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STPM MATHEMATICS T SYLLABUS

Chapter 1 Functions

1.1 Functions

(a) state the domain and range of a function, and find composite functions;

The domain of a function is all the possible input values, and the range is all possible

output values.

Domain: set of all possible input values (usually x)

Range: set of all possible output values (usually y)

{(3, –2), (5, 4), (1, –1), (2, 6)}

The domain is all the x-values, and the range is all the y-values

Domain: {3, 5, 1, 2}

Range:{–2, 4, -1, 6}

{(3, 5), (5, 5), (1, 5), (2, 5)}

Domain: {3, 5, 1, 2}

Range: {5}

related to exactly one output.

This is a function. There is only one y for each x

This is a function. There is only one arrow coming from each x; there is only one y for

each x

This is not a function. 5 is in the domain, but it has no range element that corresponds to

it

Functions: Domain and Range

The function composition of two functions takes the output of one function as the input

of a second one

- See more at: http://coolmathsolutions.blogspot.com/2013/02/what- is-

function.html#sthash.t3Rri8gK.dpuf

(b) determine whether a function is one-to-one, and find the inverse of a one-to-one

function;

A one-to-one function is a function in which every element in the range of the function

corresponds with one and only one element in the domain.

The Horizontal Line Test: If you can draw a horizontal line so that it hits the graph in

more than one spot, then it is NOT one-to-one.

f(x)=x3

f(x)=x3 is one-to-one function and has inverse function. (The horizontal line cuts the

graph of function f at 1 point, therefore f is a one-to-one function)

f(x)=x2

f(x)=x2 is NOT one-to-one function and does NOT has an inverse function. (The

horizontal line cuts the graph of function f at 2 points, therefore f is NOT a one-to-one

function)

If we restricted x greater than or equal to 0. The horizontal line cuts the graph of function

f once and f(x)=x2 is one-to-one function and has an inverse function.

f(x)=3x−4

Draw the graph of f(x)=3x-4

The horizontal line cuts the graph of function f once, therefore f is a one-to-one

function and it has has inverse function.

f(y)=x

3y−4=x

y=x+43

f−1(x)=x+43

The graph of an inverse relation is the reflection of the original graph over the identity

line, y = x.

functions, each sub-function applying to a certain interval of the main

function's domain.

Example 1

f(x)={2x−1,x<1x2−3,x≤1

Example 2

f(x)=anxn+an−1xn−1+a1x+a0

f(x)=4x+1

f(x)=2x3−4x2+5x+11

f(x)=x7−6x4+3x2

f(x)=P(x)Q(x)

where P and Q are polynomial functions in x.

y=2x+5x−1

f(x) is not defined at x=1.

We can't have x = 1, and therefore f(x) has a vertical asymptote (a line that a curve

approaches as it heads towards infinity) at

x=1

Horizontal asymptote will be the result of dividing the leading coefficients.

y=21=2

Graph of Rational Functions of f(x).

If the remainder of a polynomial, f(x), when divide by (x-a) is zero, then (x-a) is a factor.

Show that (x+3) is a factor of

x3+5x2+5x−3

f(−3)=(−3)3+5(−3)2+5(−3)−3

f(−3)=0

Remainder Theorem

If a polynomial f(x) is divided by (x − r) and a remainder R is obtained, then f(r) = R.

f(x)=(x−r)⋅q(x)+R

After dividing by x-1, there is a remainder of -4. We can write:

f(x)=(x−1)(x3+4x2+2x+3)−4

x2+3x+2x2−16≥0

x2+3x+2x2−16=(x+2)(x+1)(x−4)(x+4)

(x+2)(x+1)=0

x=−2,x=−1

The fraction will be undefined wherever the denominator is zero

(x−4)(x+4)=0

x=4,x=−4

Consequently, the set

(−∞,−4),[−2,−1],(4,+∞)

Solution in "inequality" notation

x<−4,−2≤x≤−1,x>4

x2+3x+2x2−16≥0

x2+3x+2x2−16=(x+2)(x+1)(x−4)(x+4)

(x+2)(x+1)=0

x=−2,x=−1

The fraction will be undefined wherever the denominator is zero

(x−4)(x+4)=0

x=4,x=−4

Consequently, the set

(−∞,−4),[−2,−1],(4,+∞)

Solution in "inequality" notation

x<−4,−2≤x≤−1,x>4

(f) solve equations and inequalities involving modulus signs in simple cases;

Rearrange the inequality into an equivalent form.

(g) decompose a rational expression into partial fractions in cases where the denominator

has two distinct linear factors, or a linear factor and a prime quadratic factor;

fraction decomposition.

A1ax+b+A1(ax+b)2+...+Am(ax+b)m

11x+21(2x−3)(x+6)=A2x−3+Bx+6

Distribute A and B

11x+21=(x+6)A+(2x−3)B

If x=-6

11(−6)+21=[2(−6)−3]B

B=3

If x=0,

21=6A−3B

A=5

The partial fraction

11x+21(2x−3)(x+6)=52x−3+3x+6

f(x)=ax

a is any value greater than 0

For 0 < a < 1:

As x decreases, f(x) heads to infinity

It is a Strictly Decreasing function

It has a Horizontal Asymptote along the x-axis (y=0).

For a > 1:

As x decreases, f(x) heads to 0

it is a Strictly Increasing function

It has a Horizontal Asymptote along the x-axis (y=0).

f(x)=ex

where e is the number (approximately 2.718281828)

f(x)=ax

a is any value greater than 0

For 0 < a < 1:

As x decreases, f(x) heads to infinity

It is a Strictly Decreasing function

It has a Horizontal Asymptote along the x-axis (y=0).

For a > 1:

As x decreases, f(x) heads to 0

it is a Strictly Increasing function

It has a Horizontal Asymptote along the x-axis (y=0).

f(x)=ex

where e is the number (approximately 2.718281828)

The logarithmic function is the function y = logax, where a is any number such that a > 0,

a ≠ 1, and x > 0.

y = logax is equivalent to x = ay

The inverse of an exponential function is a logarithmic function.

Since y = log2 x is a one-to-one function, we know that its inverse will also be a function.

When we graph the inverse of the logarithmic function, we notice that we obtain the

exponential function, y=2x

1. Indices

an,a≠0

a0=1,a≠0

a−n=1/an

2. Law of Indices

am×an=am+n

am÷ an=am−n

(am)n=am×n

am×bm=(a×b)m

am÷bm=(ab)m

3. Logarithms

Ifa=bc,then logba=c

loga1=0

logaa=1

alogab=1

4. Law of Logarithms

logaxy= logax+logay

loga(xy)= logax−logay

logaxn= nlogax

5 Change of base of Logarithms

logab=1logba

logab=lognblogna

(j) solveequations and inequalities involving exponential or logarithmic expressions;

x2+3x+2x2−16≥0

x2+3x+2x2−16=(x+2)(x+1)(x−4)(x+4)

(x+2)(x+1)=0

x=−2,x=−1

The fraction will be undefined wherever the denominator is zero

(x−4)(x+4)=0

x=4,x=−4

Consequently, the set

(−∞,−4),[−2,−1],(4,+∞)

Solution in "inequality" notation

x<−4,−2≤x≤−1,x>4

(k) relate the periodicity and symmetries of the sine, cosine and tangent functions to their

graphs, and identify the inverse sine, inverse cosine and inverse tangent functions and

their graphs;

(l) use basic trigonometric identities and the formulae for sin (A ± B), cos (A ± B) and tan

(A ± B), including sin 2A, cos2A and tan 2A;

(m) express a sin θ + b cos θ in the forms r sin (θ ± α) and r cos (θ ± α);

(n) find the solutions, within specified intervals, of trigonometric equations and

inequalities.

Trigonometric Identities

sin(A+B)=sinAcosB+cosAsinB

sin(A−B)=sinAcosB−cosAsinB

cos(A+B)=cosAcosB−sinAsinB

cos(A−B)=cosAcosB+sinAsinB

tan(A+B)=tanA+tanB1−tanAtanB

tan(A−B)=tanA−tanB1+tanAtanB

sin(2A)=2sinAcosA

cos(2A)=cos 2(A)−sin2(A)

=2cos2(A)−1

=1−2sin2(A)

tan2A=2tanA1−tan2A

Express a sin θ ± b cos θ in the form R sin(θ ± α), where a, b, R and α are positive

constants.

