outdoor/Cable boxes xxxxxxxxx ________

11 Special tests
(List costs in price schedule)
 Acoustic noise level measurements xxxxxxxxx ________
Yes/No

12 Maximum continuous ratings on any


tapping with rated cooling OFAF or
ONAF
 HV MVA xxxxxxxxxx ________
 MV (LV unloaded) MVA xxxxxxxxxx ________
 LV (with HV fully loaded) MVA xxxxxxxxxx ________

13 Continuous ratings on any tapping with


ONAN cooling
 HV MVA xxxxxxxxxx ________
 MV (LV unloaded) MVA xxxxxxxxxx ________
 LV (with HV fully loaded) MVA xxxxxxxxxx ________

14 Maximum current density in windings



2
HV A/mm xxxxxxxxxx ________

2
MV A/mm xxxxxxxxxx ________

2
LV A/mm xxxxxxxxxx ________
97 NRS 054:2013

Annex B
(continued)

1 2 3 4 5
Item Sub-clause of Description Schedule A Schedule
NRS 054 B
15 Rating of LV (delta tertiary) winding xxxxxxxxxx ________
based on maximum current density in
HV winding MVA
16 Short-circuit current that the transformer xxxxxxxxxx ________
is designed to withstand, in per unit of
r.m.s. rated current
 HV p.u. xxxxxxxxxx ________
 MV p.u. xxxxxxxxxx ________
 LV p.u. xxxxxxxxxx ________

17 No-load loss on principal tapping (NOTE


- No plus tolerance allowed)
 at 1,00 Un kW xxxxxxxxxx ________
 at 1,10 Um kW xxxxxxxxxx ________
18 Core design
 Manufacturer of core steel xxxxxxxxxx ________
 Grade and thickness of core steel xxxxxxxxxx ________
grade/mm
 Number and length of limbs xxxxxxxxxx ________
no./mm
 Core diameter xxxxxxxxxx ________
mm

19 Cross sectional area of:



2
19.1 Wound limbs mm xxxxxxxxxx ________

2
Yoke mm xxxxxxxxxx ________

2
Unwound limbs mm xxxxxxxxxx ________
19.2 Distance between core limb centres mm xxxxxxxxxx ________
19.3 Total core mass kg xxxxxxxxxx ________

19.4 The design flux density at Un for:


 Yoke T xxxxxxxxx ________
NRS 054: 2013
98

Annex B
(continued)

1 2 3 4 5
Item Sub-clause of Description Schedule A Schedule
NRS 054 B
 Wound limbs T xxxxxxxxxx ________
 Unwound limbs xxxxxxxxxx ________

19.5 Volts per turn at the above flux densities xxxxxxxxxx ________
19.6 Magnetizing current, at rated frequency, on
principal tapping, in percent of rated current
at maximum HV rating
 at 0,90 Ut % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 at 1,00 Ut % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 at 1,10 Ut % xxxxxxxxxx ________
Load loss (I R + stray) at 75 C and at
2
19.7
maximum HV rating with MV fully loaded
but LV unloaded
(NOTE - No plus tolerance allowed)
 On principal tapping kW xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme plus tapping kW xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme minus tapping kW xxxxxxxxxx ________

20 INPUT TO COOLERS FOR


MAXIMUM RATED OUTPUT IN
SERVICE
20.1 Fans xxxxxxxxxx ________
Power kW xxxxxxxxxx ________
Current A xxxxxxxxxx ________
20.2 Oil pumps xxxxxxxxxx ________
Power kW xxxxxxxxxx ________
Current A xxxxxxxxxx ________
21 Primary or secondary impedance at
75 C and rated frequency based on
maximum rated power of HV winding
21.1 HV/MV
 On principal tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme plus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme minus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________

21.2 HV/LV
99 NRS 054:2013

Annex B
(continued)

1 2 3 4 5
Item Sub-clause Description Schedule A Schedule
of NRS 054 B
 On principal tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme plus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme minus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________

21.3 MV/LV
 On principal tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme plus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme minus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
21.4 Tolerances applicable to guaranteed
impedances
21.4.1 HV/MV
 On principal tapping % IEC 60044-1 ________
 On extreme plus tapping % IEC 60044-1 ________
 On extreme minus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________

21.4.2 HV/LV
 On principal tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme plus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme minus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________

21.5 Zero sequence impedances in percent of


Un2/M
21.5.1 HV/MV xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On principal tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme plus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
 On extreme minus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________

21.5.2 HV/Neutral
On principal tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
On extreme plus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________
On extreme minus tapping % xxxxxxxxxx ________

21.5.3 MV/Neutral
On principal tapping % xxxxxxxxx ________
On extreme plus tapping % xxxxxxxxx ________
On extreme minus tapping % xxxxxxxxx ________
NRS 054: 2013
100

