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# EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

## SRM-TRP Engineering College , Trichy

Department of ECE

## Snell’s Law: The angle of refraction θt is related to angle of incidence θi by

n1 sin θi = n2 sin θt

The refractive index (or index of refraction) ‘n’ is defined as the ratio of the velocity of light in
vacuum to the velocity of light in the medium.
𝒄
n=
𝒗
c = speed of light in free space
v = speed of light in a given material
The energy of the single photon of the light is given by the equation
E=h×f
𝒄
Sub f = in the above equation
𝝀
𝒄
E=h×
𝝀
Given data:
h = 6.625×10-34
c = 3×108 m/sec
𝝀 = 1550 ×10-9 m
6.625×10−34×3×108
E=
1550×10−9

= 0.0128 × 10-17 J

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 1

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

## E (eV) = 0.0128 × 10-17/ 1.609×10-19 = 0.7985eV

The Snell’s law is an expression that describes the relationship between the angles of incidence
1 and refraction 2 and to the refractive indices of the dielectrics, when referring to waves passing
through a boundary between two isotropic medium.

n1 sin1 = n2 sin 2

where n1 is the refractive index of the core and n2 is the refractive index of the cladding.

Numerical Aperture
NA= sin θa = (n12-n 22)1/2
where n1 and n2 are the refractive indices of core and cladding respectively.

## Relative Refractive Index Difference

The relative refractive index difference is the ratio of the refractive index difference between
core and cladding and refractive index of core.
𝑛1−𝑛2
∆=
2𝑛1
Where,
∆ is the relative refractive index
n1 is the numerical aperture of the core
n2 is the numerical aperture of the cladding

A step index fiber has the normalized frequency of 26.6 at 1300nm. If the core radius is 25μm, find the
numerical aperture.
Given data:
V= 26.6
λ = 1300×10-9m
a = 25×10-6m

Formula:
Normalized frequency V is given by
V= 2πa (NA) / λ
NA = λV/2πa
Solution:
Numerical Aperture = λV/2πa
1300 ×10−9 ×26.6
NA =
2×3.14×25×10−6
NA = 0.22

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 2

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

A silica optical fiber with a large core diameter has a core refractive index of 1.5 and a
cladding refractive index of 1.47.Determine the acceptance angle in air for the fiber.

Given data:
n1= 1.5
n2= 1.47
Solution:
θa = sin−1 √1.52 − 1.472
θa = 17.36◦

−1 𝑁𝐴
θas = sin
cosγ

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 3

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

where NA is the numerical aperture and γ is the angle between the projection of the ray in two
dimensions and the radius of the fiber core at the point of reflection.

1. Assume that there is a glass rod of refractive index 1.5, surrounded by air. Find the critical
incidence angle.
Given data:
n1 = 1.5
n2 = 1
−1 n2
Formula: c = sin
n1

Solution:
1
 = sin−1
c = 41.81
1.5

2. The relative refractive index difference (Δ) for an optical fiber is 1%. Determine the critical
angle at the core cladding interface if the core refractive index is 1.46.
Given Data:
1
Δ = 1% = = 0.01
100
n1 = 1.46
Formula:

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 4

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

𝑛1−𝑛2
Δ= (1)
𝑛1 n2
c = sin−1 (2)
n1

## Find n2 from equation (1)

n2 = 𝑛1(1 − Δ) (3)
Solution:
n2 = 1.46(1 − 0.01)
= 1.4454

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 5

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

−1 1.4454
c= sin
1.46
c = 81.19◦

V number of a fiber?

V= 2πa (NA)/λ.
3. Phase Velocity
𝝎
Vp =
𝜷

## where ω is the angular frequency and β is the propagation constant

4. Group Velocity
𝝏𝝎
Vg = 𝝏𝜷
where ω is the angular frequency and β is the propagation constant

## n(r) = n1; r < a (core)

n2; r ≥ a (cladding)

constant value n2 beyond the core radius ‘a’ in the cladding. This index variation may be
represented as:
n(r) = { n1 = (1 − 2Δ(r/a)α)1/2; r < a (core)}

## {n1 (1 − 2Δ) 1/2 = n2 ; r ≥ a (cladding)}

Where,
n1 is the refractive index of the core
n2 is the refractive index of the cladding
Δ is the index difference
α is the index profile

.
Birefringence is expressed as
𝟐𝝅
Bf = βx - βy / 𝝀

## where β is the propagation constant.

UNIT- II
SIGNAL DEGRADATION OPTICAL FIBERS
1. attenuation coefficient of a fiber? (N/D2011)

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 6

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

2. A 30 km long optical fiber has an attenuation of 0.8 dB/km. If 7 dBm of optical power is
launched into the fiber, determine the output optical power in dBm. (M/J 2012)

L=30 km=3 104 m;

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 7

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

## αdB = 0.8dB/km = 0.8 10 -3 dB/m

Solution:
10 𝑃𝑖
αdB =
𝐿
log10 𝑃𝑜
10
= 7
3×104 log
𝑃𝑜
log (7/P0) = 2.4;
7
P0= ( ) = 0.63dBm
𝑒 2.4

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 8

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

UNIT-III
FIBER OPTICAL SOURCES AND COUPLING
LED Structures
1. What is meant by heterojunction? List out the advantages of heterojunction.
(A/M 2011) (N/D 2007)
A heterojunction is an interface between two adjoining single crystal semiconductors
with different bandgap energies. Devices that are fabricated with heterojunction are said to
have hetrostructure.
Advantages of heterojunction are:
a) Carrier and optical confinement
b) High output power
c) High coherence and stability