Let

asinθ+bcosθ≡Rsin(θ+α)

Expand R sin(θ ± α) as follow

Rsin(θ+α)≡R(sinθcosα+cosθsinα)

Rsin(θ+α)≡Rsinθcosα +Rcosθsinα

Apply Trigonometric Identities as below

sin(A+B)=sinAcosB+cosAsinB

So

asinθ+bcosθ≡ Rcosαsinθ+Rsinαcosθ

Equating the coefficients of sin θ and cos θ in this identity, we have:

For sin θ: a = R cos α ----(1)

For cos θ: b = R sin α ----(2)

ba=RsinαRcosα

=tanα

So

α=tan−1ba

(α is a positive acute angle and a and b are positive)

a2+b2=R2cos2α+R2sin2α

=R2(cos2α+sin2α)

=R2

R=a2+b2−−−−−−√

Then we have expressed a sin θ + b cos θ in the form required

asinθ+bcosθ≡Rsin(θ+α)

asinθ−bcosθ≡Rsin(θ−α)

Express

Rsin(θ−α)≡Rcosαsinθ−Rsinαcosθ

Example

Express 4 sin θ +3 cos θ in the form R sin(θ + α)

R=42+32−−−−−−√=25−−√=5

α=tan−1 34=36.87∘

So

4sinθ+3cosα=5sin(θ+36.87∘)

Express a sin θ ± b cos θ in the form R cos(θ ± α), where a, b, R and α are positive

constants.

asinθ+bcosθ≡Rcos(θ−α)

Expanding R cos (θ − α), Trigonometric Identities

Rcos(θ−α)=Rcosθcosα+Rsinθsinα

asinθ+bcosθ≡Rcosαcosθ+Rsinαsinθ

For sin θ: a = R sin α ----(1)

For cos θ: b = R cos α ----(2)

ab=RsinαRcosα

=tanα

So

α=tan−1ab

R=a2+b2−−−−−−√

Then we have expressed a sin θ + b cos θ in the form required

asinθ+bcosθ≡Rcos(θ−α)

Chapter 2

2.1 Sequences

(b) find the limit of a convergent sequence;

Convergent Sequence

converges to the limit

limn→∞Sn=S

Example

The sequence 2.1, 2.01, 2.001, 2.0001, . . . has limit 2, so the sequence converges to 2.

The sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . . has a limit of infinity (∞). This is not a real number, so

the sequence does not converge. It is a divergent sequence.

1,12, 13,14,15,16....,1n

Limit=0

1,12, 23,34,45,56....,nn+1

Limit=1

2.2 Series

(c) use the formulae for the nth term and for the sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic

series and of a geometric series;

An arithmetic progression or arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers such that the

difference between the consecutive terms is constant.

an=a1+(n−1)d

Sn=n2[2a+(n−1)d]

or

Sn=n2(a1+a2)

an=arn−1

The sum of the first n terms of a geometric series is:

a+ar+ar2+ar3+.....+arn−1=∑k=0n−1ark =a1−rn1−r

Derive the sum of the first n terms of a geometric series as follows:

Let

s=a+ar+ar2+ar3+.....+arn−1

rs=ar+ar2+ar3+.....+arn

s−rs=a−arn

s(1−r)=a(1−rn)

So

s=a1−rn1−r

As n approaches infinity, the absolute value of r must be less than one for the series to

converge.

a+ar+ar2+ar3+ar4.....=∑k=0∞ark =a1−r

When a=1

1+r+r2+r3+....=11−r

Let

s=1+r+r2+r3+.....

rs=r+r2+r3+.....

s−rs=1

s(1−r)=1

So

s=11−r

Proof of convergence

1+r+r2+r3+....=limn→∞(1+r+r2+r 3+....+rn)

1+r+r2+r3+....=limn→∞1−rn+11−r

(d) identify the condition for the convergence of a geometric series, and use the formula

for the sum of a convergent geometric series;

(e) use the method of differences to find the nth partial sum of a series, and deduce the

sum of the series in the case when it is convergent;

(x+y)0=1

(x+y)2=x2+2xy+y2

(x+y)3=x3+3x3y+3xy 2+y 3

(x+y)4=x4+4x3y+6x 2y2+4xy 3+y 4

It can be written as

(x+y)n=∑k=0n(nk)xn−k yk

(1+x)n=(n0)x0+(n1)x1+(n2)x2+...+(nn−1)xn−1+(nn)xn

(1+x)n=∑k=0n(nk)xk

According to the ratio test for series convergence a series converges when:

if limk→∞(ak+1ak )<1, series converges

if limk→∞(ak+1ak )>1, series diverges

iflimk→∞(ak+1ak )=1, result is indeterminate

(g) expand (1+x)n , where n∈Q, and identify the condition | x | < 1 for the validity of this

expansion;

Chapter 3

Matrices

3.1 Matrices

Diagonal matrix is a matrix in which the entries outside the main diagonal are all zero.

A=⎡⎣ a11000 a22 0 00 a33⎤⎦

A−1=⎡⎣⎢⎢⎢⎢⎢⎢⎢1a11000 1a22 0 00 1a33⎤⎦⎥⎥⎥⎥⎥⎥⎥

Example

A=⎡⎣ 5000 3 0 00 1⎤⎦

A−1=⎡⎣⎢⎢⎢⎢15000 13 0 001⎤⎦⎥⎥⎥⎥

with at most three rows and three columns;

A matrix is a triangular matrix if all the elements either above or below the diagonal are

zero. A matrix that is both upper and lower triangular is a diagonal matrix.

The inverse of a triangular matrix is a triangular matrix.

The product of two (upper or lower) triangular matrices is a triangular matrix.

A=∣∣∣∣313025001∣∣∣∣=3.2.1=6

A−1=∣∣∣∣1/3−1/6−1/601/2−5/25001∣∣∣∣

Lower Triangular Matrix

B=∣∣∣∣2003−10461∣∣∣∣=2.−1.1=−2

B−1=∣∣∣∣1/2003/2−10−1161∣∣∣∣

Properties of Matrices

AB≠BA

A+B=B+A

A(B+C)=AB+AC

(A+B)C=AC+BC

A(BC)=(AB)C

AI=IA=A

A0=I

Scalar Multiplication

λ(AB)=(λA)B

(AB)λ=A(Bλ)

Transpose

(AB)T=BTAT

Properties of Inverse Matrix

AA−1=A−1A=I

(A−1)−1=A

(AT)−1=(A−1) T

(An)−1=(A−1)n

(cA)−1=c−1A−1=1cA−1

(e) find the inverse of a non-singular matrix using elementary row operations;

4shirts +2pants +2pairofshoes=$190

3shirts +4pants +3pairofshoes=$295

2shirts +4pants +2pairofshoes=$190

Let x = price of shirt , y= price of pant, z= price for a pair of shoe

⎡⎣4322 4 4 232⎤⎦⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=⎡⎣190295250⎤⎦

Let

A=⎡⎣4322 4 4 232⎤⎦,B=⎡⎣190295250⎤⎦

A⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=⎡⎣190295250⎤⎦

AA−1=A−1A=I

A−1A⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=A−1⎡⎣190295250⎤⎦

⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=⎡⎣0.50−0.5−0.5 −0.5 1.50.250.75−1.25⎤⎦⎡⎣190295250⎤⎦

⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=⎡⎣104035⎤⎦

Alternative,

a1x+b1y+c1z=d1

a2x+b2y+c2z=d2

a3x+b3y+c3z=d3

Mode > EQN > Unknowns=3, input data below

a1=4,b1=2,c1=2,d1=190

a2=3,b2=4,c2=3,d2=295

a3=2,b3=4,c3=2,d3=250

x=10,y=40,z=35

A=⎡⎣adgbeh cfi⎤⎦

∥A∥=∥∥∥∥adgbehcfi∥∥∥∥=a∥∥∥ e hfi∥∥∥−b∥∥∥dgfi∥∥∥+c∥∥∥dgeh∥∥∥

=a(ei−fh)−b(di−fg)+c(dh−eg)

