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Performing Arts Pitch allows the varying arrangement of scales or set of

Consist of dance, music, opera, magic, spoken words, note into different degrees of highness or lowness.
and circus arts. Scales are the arrangement of notes in arranged and
The term performing arts made its appearance in the fixed intervals that are played in varying pitches or
English language on 1711. “octaves.”
Involves the use of performers and an audience. In Western music, pitches are arranged in 12 different
differs from the other forms of visual arts insofar as the levels called octaves. One can play the same note in a
artist uses himself or herself as a medium for art. different octave.
As a medium of art, the artist’s presence in front of an Also, the arrangement of notes in Western music is done
audience acts as a way conveying meaning. through a full-step or a half-step (or semi-tone and
Areas of Performing Arts whole-tone).
1. Music Intensity
2. Theater Refers to the loudness or softness of a sound.
3. Opera Can be produced by the force, pressure, or impact of an
4. Cinema object that produces sound.
5. Dance Crescendo refers to the increase in intensity or volume
6. Ballet of the sound, Decrescendo on the other hand is the
Music gradual decrease in intensity.
Music is an art form that relies on sound as its medium. In Italian, the following words refer to the softness to the
Sound as a medium is produced through varying loudness of sound: (pianissimo, piano, forte, fortissimo).
vibrations produced in the air. Elements of Music
Music is a temporal arrangement of tones or sounds that Rhythm
has a varying cultural effect on its audience. is the most basic element of music.
Music is not only enjoyed through sound, but rather is the movement of various tones and silences through
through the silences and rests in which a series of notes time.
are played. it is the actual arrangement of long and short notes, and
Qualities of Sound their distinct accentuation through a piece.
1. Timbre it is the regularity of a beat that allows emphasis, accent
2. Pitch or stress in music.
3. Intensity Melody
4. Duration is the motif and melodic line that is added alongside
Timbre rhythm.
is the quality of tone that enables us to differentiate one it is the element of music that allows us to tap into the
type of sound from another sound. emotions of the sounds that we hear.
Timbre is the result of the varying factors that affects it contains four characteristics namely: dimension,
vibrations in an instrument involved in the production of progression, direction and register.
sound. Properties of Melody
• Piano  Dimension refers to the length of the melody
• Oboe that is repeated throughout the song.
• Timbre  Progression is the movement of a note from one
 Suede- Brett Anderson range to another range of pitch. In contrast to
 Rico Blanco dimension, progression is the emphasis on the
 Coheed and Cambria - Claudio Sanchez length of silence.
 Direction is the vertical movement of the song’s
 Queen - Freddy Mercury
Pitch  Register refers to the dominant pitch of the
is the highness or lowness of the tone relative to the entire song.
frequency of vibrations that it produces.
Harmony Lutes
is the simultaneous sounding of tones. These are instruments that have strings that are taut over
an example of a harmonic set of notes is found in chords, a resonator and a neck.
since they are notes played on the same set of scale. The player implements the changes in pitch and
the result of harmony is either consonance (when the tones by pressing the string towards the neck.
sound is pleasant, or dissonance, when the sound is Lutes are usually played through plucking and are
unpleasant). consist of the following parts:
Tone Color  Neck with or without frets,
is the changes in loudness or softness of an entire  a soundboard to resonate the vibrations of the
musical piece. strings,
Part of a song’s tone color is modified by the tempo, or  strings (either gut, nylon, or steel), headstock,
the speed in which a musical piece moves. It also allows belly for amplifying the sound, and the bridge
the musician to take note of timing that is involved in (string holder).
playing the piece. Lutes come in a variety of forms, many of which would
It can be light (soft and fast), and dark (slow and loud). include the violin, guitar, and the Baglama or saz.
Texture Parts:
The consistency in which notes are played by itself or  Head Stock
alongside others.
 Tuning pegs / Machine head
Texture can be described as monophonic, homophonic
 Bridge
and polyphonic.
 Sound Board
Monophonic texture refers to a single instrument or
timbre of sound, while homophonic texture refers to the  Strings
blending of two instruments or sounds (i.e. Lead vocals  Frets
and backup vocals); while polyphonic texture refers to  Belly
the harmony of multiple instruments. String Choir
Form are played through the use of a bow (bowing), to which
Refers to the overall design or planned intention of the the sound is produced by the friction of the strings from
artist/composer. the violin and the horsehair from the bow.
It refers to how the overall theme or themes of the song The types of Stringed Choir are classified from their
is distributed. range of pitches from highest to lowest: Violin, Viola,
It is the combination of how the artist manipulates pitch, Cello, and the Double Bass.
harmony and the melody of a song. These instruments are fretless, thus requiring the user to
Style have a very good sense of detecting the changes in pitch.