Annex B
(continued)

1 2 3 4 5
Item Sub-clause Description Schedule A Schedule
of NRS 054 B

22 Temperature rises at altitude of 1 800 m


Top oil C xxxxxxxxx ________
Windings (by resistance) C xxxxxxxxx ________
Hotspot C xxxxxxxxx ________
Percentage of total losses that will be xxxxxxxxx ________
supplied %

23 Maximum acoustic noise dB(A) xxxxxxxx ________

24 Winding design
Indicate per coil the following:
Type (i.e. multilayer helix) xxxxxxxxx ________
Number of turns xxxxxxxxx ________
Conductor size, number and configuration xxxxxxxxx ________
Number and width of support spacers per xxxxxxxxx ________
turn
Total conductor mass kg xxxxxxxxx ________
Dry insulation mass kg xxxxxxxxx ________
25 Minimum insulation for windings
(Provide detailed test plan for
evaluation)
25.1 Impulse withstand test voltage for:
HV kV peak xxxxxxxxx ________
MV kV peak xxxxxxxxx ________
LV kV peak xxxxxxxxx ________

25.2 Sixty-second, separate source


HV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
MV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
LV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
25.3 Induced-overvoltage withstand test voltages
HV to earth kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
MV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________

25.4 Between line terminals


HV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
MV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
Test frequency Hz xxxxxxxxx ________
Test duration s xxxxxxxxx ________
26 Main terminal bushings
101 NRS 054:2013

Annex B
(continued)

1 2 3 4 5
Item Sub-clause Description Schedule A Schedule
of NRS 054 B
26.1 Impulse withstand test voltage at sea level
(1,2/50 s)
HV kV peak xxxxxxxxx ________
MV kV peak xxxxxxxxx ________
LV kV peak xxxxxxxxx ________
HV/MV Neutral kV peak xxxxxxxxx ________
26.2 Sixty-second, power-frequency withstand
test voltage to earth
HV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
MV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
LV kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
HV/MV Neutral kV r.m.s xxxxxxxxx ________
26.3 Total creepage distance
HV mm xxxxxxxxx ________
MV mm xxxxxxxxx ________
LV mm xxxxxxxxx ________
HV/MV Neutral mm xxxxxxxxx ________
26.4 Protected creepage distance
HV mm xxxxxxxxx ________
MV mm xxxxxxxxx ________
LV mm xxxxxxxxx ________
HV/MV Neutral mm xxxxxxxxx ________
26.5 Type, ratings and dimensions (attach data
sheets)
26.5.1 Service bushings
HV xxxxxxxxx ________
MV xxxxxxxxx ________
LV xxxxxxxxx ________
HV/MV/Neutral xxxxxxxxx ________
26.5.2 Test bushings xxxxxxxxx ________
Type, ratings and dimensions (attach data
sheets)
26.5.3 Give particulars of special turrets, etc. that xxxxxxxxx ________
will be used
26.5.4 Will special test items be supplied as part of xxxxxxxxx ________
the contract?
27 Transformer general information
Manufacturer xxxxxxxxx ________
Place of manufacture xxxxxxxxx ________
NRS 054: 2013
102

Annex B
(continued)

Item Sub-clause Description Schedule Schedule


of NRS 054 A B
Type of transformer Core/Shell xxxxxxxxx _________
Number of limbs 2/3/5 xxxxxxxxx _________
Type of cooling xxxxxxxxx _________
28 Oil quantities: _________
28.1 Transformer tank l xxxxxxxxx _________
28.2 Place of manufacture l xxxxxxxxx _________
28.3 Tap-changer l xxxxxxxxx _________
28.4 Total l xxxxxxxxx _________

29 Masses
29.1 Mass of core and windings kg xxxxxxxxx _________
29.2 Mass of core steel kg xxxxxxxxx _________
29.3 Mass of winding copper (insulation xxxxxxxxx _________
excluded) kg
29.4 Mass of tank and fittings kg xxxxxxxxx _________
29.5 Mass of coolers kg xxxxxxxxx _________
29.6 Mass of oil kg xxxxxxxxx _________
29.7 Total mass kg xxxxxxxxx _________
29.8 Greatest transportation mass kg xxxxxxxxx _________

30 Filling medium for transport xxxxxxxx _________

31 Overall dimensions of tank only


31.1 Length xxxxxxxxx _________
31.2 Base plate thickness xxxxxxxxx _________

32 Height over HV bushings xxxxxxxx _________


33 Tank and cooler material thickness xxxxxxxx _________
33.1 cooler tubes xxxxxxxxx _________
33.2 pressed-sheet radiators xxxxxxxxx _________