A−1=⎡⎣adgbe h cfi⎤⎦−1=1∥A∥⎡⎣A D GBEHCFI⎤⎦T=1∥A∥⎡⎣A BCDEFGHI⎤⎦

A=∥∥∥ehfk∥∥∥,B=−∥∥∥dgfk∥∥∥,C=∥∥∥dgeh∥∥∥

D=−∥∥∥bhck∥∥∥,E=∥∥∥agck∥∥∥,F=−∥∥∥agbh∥∥∥

G=∥∥∥becf∥∥∥,H=−∥∥∥adcf∥∥∥,K=∥∥∥adbe∥∥∥

⎡⎣+−+− +−+−+⎤⎦

Properties of Determinant

∣∣∣∣3132 22313∣∣∣∣=0

2. |A| = 0 if all elements of a line are zero

∣∣∣∣303202303∣∣∣∣=0

3. |A| = 0 if the elements of a line are a linear combination of the others. (row 3 = row 1 +

row 2)

∣∣∣∣213325246∣∣∣∣=0

4. The determinant of matrix A and its transpose A are equal. |AT |=|A|

A=∣∣∣∣213121342∣∣∣∣, |AT|=∣∣∣∣213124312∣∣∣∣

|A|=|AT|=−5

5. A triangular determinant is the product of the diagonal elements.

A=∣∣∣∣3130 25001∣∣∣∣=3.2.1=6

6. The determinant of a product equals the product of the determinants.

|A.B|=|A|.|B|

7. If a determinant switches two parallel lines its determinant changes sign.

∣∣∣∣213121342∣∣∣∣=−5, ∣∣∣∣123211432∣∣∣∣=5

(h) reduce an augmented matrix to row-echelon form, and determine whether a system of

linear equations has a unique solution, infinitely many solutions or no solution;

(i) apply the Gaussian elimination to solve a system of linear equations;

Ax=b

Perform elementary row operations to put the augmented matrix into the upper

triangular form

Given below matrix equation

Switching the first and second rows (without switching the elements in the right-

hand column vector) gives

Finally, second row times -7/3 and minus third row gives (augmented matrix has

been reduced to row-echelon form)

and then again back-substituting to find

(j) find the unique solution of a system of linear equations using the inverse of a matrix.

20x−10z=−100

20y+10z=300

−10x+10y+20z=200

⎡⎣200−1002010−101020⎤⎦⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=⎡⎣−100300200⎤⎦

10⎡⎣20−1021 −112⎤⎦⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=⎡⎣−100300200⎤⎦

⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=⎡⎣20−1021 −112⎤⎦−1⎡⎣−103020⎤⎦

⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=14⎡⎣3−12−1 3−2 2−24⎤⎦⎡⎣−103020⎤⎦

⎡⎣xyz⎤⎦=⎡⎣−5150⎤⎦

∴x=−5, y=15, z=0

Alternative,

a1x+b1y+c1z=d1

a2x+b2y+c2z=d2

a3x+b3y+c3z=d3

Mode > EQN > Unknowns=3, input data below

a1=20,b1=0,c1=−10,d1=−100

a2=0,b2=20,c2=10,d2=300

a3=−10,b3=10,c3=20,d3=200

x=−5,y=15,z=0

Chapter 4

Complex Numbers

4 Complex Numbers

The real numbers include all integer, rational number (number that can be expressed as

the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, with the denominato r q not equal to zero) and

irrational numbers (numbers cannot be represented as a simple fraction)

Intergers

...−4,−3,−2−1,0,1,2,3,4....

Rational Number

12,−12,1537,....

Irrational Number

2√,3√3,π,e,log23,....

Imaginary number is a number than can be written as a real number multiplied by the

imaginary unit i

i=−1−−−√

i2=−1

A complex number is a number that can be put in the form

a+bi

wherea and b are real numbers and i is the square root of -1, the imaginary unit

i=−1−−−√

i2=−1

|z|=a2+b2−−−−−−√

(b) use the conditions for the equality of two complex numbers;

(c) find the modulus and argument of a complex number in cartesian form and express

the complex number in polar form;

Modulus is the length of the line segment, that is OP (modulus of z can ﬁnd using

Pythagoras’ theorem)

|z|=a2+b2−−−−−−√

|z|=42+32−−−−−−√

|z|=25−−√=5

tanΘ=ba

tanΘ=34

Θ=tan−134

arg z=0.644 rad

rad=Θ∗π1800

rad=Θ∗π1800

36.870∗π1800=0.644 rad

(d) represent a complex number geometrically by means of an Argand diagram;

Argand Diagram

Argand diagram form by y-axis which represents the imaginary part and x-axis

represent the real part.

Example:

Z1=3+2i

Z2=−4+i

Conjugate of

Z∗1=3−2i

Z∗2=−4−i

Z1+Z2=−1+3i

(e) find the complex roots of a polynomial equation with real coefficients;

(f) perform elementary operations on two complex numbers expressed in cartesian form;

(g) perform multiplication and division of two complex numbers expressed in polar form;

(h) usede Moivre’s theorem to find the powers and roots of a complex number

De Moivre's

De Moivre's formula states that for any real number x and any integer n,

(cosx+isinx)n=cos(nx)+isin(nx)

eix=cosx+isinx

(eix)n=einx

ei(nx)=cos(nx)+isin(nx)

zn=(x+yi)n=(reiθ)n

Example 1: Use De Moivre’s theorem to ﬁnd (1+i)10. Write the answer in exact

rectangular form.

r=12+12−−−−−−√=2√

θ=tan−1(11)

(1+i)10=(2√e45∘i) 10

=(2√)10e450∘i

=32(cos450∘+isin450∘ )

=32(0+i)

=32i

Example 2: Use De Moivre’s theorem to ﬁnd (√3 + i ) 7 . Write the answer in exact

rectangular form.

r=(3√)2+12−−−−−−−−−√=4√=2

sinθ=12, θ=30∘

cosθ=3√2, θ=30∘

(3√+i)7=27[cos(7.30∘)+isin(7.30∘ )]

=128(cos210∘+isin210∘)

=128(−3√2−12i)

=643√−64i

Chapter 5 Analytic Geometry

5 Analytic Geometry

A conic section is the intersection of a plane and a double right circular cone. By changing the

angle and location of the intersection, we can produce different types of conics, such as circles,

ellipses, hyperbolas andparabolas.

(x−h)2+(y−k)2=r2

Equation of an Ellipse in Standard Form

(x−h)2a2+(y−k)2b2=1

Equation of a Hyperbolas in Standard Form

(x−h)2a2−(y−k)2b2=1

Equation of a Parabolas in Standard Form

a(x−h)2+k

A parabola is the set of all points P in the plane that are equidistant from a fixed point F

(focus) and a fixed line d(directrix).

The vertex of the parabola is at equal distance between focus and the directrix.

y=x2

the equation:

(x−h)2a2+(y−k)2b2=1

Vertex of an ellipse.The points at which an ellipse makes its sharpest turns. The vertices

are on the major axis.

Centre of an ellipse A point inside the ellipse which is the midpoint of the line segment

linking the two foci.

Foci of an ellipse - The foci, c is always lie on the major (longest) axis, spaced equally

each side of the centre.

c2=a2−b2

Example

16x2+25y2=400

16x2400+25y 2400=1

x225+y216=1

x252+y242=1

(x2−0)252+(y2−0) 242=1

Vertex is (-5,0) and (5,0), the major (longest) axis.

Co-vertex is (0,-4), (0, 4) minor (shortest) axis

The centre is at (h,k)=(0,0)

Foci of an ellipse. The foci are three unit to either side of the centre, at (-3,0) and (3,0)

c2=a2−b2

c2=52−42

c2=±3

Find Vertices, Centre, and Foci of Ellipse 02

Find Vertices, Centre, and Foci of Ellipse 03

(e) find the equations of parabolas, ellipses and hyperbolas satisfying prescribed

conditions (excluding eccentricity);

Chapter 6 Vectors

Unit Vectors

(b) uˆ=u∥u∥

(c)

(d)

Position Vectors

A vector that starts from the origin (O) is called a position vector.

