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C6.6 & C4.

4 with ACERT®
Technology

May 2005 - Page 1

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Name ______________________________________

Date ______________________________________

Company ______________________________________

E-mail __________________________________

Tel. _____________________________

From the library of Barrington Diesel Club

C6.6
1
Important
z The product training information is distributed
for informational purposes only. It is not to be
construed as creating or becoming part of Cat
contractual or warranty obligations
z This presentation must be printed in notes
page format, with the speaker notes showing,
which contain essential additional information.
z The appropriate service literature, should
always be the final authority and source of
information

May 2005 - Page 2

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
2
C6.6 & C4.4 ACERT Benefits
Installed Package
Engine Size Refinement
Cooling Pack 3 dBA Noise Reduction
Quality of Noise
Low Vibration
Cost of Ownership
Fuel Economy
Service Period

Ratings
Power
Environment Torque
Emission compliant
Filtration

Product Functionality
Cold Start
Electronic Functionality Fuel Compatibility
Machine Integration PTO

May 2005 - Page 3

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
3
Electronically assisted

z To create….
– Lower emmisions
– Better fuel consumption
– Versatile control

May 2005 - Page 4

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
4
S/N Prefix Nomenclature

3054E 3056E 3054C C6.6 C4.4

Ind. 304 356 334 666 444

Mach. CRX CPT CRS/G4D ??? C4E

May 2005 - Page 5

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
5
Tier 3 Dates and Ratings
January 2008 January 2007 January 2006
Emissions Emissions Emissions
260 – 330HP*

C6.6
120 – 250HP

C4.4 68 – 140HP

100HP 175HP
*Application Specific

May 2005 - Page 6

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

•For ratings above 250hp see ERM for detail of applications and usage

•Ratings above 286hp/213kW are not currently planned with Stage 3a


emissions certification
•Revise the slide for USA APA

C6.6
6
Features
4 Valve Head ECM

Timing

Cylinder
Crankshaft Block
Fuel
System
May 2005 - Page 7

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
7
Engine Features
z 6.6 Litres
– Same Bore/Stroke as
3054C
ƒ 105mm/127mm
– New Block for 6 cyl
ƒ Scalloped
ƒ Ribs
ŠNoise Attenuation
ƒ Closed Top Deck
ƒ Parent Bore
ƒ Oversized Piston
Service Solution

May 2005 - Page 8

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The 6 cylinder engine now has a capacity of 6.6 litres.


The Bore and stroke of the engine is in line with 3054C at 127mm stroke and
105mm bore.
The new six cylinder block, which is 10.5mm longer than the 1106C, has a
scalloped crank case with extra ribbing
These features give a more ridged structure with a lower noise attenuation.
The block is of a closed top deck configuration with 120mm spaced, non
siamese, bores.
The production block is liner less and has a new standard of bore finish
(TD522).
Oversized pistons will be the service solution for overhaul. (0.5 – 1.0 mm) Will
be available after 2007.
.

C6.6
8
Piston Design
z Pistons
– Two Types
ƒ Gallery Cooled
ƒ Non - Gallery Cooled
– Aluminium
– Quiescent Bowl Design
– New Ring Pack
ƒ Improved Oil Control
– Graded Rods for Piston
Protrusion
– Square Boss to the Front

May 2005 - Page 9

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Two types of piston are used, gallery cooled and non-gallery cooled.
The squared boss on the inside of the piston is fitted facing towards the front of
the engine.
A new ring pack combined with the new bore finish (TD522) gives good oil
control.
Piston protrusion is controlled by use of graded rods.
The piston is made of a low expansion aluminium incorporating a Quiescent
bowl design.
This design of combustion bowl allows the use of multiple injections.

C6.6
9
6 cyl. Connecting Rod
z Connecting Rods Dimple
– Fracture Split
ƒ Removal from the Top
– Notches
ƒ Bearing Alignment
ƒ Not Interchangeable Top
to Bottom
– 3 Lengths for Piston
Protrusion
– Always use New Bolts
– Dimples for Orientation Notch
Dimple

May 2005 - Page 10

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

There are three lengths of con rod to adjust the piston height.
The con-rods are fracture split at an angle to facilitate their removal from the
top end of the block.
These fracture split con-rods have conjoined notches to locate the big end
bearings shells.
The bearing shells are therefore not interchangeable between cap and rod.
It is recommended that the con-rod bolts are never reused.
For torque method and load refer to the relevant workshop Manual
The conrod and cap have dimples on them to identify correct orientation.

C6.6
10
6 cyl. Crankshaft
z Crankshaft
– Balanced Steel Forging
ƒ Induction Hardened
– Larger Mains Diameter
ƒ 84mm, 8mm Increase
– Larger Rod Diameter
ƒ 72mm, 9mm Increase
– 15mm Bearing Overlap Increase
ƒ Withstands Higher Torsional loads
– Lead free Bearings
– 100% Front PTO

May 2005 - Page 11

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The fully balanced crankshaft is a steel forging.


For increased power and improved bearing life, the following improvements
have been made -
The main journals are now 84mm in diameter an increase of 8mm over 3054C
The big end pins are 72mm an increase of 9mm over 3054C
These increases in bearing diameters gives an increase of 15mm in bearing
overlap over crankshafts on previous engines of this size.
All bearing surfaces are induction hardened as are the fillet radii.
All bearings are lead free.
The crank nose has been re designed to allow `100% power take off.

C6.6
11
Thrust Bearing
z Crank Thrust Bearing
– #5 Main
– Fitted into the Block
ƒ Faces the Crank
– Squared ends for proper installation
– Aluminium Base - Lead Free

May 2005 - Page 12

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The crankshaft thrust washers are fitted either side of the No 5 main bearing
position
The thrust washers are fitted into the block ensuring the bearing face is
towards the crankshaft.
The squared off ends fit into recesses in the main bearing saddle and bearing
cap.
The thrust washer bearing face is of a lead free aluminium base.
The main bearing caps are tightened using the torque and angle method.
Refer to relevant workshop manual for details of load and angle.

C6.6
12
Isolated Sump
z Sump connected to block via isolator plate.
z Gives benefits of noise reduction.

z Isolator plate

May 2005 - Page 13

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
13
Rear End Oil Seal Fitting

May 2005 - Page 14

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
14
Main Bearing Caps
z Bearing Caps
– Installation
ƒ Use Torque and Angle Method
ƒ Details in D&A Manual

May 2005 - Page 15

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The main bearing caps are tightened using the torque and angle method.
Refer to relevant workshop manual for details of load and angle.

C6.6
15
Cylinder Head Details
z4 Valve per Cylinder
z Centered Injector
z Non-Sleeved Injector Bores
z Service
– Non-Serviceable Valve
Guides and Seats

May 2005 - Page 16

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

This close up shows -


4 valves per cylinder.
The central position for the injector.
The rocker pedestal location bolt holes.
The valve stem seals are of the same material and design as the 3054C but of
a smaller diameter to suit the smaller valve stems.
Seals are colour coded for inlet & exhaust.
The head design does not use serviceable valve guides or seats.
The head face cannot be machined.
An adaptor is required to be used with current valve spring compressor.

C6.6
16
Head Bolt Torque Sequence
11 7 3
10 14
6
2
4
8
12
13
9
5

May 2005 - Page 17

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The tightening sequence is from the outside to the centre of the head, as
shown above.
The cylinder head and MLS head gasket are dowel located to the cylinder
block.
The head is tightened using the torque and angle method.
Refer to the relevant workshop manual for the torque and angle
recommendations.
There are 14, 16mm bolts. The bolts are 118mm long.

C6.6
17
Head
z Head
– Multi-Layered-Steel (MLS)
Head Gasket
– Fourteen - 16mm bolts
ƒ Single Use
– Torque and Angle
Tightening Method

May 2005 - Page 18

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
18
Rocker Assembly
z Bridge can be installed Inlet
(Long)
either way
z Single Bolt per Rocker
Lever
z Lash settings the same
for Inlet and Exhaust
z Injectors can be
replaced without
removing Rockers
Exhaust
(Short)

May 2005 - Page 19

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The close up of the rocker levers and valve operating bridge piece.
The bridge pieces can be fitted either way round.
The bridge piece has one elongated hole. This allows for a variance in valve
positioning in the head.
The rocker levers are located by a single bolt per rocker lever.
The longer lever operates the inlet valves
Valve clearances are set using a new method. Refer to the relevant manual.
Valve clearances are the same for inlet and exhaust.
Rockers need not be removed but can be manipulated to allow removal of
injectors.