34 Safe withstand vacuum at sea level, kpa xxxxxxxx _________


35 Motors (forced cooling)
35.1 Make xxxxxxxxx _________
35.2 Type xxxxxxxxx _________

36 Tap-changers
36.1 On-load tap-changers
36.1.1 Manufacturer and type designation xxxxxxxxx _________
36.1.2 Precise electrical location of tappings xxxxxxxxx _________
36.1.3 Diagrammatic arrangement shown on xxxxxxxxx _________
drawing no.
103 NRS 054:2013

Annex B
(continued)

1 2 3 4 5
Item Sub-clause Description Schedule Schedule
of NRS 054 A B
36.2 Tapping range of HV/MV ratio % of the
ratio on the principal tapping:
36.2.1 Max % xxxxxxxxx _________
36.2.2 Min % xxxxxxxxx _________
36.2.3 Number of steps No xxxxxxxxx _________
36.2.4 Size of steps % xxxxxxxxx _________
36.2.5 Number of positions (including transition xxxxxxxxx _________
positions)
36.3 Nominal 50 Hz ratings of tap-changer:
36.3.1 Voltage kV xxxxxxxxx _________
36.3.2 Current A xxxxxxxxx _________

36.4 Insulation levels of tap-changer


36.4.1 Lightning impulse level (1,2/50 s full wave) xxxxxxxxx _________
36.4.2 phase-to-ground kV peak xxxxxxxxx _________
36.4.3 phase-to-phase kV peak xxxxxxxxx _________

36.5 Tap-changer 50 Hz withstand


36.5.1 phase-to-ground kV r.m.s. xxxxxxxxx _________
36.5.2 phase-to-phase kV r.m.s. xxxxxxxxx _________
36.5.3 Nominal voltage and current rating of tap- xxxxxxxxx _________
changer

36.6 Tap-changer contacts


36.6.1 Selector kV/A xxxxxxxxx _________
36.6.2 Selector switch kV/A xxxxxxxxx _________
36.6.3 Diverter switch kV/A xxxxxxxxx _________

36.7 Tap-changer transition resistor kV/A xxxxxxxxx _________

36.8 Tap-changer driving motor


36.8.1 Type of driving motor 3 Phase xxxxxxxxx _________
36.8.2 Power kW xxxxxxxxx _________
36.8.3 Current A xxxxxxxxx _________

37 Resulting no-load voltage appearing


37.1 On principal tapping kV xxxxxxxxx _________
37.2 On extreme plus tapping kV xxxxxxxxx _________
37.3 On extreme minus tapping kV xxxxxxxxx _________

38 Is supply of contract drawings guaranteed? xxxxxxxxx _________

39 Type test certificates should be submitted xxxxxxxxx _________


with the tender for approval, otherwise it will
be assumed that no type tests for identical
units are available
NRS 054: 2013
104

Annex B
(concluded)

1 2 3 4 5
Item Sub-clause Description Schedule Schedule
of NRS 054 A B
40 Indicating and protective devices
Winding temperature thermometer(s):

Mechanical thermometer Yes/no _________


Digital thermometer in accordance with Yes/no _________
DSP 34-486,
Oil temperature thermometer xxxxxxxxx _________
Oil- and gas-actuated relay xxxxxxxxx _________
Pressure relief device xxxxxxxxx _________
Tap-changer protective device (detail) xxxxxxxxx _________
Dehydrating breathers xxxxxxxxx _________
Conservator bag xxxxxxxxx _________
Oil level indicators xxxxxxxxx _________

41 Spares recommended by manufacturer xxxxxxxxx _________


(provide detailed list)
105 NRS 054:2013

Bibliography

SANS 9001/ ISO 9001, Quality management systems – Requirements.

© SABS
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INFOPLUS, which ensures that subscribers automatically receive notification regarding
amendments to, and revisions of, international standards.
Tel: +27 (0) 12 428 7911 / 0861 27 7227 Fax: +27 (0) 12 428 6928 E-mail: info@sabs.co.za

Copyright

The copyright in a South African National Standard or any other publication published by the SABS
Standards Division vests in the SABS or, in the case of a South African National Standard based on
an international standard, in the organization from which the SABS adopted the standard under
licence or membership agreement. In the latter case, the SABS has the obligation to protect such
copyright. Unless exemption has been granted, no extract may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission from the SABS
Standards Division. This does not preclude the free use, in the course of implementing the
standard, of necessary details such as symbols, and size, type or grade designations. If these
details are to be used for any purpose other than implementation, prior written permission must be
obtained.

Details and advice can be obtained from the Manager – Standards Sales and Information Services.
Tel: +27 (0) 12 428 6883 Fax: +27 (0) 12 428 6928 E-mail: sales@sabs.co.za