A=(35)

Point B has the position vector b, if

B=(62)

(e)

c[a1a2]=[ca1ca2]

Example: Multiply the vector u = < 2, 3 > of by the scalars 2, –3, and 1/2

2u⃗ =2[23]=[46]

12u⃗ =12[23]=[13/2]

−3u⃗ =−3[23]=[−6−9]

(c) find the scalar product of two vectors, and determine the angle between two vectors;

The scalar product, or dot product is an algebraic operation that takes two equal-length

sequences of numbers (usually coordinate vectors) and returns a single number.

u.v=v.u

u(v+w)=uv+uw

u.u=||u||^{2}

c(u.v)=cu.v=u.cv

a.b=|a||b|cosθ

|a| means the magnitude (length) of vector a. and

a.b=axbx+ayby

a=[−68],b=[512]

|a|=(−6)2+82−−−−−−−−−√=10

|b|=52+122−−−−−−−√=13

a.b=|a||b|cosθ

a.b=10∗12cos59.5∘

or

a.b=axbx+ayby

a.b=(−6)(5)+(8)12)=66

a=⎡⎣234⎤⎦,b=⎡⎣1−23⎤⎦

a.b=axbx+ayby

a.b=|a||b|cosθ

a.b=(2)(1)+(3)(−2)+(4)(3)=8

|a|=22+32+42−−−−−−−−−−√=29−−√

|a|=12+(−2)2+32−−−−−−−−−−−−√=14−−√

8=29−−√14−−√cosθ

cosθ=0.397

θ=66.6∘

(d) find the vector product of two vectors, and determine the area a parallelogram and of

a triangle;

The Vector Product, or Cross Product of two vectors is another vector that is at right

angles to both.

|a∗b|=|a||b|sinθ n

|a| is the magnitude (length) of vector a

|b| is the magnitude (length) of vector b

θ is the angle between a and b

n is the unit vector at right angles to both a and b

Vector Product, C,

a⃗ ∗b⃗ =∣∣∣a2b2a3b3∣∣∣i−∣∣∣a1b1a3b3∣∣∣j+∣∣∣a1b1a2b2∣∣∣k

What is the vector product of a = (2,3,4) and b = (5,6,7)

a⃗ ∗b⃗ =∣∣∣∣i25j36k47∣∣∣∣

a⃗ ∗b⃗ =∣∣∣3647∣∣∣i−∣∣∣2547∣∣∣j+∣∣∣2536∣∣∣k

=−3i+6j−3k

u⃗ =⟨−3,6,−3⟩

Vector product, c = a x b = (-3, 6, -3)

6.2 Vector geometry

(e) find and use the vector and cartesian equations of lines;

r=OA+λAB

or

r=a+λt, t=b−a

Example: Compute the vector equation of a straight line through point A and B with position

vector:

a=⎛⎝2−13⎞⎠,b=⎛⎝13−2⎞⎠,r=⎛⎝xyz⎞⎠

b−a=⎛⎝13−2⎞⎠−⎛⎝2−13⎞⎠=⎛⎝−14−5⎞⎠

r=a+λt

r=⎛⎝2−13⎞⎠+λ⎛⎝−14−5⎞⎠

Cartesian Equations of Lines

a=⎛⎝axayaz⎞⎠,b=⎛⎝⎜bxbybz⎞⎠⎟,r=⎛⎝xyz⎞⎠

Cartesian Equation will be

x−axbx−ax=y−ayby−ay=z−azbz−az

Example: Compute the cartesian equation of a straight line through point A and B with position

vector:

a=⎛⎝1−32⎞⎠,b=⎛⎝3−15⎞⎠,r=⎛⎝xyz⎞⎠

x−13−1=y−(−3)−1−(−3)=z−25−2

x−12=y+32=z−23

(f) find and use the vector and cartesian equations of planes;

r=a+λu+μv

Example: Compute the vector equation of a plane through point A, B and C with position

vector:

a=⎛⎝2−13⎞⎠,b=⎛⎝14−1⎞⎠,c=⎛⎝0−21⎞⎠

u=b−a=⎛⎝14−1⎞⎠−⎛⎝2−13⎞⎠=⎛⎝−15−4⎞⎠

v=c−a=⎛⎝0−21⎞⎠−⎛⎝2−13⎞⎠=⎛⎝−2−1−2⎞⎠

r=a+λu+μv

r=⎛⎝2−13⎞⎠+λ⎛⎝−15−4⎞⎠+μ⎛⎝−2−1−2⎞⎠

n=(b−a)∗(c−a)

r.n=a.n

a=⎛⎝2−13⎞⎠,b=⎛⎝14−1⎞⎠,c=⎛⎝0−21⎞⎠,r=⎛⎝xyz⎞⎠

n=(b−a)∗(c−a)

n=⎛⎝−15−4⎞⎠⎛⎝−2−1−2⎞⎠=⎛⎝−14611⎞⎠

r.n=a.n

⎛⎝xyz⎞⎠.⎛⎝−14611⎞⎠=⎛⎝2−13⎞⎠.⎛⎝−14611⎞⎠

−14x+6y+11z=(2)(−14)+(−1)(6)+(3)(11)

Cartesian Equations of Planes

−14x+6y+11z=−1

(g) calculate the angle between two lines, between a line and a plane, and between two

planes;

θ=β−α

tanθ=tan(β−α)

=tanβ−tanα1+tanβtanα

=m1−m21+m1m2

For two line of gradient m 1, m2te acute angle between them is always positive

tanθ=∣∣∣m1−m21+m1m2∣∣∣

Example 1: Find the acute angle between the lines y = 3x - 1 and y = -2x + 3.

tanθ=∣∣∣m1−m21+m1m2∣∣∣

tanθ=∣∣∣3−(−2)1+(3)(−2)∣∣∣

tanθ=|−1|=1

θ=tan−1(1)=45∘

Example 2: Find the acute angle between the lines 6x - y + 8 = 0 and -3x -11y +10 = 0

Rearrange the equation

y=6x+8

y=−311x−1011

m1=6, m2=-3/11

tanθ=∣∣∣m1−m21+m1m2∣∣∣

tanθ=∣∣∣∣6−(−311)1+(6)(−311)∣∣∣∣

tanθ=∣∣∣−697∣∣∣

θ=tan−1697=84.2∘

(h) find the point of intersection of two lines, and of a line and a plane;

At the point of intersecting lines, the points are equal.

y=3x−7−−−−−(1)

y=−2x+3−−−−−(1)

Substitute (1) into (2)

3x−7=−2x+3

5x=10

x=2

x=2,

y=3(2)−7

y=−1

Hence, the intersecting point is (2, -1)

5 0 0Google

- See more at: http://coolmathsolutions.blogspot.com/2013/03/find-point-of-intersection-

between-two.html#sthash.hyvNVGN1.dpuf

Find the vector equation of the line in which the 2 planes 2x - 5y + 3z = 12 and 3x + 4y - 3z

= 6 meet.

The normal vector of first plane is <2, -5, 3> and normal vector of second plane it is <3, 4, -

3>

To determine whether these two planes parallel

n1=cn2

Therefore, <2, -5, 3> and <3, 4, -3> not parallel to each others.

n1→∗n2→=∣∣∣∣i23j−54k3−3∣∣∣∣

n1→∗n2→=∣∣∣−543−3∣∣∣i−∣∣∣233−3∣∣∣j+∣∣∣23−54∣∣∣k

=3i+15j+23k

Vector product is <3, 15, 23>

Find some point which lies on both the planes because then it must lie on their line of

intersection. Any point which lies on both planes will do. Could be plane-xy, yz, xz.

