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In[4]:=

  1 3 - 10 Row reduce 4 2 0 5 1 6 Input: 1 3 - 10 row reduce 4 2 0 5 1 6

Result:

 1 0 2 0 1 - 4 0 0 0 Matrix plot: 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 Trace: Step -by - step solution 2 Determinant: Step -by - step solution 0 Matrix rank: Step -by - step solution 2 Nullity: Step - by - step solution 1

Characteristic polynomial:

- λ 3 + 2 λ 2 - λ

Eigenvalues:

λ 1 1

Step -by - step solution

Step -by - step solution

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2

λ 2  1
λ 3  0
Eigenvectors :
Step -by - step solution
v 1  ( 0, 1, 0 )
v 2  ( 1, 0, 0 )
v 3  (-2, 4, 1 )
Diagonalization:
M  S . J . S - 1
where
1
0
2
M
0
1
- 4
0
0
0
-
2
0
1
S
4 1
0
1 0
0
0
0
0
J
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
S - 1 
0
1
- 4
1
0
2
In[5]:=
Solve[{ x1 + x3 ⩵ 1, x2 - x3 ⩵ - 3, x1 - x2 ⩵ 2 } , { x1, x2, x3}]
{{ x1 → 0, x2 → - 2, x3 → 1}}
Out[5]=
In[6]:=
 x 2 dy  dx - 2 x y = 3 y 4 , y ( 1) = 12
Input interpretation:
x 2 × ∂ y ( x )
- 2 x y ( x )  3 y (x ) 4 , y ( 1 ) 
∂ x
1
2 

Printed by Wolfram Mathematica Student Edition

y ( x )

2 y ( x )

x

+ 3 y ( x ) 4

x

2

3

Alternate forms:

x ( x y ( x ) - 2 y ( x )) 3 y ( x) 4 , y ( 1 )

1 2

x 2 y ( x ) 3 y ( x ) 4 + 2 x y ( x ) , y ( 1 )

1 2

Differential equation solutions:

3
5
x 2
y ( x ) 
3 49 - 9 x 5
Possible intermediate steps:
Solve Bernoulli's equation
x 2 ⅆ y ( x )
- 2 x y ( x )  3 y( x ) 4
ⅆ x
, such that
y ( 1 ) 
1
ⅆ v ( x ) + 6 v ( x )
9
 -
ⅆ x
x
x 2

Approximate form

Solve as Bernoulli's equation |

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Hide steps

 2 : Divide both sides by 1 x 2 y ( x ) 4 - 3 : 3 ⅆ y ( x ) 6 9 ⅆ x - y ( x ) 4 + x y ( x ) 3  - x 2 Let v ( x )  1 , which y ( x ) 3 gives ⅆ v ( x ) ⅆ x  3 ⅆ y( x ) ⅆ x : - y ( x ) 4

4

Let μ ( x )  ⅇ x x x 6

Multiply both sides by

.

 μ ( x ) : x 6 ⅆ v ( x ) + 6 x 5  v ( x )  - 9 x 4 ⅆ x ⅆ Substitute 6 x 5  ⅆ x  x 6  : x 6 ⅆ v ( x ) + ⅆ x  x 6  v ( x )  - 9 x 4 ⅆ ⅆ x Apply the reverse product rule f ⅆ g x ⅆ  + g ⅆ f ⅆ x ⅆ x ( f g ) ⅆ to the left-hand side: ⅆ ⅆ x  x 6 v ( x )  - 9 x 4 Integrate both sides with respect to x :  ⅆ x  x 6 v ( x ) ⅆ x   - 9 x 4 ⅆ x ⅆ Evaluate the integrals: x 6 v ( x )  - 5 9 x 5 + c 1 , where c 1 is an arbitrary constant. Divide both sides by μ ( x )  x 6 : - 9 x 5 + c 1 v ( x )  5 x 6

Solve for y ( x )

in v ( x )

y ( x ) -

1

y ( x ) 3

3

-

5

x

2

or y ( x )

x

2

or y ( x )

(-

1 ) 2 / 3 x 2

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:

 3 - 9 x 5 + 5 c 1 3 - 9 x 5 + c 1 3 - 9 x 5 + c 1 5 5 Simplify the arbitrary constants: 3 - 5 x 2 x 2 (- 1 ) 2 / 3 x 2
 y ( x )  - or y ( x )  or y ( x)  3 - 9 x 5 + c 1 3 - 9 x 5 + c 1 3 - 9 x 5 + c 1 5 5 For y ( x ) 