Refers to the common themes that make up the artist’s Violin
repertoire. Violins have curved strings in order to allow the player
to bow the strings individually.
Musical Instruments The most expensive violin that has ever been auctioned,
Musical Instruments are classified according to the the Stradivari violin, is worth $3.5 million.
following groups: Guitars
1. Stringed Guitars have similar designs to that of the lute, but varies
2. Wind from the design of its headstock and the range of sound
3. Percussion that it can produced.
4. Human Voice A guitar is played either through plucking or with a
Stringed Instruments plectrum (pick).
These are instruments that have strings that are extended Guitars vary from shape size and materials. Classical
and attached to box or a resonator in which its vibrations Guitars have fewer frets and often use gut or nylon
are amplified. strings. Acoustic guitars in turn use steel strings, while
Stringed instruments are classified as Lutes, Harps, and electric guitars use magnets to generate electrical signals
Zithers. to amplify the vibration of the strings.
Various designs have been implemented in guitars, using Woodwind instruments are classified into two groups:
varying wood materials, as we$ as shapes and other Flutes and Reeds
accessories. Flutes, produce sound by creating the vibration at the
Electric Guitars are solid body guitars made out of edge of the instrument. A flute for example will change
varying types of wood that are cut and glued together. its pitch by the change of air hole in which the vibration
These instruments rely on electricity to passively or is produced.
actively create impulses to the amplifier. Reeds, on the other hand produce sound by the sharp
Electric Guitars produces electrical signals through reed that vibrates when air passes through it.
the vibration of strings on coiled magnets called Saxophone
pickups. Brass
These magnets generates electricity in the same manner Flute
as generators and dynamos. Brass Instruments
Solid body and hollow body guitars can sometimes Brass instruments produce sound through the
implement different bridges that would allow the user to compression of air through the instrument.
change the pitch of the guitar by bending or putting the The pitch and tone of the instrument is controlled
string. through valves that regulate the pressure of air inside the
The Floyd-Rose design follows the same principle of instrument. Lip pressure also plays an important role in
tuning from violins through the use of bridge tuners. changing the pitch and tone of the instrument.
Harps Like woodwind instruments, brass instruments do not
Harps are stringed instruments that are plucked on a necessarily imply that the instrument is made out of
perpendicular frame. brass.
The strings are either plucked by hand or by a Percussions
plectrum. These are instruments that generates sound through the
Zithers impact of another medium(i.e. ma)et, drumsticks, etc.) or
are stringed instruments that do not extend through shaking and vibration.
farther than the soundbox. This would include the instruments (but is not limited
In this group, zithers ranges from dulcimers, to), drums, bongo, xylophone, timpani, cymbals,
harpsichords, and pianos. maracas, etc.
Harpsichord The Human Voice
is a stringed instrument that uses levers to pluck and to The human voice is controlled by the vocal chords that
mute the strings. generate vibrations from the air coming from the lungs.
A harpsichord differs from a piano in its inability to It is influenced by various factors, such as the size of
control the sustain of the strings. one’s diaphragm, size of vocal chords, etc.
Piano Dance
A piano is a stringed instrument that plays note by is an art form that uses the body as a medium of
hitting the string with a felt covered hammer. communication that is usually accompanied by music.
Wind Instruments Dance is also considered as a non-verbal method of
are instruments that generates sound through the use of expression.
air, particularly to the blowing (or in some instances, Dance is utilized for different purposes, such as social-
sucking) motion that is applied through interaction, religious rituals, and entertainment.
the instrument. Dance is usually intended for a couple to perform
They are classified as either woodwinds or brass different maneuvers and physical movement.
instruments. It is some cultures dance is also used to tell a story
Woodwinds or myth, but often times it is used as courting ritual.
are instruments that produces sound through the Elements of Dance
vibration of air flowing through a sharp edge that Content or theme is the general mode in which the
vibrates inside the instrument when it is blown. dancers are able to communicate their intention to the
Woodwind instruments are not necessarily made out of audience.
It involves a setting, or an idea in which the entire There are two modes of singing in an opera: recitative (a
performance is based on. series of lines sung to imitate the inflection or normal
Themes would often involve the type of story that is sound of speech) and aria (a melodic expression of a
narrated through physical movement or the emotions character).
that the dancers wishes to convey. The word Opera itself is a derivative of the Latin word
Movement is the element of dance that can express the Opus or “work.”
inner state or condition of the content to its audience. Aria
Movement allows the audience to relate or “connect” Recitativo
with the performers as these movements are often Musicals
observed in everyday situations such as reactions, are theatrical performances that involves song and dance
moods, gestures, and facial expression. to a general theme and narrative.