C6.6
19
6 cyl. Oil Pump
z Serviced as Assembly
z Left Hand filter to
Right Hand filter
requires additional
piping

Pressure
Relief Valve

May 2005 - Page 20

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

To move the oil filter option from the LHS to the RHS of the engine requires
extra piping to be introduced into the crankcase area.
The oil flows to the cooler via internal galleries.
From the cooler the oil passes to the lube oil filter and then on into the oil feed
galleries.

C6.6
20
Timing Case
Camshaft Idler Hub
z Timing Case locating pin Location
boss
– Increased Clearance for Idler
Hub access
– PTFE Crank Seal with dust
seal
– New Seal Recommended if
Timing Case is removed
– Use “dummy” Sleeve when
front Pulley is Removed
Integral front oil seal to
ensure seal to crank
alignment

May 2005 - Page 21

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Cam locating position will be on the right hand side of the gear viewed from the
front.
Idler hub location in timing case is larger for clearance of the hub and gear
installation (an alignment tool is required to centralise the case).
Front oil seal mounted in the timing case for exact alignment to crank.
The front seal is of PTFE with dust seal.
The seal is supplied with a fitting sleeve, which must remain in the seal until
fitted.
A dummy sleeve should be fitted in the seal when front pulley is removed.
The correct installation tool must be used to ensure correct alignment.
It is recommended that if the timing case is removed, a new oil seal is fitted.

C6.6
21
Timing Case
z Timing Case Alignment Tool
must be used
– Allows Idler Gear and Hub to
be installed as an assembly

Cam Gear
Alignment

May 2005 - Page 22

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

•Tool aligns the timing case.


•This allows the idler gear and hub to be fitted as an assembly

C6.6
22
Idler Gears
z Two Types
– Bronze
– Double Needle
– Dependant on PTO
requirements.

May 2005 - Page 23

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
23
Camshaft Thrust Washer
z Two Different Camshaft
Thrust Washers
– One Notch
ƒ PTO mounted RHS
ƒ Greater than 35Nm Torque
Notches
– Two Notches
ƒ All others

Two Notch Version

May 2005 - Page 24

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

There are two camshaft thrust washers available.


One has two location notches, as shown, the other only has one.
The one notch washer is used where there is a requirement for a PTO mounted
on the RHS requiring in excess of 35Nm torque.

C6.6
24
Static Timing
z Pinning the Crank to #1 TDC
– Notch in Crank
– Service Tool Available
– Remember to Remove Pin

TDC access
point

May 2005 - Page 25

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

To facilitate setting the engine to an accurate, No I cylinder, TDC a timing pin is


available.
Remember to remove the pin and replace the blanking screw.

C6.6
25
Camshaft Timing
z Camshaft Alignment Tool
– Not a Tight Fit
– Ease of Assembly

May 2005 - Page 26

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

• Use the camshaft alignment tool to locate the camshaft.


•The tool is only used to locate the gear and is therefore not a tight fit.
•This allows the cam gear to move slightly when fitting the Idler gear easing the
assembly.

C6.6
26
Crank Speed/Timing
z New Sensor
z Located at Rear of Block
z Reads tooth wheel
attached to the Crank

May 2005 - Page 27

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The toothed timing disc is of a pressed steel manufacture.


The design is different to that used on the previous electronically controlled
engines.

C6.6
27
Fuel System Overview
z Caterpillar Fuel System using common rail
technology
– Low Pressure
ƒ 300kPa (43 PSI)
ƒ 20 Micron Primary Filter
ƒ 2 Micron Secondary Filter
ƒ Fuel Cooler Required on some arrangements
– High Pressure
ƒ Up to 160 MPa (1600bar - 23,200 PSI)
ŠFluid penetration safety hazard.
ƒ Hardened Fuel Lines
ƒ External Fuel Manifold

May 2005 - Page 28

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
28
How small is a Micron?

May 2005 - Page 29

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
29
Fuel System Handling
IMPORTANT!
z Cap all fuel passages Immediately after removal
z Do Not “Blow Out” or “Wash Out” any fuel passages

z Place removed parts in clean area

z Do Not pre-fill filters

z Remove packaging and protective caps immediately


before installation
z Fuel Lines cannot be reused

May 2005 - Page 30

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
30
Low Pressure Fuel System

May 2005 - Page 31

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The schematic above shows us the layout of the High pressure fuel system
used by C4.4/C6.6 electronically controlled engines.

Fuel is placed through the primary filter, forwarded onto the transfer pump
which moves fuel onwards into the cooling chamber of the ECM, (Where
used).

For further and more substantial cleanliness, fuel is passed through a


secondary filter and passed clean onto the High pressure pump.

C6.6
31
High Pressure Fuel System
Injectors

High pressure
fuel rail

High pressure fuel


pump

May 2005 - Page 32

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The pressure of fuel is raised and transferred into the High pressure fuel rail.

Finally each Electronically actuated injector is branched from the rail.

C6.6
32
Fuel Pump
z Two Pumps Lube Oil
Feed
– High Pressure
– Transfer
z HP Pump Lubricated by
Engine Oil
– Longer Life

Pump
Speed/Position Transfer
Sensor Pump

May 2005 - Page 33

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The fuel pump comprises of the transfer pump and high pressure pump in one
unit.
The high pressure fuel pump is lubricated by engine oil.
This gives an extended pump life compared to pumps lubricated with fuel.
The transfer pump does not require a lift pump but does require priming.
The method of priming is either by hand pump incorporated into the primary
filter head or by an electric priming pump.

C6.6
33
High Pressure Fuel Pump
Fuel in to HP Pump
Fuel Leak off to Tank From Secondary Filter

To Fuel HP
Manifold

To
Secondary
Filter

From
Primary
Pump Speed/Position Sensor Filter

May 2005 - Page 34

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The high pressure fuel pump is mounted on the LHS of the engine.
The pump is locked, for timing purposes, prior to being fitted to the engine. (If
the pump is not locked, it should be returned to the authorised outlet.)
This ensures that the delivery strokes from the pump are in phase with the
injector deliveries.
Always refer to the manual for the correct removal and re-fitting procedure.
The high pressure fuel system is self bleeding. Fuel lines must never be
cracked to purge air.
When the pump is replaced the feed pipe to the fuel manifold must also
be replaced.
Fuel is directed to the fuel manifold and from there to the injectors.

C6.6
34
Fuel Pump
z Stroke in phase with Injection
z Self Bleeding
– Do Not Crack lines to bleed
z Lock Pump BEFORE removal
z Replace HP Fuel Line when Pump is
removed
– Check Clips
z Two Cams – 2 or 3 lobes each
z Solenoid adjusts rail pressure and
return to tank
z Needs to be Timed
– Lock in Place BEFORE Removal

May 2005 - Page 35

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The 6 cylinder high pressure pump has two three lobe cams.
The 4 has two two lobe cams.
This enables it to deliver six pumping strokes per pump revolution
The solenoid valve determines fuel rail pressure and fuel returned to tank.
Excess fuel is returned, via the pump leak off, to the fuel tank
Fuel enters the HP pump and is directed via non return valves to the two
plungers
On the delivery stroke of a plunger a percentage of the fuel is delivered to the
fuel manifold, again via a non return valve.
The volume of fuel delivered to the fuel manifold is dependant on the position of
the solenoid valve.
Fuel in excess of that required to maintain the desired pressure in the fuel
manifold is re-circulated.
Some re-circulation of fuel takes place within the pump,
The remainder of the fuel is returned back to the fuel tank.

C6.6
35
Fuel Pump Function
z Pump Raises Pressure
z ECM tells Injector to Fire
z Rail Pressure Drops
z ECM Detects Pressure
Drop
– Sensed by Fuel Rail
Pressure Sensor
z ECM tells Pump Solenoid
to Increase Volume
– Also tells Pump Solenoid to
Spill fuel once pressure is
reached
z Do it Again!