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 9

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

2. When an LED has 2V applied to its terminals, it draws 100mA and produces 2mW of
optical power. Determine conversion efficiency of the LED from electrical to optical
power. (N/D2008)
Given Data: Vin = 2 V, Iin = 100×10-3 A, Pout = 2×10-3
𝑃
Formula: LED conversion efficiency = 𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝑃𝑖𝑛

Solution:
Pin = Vin × Iin = 2 × 100×10-3
2×10−3
Conversion Efficiency = = 0.01
2×100×10−3

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 10

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

a)

Quantum Efficiency
3. Define – Internal Quantum Efficiency

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 11

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

Internal Quantum Efficiency is defined as the ratio of radiative recombination rate to the total
recombination rate.
𝑅𝑟
𝑖𝑛 =
𝑅𝑟+𝑅𝑛𝑟

## where 𝑅𝑟 is radiative recombination rate, 𝑅𝑛𝑟 is the non-radiative recombination rate.

4. Define – Quantum efficiency of a photo detector (A/M2008) (M/J2009)
(A/M2010),(N/D2011)
Quantum efficiency is defined as the number of the electron-hole carrier pairs
generated per incident photon of energy ℎ𝑣, is given by

## number of electron−hole pairs generated

=
number of incident photons

Ip
⁄q
 = p0
⁄h𝑣
where Ip is the photon current
q is the charge of the electron
po is the optical output power
h is the Planck’s constant
v is the frequency of the optical signal

## 5. An LED has radiative and nonradiative recombination times of 30 and 100 ns

respectively. Determine the internal quantum efficiency. (N/D 2007) (N/D 2010)
−9 −9
Given data: τ = 30× 10 𝑠ec, τnr = 100× 10 𝑠ec
𝛕𝐫×𝛕𝐧𝐫 30×10−9×100×10−9
Formula: τ = = = 23.1ns
𝛕𝐫+𝛕𝐧𝐫 130×10−9

## 6. Calculate the external differential quantum efficiency of a laser diode operating at

1.33µm.The slope of the straight line portion of the emitted optical power P versus
drive current I is given by 15 mW/mA. (N/D2011)

## Given data: λ = 1.33×10-6

= 0.8065 λ = 0.8065×1.33×10-6

= 15×10-3

Solution:

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 12

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

M= × =0.8065×1.33×10-6× 15×10-3

= 16.089%

## 7. In a 100ns pulse, 6 × 106 photons at wavelength of 1300 nm fall on an InGaAs photo

detector on the average, 5.4 × 106 electron-hole pairs are generated. Find the
quantum efficiency. (N/D2010)

## Given Data: = 5.4 × 106

= 6 × 106

Formula: =

=
q is the charge of the electron
p0 is the optical output power
h is the Planks constant
v is the frequency of the optical signal
Solution:
Quantum efficiency = 5.4 × 106/6 × 106
= 90%

Photo Detectors
8. What are the necessary features of a photo detector? (N/D2007)
The necessary features of a photo detector are:
(a) High Quantum efficiency
(b) Low rise time or fast response
(c) Low dark current

## 9. Define – Responsivity of a photodetector (N/D2008),(N/D 2010)

Responsitivity is defined as the ratio of output photo current to the incident optical
power.
R= Po=

where, R=Responsivity.
Ip=Output photo current
Po=Incident optical power

10. List out the operating wavelengths and responsivities of Si, Ge, and InGaAs
photodiodes. (N/D2009)

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 13

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

## The Operating Wavelengths and Responsivities of Si, Ge, and InGaAs

photodiodes are:
Silicon (Si) :
(i) Operating wavelength range λ = 400 - 1100 nm
(ii) Responsivity R = 0.4-0.6
Germanium (Ge) :
(i) Operating wavelength range λ = 800 - 1650 nm
(ii) Responsivity R = 0.4 - 0.5
Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs):
(i) Operating wavelength range λ = 1100 - 1700 nm
(ii) Responsivity R = 0.75 - 0.95

11. Photons of energy 1.53×10-19 J are incident on a photodiode that has the responsivity
of 0.65Amps/W. If the optical power level is 10µW, find the photo current generated.
(M/J 2012)
Given data : E = 1.53×10-19 J, R = 0.65Amps/W, P0 = 10×10-6 W
Formula : Ip = R× P0
Solution : Ip = 0.65× 10×10-6 = 6.5 µA

12. Ga As has band gap energy of 1.43ev at 300k. Determine the wavelength above which
an intrinsic photo detector fabricated from this material will cease to operate.
(A/M 2008)
Given data: Eg(eV) = 1.43ev

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 14

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

## Formula: λ(μm) = 1.24/Eg(eV)

Solution: λ(μm) =1.24/1.43
λ(μm) =0.86 μm.

UNIT-IV
FIBER OPTIC RECEIVER AND MEASUREMENTS
.
is then cut back to a point 2 meters from the input end and maintaining the same launch
conditions, another set of power output measurements are taken.
Relationship for the optical attenuation per unit length αdb for the fibre may be
obtained from,

10
αdb = (𝐿 −𝐿 )𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑃02

1 2 10𝑃
01
where,
L1, L2 - original and cut-back fibre length respectively
P02, P01 -output optical powers at a specific wavelength from the original and
cut back fibre lengths.

UNIT-V
OPTICAL NETWORKS AND SYSTEM TRANSMISSION
Basic Networks

1. Calculate the number of independent signals that can be sent on a single fiber in
the 1525-1565 nm bands. Assume the spectral spacing as per ITU-T
recommendation G.692. (A/M 2011)

## Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 15

EC6702 Optical Communication and Networks VII Semester

## Given data: Mean frequency spacing as per ITU-T is 0.8 nm

Wavelength = 1565 nm -1525 nm = 40 nm
Solution:
Number of independent channel = (40 nm/0.8 nm) = 50 Channels