If x=0,

−5y+3z=12

4y−3z=6

y=−18,z=−26

Point with position vector (0, -18, -26) lies on the line of intersection.

r=(0,−18,−26)+t(3,15,23)

To check that point that we get does really lie on both planes and so on their line of

intersection. If t=1

r=(3,−3,−3)

Substitute into the planes equations

2(3)−5(−3)+3(−3)=12

3(3)+4(−3)−3(−3)=6

If y=0

2x+3z=12

3x−3z=6

x=3.6,z=1.6

Point with position vector (0, 3.6, 1.6) lies on the line of intersection.

r=(3.6,0,1.6)+t(3,15,23)

To check that point that we get does really lie on both planes and so on their line of

intersection. If t=1

r=(6.6,15,24.6)

Substitute into the planes equations

2(6.6)−5(15)+3(24.6)=12

3(6.6)+4(15)−3(24.6)=6

Chapter 7 Limits and Continuity

7.1 Limits

(a) determine the existence and values of the left-hand limit, right-hand limit and limit of

a function;

A limit is the value that a function or sequence "approaches" as the input or index approaches

some value.

limx→a+f(x)

limx→a−f(x)

Example: Find

limx→2−(x 3−1)

limx→2−(x 3−1)=limx→2−(23−1)=7

As x approaches 2 from the left, x 3pproaches 8 and x 3-1 approaches 7.

Find

limx→2+(x 3−1)

limx→2+(x 3−1)=limx→2+(23−1)=7

Properties of limits

limx→ak=k

The limit of a function multiplied by a constant is equal to the value of the function multiplied by

the constant.

limx→ak.f(x)=k.limx→af(x)

The limit of a sum (or difference) of the functions is the sum (or difference) of the limits of the

individual functions.

limx→a[f(x)+g(x)]=limx→a f(x)+limx→ag(x)

limx→a[f(x)−g(x)]=limx→a f(x)−limx→ag(x)

limx→af(x).g(x)=limx→af(x).limx→ag(x)

limx→af(x)g(x)=limx→af(x)limx→ag(x)

limx→axn=an

7.2 Continuity

Continuity at a Point

ii) if

limx→af(x)

exists.

iii) if

limx→af(x)=f(a)

If any of the three conditions in the definition of continuity fails when x = c, the function

is discontinuous at that point.

Continuity on An Interval

on I.

If d is between f(a) and f(b), then a corresponding c between a and b, exists, so that

f(c)=d

Chapter 8 Differentiation

8.1 Derivatives

f′ (x)=lim△x→0f(x+△x)−f(x)△x

f(x)=13x−25

f′ (x)=lim△x→0f(x+△x)−f(x)△x

f′ (x)=lim△x→013(x+△x)−25−{ 13x− 25}△x

=lim△x→013x+ 13△x− 25− 13x+ 25△x

=lim△x→013△x△x

=13

f(x)=5−x+2−−−−√

f′ (x)=lim△x→0f(x+△x)−f(x)△x

=lim△x→0{5−(x+△x)+2−−−−−−−−−−−√}−{5−x+2−−−−√}△x

=lim△x→0x+2−−−−√−x+△x+2−−−−−−−−−√△x

=lim△x→0x+2−−−−√−x+△x+2−−−−−−−−−√△x.x+2−−−−√+x+△x+2−−−−

−−−−−√x+2−−−−√+x+△x+2−−−−−−−−−√

=lim△x→0(x+3)−(x+△x+3)△x{x+3−−−−√+x+△x+3−−−−−−−−−√}

=lim△x→0−△x△x{x+3−−−−√+x+△x+3−−−−−−−−−√}

=lim△x→0−1x+3−−−−√+x+△x+3−−−−−−−−−√

=−1x+3−−−−√+x+3−−−−√

=−12x+3−−−−√

(b) find the derivatives ofxn (n∈Q), ex , ln x, sin x, cos x, tan x, sin-1 x, cos-1 x, tan-1 x, with

constant multiples, sums, differences, products, quotients and composites;

Common Derivatives

Table of Derivatives

ddx(x)=1

ddx(xn)=nxn−1

ddx(ex)=ex

ddx(lnx)=1x,x>0

ddx(sinx)=cosx

ddx(cosx)=−sinx

ddx(tanx)=sec2x

ddx(sin−1x)=11−x2−−−−−√

ddx(cos −1x)=−11−x2−−−−−√

ddx(secx)=secxtanx

ddx(cscx)=−cscxcotx

ddx(cotx)=−csc2x

There are two ways to define functions, implicitly and explicitly. Most of the equations we have

dealt with have been explicit equations, such as y = 3x-2. This is called explicit because given an

x, you can directly get f(x).

The technique of implicit differentiation allows you to find the derivative of y with respect to x

without having to solve the given equation for y. Given

x2+y2=10

Find dy/dx for

x2+y2=10

2x+2ydydx=0

2ydydx=−2x

dydx=−xy

(d) find the first derivatives of functions defined parametrically;

Parametric derivative is a derivative in calculus that is taken when both the x and y

variables (independent and dependent, respectively) depend on an independent third

variable t, usually thought of as "time".

dydx=dydtdxdt

dydx=dydt.dtdx

x=f(t),y=g(t)

Example: Find the first derivative, given

x=t+cost

y=sint

dydx=dydtdxdt=cost1−sint

Example: Find the first derivative, given

x=t4−4t2

y=t3

dydx=dydtdxdt=2t23t3−8t

(e) determine where a function is increasing, decreasing, concave upward and concave

downward

Decreasing function: if f '(x)<0, function is decreasing

Where is function concave up or concave down?

concave down: if the second derivative is negative, f ''(x) < 0 the function curves

downward, convex down.

concave upward: if the second derivative is negative, f ''(x)> 0 the function curves

upward.

b) f(x) is increasing and concave down if f'(x) is positive and f"(x) is negative .

d) f(x) is decreasing and concave down if f'(x) is negative and f"(x) is negative.

(f) determine the stationary points, extremum points and points of inflexion;

Stationary Points

A stationary point is an input to a function where the derivative is zero. At stationary points,

dydx=0

Extremum Points

Maxima and minima are points where a function reaches a highest or lowest value,

respectively

(g)

(h)

(i)

Second Derivative

If f'''(x) is positive, then it is a minimum point.

If f'''(x) is negative, then it is a maximum point.

If f'''(x)= zero, then it could be a maximum, minimum or point of inflexion.

Point of Inflexion

An inflection point is a point on a curve at which the sign of the curvature changes.

d2ydx2=0

Third Derivative

(g) sketch the graphs of functions, including asymptotes parallel to the coordinate

axes;

(h) find the equations of tangents and normals to curves, including parametric curves;

y−y1=m1(x−x1)

where

m1=f′(x)=dydx

the gradient to the function of f(x).

m1m2=−1

Example: Find the equations of the tangent line and the normal line for the curve at t=1.

x=t2

y=2t+1

dxdt=2t

dydt=2

dydx=dydt.dtdx

=2t2

t=1

dydx=2

Since t = 1, x = 1, y = 3 Equation of tangent

y−y1=m1(x−x1)

y−3=1(x−1)

y=x+2

Equation of normal

m1m2=−1

m2=−1

y−3=−1(x−1)

y=−x+4

Related rates problems involve finding a rate at which a quantity changes by relating that

quantity to other quantities whose rates of change are known. The rate of change is usually

with respect to time.

Example: Air is being pumped into a spherical balloon such that its radius increases at a

rate of .80 cm/min. Find the rate of change of its volume when the radius is 5 cm.

V=43πr3

Differentiating above equation with respect to t

dVdt=43π.3r2.drdt

dVdt=4πr2.drdt

The rate of change of the radius dr/dt = 0.80 cm/min because the radius is increasing with

respect to time.

dVdt=4π(5)2(0.80)

dVdt=80π cm3/min

Hence, the volume is increasing at a rate of 80π cm 3/min when the radius has a length of 5

cm.

The differentiation and its applications can be used to solve practical problems. This

include minimizing costs, maximizing areas, minimizing distances and so on.

2. Goal - Maximize or minimize which unknown?

3. Data - Introduce variable names. Which values are given?

4. Equation- Express the unknown as a function of a single variable.

5. Differentiate- Find ﬁrst and second derivatives.

6. Extrema -

Use the ﬁrst or second derivative test to determine whether the critical points are local

maxima, local minima, or neither.

Check end points of f, if applicable.