May 2005 - Page 36

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

As the injector solenoid is actuated a pressure drop occurs in the fuel manifold.
This pressure drop is registered by the ECM from a signal sent by the pressure
sensor in the fuel manifold.
The ECM sends a requirement for an increase in delivery volume from the
pump to return the rail pressure to the desired pressure.
When the pressure sensor informs the ECM that the desired pressure is correct
the ECM then causes the solenoid valve on the pump to reduce fuel volume.
This cycle takes place every time an injection takes place.
It is therefore important to phase the pump delivery to injection sequence and
occurrence to ensure that fuel manifold pressure does not drop too much.

C6.6
36
Transfer Pump
z Driven by High Pressure
Pump
z Draws Fuel through
Primary Filter
z Output Pressure
– 300 to 400 kPa
– 43 to 58 PSI
z Transfer Pump Primed
by Priming Pump
– Hand or Electric
– No Lift Pump Required

May 2005 - Page 37

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The transfer pump is driven from the rear of the High Pressure Pump drive
shaft.
The pump has the capacity to create both negative and positive pressures.
It draws the fuel (negative pressure)into the pump, via a 20 micron primary fuel
filter
The pump then delivers the fuel, at between 300 – 400 kPa, to the secondary
filter.

C6.6
37
High Pressure Fuel System
Fuel Manifold Injector Lines
z Do’s & Don’ts
– Do Check for leaks
– Do Not Loosen HP Connection
with Engine Running
– Do Replace HP Pipes After they
are Loosened
– Do Replace ALL Hp Pipes if new
manifold is Installed
Feed From High
– Do Not Force Pipes to Fit Pressure Pump
– Do Cap Manifold and Injector
Connections Immediately when
HP Pipe is removed

May 2005 - Page 38

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

High pressure pipe connections must never be loosened when the


engine is running or being cranked. High fuel pressure is always present
throughout the high pressure system when the engine is running or
being cranked.
All high pressure pipes must be replaced every time they are disturbed.
All pipes must be renewed when a new fuel manifold is fitted
DO NOT bend the pipe for any reason as it has been internally hardened.
Any attempt to bend the pipe could rupture this process which could lead
to a very high pressure leak. Do not fit a fuel pipe which is damaged in
any way.
New fuel pipes are supplied sealed in protective packaging. This
protection should remain on the pipe until just before the moment of
fitting.

C6.6
38
High Pressure Fuel System
Fuel Manifold Injector Lines
z Do’s & Don’ts
– Do Remove HP Cap just before
installation
– Do Keep your Work Area Clean
– Do Think about Cleanliness
when working on HP System
– Do Make Sure all Clips and
Clamps are tight and in position Feed From High
Pressure Pump

May 2005 - Page 39

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

High pressure pipe connections must never be loosened when the


engine is running or being cranked. High fuel pressure is always present
throughout the high pressure system when the engine is running or
being cranked.
All high pressure pipes must be replaced every time they are disturbed.
All pipes must be renewed when a new fuel manifold is fitted
DO NOT bend the pipe for any reason as it has been internally hardened.
Any attempt to bend the pipe could rupture this process which could lead
to a very high pressure leak. Do not fit a fuel pipe which is damaged in
any way.
New fuel pipes are supplied sealed in protective packaging. This
protection should remain on the pipe until just before the moment of
fitting.

C6.6
39
Fuel Pressure Relief Valve
High Pressure
z Protects System from Relief Valve
Over-Pressure
– Opens at Constant Pressure of
160 MPa (23,000 PSI)
– Withstands Spikes to 190 Mpa
(27,500 PSI)
z Returns fuel to Tank

May 2005 - Page 40

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The primary function of the fuel pressure sensor is to constantly monitor rail
pressure.
If it detects rail pressure above 160 MPa diagnostic code 157-00 will be
displayed and the engine will default to ‘limp home’ mode.
The high pressure relief valve protects the high pressure fuel system from
excessive pressures.
The valve will operate with a constant pressure above 160 MPa.(1600 bar) but
allow pressure spikes of up to 190MPa.(1900bar)
The fuel passing the pressure valve will be returned to the tank and will be at a
very high temperature.
After rectifying the cause of excessive pressure it will then be necessary to
replace the pressure valve.

C6.6
40
Fuel Return from Head
z Excess Fuel Returned Fuel
to Transfer Pump Return
– Not High Pressure from
Head
LIne

May 2005 - Page 41

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The injector leak off is a gallery return from the injectors in the cylinder head.

C6.6
41
Injector Function
z ECM Energizes Injector Solenoid
energized
z Valve Lifts
z Fuel Flows to Nozzle
Valve

To nozzle

May 2005 - Page 42

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

When the solenoid is energised, start of injection, the valve lifts.


The fuel manifold pressure now passes below the valve and down to the
nozzle.
When the solenoid is de-energised the valve closes removing fuel manifold
pressure from the nozzle.
The closing nozzle needle forces the fuel to pass the upper face of the valve
into the leak off drilling in the injector body.
The leak off fuel then passes via the gallery in the head to the return to the fuel
tank.

C6.6
42
Injector Function
Solenoid de-
z InjectorDe-energizes energized
z Valve Closes
z Unused fuel flows back
to Transfer Pump via
passage in the Head

May 2005 - Page 43

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

When the solenoid is energised, start of injection, the valve lifts.


The fuel manifold pressure now passes below the valve and down to the
nozzle.
When the solenoid is de-energised the valve closes removing fuel manifold
pressure from the nozzle.
The closing nozzle needle forces the fuel to pass the upper face of the valve
into the leak off drilling in the injector body.
The leak off fuel then passes via the gallery in the head to the return to the fuel
tank.

C6.6
43
Fuel Injector Connections
z Two Types
– High Pressure Fuel
– Electrical
ƒ Three Connectors thru
Valve Cover Base

May 2005 - Page 44

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

High pressure and electrical connections to the injectors.

C6.6
44
Fuel Injector
z Do’s and Don’ts
– Do Use Proper Torque on Electrical
Connection
ƒ Service Tool Available
– Do Finger Tighten all Clamps and HP
Lines, First, then torque properly
– Do Cap the Injector Immediately After
Removing HP Fuel Line
– Do Make Sure the O-Ring and Copper
Washer are in place
ƒ Do Not Re-use O-Ring or Copper
Washer

May 2005 - Page 45

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Electrical connections to the solenoid operated injectors can be easily


damaged.
Do not over-tighten. Use the correct tool and torque found in the manual.
When replacing injectors, finger tighten the injector clamp, align the high
pressure pipe and finger tighten the nut, tighten the injector clamp to its correct
torque. Fully tighten the high pressure pipe nuts using the correct tooling and
torque.
DO NOT bend the pipes.
Remember to ensure there is only one copper sealing washer on the injector
nozzle.
Replace the injector pipe, copper injector washer and ‘O’ ring when replacing
the injector.
The injector serial number and confirmation code will be used for trimming the
injector. The 3d bar code in the center is used in production. More about
injector trimming later on in the training.

C6.6
45
Fuel Injector
z Do’s and Don’ts
– Do Write down the Injector
Serial Number
and Confirmation Code
before you install the Injector
– Do use Cat ET to Program ECM
with proper Injector Trim File
– Do Look for the Trim File CD in
the Injector Box

May 2005 - Page 46

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Electrical connections to the solenoid operated injectors can be easily


damaged.
Do not over-tighten. Use the correct tool and torque found in the manual.
When replacing injectors, finger tighten the injector clamp, align the high
pressure pipe and finger tighten the nut, tighten the injector clamp to its correct
torque. Fully tighten the high pressure pipe nuts using the correct tooling and
torque.
DO NOT bend the pipes.
Remember to ensure there is only one copper sealing washer on the injector
nozzle.
Replace the injector pipe, copper injector washer and ‘O’ ring when replacing
the injector.
The injector serial number and confirmation code will be used for trimming the
injector. The 3d bar code in the center is used in production. More about
injector trimming later on in the training.