5

2
3 5
-
x
-
,
solve for
3
- 9 x 5 + c 1
c 1
using the
initial conditions:
Substitute y ( 1 )  1
2
into y ( x )
3
2
-
5
x
-
:
3
-
9 x 5 + c 1
3
-
5
1
-
3
2
c 1 - 9
The equation has no solution.
y ( x )
2
3 5
-
x
-
3
- 9 x 5 + c 1
cannot satisfy the initial condition, which means no solution exists.
For y ( x )
2
x
,
solve for
9 x 5
3
- 5 + c 1
c 1
using the
initial conditions:
Substitute y ( 1 )  1
2

into y ( x )

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6

2
x
:
9
x 5
3
-
5 + c 1
1
1
2
c 1 - 9
3
5
Solve the equation:
49
c 1 
5
Substitute c 1  49
5
into y ( x )
2
x
:
9 x 5
3
- 5 + c 1
2
x
y ( x ) 
- 9 x 5
49
+
3
5
5
For y ( x )
1 ) 2 / 3 x 2
(-
, solve for
9 x 5
3
- 5 + c 1
c 1
using the
initial conditions:
Substitute y ( 1 )  1
2
into y ( x )
1 ) 2 / 3 x 2
(-
:
9 x 5
3
- 5 + c 1
(- 1 ) 2 / 3
1

3

c 1 - 9

5

2

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y

(- 1 ) 2 / 3 x 2

9 x 5

3 - 5 + c 1

7

cannot satisfy the initial condition, which means no solution exists.

Collect solutions:

y ( x )

3

x 2

- 9 x 5

+

49

5 5

Plots of the solution:

y

x

y

y

Interactive differential equation solution plots:

y

3.0
2.5
2.0
y
( x)
1.5
1.0
x
1.1
1.2
1.3
0.0

Initial conditions:

More controls

In[7]:=

dy/dx = y 2 + yx  x 2

Printed by Wolfram Mathematica Student Edition

8

y ( x )

x

ODE names :

y

( x ) 2 + y ( x ) x

x

2

Bernoulli's equation:

y ( x )

y ( x ) + y ( x ) 2

x

x

2

Homogeneous equation:

y ( x )

y

( x ) 1 + y ( x )

x

x

Alternate form:

y ( x )

y ( x ) ( y ( x ) + x )

x 2

Expanded form:

y ( x )

y ( x ) 2 + y ( x )

x

2

x

Differential equation solutions:

x
y ( x ) 
c 1 - log ( x )
Possible intermediate steps:
 y ( x ) 2 + x y ( x )
Solve ⅆ y ( x )
ⅆ x
x 2
Let y ( x )  x v( x )
, which gives
ⅆ y ( x )  x ⅆ v ( x )
+ v ( x )
ⅆ x
ⅆ x
ⅆ v ( x )
x 2 v ( x ) 2 + x 2 v ( x )
x
+ v ( x ) 
ⅆ x
x 2
Simplify:
ⅆ v ( x )
x
+ v ( x )  ( v ( x ) + 1 ) v (x )

Solve as a homogeneous equation |

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Hide steps

:

:

x

9

Solve for v ( x )

x

v ( x )

x

v

( x ) 2

x

:

Divide both sides by v ( x ) 2

 : ⅆ v ( x ) ⅆ x 1 v ( x ) 2  x Integrate both sides with respect to x :  ⅆ v ( x ) v ) 2 ⅆ x   ⅆ x ( x 1 ⅆ x x Evaluate the integrals: 1 - v ( x )  log ( x ) + c 1 , where c 1 is an arbitrary constant. Solve for v ( x ) : 1 v ( x )  - log ( x ) + c 1 Substitute back for y ( x )  x v ( x ) :

y ( x ) -

x

log ( x ) + c 1

Plots of sample individual solution:

y

y

y ( 1 ) 1

Printed by Wolfram Mathematica Student Edition

log ( x ) is the natural logarithm »

10

y
x
Sample solution family:
y
600
400
(
sampling y ( 1 ))
200
x
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
Interactive differential equation solution plots:
y (1 )  1.
y
60
40
y
( x)
20
x
1.5
2.0
2.5
- 20
Initial conditions:
y ( 1 )
More controls
In[10]:=
 dy  dx = x   x 2 y + 4 y ,y(1)=1
Input interpretation:
 ∂ y ( x )
x
+ 4 y ( x ) , y( 1 )  1
∂ x
x 2 y ( x )
Separable equation:
x
y ′ ( x ) y ( x ) 
4 + x 2

Printed by Wolfram Mathematica Student Edition

11

Alternate form:

y ( x )

x 2 +

x 4y ( x ) , y ( 1 ) 1

Alternate form assuming x is positive:

x

 x 2 + 4y ( x ) y ( x ) , y ( 1 ) 1

Differential equation solutions:

Possible intermediate steps:

Solve y ( x )

x

, such that

This means

x

4 y ( x )+ x 2 y ( x )

Printed by Wolfram Mathematica Student Edition

Approximate form

Transform into an exact equation |

Hide steps

y

( x )

logx 2 + 4+ 1 - log ( 5 )

 y ( 1 )  1 : Rewrite the equation: - x x 2 y ( x ) + ⅆ y( x ) ⅆ x 4 y ( x ) +  0 Let R ( x , y )  - x 4 y + x 2 y and S ( x , y )  1 . This is not an exact equation, because x   -  ∂ R ( x , y) ∂ y 4 y + x 2 y ≠1  ∂ S ( x , y ) ∂ x Find an integrating factor μ ( y ) such that μ ( y ) R( x , y) + ⅆ y ( x ) μ ( y ) S ( x , y )  0 ⅆ x . is exact.

12

y ( μ ( y ) R ( x , y ))

 ∂ x ( μ ( y ) S ( x , y )) ∂ : ⅆμ ( y ) ⅆ y x 2 + μ ( y ) x  x 2 + 4 x 4 y + y x 2  2 -  0 4 y + y Isolate μ ( y ) to the left-hand side: ∂μ ( y ) 1 ∂ y  μ ( y ) y Integrate both sides with respect to y log ( μ ( y ))  log ( y) : Take exponentials of both sides: μ ( y )  y Multiply both sides of - 4 y ( x )+x 2 y ( x ) + ⅆ y ( x ) x ⅆ x  0 by μ ( y ( x )) : - + 4 + y ( x ) ⅆ y( x ) x ⅆ x  0 x 2 Let P ( x , y )  - x x 2 + 4 and Q ( x , y )  y . This is an exact equation, because ∂ P ( x , y ) ∂ y  0  ∂ Q ( x , y ) .

x

Define f ( x , y ) such that

f ( x , y )

x

P( x , y )

Printed by Wolfram Mathematica Student Edition

and

13

∂ f ( x , y )
 Q ( x, y )
∂ y
.
:
Then, the solution will be given by
f
( x , y )  c 1
, where
c
1
is an arbitrary constant.
Integrate ∂ f ( x , y )
x
with respect to
x
in order to find
f ( x , y )
:
f ( x , y )
∫ - x
4 ⅆ x
2
x
+
1
logx 2 + 4 + g ( y )
where
- 2
g
( y )
is an arbitrary function of
y
.
Differentiate
f ( x , y )
with respect to
y
in order to find
g ( y )
∂ f ( x, y )
:
1
ⅆ g ( y)
- 2 log x 2 + 4 + g ( y )
∂ y
∂ y
ⅆ y
Substitute into
f ( x , y )
Q ( x, y )
:
∂ y

g ( y )

y

y

Integrate g ( y )

y

Printed by Wolfram Mathematica Student Edition

14

with respect to y

 g ( y ) :  ∫ y ⅆ y  y 2 2 Substitute g ( y ) into f ( x , y ) : f ( x , y )  y 2 2 1 - 2 log x 2 + 4 The solution is f ( x , y )  c 1 : y 2 1 2 - 2 log x 2 + 4 c 1 Solve for y : y ( x )  - logx 2 + 4 + 2 c 1 or y ( x )  log x 2 + 4 + 2 c 1 Simplify the arbitrary constants: y ( x )  - logx 2 + 4 + c 1 or y ( x )  log x 2 + 4 + c 1 For y ( x )  - log x 2 + 4 + c 1 , solve for c 1 using the initial conditions: Substitute y ( 1 )  1 into y ( x )  - log x 2 + 4 + c 1 : - c 1 + log ( 5 )  1

Printed by Wolfram Mathematica Student Edition

y ( x )

-

logx 2 + 4+ c 1

15

cannot satisfy the initial condition, which means no solution exists.

 For y ( x )  log x 2 + 4 + c 1 , solve for c 1 using the initial conditions: Substitute y ( 1 )  1 into y ( x )  log x 2 + 4 + c 1 : c 1 + log ( 5 )  1 Solve the equation: c 1  1 - log ( 5 ) Substitute c 1  1 - log( 5 ) into y ( x )  log x 2 + 4 + c 1 :

y ( x )

logx 2 + 4+ 1 - log ( 5 )

Collect solutions:

y ( x )

logx 2 + 4+ 1 - log( 5 )

Plots of the solution:

y

x

y

y

Printed by Wolfram Mathematica Student Edition

log ( x ) is the natural logarithm »

16

Interactive differential equation solution plots:
y
1.8
1.6
y ( x)
1.4
1.2
x
2
3
4
5
0.8
Initial conditions:
More controls

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