Chapter 9 Integration

(b) integrate xn (n∈Q), ex , sin x, cos x, sec2 x, with constant multiples, sums and

differences;

Constant

∫adx=ax+C

Variable

∫xdx=x22+C

Power

∫xndx=xn+1n+1+C

Reciprocal

∫1xdx=ln|x|+C

Exponential

∫exdx=ex+C

∫axdx=axlna+C

∫ln(x)dx=x(ln(x)−1)+C

Trigonometry

∫cos(x)dx=sin(x)+C

∫sin(x)dx=−cos(x)+C

∫sec 2(x)dx=tan(x)+C

(c) integrate rational functions by means of decomposition into partial fractions;

f(x)=P(x)Q(x)

A rational function can be integrated into 4 steps

1. Reduce the fraction if it is improper (i.e degree of P(x) is greater than degree of Q(x).

2. Factor Q(x) into linear and/or quadratic (irreducible) factors.

3. Find the partial fraction decomposition.

4. Integrate the result in step 3.

∫1x2+5x+6dx

Factor Q(x) into linear and/or quadratic (irreducible) factors & find the partial fraction

decomposition

1(x+2)(x+3)=Ax+2+Bx+3

1=A(x+3)+B(x+2)

x=−2,A=1

x=−3,B=−1

1(x+2)(x+3)=1x+2−1x+3

Integrate the result

∫1x2+5x+6dx=∫1(x+2)(x+3)dx

=∫1x+2−1x+3dx

=ln|x+2|−ln|x+3|+C

1(x−1)(x+2)(x+1)=Ax−1+Bx+2+Cx+1

Decomposition of rational functions into partial fractions

1=A(x+2)(x+1)+B(x−1)(x+1)+C(x−1)(x+2)

x=1,6A=1,A=16

x=−1−2C=1,C=−12

x=−23B=1,B=13

1(x−1)(x+2)(x+1)=16(1x−1)+13(1x+2)−12(1x+1)

Integrate the result

∫1(x−1)(x+2)(x+1)dx

=∫16(1x−1)+13(1x+2)−12(1x+1)

=16ln|x−1|+13ln|x+2|−12ln|x+1|+C

For a2+x2−−−−−−√, use x=atanθ

For x2−a2−−−−−−√, use x=asecθ

csc 2θ=1sin2θ

sec 2θ=1cos 2θ

cot2θ=1tan2θ

Pythagorean Identities

cos 2θ+sin2θ=1

csc 2θ=1+cot2θ

sec 2θ=1+tan2θ

(h) use the properties of definite integrals;

Properties of Integrals

Additive Properties

Split a definite integral up into two integrals with the same integrand but different limits

∫baf(x)dx+∫cbf(x)dx=∫caf(x)dx

If the upper and lower bound are the same, the area is 0.

∫aaf(x)dx=0

If an interval is backwards, the area is the opposite sign.

∫baf(x)dx=−∫abf(x)dx

Integral of Sum

∫ba[f(x)+g(x)]dx=∫baf(x)dx+∫bag(x)dx

Scaling by a constant

∫bacf(x)dx=c∫baf(x)dx

∫baf(x)dx=F(b)−F(a)

∫ba|f(x)|dx=F(b)+F(a)

Integral inequalities

If

f(x)≥0 and a<b, then ∫baf(x)dx≥0

f(x)≤ g(x) and a<b, then ∫baf(x) dx≤ ∫bag(x) dx

(i) evaluate definite integrals;

(j) calculate the area of a region bounded by a curve (including a parametric curve) and

lines parallel to the coordinate axes, or between two curves;

If y = f (x ) is continuous and non-negative on [a, b], then the area under the curve of f

from a to b is:

Area=∫baf(x)dx

If y = f(x) is continuous and f(x) < 0 on [a, b], then the area under the curve from a to b

is:

Area=−∫baf(x)dx

Area=∫baf(x)d(x)+∣∣∣∫cbf(x)d(x)∣∣∣+∫dcf(x)d(x)

If x = g (y ) is continuous and non-negative on [c, d], then the area under the curve of g

from c to d is:

Area=∫dcg(y)dy

(k) calculate volumes of solids of revolution about one of the coordinate axes.

Chapter 10

Differential Equations

(a) find the general solution of a first order differential equation with separable variables;

(b) find the general solution of a first order linear differential equation by means of an

integrating factor;

(c) transform, by a given substitution, a first order differential equation into one with

separable

variables or one which is linear;

(d) use a boundary condition to find a particular solution;

(e) solve problems, related to science and technology, that can be modelled by

differential equations.

Chapter 11

Maclaurin Series

(a) find the Maclaurin series for a function and the interval of convergence;

Maclaurin Series

Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated

from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

Taylor Series

f(x)=∑x=0∞fn(a)n!(x−a)n

=f(a)+f′(a)(x−a)+f′(a)2!(x−a)2+f′′(a)3!(x−a) 3+...+f(n)(a)n!(x−a)n+...

f(x)=∑x=0∞fn(0)n!xn

f(x)=f(0)+f′(0)x+f′′ (0)2!x2+f′′′ (0)3!x 3+...+f(n) (0)n!xn+...

f(x)=e5x f(0)=1

f′(x)=5e5x f′(0)=5

f′′(x)=52e5x f′′(0)=52

f′′′(x)=53e5x f′′′(0)=53

f(4)(x)=54e5x f(4)=54

e5x=1+5x1!+52x22!+53x33!+...+5n xnn!

=∑n=0∞5nxnn!

Interval of Convergence

The set of points where the series converges is called the interval of convergence

Finding interval of convergence

1) perform ratio test to test for the convergence of a series.

2) Check endpoint

Ratio test

L=limn→∞∣∣∣an+1an∣∣∣

if L < 1 then the series converges.

if L > 1 then the series does not converge;

if L = 1 or the limit fails to exist, then the test is inconclusive

∑n=1∞(x−2)nn.5n

Apply ratio test

limn→∞∣∣∣an+1an∣∣∣=∣∣∣(x−2)n+1(n+1).5n+1.n.5n(x−2)n∣∣∣

=limn→∞∣∣∣x−25.nn+1∣∣∣

=15| x−2|limn→∞∣∣∣nn+1∣∣∣

=15| x−2|

As n approcaches infinity, n/n+1 aprpoaches 1

limn→∞∣∣∣nn+1∣∣∣≈ 1

The series converges for

15| x−2|<1

−5<x−2<5

−3<x<7

Check end point x=7,

∑n=1∞(5)nn.5n=∑n=1∞1n

This is the harmonic series, and it diverges.

Check end point x=-3,

∑n=1∞(−5)nn.5n=∑n=1∞(−1)n1n

The series converges by the Alternating Series Test.

−3≤x<7

or

[−3,7)

(b) usestandard series to find the series expansions of the sums, differences, products,

quotients and composites of functions;

11−x=∑n=0∞xn=1+x+x2+x 3+....

ex=∑n=0∞xnn!=1+x+x22!+x33!+....

(1+x)k =∑n=0∞xn(kn)xn=1+kx+k(k−1)2!x2+k(k−1)(k−2)3!x3+...

x4+x2

Rewrite the function as

x4+x2=x(14+x 2)

=x4⎛⎝11+x24⎞⎠

=x4⎛⎝⎜11−(−x24)⎞⎠⎟

This is the sum of the infinite geometric series with the first term x/4 and ratio x2 /4

=x4∑n=0∞(−x24)

=x4∑n=0∞(−1)nx2n4n

=∑n=0∞(−1)nx2n+14n+1

(c) perform differentiation and integration of a power series;

Chapter 12 Numerical Method

by searching for a sign change;

(b) use an iterative formula of the form xn+1 =f(xn ) to find a root of an equation to a

prescribed degree of accuracy;

(f) use sketch graphs to determine whether the trapezium rule gives an over-estimate or

an under-estimate in simple cases.

Chapter 13

Data Description

Discrete Data

Discrete Data is counted and can only take certain values (whole numbers).

Eg Number of students in a class, Number of children in a playground, etc.

Continuous Data

Continuous Data is data that can take any value (within a range)

Eg. Height of children, weights of car, etc.

Grouped Data

Data that has been organized into groups (into a frequency distribution).

Eg.

Class Frequency

0−5 10

6−10 20

11−15 17

16−20 4

Ungrouped Data

10 1 2 4 80 45 67 78

50 1 11 23 6 9 8 15

(b) construct and interpret stem-and-leaf diagrams, box-and-whisker plots, histograms

and cumulative frequency curves;

Stem-and-Leaf Diagrams

histogram, to assist in visualizing the shape of a distribution, giving the reader a quick

overview of distribution.