C6.6
46
Cleanliness
z Thoroughly clean equipment before
disassembling
z Use only NEW protective caps to seal fuel
connections
z Replace HP Fuel Lines if they have be
loosened

May 2005 - Page 47

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
47
Fuel Injection Serviceability
z NEVER loosen high pressure pipes when
engine is running! 23,000 PSI
z Use Electronic Service Tool to Troubleshoot
Injector Problems
z Injectors have no serviceable parts.
– Warranty will only be paid with evidence of the
correct tests.
z Pump Solenoid is non serviceable.
– If the solenoid is removed the whole pump
assembly must be replaced.

May 2005 - Page 48

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
48
Fuel Injection Serviceability
z Transferpump is a serviceable item, separate
from High Pressure pump.
z Speed sensor is serviceable.

May 2005 - Page 49

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
49
Smart Wastegate
Smart Wastegate
z On All Variable Speed Controller
Engines
z Controls Wastegate Actuator
z Optimizes Engine
Performance
z Driven by PWM Signal from
the ECM
z Service as an Assembly
– 12 or 24 volt

May 2005 - Page 50

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

A smart wastegate is fitted to all variable speed engines.


It controls the pressure applied to the mechanical wastegate actuator.
Smart wastegate gives flexibility to match boost pressure requirements at
both part load and full load conditions over the entire operating range.
Optimised emissions for any torque curve.
Optimised engine performance at non emissions points – i.e. reduced
exhaust temp.
The controller is serviceable only as an assembly, there are different part
numbers depending supply voltage (12 & 24volts).

C6.6
50
Wastegate Actuator
z1 mm Total Travel
z Refer to Service Manual for
Adjustment Procedure

May 2005 - Page 51

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Care must be taken when setting up the Smart Wastegate actuator. The fitting of a
new, adjusted or replacement actuator requires mandatory checking of settings as
shown in the service manuals.
If the Wastegate does not operate at the correct pressure, it can effect the engine
performance.
High pressure setting will result in engine de-rate.
Low pressure can cause black smoke and may also result in
engine de-rate.

C6.6
51
Smart Wastegate Schematic
Intake Manifold Pressure
Tells Solenoid (Boost)
How much Pressure
To Pass

Looks at:
Desired Speed
Load Intake Manifold Pressure
Boost (Boost)

May 2005 - Page 52

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

With a normal Wastegate turbocharger as the exhaust gas volume and


temperature increase so does the turbo boost pressure.
At a predetermined pressure the boost air pressure over comes the spring load
and the Wastegate valve (D) opens venting the gas into the exhaust outlet,
thus controlling the turbo boost pressure.
In the ‘Smart Wastegate’ the pressurised air passes to the Wastegate Actuator
(C) via a control valve (B). This valve is normally open allowing the air to vent
to atmosphere.
The spring in the Wastegate Actuator (C) is of a lower compressive load than in
the standard Wastegate, therefore it is possible to overcome the spring and
open the Wastegate at a lower pressure output from the turbo.
By operating under the control of the ECM (A), the boost pressure can be
controlled throughout the operating range of the engine.

C6.6
52
Glow plugs
z Installed
on ALL Engines
z Improved
– Sheathed Element
z 850°C in 4 Seconds
z Controlled by ECM
– Via OEM Relay 1 - Early Glow plug
2 - Improved version.

May 2005 - Page 53

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
53
Electronic Components
Intake Air Intake Manifold Pressure
Temperature Sensor
Sensor
Coolant Fuel Rail Pressure
Temperature Sensor
Sensor

ECM

High
Pressure Crank
Fuel Pump Speed/Position
Sensor

Pump/Cam Oil Pressure


Speed/Position Sensor
Sensor

May 2005 - Page 54

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
54
Engine Wiring Harness
z Both Connectors and
Harness are serviceable
z Pump Connector
Serviced by Pigtail

May 2005 - Page 55

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Harness serviceablity
Entire harness only needs to be replaced if ECM connector is broken.
Individual connectors are available in the parts system.
Pump connector is serviced by pig tail.
Two general purpose connector kits are available. One for DT connectors and
one for AMPSeal.
All connectors use a common crimp tool.
Connector seals are available as service items.
The harness ties/clips are available.
The three injector harnesses under valve cover are serviced separately as
assemblies. It is essential these are properly secured.
Reminder – Do not connect wiring to injector lines.

C6.6
55
Engine Wiring Harness
z Harness Do’s and Don’ts
– Do clip the harness
– Do Not Force Connectors
ƒ Keyed to ensure Correct Connection
– Do Not use “Electrical Grease”
– Do make sure seals are in good condition

z Diagnostic Connector
– Cat Machine Engines - No
– Industrial Engines - Yes

May 2005 - Page 56

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

We have a very ‘Fault Tolerant’ extremely robust and reliable system. Inevitably
after many years service, faults may occur.
Traditionally, if the problem is ‘Electrical’, wiring / connectors are most likely to
be the cause.
Shorts / open circuits / high resistance connections, can be caused by any
combination of corrosion / abrasion / burning / vibration / fatigue and ‘liquid
ingress’.
Make sure all seals are correctly positioned. Blanking plugs must be fitted on
any unused pins, to prevent any liquid ingress.

C6.6
56
On Engine Components
ECM

Cam Pump

Intake Air
Crank

Coolant
Oil

Smart Wastegate
Solenoid Fuel Rail
6 EUI Injectors
Diagnostic
Connector
Intake Air

May 2005 - Page 57

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
57
ECM
ECM

Cam Pump

Intake Air
Crank

Coolant
Oil

Smart Wastegate
Solenoid Fuel Rail
6 EUI Injectors
Diagnostic
Connector
Intake Air

May 2005 - Page 58

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
58
A4-E2 Fuel Cooled (ECM)
4mm Allen Key
Fuel Flow ‘in’

J1 ‘Customer’
Connector Anti-Vibration
Mounts

J2 ‘Engine’
Connector

Fuel Flow ‘out’

Ground Strap

May 2005 - Page 59

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Earth strap and anti-vibration mounts are serviced separately.


New anti-vibration mounts should be used when replacing the ECM.
Note: Air cooled ECM’s are also used.

C6.6
59
A4-E2 Electronic Control
Module (ECM)
z ECM Controls:
– Fuel Pressure
– Speed Governing
– Air/Fuel Ratio
– Start/Stop Sequence
– Engine Protection
Devices/ Diagnostics

May 2005 - Page 60

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
60
A4-E2 ECM Voltages/Current
z Nominal battery supply voltage 9-32 volts
– Expected voltage range/current draw…
ƒ 12V system / 9-16 volts / Max 30 Amps
(8mA ‘Sleep’)
ƒ 24V system / 18-32 volts / Max 15 Amps
(10mA ‘Sleep’)

May 2005 - Page 61

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
61
A4-E2 ECM
z Do Use the proper tools to tighten the ECM
Connector Screws
– 6 Nm (4.4 lb-ft)
z Do Use the ‘Test ECM’ Feature when
troubleshooting the ECM

May 2005 - Page 62

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
62
Temperature Sensors
ECM

Cam Pump

Intake Air
Crank

Coolant
Oil

Smart Wastegate
Solenoid Fuel Rail
6 EUI Injectors
Diagnostic
Connector
Intake Air

May 2005 - Page 63

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
63
Temperature Sensors
z Thermistor sensing devices
– Resistance varies with
temperature
– As temperature increases its
resistance decreases
z Passive Sensor
– Does not need it’s own power
supply

May 2005 - Page 64

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
64
Temperature Sensors
Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC)

2,500
(Resistance)
Ohms

1000

20 C
Increasing Temperature

May 2005 - Page 65

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
65
Temperature Sensors

Thermistor
Ground
Pin No
2

Signal
Pin No 1

May 2005 - Page 66

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
66
Temperature Sensors
z Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
– Used for engine protection,
Warning/Derate/Shutdown
z Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
– Used for engine protection, Warning/Derate
– Smoke limiting
z Both Used for
– Cold Start Strategy
– Data Link Information

May 2005 - Page 67

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
67
Diagnostic Example

110-3 Signal shorted to a high voltage or Open Circuit


4.8
Very cold Temp

Warning Temp
VOLTS

Start Derate Temp

Shutdown
Temp

0.2
110-4 Signal shorted to a lower voltage
Temperature

May 2005 - Page 68

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Example given is engine coolant temperature sensor.