The dynamics of movement can either be slow, fast, It integrates acting, singing, and dancing to convey
light, effortless, relaxed, sharp, or fluid. stories and emotions.
Music accompanies the general theme of dance by can often last from two 10-15 minute act, to several acts
providing rhythm and accentuation to the emotions that that would last for several hours.
is evoked by the movements of the dancers. a usual performance would have at least two acts,
Spectacle is the overall visual effect of dance to the divided by an intermission to allow the actors to rest and
audience. It includes the arrangement of movement set the props on stage.
(choreography), costumes, backdrop, or other props that Musicals differs from Operas in so far as there is a
would be utilized by the dancers. greater emphasis on spoken dialogue and the use of the
Ballet common language of the audience.
Comes from the Italian word ballo, which refers can sometimes be shot through film, and implemented in
to ballroom dances. various ways (i.e. animation, puppets, etc.).
It is a form of performance that expresses a narrative Musicals can also have elaborate choreography, props
through movement and dance. and stage setup.
The first actual ballet performance was entitled Cinema and Other Performing Art Forms
“Ballet Comique de la Reine,” it was produced in1581 Vaudeville
by Catherine Medici for her daughter in law. is a theatrical show that originated in Northern America
It narrated the story of Odysseus and his encounter during the 1880’s.
with the enchantress Circe. Vaudeville is the combination of musicals,
Ballet was formalized when Louis XIV commissioned slapstick comedy, and dancing.
Piere Beauchamps to report the contemporary foot and Vaudeville is the contemporary equivalent of a variety
arm positions and patterns of during this time. show.
Ballet was professionalized by Jean-Baptise Lully when The success of Vaudeville ended with the introduction of
the Royal Academy of Music and Dance was cinema and television in the 1930’s.
established. Cinema
Marie Ann de Camargo contributed to the contemporary Cinema began as a modern innovation of photography
design of ballet skirts (tutu) and slippers. taken continuously to depict motion.
Ballet emphasizes man’s conquest of the forces of The first films that were produced did not have included
nature, when the dancer overcomes the forces of gravity sound in it, thus requiring a narrator and a performer to
through leaping, floating motions on one’s toes, and the play some background music.
ability to maintain balance in one’s movements. Cinemas in the pre-war and post-war eras would show
Opera films that have news, information, and stories as part of
Opera is an art-form that narrates a story through a its program.
musical scoreand spoken words. Elements of Cinema
It is always dramatic and utilizes theatrical elements 1. Space - it is the sense of reality in which a film
such as props, costume, and stage acting. is shot, it involves scenery, time, and
The script or the narrative of a story in an opera is perspective.
referred to as a “libretto” or little book.
2. Scale -refers to the size of objects on the screen Parkour was created by Georges Hérbert, a French naval
and their relation to an area. A scene shot on the officer who traveled to Africa and admired the skills of
top of a skyscraper can make things look small, moving by its people.
while a close up shoot of an object or person can Hérbert had a vision on Parkour’s philosophy when he
reveal the smallest details. coordinated the evacuation of 700 people on Saint-Pierre
 Long-shot - is taken when the camera is far Martinique during a volcanic eruption.
away from the object, creating a wide That is "être fort pour être utile" (be strong to be useful).
perspective of the scene.
 Medium shot - is the shot that has an
average distance from the object, it captures
the details of the scene as well as the object
of the shoot.
 Close up - is positioned at a very close
distance to the object.

3. Lighting -is another means of giving the illusion

and depth of a scene, it also highlights certain
areas of scene or the object.
4. Shooting angle -is the perspective of the viewer
from the scene of the shoot. If taken below the
object it is a vertically upward shot, if taken at
an angel above the object it is a vertically
downward shot. Horizontal shots allow the
director to move the perspective closer or farther
from the object.
5. Time -allows the director shift play with the
drama of the scene. Slow motion shots are taken
to create dramatic effects (i.e. motion-blur),
while fast moving shoots allow speeding up the
scene (i.e. in fighting scenes or car chase
6. Montage - is done by cutting up several scenes
into one coherent logical order. This reduces the
time it takes to show a series of events without
leaving the audience wondering about what
actually happened. A montage would also make
use of transitions, editing effects, split screens,
and the like to emphasize change and progress.
Is a non-competitive discipline from France that is
intended to overcome any physical barrier in one’s
The goal of Parkour is to move about in an area
(preferably an urban environment), with very little
Parkour is a derivative of the French word “l'art du
déplacement” or the “art of movement.”