45 46 48 49 63 65 66 68 68 73 73 75 76 81 85 88 107

4 |5689

5 |

6 |35688

7 |3356

8 |158

10 | 7

key 4 | 5 means 45

Box-and-Whisker Plots

summaries: the minimum, lower quartile (Q1), median (Q2), upper quartile(Q3), and

maximum.

The first and third quartiles are at the ends of the box,

The median is indicated with a vertical line in the interior of the box

Ends of the whiskers indicated the maximum and minimum.

Histograms and Cumulative Frequency Histograms

The cumulative frequency is the running total of the frequencies.

(c) state the mode and range of ungrouped data;

An observation occurring most frequently in the data is called mode of the data

In the given data, the observation 28 occurs maximum. So the mode is 28.

The range is the simplest measure of dispersion; it only takes into account the highest and

lowest values.

(d) determine the median and interquartile range of ungrouped and grouped data;

Interquartile range

Q 1 (the lower quartile) is the median of the numbers to the left of, or below Q 2 .

Q 3 (the upper quartile) is the median of the numbers to the right of, or above Q 2 .

Interquartile Range = Q 3 -Q1

Q2=(n+12)th observation

Q1=(n+14)th observation

Q3=(3(n+1)4)th observation

Example 1: Find the median, lower quartile and upper quartile of the following numbers.

12, 5, 22, 30, 7, 38, 16, 42, 15, 43, 35

Q 2 == 1/2 (11+1) = 6th observation, Q 2 =22

Q 3 == 3/4 (11+1) = 9th observation, Q 3 =38

Range = Largest value - smallest value = 43 -5 = 38

Example 2: Find the median, lower quartile and upper quartile of the following numbers.

Q1=(12+152)=13.5

Q2=(22+302)=26

Q3=(38+422)=40

Interquartile Range = Q 3 -Q1 = 40 - 13.5 = 26.5

Range = Largest value - smallest value = 50 -5 = 45

Median=Lm+(n2−Ffm)C

n = the total frequency

Lm = the lower boundary of the class medianF = the cumulative frequency before class

median

f = the frequency of the class median

fm = the lower boundary of the class median

C= the class width

Q1=LQ1+(n4−FfQ1)C

Q3=LQ3+⎛⎝3n4−FfQ3⎞⎠C

Q2=20.5+⎛⎝502−2312⎞⎠10=22.167

Q1=10.5+⎛⎝504−1010⎞⎠10=13

Q3=30.5+⎛⎝3(50)4−358⎞⎠10=33.625

(e) calculate the mean and standard deviation of ungrouped and grouped data, from raw

data and from given totals such as

Ungrouped Data

Mean

x¯=∑xn

Standard Deviation

s=∑(x−x¯)2n−−−−−−−−−√

s=∑x2n−(∑xn)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−− ⎷

Grouped Data

Mean

x¯=∑fx∑f

Standard Deviation

s=∑f(x−x¯)2n−−−−−−−−−−√

s=∑fx2∑f−(∑fx∑f)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− ⎷

(f) select and use the appropriate measures of central tendency and measures of

dispersion;

Median - the value of the middle item in a set of observations.

Mean - average value of the distribution.

Measures of Dispersion

Measures of Dispersion is group of analytical tools that describes the spread or variability of

a data set.

Variance/ Standard Deviation - Measures the dispersion around an average.

Coefficient of variation - Expressed in a relative value.

Skewness

Skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of the probability distribution. Skewness value can

be positive or negative.

Negative skew: The left tail is longer; the mass of the distribution is concentrated on the

right of the figure.

Positive skew: The right tail is longer; the mass of the distribution is concentrated on the

left of the figure.

standard deviation.

S=mean − modestandard deviation

S=3(mean − median)standard deviation

If Sk > 0, then the frequency distribution is positively skewed.

If Sk < 0, then the frequency distribution is negatively skewed.

Example: Calculate the coefficient of skewness of the following data by using Karl

Pearson's method.

1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4

Coefficient of skewness,

Sk =3−41.07=−0.93

Therefore, the distribution is negatively skewed.

Chapter 14

Probability

Addition Principle

If we want to find the probability that event A happens or event B happens, we should

add the probability that A happens to the probability that B happens.

Addition Rule:

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

P(1 or 6)=P(1)+P(6)

=16+16

=13

Multiplication Principle

When two compound independent events occur, we use multiplication to determine their

probability. To find the probability that event A happens and event B happens, we should

multiply the probability that A happens times the probability that B happens.

Multiplication Rule:

P(A and B) = P(A) x P(B)

Example: A pizza corner sells pizza in 3 sizes with 6 different toppings. If Peter wants to

pick one pizza with one topping, there is a possibility of 18 combinations as the total

number of outcomes.

(b) use the formulae for combinations and permutations in simple cases;

Permutations

A permutation is the choice of r things from a set of n things without replacement and where

the order matters

Permutation Formula

n Pr=n!(n−r)!

Combinations

A combination is the choice of r things from a set of n things without replacement and where

order does NOT matter.

Combination Formula

n Cr=(nr)=n P rr!=n!r!(n−r)!

event.

The probability of getting 'Head' is 1/2

which can be described in words as "the number is odd".

(d) identify complementary, exhaustive and mutually exclusive events;

Complementary Event

The complement of any event A, A' is the event that A does not occur.

Exhaustive Event

A set of events is collectively exhaustive if at least one of the events must occur. For example,

when rolling a six-sided die, the outcomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are collectively exhaustive, because

they include the entire range of possible outcomes. Thus, all sample spaces are collectively

exhaustive.

P(A∪B)=1

Two events are 'mutually exclusive' if they cannot occur at the same time. Example, tossing a

coin once, which can result in either heads or tails, but not both.

P(A∩B)=0

P(A∪B)=P(A)+P(B)

(e) use the formula

Formula

P(A∪B)=P(A)+P(B)−P(A∩B)

Independent Events

Two events are independent means that the occurrence of one does not affect the

probability of the other. Two events, A and B, are independent if and only if

P(A∩B)=P(A).P(B)

Conditional Probability

Conditional Probability is the probability that an event will occur, when another event

is known to occur or to have occurred.

Given two events A and B, , the conditional probability of A given B is defined as the

quotient of the joint probability of A and B, and the probability of B

P(A|B)=P(A∩B)P(B)

P(A∩B)=P(A|B).P(B)

(f) calculate conditional probabilities, and identify independent events;

(g) use the formulae

Commutative laws

A∪B=B∪A

A∩B=B∩A

Associative Laws

(A∪B)∪C=A∪(B∪C)

(A∩B)∩C=A∩(B∩C)

Distributive Laws

A∪(B∩C)=(A∪B)∩(A∪C)

A∩(B∪C)=(A∩B)∪(A∩C)

Impotent Laws

A∩A=A

A∪A=A

Domination Laws

A∪U=U

A∩∅=∅

Absorption Laws

A∪(A∩B)=A

A∩(A∪B)=A

Inverse Laws

A∪A′=U

A∩A′=∅

Law of Complement

(A′)′=A

U′=∅

∅′=U

DeMorgan's Law

(A∪B)′=A′∩B′

(A∩B)′=A′∪B′

Relative Complement of B in A

A−B=A∩B′

Chapter 15 Probability Distributions

Var(X)=E(X2)−[E(X)]2

Var(X)=σ2x=∑[x2i∗P(xi)]−μ2x

(b) construct a probability distribution table for a discrete random variable;

(c) use the probability function and cumulative distribution function of a discrete random

variable;

(d) calculate the mean and variance of a discrete random variable;

A discrete variable is a variable which can only take a countable number of values.

Its probability density function (pdf): A real-valued function f (·) deﬁned for each x ∈

X as the probability that X has the value x.