Range, -40 to 150C
Range, -40 to 300F
Intake manifold temperature sensor has a different range and will give different
diagnostic codes.

C6.6
68
Pressure Sensors
ECM

Cam Pump

Intake Air
Crank

Coolant
Oil

Smart Wastegate
Solenoid Fuel Rail
6 EUI Injectors
Diagnostic
Connector
Intake Air

May 2005 - Page 69

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
69
Pressure Sensors

Intake Manifold
Pressure Sensor

Oil Pressure Sensor

Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor

May 2005 - Page 70

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
70
Fuel Rail Pressure Sensors
z Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor
– Determines Fuel Rail Pressure
– Continuous Operating Pressure 200 Mpa
– Maximum without damage, 260 Mpa
(burst at 320 Kpa)
– Temperature Range, -40º to +160ºC
– Sensor has M12 x 1.5 Thread
– Requires Special ‘Crush’ Washer for Sealing
– Ensure there is no Rail Pressure before removal
– Serviced as a Kit with ‘Crush’ Washer

May 2005 - Page 71

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
71
IMA Pressure Sensors
z Intake
Manifold Air Pressure Sensor
z Measures Manifold Air Pressure
– Used to calculate air/fuel ratio
– Used for smoke limiting strategy
– Measures atmospheric pressure on “key-on”
– Serviced as a Kit with O-ring

May 2005 - Page 72

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Atmospheric pressure is measured when the ignition is first switched on.


If the atmospheric pressure changes (I.e, if the engine moves uphill), the
engine will not de-rate until switched off and on again.

C6.6
72
Oil Pressure Sensors
z Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
– Used for engine protection, Warning/Shutdown
– Provides signal for pressure gauge, via the ECM
– Serviced as a Kit with O-Ring

May 2005 - Page 73

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
73
Pressure Sensors
z Integrated circuit
z Capacitive sensor
z Voltage output
varies with pressure
z Sensor conditions the
signal voltage output to
the ECM
z Active Sensor (Needs a
external power supply)

May 2005 - Page 74

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
74
Speed/Timing Sensors
ECM

Cam Pump

Intake Air
Crank

Coolant
Oil

Smart Wastegate
Solenoid Fuel Rail
6 EUI Injectors
Diagnostic
Connector
Intake Air

May 2005 - Page 75

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
75
Speed/Position Sensors
z Two speed/position sensors
– Crankshaft - Primary
– High Pressure Fuel Pump - Secondary
z Two Wire ‘Hall Effect’
– Produce Conditioned Square Wave
z Engine will Run if the Primary sensor fails
– ‘Limp Home Mode’ - 1200 rpm Max
z Engine will Not Shutdown if Secondary sensor
Fails
– Cannot be re-started if the engine is stopped.

May 2005 - Page 76

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The toothed timing disc is of a pressed steel manufacture.


The design is different to that used on the previous electronically controlled
engines, in that now a wide tooth is used as the reference point.

C6.6
76
Crank Speed/Timing
z 59 Teeth + 1 Wide tooth
– 6º Between teeth
z Wide tooth “tells” ECM
Crank Position
z Teeth point to Nose of
Crank
z Use proper thread lock
adhesive when re-using
Dowel Hole
screws

May 2005 - Page 77

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

The timing disc has 59 + 1 wide tooth. This gives 6° between teeth except
where the gap has not been cut.
This larger tooth will generate a different signal in the speed sensor.
To re-fit a new disc pass it carefully over the rear seal face and engage it on
the location dowel.
Ensure the teeth point toward the nose of the crankshaft.
The timing disc is secured with three setscrews. If these are to be re-used, the
correct thread lock should be used as specified in the manual.

C6.6
77
HP Pump Speed/Position Sensor

Speed / Timing
Sensor Speed / Timing
Sensor ‘Target’
36 Teeth

May 2005 - Page 78

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

• When the pump is renewed the feed pipe to the fuel rail must also be
renewed.

C6.6
78
Hall Effect Sensor
z Produces a conditioned square-wave signal

Old

New

Signal Output Waveform Crank Speed/Position Target

May 2005 - Page 79

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Using a hall effect sensor gives a sharp, square wave form, giving more
accurate positioning.

C6.6
79
Injectors
ECM

Cam Pump

Intake Air
Crank

Coolant
Oil

Smart Wastegate
Solenoid Fuel Rail
6 EUI Injectors
Diagnostic
Connector
Intake Air

May 2005 - Page 80

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
80
Injector Wiring
z Do’s and Don’ts
– Do make sure wires are
properly routed
– Do make sure clips are
used
ƒ Clips are available in
the Parts System
– Do use the proper
Service Tool to torque Spring Clip
Injector Connectors Retainer

May 2005 - Page 81

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
81
High Pressure Pump
ECM

Cam Pump

Intake Air
Crank

Coolant
Oil

Smart Wastegate
Solenoid Fuel Rail
6 EUI Injectors
Diagnostic
Connector
Intake Air

May 2005 - Page 82

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
82
Pump Solenoid Wiring

Service by pigtail

May 2005 - Page 83

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
83
Smart Wastegate Solenoid
ECM

Cam Pump

Intake Air
Crank

Coolant
Oil

Smart Wastegate
Solenoid Fuel Rail
6 EUI Injectors
Diagnostic
Connector
Intake Air

May 2005 - Page 84

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
84
Wastegate Wiring
z Long fly lead used.
z Clipped to air line around back of engine.
z Route correctly to avoid chafing.

May 2005 - Page 85

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
85
ECM J1 ‘Customer’ Connection
z New Connector
– Available from Cat
Parts System
– New Removal Tool
– Uses Standard Crimp
Tool

May 2005 - Page 86

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
86
OEM Connections
z Inputs
– Power
– Throttles
– Switches
z Outputs
– Lamps
– Relay
z Datalink
– J1939

May 2005 - Page 87

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
87
ECM Inputs - Power
z Ten Power Wires REQUIRED
– 4 Plus Battery
– 5 Minus Battery
– 1 Ignition Switch
z Beware of “In” Harness Power & Ground
Splices
z Battery Minus should go directly to the Battery
– Do Not Connect to Battery via the Chassis
z Use Correct Cable Size
– Refer to A&I Guide for details.

May 2005 - Page 88

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
88
ECM Inputs - Throttles
z Two Types
– Analog
ƒ Require Validation Switch
– PWM

May 2005 - Page 89

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Resistive track potentiometer type devices most common.


‘Hall’ effect type recommended, (non contact, longer life)
Provide linear voltage output (Approx 0.5v to 4.5v)
Should have a throttle movement detector, or Idle Validation Switch (IVS) on
all applications for throttle failure detection.

C6.6
89
Throttle Position Sensor
Analog
z Pedal position/operator demand
– 5 wires
z As the pedal is pressed
– Voltage increases from 0.5v to 4.5v
Diagnostic Region
4.5v

Voltage
Output

0.5v
Diagnostic Region
Low High
Idle Idle

May 2005 - Page 90

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Analogue Throttle Position Sensor.


The analogue pedal sends a voltage signal to the ECM depending on the pedal
position. This voltage, as shown above, varies from 0.5v to 4.5v. The ECM then
interprets this signal into a required engine speed. A comparison between
actual engine speed and desired engine speed is made and the amount of fuel
being delivered to the engine is adjusted to increase or decrease the RPM of
the engine.

C6.6
90
Throttle Position Sensor
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM)
z Three Wire
– Power +8 Volts
ƒ From ECM
– Ground
ƒ From ECM
– Signal
ƒ To ECM
z No Validation
Switch Needed

May 2005 - Page 91

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

PWM Throttle Position Sensor.


Throttle incorporates conditioning electronics to provide Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) signal output.
More consistent than a analogue throttle type.
No need for Idle Validation Switch.
Only three wire connection.
Uses sensor 8v reference voltage.
Less susceptible to voltage supply Variations.
Less susceptible to outside noise/interference.
The PWM pedal sends a signal to the ECM depending on the pedal position. This
signal varies from 10% duty cycle to 90% duty cycle. The ECM then interprets this
signal into a required engine speed. A comparison between actual engine speed and
desired engine speed is made and the amount of fuel being delivered to the engine
is adjusted to increase or decrease the RPM of the engine.

C6.6
91
Pulse Width Modulation
ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF
8v

Pulse Width
Increasing
Average
voltage
increasing

0v

Time

May 2005 - Page 92

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

PWM Signal.
At engine idle, duty cycle = 10 - 22%.
Average time on (Pulse Width) = average voltage.
Pulse runs at 500Hz.
The position sensor generates a PWM signal which is a square wave. A
square wave signal is either full voltage or no voltage − on or off. The percent
of time the signal is on versus the time off is called the duty cycle. Duty cycle
at low idle pedal position is 10% to 22%. Duty cycle at high idle pedal position
is 75% to 90%. The pedal position sensor transmits the signal to the ECM at a
constant frequency. This type of sensor provides a very accurate signal to the
ECM with a smooth transition between acceleration and deceleration. The
ECM determines if the sensor is faulty by monitoring the duty cycle. If the duty
cycle is greater than 90% or less than 10%, the ECM will log an active fault.

C6.6
92
ECM Inputs - Switches
z9 Switch Inputs
– PTO
ƒ On/Off
ƒ Set/Lower
ƒ Raise/Resume
ƒ Speed 1
ƒ Disengage
– Mode
ƒ Mode 1
ƒ Mode 2
– Throttle
ƒ Throttle Select
– Shutdown Switch

May 2005 - Page 93

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
93
ECM Outputs - Lamps
+Battery
z5 Lamps PTO Mode
– 2 Recommended 61
61

ƒ Warning STOP Lamp ECM


60 J1 OEM
ƒ Stop 60

Connector
– 3 Optional Warning Lamp
59
ƒ PTO Mode
59

Wait to Start
ƒ Wait to Start 63
63

ƒ Low Oil Pressure Low Oil Pressure


62
62

May 2005 - Page 94

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

ECM Output Numbers 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14


MIC Pin Numbers 66 65 64 63 67 54 62 53

C6.6
94
ECM Outputs - Relays
z OEM Installed
– See A&I Guide for Relay
Specifications
z Driven by ECM
– Part of Cold Start Strategies ECM
J1 OEM
Connector

To glow plug relay 40

May 2005 - Page 95

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
95
Grounding & Welding
z Grounding
– Always ensure the ground strap on the ECM
– Prevent EMI, Electro Magnetic Interference

z Welding
– Refer to A&I, OM&M or Troubleshooting Guide for
details

May 2005 - Page 96

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Welding Precautions.
Turn off engine with Ignition Key.
Disconnect negative terminal from battery, open battery isolation switch.
If welding on the machine, ensure the welding earth clamp is placed close to
the welding point.
Protect wiring harness against welding debris and ‘splatter’

Electrostatic Paint Spraying Precautions.


Connect all 64 pins of the ECM directly to the spray booth ground.
Connect the engine block to the ground at two points on bright metal.

Jump Starting Precautions.


Jump starting an can cause higher voltages, make sure they do not exceed the
ECM maximum.

C6.6
96
Cylinder Block Grounding
z Engine Block must be properly grounded
– Provide a good return path for Starter Motor,
Alternator, Start Aids…
z Ground Cables should be minimum, 67.4 mm²
(00 AWG)
z Starter Motor Stud, the first choice and directly
back to battery
z Tapped Holes on Engine Block
– Clean, Paint and dirt free
– 10 mm zinc plated screw/washer
– Tightened to 44 Nm
– Conductive grease can be used

May 2005 - Page 97

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
97
Cylinder Block Grounding

1 2
Options for Ground Connection to
Tapped Holes on Engine Block 3

May 2005 - Page 98

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
98
Battery Isolator Switches
z Installedin location, not normally accessible
z Not to be used for normal ‘Shutdown’
– Looses Diagnostic information
z Disconnects battery during storage, transport
and maintenance
z Improves Safety
– Avoids battery discharge during storage
– Protects ECM during welding
z Automatic Isolators
– Must be controlled by a timer to allow normal
‘shutdown’ by the ‘Ignition’ switch
ƒ Removing power from ECM Ignition Switch Input

May 2005 - Page 99

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
99
Warning & Diagnostic Lamps
z Strategy Change from 3054/6E
– Amber Diagnostic Lamp
ƒ Active Diagnostic Present
– Red Warning Lamp
ƒ Derate or Shutdown

z Lights Off : Everything is OK

May 2005 - Page 100

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
100
Warning Lamp Strategy
Warning Shutdown
Lamp Lamp
Both On - Lamp Check for 2 Second at key “On”

Off Off Both OFF - No Faults

On Off Warning ON - Active Fault

On F Warning ON / Shutdown Flashing - Engine Derate

F Off Warning Flashing / Shutdown OFF - Warning

F F Warning Flashing / Shutdown Flashing - Derate

On On Warning ON / Shutdown On - Shutdown

May 2005 - Page 101

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
101
Engine Warning and Protection
z Warn, Derate
and Shutdown
thresholds
z Read Only
Screen

May 2005 - Page 102

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Monitoring System.
This screen provides all the warning, derate and shutdown levels that are
currently set within the ECM.
NOTE: These cannot be altered. The only way to change the values is to alter
the actual flash file program.

C6.6
102
Electronic Diagnostics
z Electronic Technician (ET) PC based
ƒ Many functions, reading of temp, speed,
pressures, switch positions, etc
ƒ For Installation work and full diagnostics
ƒ Configuration settings, Histograms, graphing,
data log, etc
ƒ Programming the ECM,(Reflashing, Configuration)
ƒ Throttle Configuration, Analogue, PWM, MPTS,
Variable Set Speed

May 2005 - Page 103

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Diagnostic Plug
A diagnostic plug is available on the engine harness (certain engines may not
have this facility). This allows connection of diagnostic service tool to either the
Cat Data Link (CDL) or the CAN J1939
The Diagnostic connector fitted to the engine harness is a 9 pin Deutsch. The
pin allocations are as follows are as follows:

Pin Description
A Battery +
B Battery -
C CAN screen
D PDL +
E PDL -
F CAN -
G CAN +
H Not connected
J Not connected

C6.6
103
Diagnostic Fault Codes
z Two Types of Codes
– Faults
– Events
z Faults
– Problems with Components
z Events
– The Parameter being Measured is Out of range
ƒ E.g. Oil Pressure, Coolant Temperature

May 2005 - Page 104

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
104
Diagnostic Fault Codes
z 4 Code Categories
– Active Diagnostic Codes
ƒ Any fault that is currently on the engine.
ƒ Usually an electrical problem, connections, etc
– Logged Diagnostic Codes
ƒ Faults that have occurred and/or been repaired
– Active Events Codes
ƒ Currently Active Events
– Logged Event Codes
ƒ An engine history view

May 2005 - Page 105

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
105
Understanding Diagnostic Codes

110 3

CID FMI
Circuit/Component Failure Mode
Identifier Identifier

110 = Coolant Temperature Sensor 3 = Voltage High

May 2005 - Page 106

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

FMI DESCRIPTIONS

0 Data valid but above normal operating range


1 Data valid but below normal operating range
2 Data is erratic, intermittent or incorrect
3 Voltage above normal, or shorted to high source
4 Voltage below normal, or shorted to low source
5 Current below normal or open circuit
6 Current above normal or grounded circuit
7 Mechanical system not responding or out of adjustment
8 Abnormal frequency, pulse width or period
9 Abnormal update rate
10 Abnormal rate of change
11 Failure code not identifiable
12 Bad intelligent device or component
13 Out of calibration
14 Special instructions
15-31 Not available at present, for future use.

C6.6
106
Active Diagnostic Fault Codes

May 2005 - Page 107

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Active Codes.
This screen shows all the active diagnostic codes currently on the engine. i.e.
any current faults with the engine.
These faults will appear and as the faults occur. There is no need to clear the
faults manually as there will automatically disappear when the problem is
rectified.

C6.6
107
Logged Diagnostic Fault Codes

May 2005 - Page 108

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Logged Codes.
This screen shows a history of all the faults that have occurred on the engine.
They are logged with how many times the fault has happened, the first time it
happened and the last time it happens. These are all in ECM hours.