Probability Density Function

f(x)=Pr(X=x)

∑x=inf(xi)=1

F(x)=P(X≤x)

The probability that random variable X will take the value xi is denoted by p(xi) where

P(xi)=P(X=xi)

Mean and Variance of a Discrete Random Variable

Mean

E(X)=μx=∑[xi∗P(xi)]

Variance

(f) relate the probability density function and cumulative distribution function of a

continuous random variable;

(g) use the probability density function and cumulative distribution function of a

continuous random variable;

(h) calculate the mean and variance of a continuous random variable;

numbers

density function (pdf) of X is a function f (x) such that for any two numbers a and b,

P(a≤X≤b)=∫baf(x)dx

The graph of f is the density curve.

Area of the region between the graph of f and the x – axis is equal to 1.

The cumulative distribution function, F(x) for a continuous random variables X is defined

for every number x by

F(x)=P(X≤x)=∫x−∞f(y)dy

P(a≤X≤b)=F(b)−F(a)

For each x, F(x) is the area under the density curve to the left of x.

Expected Value

The expected or mean value of a continuous random variables X with pdf f(x) is

E(X)=μx=∫∞−∞x.f(x)dx

Variance

σ2x=Var(X)=∫∞−∞(x−μ)2.f(x)dx

E[(x−μ)2]

Var(X)=E(X2)−[E(x)]2

15.3 Binomial distribution

(i) use the probability function of a binomial distribution, and find its mean and variance;

(j) use the binomial distribution as a model for solving problems related to science and

technology;

Binomial Distribution

The binomial distribution is used when there are exactly two mutually exclusive outcomes

of a trial. These outcomes are appropriately labeled "success" and "failure".

If the random variable X follows the binomial distribution with parameters n and p, X ~ (B(n,

P), the probability of getting exactly k successes in n trials is given by the probability mass

function

f(k;n,p)=Pr(X=k)=(nk)pk (1−p)n−k

If X ~ B(n, p), X is a binomially distributed random variable, then the expected value of

X is

Mean = np

and the variance is

Variance = np(1−p)

n number of successes

p is the probability of success in Binomial Distribution, assumes that p is fixed for all

trials.

(k) use the probability function of a Poisson distribution, and identify its mean and

variance;

(l) use the Poisson distribution as a model for solving problems related to science and

technology;

Poisson Distribution

Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a

given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time and/or space if these events occur

with a known average rate and independently of the time since the last event.

A discrete stochastic variable X is said to have a Poisson distribution with parameter λ > 0, if for

k = 0, 1, 2, ... the probability mass function of X is given by

f(k;λ)=Pr(X=k)=λk e−λk!

K is the number of occurrences of an event; the probability of which is given by the function

λ is a positive real number.

15.5 Normal distribution

(m) identify the general features of a normal distribution, in relation to its mean and

standard deviation;

(n) standardise a normal random variable and use the normal distribution tables;

(o) use the normal distribution as a model for solving problems related to science and

technology;

(p) use the normal distribution, with continuity correction, as an approximation to the

binomial distribution, where appropriate.

Normal distribution

f(x)=1σ2π−−√e−(x−μ)22σ2

The normal distribution is also often denoted

X∼ N(μ,σ2)

z=x−μσ

x is the value to be standardized

μ is the mean

σ is the standard deviation

Normal Approximations

Binomial Approximation

under certain circumstances, namely:

npq)

Poisson Approximation

The normal distribution can also be used to approximate the Poisson distribution for

large values of λ (the mean of the Poisson distribution).

Chapter 16

16.1 Sampling

(a) distinguish between a population and a sample, and between a parameter and a

statistic;

(b) identify a random sample;

(c) identify the sampling distribution of a statistic;

(d) determine the mean and standard deviation of the sample mean;

(e) use the result that X has a normal distribution if X has a normal distribution;

(f) use the central limit theorem;

(g) determine the mean and standard deviation of the sample proportion;

(h) use the approximate normality of the sample proportion for a sufficiently large sample

size;

Sampling

Sampling

Sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical

population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.

A population includes each element from the set of observations that can be made.

Depending on the sampling method, a sample can have fewer observations than the population,

the same number of observations, or more observations. More than one sample can be derived

from the same population.

Parameter and Statistic

parameter; but a measurable characteristic of a sample is called a statistic.

Random Sample

A simple random sample is a subset of a sample chosen from aa population. Each individual is

chosen randomly and entirely by equal chance (same probability of being chosen at any stage

during the sampling process).

The central limit theorem states that even if a population distribution is strongly non-

normal, its sampling distribution of means will be approximately normal for large sample

sizes (n over 30). The central limit theorem makes it possible to use probabilities

associated with the normal curve to answer questions about the means of sufficiently

large samples.

According to the central limit theorem, the mean of a sampling distribution of means is

an unbiased estimator of the population mean

μx¯=μ

Similarly, the standard deviation of a sampling distribution of means is

σx¯=σn√

The larger the sample, the less variable the sample mean

Example:

The population has a mean of 12 and a standard deviation of 4. The sample size of a

sampling distribution is N=20. What is the mean and standard deviation of the sampling

distribution?

μx¯=12

σx¯=420−−√=0.8944

μp^=p

Standard deviation of a sample proportion

σp^=p(1−p)n−−−−−−−√

Example:

Suppose the true value of the president's approval rating is 53%. What is the mean and

standard deviation of the sample proportion with sample of 800 people?

μp^=0.53

σp^=0.53(1−0.53)800−−−−−−−−−−−−√=0.0176

16.2 Estimation

(i) calculate unbiased estimates for the population mean and population variance;

(j) calculate an unbiased estimate for the population proportion;

(k) determine and interpret a confidence interval for the population mean based on a

sample from a normally distributed population with known variance;

(l) determine and interpret a confidence interval for the population mean based on a large

sample;

(m) find the sample size for the estimation of population mean;

(n) determine and interpret a confidence interval for the population proportion based on a

large

sample;

(o) find the sample size for the estimation of population proportion.

Unbiased Estimator

If the mean value of an estimator equals the true value of the quantity it estimates, then the

estimator is called an unbiased estimator. Using the Central Limit Theorem, the mean value

of the sample means equals the population mean. Therefore, the sample mean is an unbiased

estimator of the population mean.

This makes the sample variance an unbiased estimator for the population variance.

s2=∑ni=1(xi−x¯)2n−1

Although using (n-1) as the denominator makes the sample variance, an unbiased

estimator of the population variance,the sample standard deviation, , still remains a

biased estimator of the population standard deviation. For large sample sizes this bias is

negligible.

Confidence Interval

used to indicate the reliability of an estimate.

α: between 0 and 1

A confidence level: 1 - α or 100(1 - α)%. E.g. 95%. This is the proportion of times that

the confidence interval actually does contain the population parameter, assuming that the

estimation process is repeated a large number of times.

The central limit theorem states that when the sample size is large, approximately 95% of

the sample means will fall within 1.96 standard errors of the population mean,

μ±1.96(σn√)

Stated another way

X¯−1.96(σn√)<μ<X¯+1.96(σn√)

Example:

A survey which estimate the average age of the students presently enrolled. From past

studies, the standard deviation is known to be 3 years. A sample of 40 students is

selected, and the mean is found to be 25 years. Find the 95% confidence interval of the

population mean.

X¯−1.96(σn√)<μ<X¯+1.96(σn√)

25−1.96(340−−√)<μ<25+1.96(340−−√)

25−0.93<μ<25+0.93

24.07<μ<25.93

p±zα/2σp

A 1-α confidence interval to population proportion.

p^±zα/2(p^(1−p^)n)−−−−−−−−−− ⎷

Chapter 17

Hypothesis Testing

(c) carry out a hypothesis test concerning the population mean for a normally distributed

population with known variance;

(d) carry out a hypothesis test concerning the population mean in the case where a large

sample is used;

(e) carry out a hypothesis test concerning the population proportion by direct evaluation

of binomial probabilities;

(f) carry out a hypothesis test concerning the population proportion using a normal

approximation.

Chapter 18

Chi-squared Tests

(a) identify the shape, as well as the mean and variance, of a chi-squared distribution with

a given number of degrees of freedom;

(b) use the chi-squared distribution tables; (c) identify the chi-squared statistic;

(d) use the result that classes with small expected frequencies should be combined in a

chisquared test;

(e) carry out goodness-of-fit tests to fit prescribed probabilities and probability

distributions with known parameters;

(f) carry out tests of independence in contingency tables (excluding Yates correction).

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