C6.6
108
Logged Event Codes
z High Engine Coolant Temperature
z High Intake Air Temperature
z Low Engine Oil Pressure
z Engine Over-speed
z High System Supply Voltage (12/24Volt)

Faults That Could cause Engine Damage

May 2005 - Page 109

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Event Codes for J1939.


Events are not supported in J1939 as used on the Electronic Service Tool
(EST). Rather than an ‘E’ code, we are transmitting them using a Suspect
Parameter Numbers (SPN) and a Failure Mode Identifier (FMI)

Event Code

(SPN) FMI Meaning


168 018 Low system voltage warning
172 016 High engine inlet air temp de-rate
190 0 or 16 Engine over-speed warning
110 016 High engine coolant temp warning
100 018 Low engine oil pressure warning
110 000 High engine coolant temp de-rate
172 016 High engine inlet air temp warning
100 018 Low oil pressure

These Fault codes can only be removed/cleared with an Electronic Service


Tool.

C6.6
109
Active Event Codes

May 2005 - Page 110

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
110
Logged Event Codes

May 2005 - Page 111

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

Logged Events.
These codes are generated when the engine has gone into a warning, de-rate
or shutdown. They are logged in the same way as the logged diagnostic codes.

C6.6
111
New Diagnostics
z 1- 2 Injector Data Incorrect (CDL)
z 1 - 7 Injector Not Responding (CDL)
z CID Can be 1 to 24 to Identify Cylinder (CDL)

z 651 - 2 Injector Data Incorrect (J1939)


z 651 - 7 Injector Not Responding (J1939)
z CID 651 to 675 to Identify Cylinder (J1939)

May 2005 - Page 112

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
112
ET Diagnostic Test
z Diagnostic Test
– Injector Solenoid Test
ƒ “Click” Test
– Override Parameters
– Cylinder Cutout Test
ƒ Major Test for finding “Good” or “Bad” Injectors
– Wiggle Test
– Fuel Rail Pressure Test
– Smart Wastegate Click Test
– Injector Verification Test

May 2005 - Page 113

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
113
Injector Installation
z Not Just a Mechanical Process
– Physical installation
– Electronic Installation
ƒ ET Required
ƒ E-Trim File Required

May 2005 - Page 114

Caterpillar Confidential: Green

C6.6
114
Injector Removal
z Rocker Arm
– Loosen Set Screw
– Slide Rocker to get
access to Injector Hold
Down Bolt

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Injector Installation
z Mechanical Issues
– Make Sure Copper
Washer is in Place
– Make Sure the Old
Washer is not still in
the Injector Hole
– Install Injector and Fuel
Lines ‘finger tight’
ƒ Then tighten Injector
Hold Down Bolt to
the Proper Torque.

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Injector Installation
z Electronic Issues
– Remember to write
down Injector Serial
Number
and
Confirmation Code
BEFORE you install the
injector

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Injector Installation
z Installing the E-Trim File
– Finding E-Trim File
ƒ On CD with the replacement Injector
ƒ On SIS Web
z Connect Cat ET
– Service>Calibrations>Injector Trim Calibrations

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Injector Installation
z Select Injector to be Programmed
z Click on ‘Change’ button

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Injector Installation
z Find E-Trim
File on your
Computer
z Select it
z Click on
‘Open’ button

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120
Injector Installation
z ET informs you that
the file was
successfully
programmed into
the ECM

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Injector Replacement
z If Injector is being replaced because of
– “Injector Data Incorrect”
Or
– “Injector Not Responding” Diagnostics
z Injector Verification Test must be run from
Service Tool

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122
Troubleshooting Injectors
z Using Injector Swap Feature
– Part of the Injector Calibration Screen
– Swaps E-Trim Files for you
– Click on ‘Exchange’ Button
– Use only as directed from Troubleshooting Guide

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C6.6 Quirks
z Fuel System Optimization Routine
– Runs every hundred hours or so
– Audible changes when engine is running
– NO performance or Power Changes
– Everything’s OK
– Similar to HD ACERT engines

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Throttle Characteristics

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Throttle Configuration Screen (EST).


This screen capture shows where we can change the type of throttle and
program its characteristics. Access to this screen is through the electronic
service tool and will require a factory password to make changes to it.

Speed Demand (throttle) options, decided by customer.


Highest one wins
Manual switched throttle selection
Throttle one
Throttle two

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Idle Validation Switch
Operation
0% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100%

Switch
Closed (on) Switch Open (off)

Min Off Max On


Threshold Threshold

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Why do we need an idle validation switch?


An ‘Idle Validation Switch’ provides an extra level of safety. It’s a ‘throttle movement’
detector. A micro switch is configured to operate when the pedal is in it’s released position. If
the idle validation switch tells the ECM that the pedal is released, but the voltage signal tells
the ECM that there is a speed demand, then the ECM can detect that there must be a fault
with the throttle sensor or it’s wiring.

How is the idle validation switch applied


A switch should be set up such that it closed (ON) when the pedal is released. It should
open (OFF) when the pedal is depressed a little.
Like other components, there will be some variation due to manufacturing tolerances and
wear of switches and switch mountings. We define 2 thresholds in the software, “Max ON”
and “Min OFF”.

Operating the throttle, forward, Max On Threshold


If the ECM reads a value above this and the switch is still ON
(Closed) then it will register a fault
Releasing the throttle, returning, Min Off Threshold
If the ECM reads a value below this and the switch is still OFF
(Open) then it will register a fault

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Idle Validation Switch
0% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100%

Switch
Closed (on) Switch Open (off)

Min Off Max On


Threshold Threshold

z Between Min OFF and Max ON Thresholds


– When the ECM reads a raw signal higher than Min
OFF but lower than Max ON, it does not care what
the switch position is. This zone is to allow for
tolerance of components.
z Typical Idle Validation Switch (IVS) settings

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Idle Validation Switch (IVS)
0% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100%

Switch
Closed (on) Switch Open (off)

Min Off Max On


Threshold Threshold
Machine Interface Connection

37 37 0 Volts

Not Used

IVS 22 36 0 Volts
12 Volts

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Throttle Characteristics

it
lim
g.
Dia
ne
zo
ad
its De
lim
s.
po

Mechanical limits of pedal

Limits of potentiometer

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Diagnostic Limits.
In an analogue throttle, if a we try to measure values too close to the supply voltage (5V) or to ground (0V) then it
is possible that short circuit, open circuits or ‘noise’ events will be mistaken for valid signals.
In a PWM throttle, we cannot go as low as 0% or as high as 100% pulse width as both of these would be the same
as no signal, or the full 8 volts.
If the ECM measures values close to 0% or 100% raw signal then it is considered as an sensor fault and a
diagnostic code is sent or logged.
Example; 91-3, (Signal Voltage above normal or shorted to a higher voltage)
Example; 774-4, (Signal Voltage below normal or shorted to a lower voltage)
Position Limits.
A throttle pedal is designed so that when it is in the released position it will give a voltage output of approximately 1
volt. The sensor (potentiometer) used has a tolerance of 1% of full travel. The manufacturing tolerances of the
pedal add a further 2% (of full travel) tolerance.
Pedals will be produced, therefore, which, when in the released position will give a voltage somewhere between
0.7 volts and 1.3 volt
For this pedal the ECM would be configured to give an initial lower position of 15% (equivalent to 1.3V) and a lower
position limit of 10% (equivalent to 0.7V)
If a throttle pedal leaves the production line that gives an output of 1 volt, (when back). Then when the ignition is
turned the ECM will see that this value is lower than the initial lower limit but greater than the lower position limit. It
will now auto-calibrate to take 1volt to be the lower pedal position.
Dead Zone.
The lower Dead Zone will be a certain amount of throttle movement before the engine speed starts to rise.
The Dead Zone is defined as a percentage of the raw signal. If the throttle auto calibrates then the Dead Zone will
also move.

Upper Diagnostic Limit, Initial Upper Position, Upper Position Limit and Upper Deadzone are defined in exactly the
same way as the lower ones

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Flashing the ECM
z Re-programming the ECM will be required
– ECM has been replaced
or
– Flash File needs to be updated
z Two Types of Files
– Flash File
ƒ Base Engine Data
ŠFueling/timing maps, cold start/governor strategies, set
speed/mode switching, default values, etc
– Configuration File
ƒ Specific Customer Data
Še.g. Configurable parameters, idle speed,droop, etc

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130
Flashing the ECM
z Where do I get the
Data?
– Extracted from
Failed ECM
– SIS Web
ƒ Flash File
– TMI
ƒ Configuration
ƒ Being Moved to
SIS Web

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Extracting Data from ECM
z Extracting the Data from a Failed ECM
– If Failed ECM can Communicate
– Downloads ALL data to PC for upload to new ECM
z Service>Copy Configuration>Fleet
Configuration

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Extracting Data from ECM
z Loading Data from a Failed ECM

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Extracting Data from ECM
z Saving Data to PC

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Extracting Data from ECM
z Retrieve Data from PC

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135
Extracting Data from ECM
z Program Data From PC

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Reprogramming (Flashing) an ECM

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Flash Memory.
To begin the Flash process first click on the Flash Memory icon.

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Factory Passwords
z C6.6/4.4 Requires fewer Factory Password
– Only
ƒ FLS/FTS
ƒ Interlock (Changing Flash File)
– No Passwords Required for:
ƒ Throttles
ƒ J1939 Communications (TSC 1)
ƒ Highest Enabled Rating

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Factory Passwords
z Password Input
Screen will
automatically appear
when trying a Factory
Password Protected
Parameter change is
attempted

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Additional Speed Demand
Options
z Multi-Position Throttle Switch - (MPTS) Up to
16 speeds
z Power Take Off, PTO, (Variable Set Speed,
Cruise Control)
z Torque Speed Control (TSC) via J1939
communication throttle

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140
Multi-Position Throttle Switch
(MPTS)

46 MODE SWITCH 1

39 MODE SWITCH 2

MODE SWITCH 1
MODE SWITCH 2
52 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 1
10
POSITION 51 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 2

ROTARY 50 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 3


SWITCH
49 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 4

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Example of Multi-Position
Throttle Switch operation

Throttle Throttle Throttle Throttle Throttle Desired


Switch Input Switch Input Switch Input Switch Input Switch Valid Engine
4 3 2 1 Position Speed
Open Open Open Open 1 Yes idle
Open Open Open Closed 2 Yes 1000
Open Open Closed Open 3 Yes 1200
Open Open Closed Closed 4 Yes 1250
Open Closed Open Open 5 Yes 1400
Open Closed Open Closed 6 Yes 1650
Open Closed Closed Open 7 Yes 1670
Open Closed Closed Closed 8 Yes 2000
Closed Open Open Open 9 Yes 2100
Closed Open Open Closed 10 Yes 2200

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Power Take Off (PTO)Variable
Set Speed Control
z Not Available if using the Multi Position Switch
(MPTS) option
– Gives Variable Set Speed/Power Take Off,
Isochronous and droop control
– Input Disable, provided for safety and protection
systems
– Provides simple, Set Speed increase / decrease
– Warning Lamp indication available
– One Set Speed available
– Pre-programmed speed

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Power Take Off (PTO)Variable Set
Speed Control

43 SENSOR SUPPLY 8V

PWM
THROTTLE 53 PWM THROTTLE SENSOR INPUT

ON / OFF SENSOR

33 SENSOR RETURN
SET / LOWER

52 PTO MODE - ON / OFF


RAISE / RESUME 38 PTO MODE - SET/ LOWER

51 PTO MODE - RAISE /RESUME

50 PTO MODE - SPEED 1

nc
SPEED 1 / SPEED2
no 49 PTO MODE - SPEED 2

DISENGAGE SWITCH 44 PTO MODE - DISENGAGE (NC)

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Torque Speed Control (TSC1)
z Controlled Via the Controller Area Network
(CAN) link:
– Use J1939 message Torque Speed Control 1 (TSC1)
– This is a speed demand signal, also known as a
communications ‘comms' throttle
– CAN is the communication network between
intelligent electronic devices ( several ECM’s) used
on an machine application
– Uses a version of CAN that conforms to an
international standard known as SAE J1939
z Application control, monitoring and
diagnostics is possible using SAE J1939

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Mode Selection
zA mode defines a fuel limit map, a rated speed
and a droop value for each throttle input
z This feature provides the ability to select up to
four different modes of operation
z A mode defines:
– one of 2 ratings
– a droop value for each throttle input, 0 - 10%
z Mode selection is controlled by 2 switched
inputs

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Mode Selection.
Electronic control allows a signal mechanical specification to deliver different
rating curves and droop characteristics. Each combinations of rating and droop
is known as a mode. Each ECM may be configured to offer up to eight different
operating modes.
Torque/Fuel Limit Maps.
A maximum of four of four pre defined torque/fuel limit (Rating) curves may be
selected when ordering the engine and these will be embedded into the
ECM.These curves may in multi-mode operation, be toggled to
provide different characteristics whilst the engine is running.
Varying Droop.
Speed droop is the rate at which an engine will increase in speed if the load is
reduced for a given throttle setting. A drop slope of 10% would give a typical
road driving feel. Some applications, however, require tighter governing with
only small variations of speed against load. A droop of 2% may be suitable for
a PTO mode, some applications may need isochronous governing where the
droop is 0%. (variable set speed is Isochronous).

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Mode Selection Wiring

46 MODE SWITCH 1

39 MODE SWITCH 2

MODE SWITCH 1
MODE SWITCH 2
52 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 1
10
POSITION 51 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 2

ROTARY 50 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 3


SWITCH
49 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 4

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Mode Selection.

This feature provides the ability to select up to eight different modes of


operation under operator control. A mode defines a fuel limit map, a rated
speed and a droop value for each throttle input.

Different modes of operation may be used to aid particular working


environments by offering characteristics suitable for the work in hand.
Examples would be an economy mode, a ploughing mode or a PTO mode.

Up to three digital switch inputs may be used to determine which mode of


operation is required. With three switches, a maximum of eight modes may be
specified; with two switches, four modes; and with one switch, two modes.
Each mode has a single defined fuel limit map, a rated speed and a individual
droop values for throttle 1, throttle 2 and the comms throttle.

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Typical Mode Selection Examples

Mode Mode Mode Comms


Mode Throttle 1 Throttle 2
Selection Selection Selection Rating Throttle
Selection Valid Droop Droop
Switch Switch Switch Number Droop
Number Percentage Percentage
Input 1 Input 2 Input 3 Percentage
Open Open Open 0 Yes 1 10 5 0
Open Open Closed 1 Yes 1 5 2 0
Open Closed Open 2 Yes 2 10 5 0
Open Closed Closed 3 Yes 2 5 2 0
Closed Open Open 4 Yes 3 10 5 0
Closed Open Closed 5 Yes 3 5 2 0
Closed Closed Open 6 Yes 4 2 2 0
Closed Closed Closed 7 Yes 4 0 0 0

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J1939 Datalink
z Advantages:
– Uses less wiring
ƒ Lower weight
ƒ Lower cost
– Fewer connections
ƒ Increased Reliability
– Easier to install
– Improved quality of signal
– Can transfer large amounts of Data

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Types of messages.
Commands (Torque Speed Control 1).
Requests for data.

Types of addressing.
Point to point.
Broadcast.

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Example of J1939 Wiring
Note. CAN wiring must be twisted
Nodes

DCR GEM TSC1


Address 249 Address 23 Address 3

Data Bus
120 Ohm

ECM

DCR, Diagnostic Code Reader


GEM, Generic Engine Monitor
TSC, Torque Speed Control

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J1939 Datalink
z Example of J1939 CAN Communications
z Transmission ECM to engine ECM:
ƒ ‘Requests’ an engine speed change for a period of
time while transmission changes gear.
z Engine ECM to machine ECM:
ƒ ‘Broadcasts’ engine parameters (eg engine speed,
oil pressure, coolant temp)

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J1939 Datalink Fault Finding
z Do make sure “CAN high” and “CAN low” are
wired correctly
z Do use 120Ω terminating resistors
z Do Make sure that no short circuits are
present
z Do Check for possible electrical interference

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From the library of Barrington Diesel Club

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