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Joining Technologies

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preparation for examination

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm


Fachgebiet Trennende und Fügende Fertigungsverfahren (tff)
Universität Kassel
Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3
34125 Kassel
Tel.: +49 561-804-3141
Fax: +49 561-804-2045
s.boehm@uni-kassel.de
http://www.tff-kassel.de 1
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 Define welding with pressure

Welding with pressure


welding in which sufficient external force is applied
to cause a greater or lesser degree of plastic
deformation of both the faying surfaces, generally
without the addition of filler metal [EN 14610:2004]

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 Classify the welding process by its purpose

Joining by welding
• Creation of a non-detachable joint between two or
more specimen by welding

Build-up welding
• Creation of a metal deposit on a specimen by
welding

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 What is the difference between soldering and brazing

soldering
Temperatures below 450 °C
brazing
Temperatures above 450 °C

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 Name the shown joint preparation (picture added)

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
6

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 Mark the throat thickness in a given fillet weld

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 What is the force distributaion for weld seam mostly advantegeous in
comparision to e.g. adhesive bonds?

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 What defines the joint geometry

The joint geometry is defined by:


Orientation of the specimen at joint
Seam preparation

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 Name the marked terminologie for the given joint (picture added)

10

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 Which welding position is shown in the picture given (picture added)

Vertical down PG

11

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 Draw a butt full penetration, close square weld seam and its preparation

12

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 Name four surface irregularities for weld seams

 Surface Irregularities

 Uneven weld ripples


 Excessive reinforcement
 Concave fillet, convex fillet weld
 Uneven-leg fillet weld
 Undercut
 Overlap
 Herringbone, Pock mark, mouse footmark
 Underfill 13

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
1. Introduction and weld geometries
 Which weld defects have long influcene on the weld strenght

If similar defects appear, the defects near to or on


the surface have a much higher impact on the
strength properties of the seam as the inner ones

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 For what is aluminothermic welding mainly used?

 aluminothermic welding is mainly


used for:
● Railway welding
● Welding big cast steel parts

15

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 What is the maximum temperature in a gas welding flame with acetylene

16

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Why is acetylene the most common gas for gas welding

Flame
Burning velocity power

8,5
330

methane methane

17

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 What ist the task of rectifiers (add other component) in a current source?
 AC rectifier
● Smoothes all parts of the current
● Build by several diodes

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Name the marked components of a blow pipe (picture added)

injector Oxygen valve


Oxygen
Mixing jet Pressure jet handle connection
Mixing tube

Union nut
connector
Welding nozzle Burning gas
Burning gas connection
Blowpipe insert valve

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Draw the current voltage curve of a constant voltage current source

 Constant voltage characteristic


Welding Voltage [V] ● Soft descending characteristic
Constant voltage characteristic ● To keep voltage constant
● High current changes

 Used for:
● MSG, electro slag, submerged arc
Welding current [A] welding (thin wires)

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Name three different arc appearances?

 Short arc
● Thin plates, joint penetration
groove welds for thick plates
 Transitional electric arc
● Unpredictable, rarely used – only
for PA and PB at medium sized
plates
 Spray arc and long arc
● High melting volume for medium
and thick sized plates for filler
beads and final pass
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 What is the application purpose of the short arc

 Short arc
● Thin plates, joint penetration
groove welds for thick plates
 Transitional electric arc
● Unpredictable, rarely used – only
for PA and PB at medium sized
plates
 Spray arc and long arc
● High melting volume for medium
and thick sized plates for filler
beads and final pass
22

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Name three types of electrode cover

symbol type

Acid coated

Basic coated

Cellulostic type coated

Rutil coated

Rutil acid coated

Rutil basic coated

Rutil cellulostic type coated

Thick Rutil coated

23

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Why temperature drops needs to be avoided for basic coated covered
electrodes ?

Basic coated
• High amount of earth alkali carbonates
• Sensitive to humidity
• Adsorbed energy in welds is higher
• Crack susceptibility is lower
 Hydrogen inside of the cover reduces the weldability a lot (cold cracks)
 If temperature drops, the humidify increases a lot, hence temperature drops
needs to be avoided
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 What are the tasks of the cover of an electrode?
 Improvement of the conductibility of the arc column
● Easier ignition

● Improved welding properties

 Formation of slag, which


● Influence the droplet size

● Protect the melted metal

● The formation of the bead

● Enhanced the cooling time

 Formation of shielding gas


● From organic substances
● From carbonates (e.g. CaCo3)

 Deoxidize and probably alloy up 25

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 What properties posses a basic covered electrode?

 Basic coated
● High amount of earth alkali
carbonates
● Sensitive to humidity
● Adsorbed energy in welds is higher
● Crack susceptibility is lower

26

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Name the components of an arc welding process (picture added)

27

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Name 6 Components of an MSG equipment

MSG Equipment:
• Power source
• Wire feeder
• Shielding gas
• Burner
• Arc length regulation
• Adjustment of the power source

28

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Name to shielding gases and their reaction behaviour. What does inert mean?

Relative Boiling point


Chemical Density Reaction
gas density at 0,101 Mpa
sign Kg/m³ behaviour
to air °C

Carbon dioxide oxidizing


oxygen oxidizing
nitrogen Sluggish in reaction
hydrogen reducing

29

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 What is the difference between solid wire and flux cored electrode?

 Solid wire electrode  Flux cored electrode


● Unalloyed, low alloyed and ● Rutil, basic and acid fill or
microalloyed steels
● Metal powder fill (for alloying)
● Stainless steels
● All alloys
● Heat resistant steels

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 at which intensity does heat conduction welding starts for laser beam welding?
Hardening Heat-conduction welding Deep welding

Laser beam
Metal vapor
melt
melt

3 dimensional 3 dimensional 3 dim.

Solid state Solid and liquid Solid, liquid and


state gaseous state

Remelting
Hardening Drilling cutting
alloying
normalizing deep welding 31
Heat-conduction welding
tempering alloying

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Name the components of the pictured pressure welding process (picture
added)

32

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Define shock welding

Shock welding
welding with pressure in which the workpieces
are welded by the application of a striking force.
The heat generated by the sudden collision
contributes to the welding

33

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
2. Welding processes
 Where the highest heating in resistance spot welding does takes place?

specimen specimen
electrode electrode

pressure pressure

Electric heating

R1<R2>R3
Needed contact resistance conditions
Current heating is highest at highest resistance

34

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What is refining and what is its purpose

Reduce the carbon, silicium, magnesium and


phosphor content in the melt
Cleaning of the melt

35

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What are the tasks of displacements in the recrystallization process?

 Nucleation of new grains and their


growth at higher temperatures
 Displacements are nucleation
points
 For recrystallation a critical degree
of deformation is needed

36

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What are the influencing factors on recrystallization?

Influenced by:
Degree of deformation
Temperature
time

37

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What is the difference between theoretical and practical cooling?
 Theoretical heating and cooling  Practical heating and cooling
● super cooling of the melt due to a
delay of the crystallization
processes
● Size and speed are dependent
from number of nuclei and speed of
grain growth
temperature temperature

Super cooling

38
time time

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What are the basic parts of metal alloys (phases)?

 At least two chemical elements, at


least one of them is a metal
(components of the alloy)
 Alloys consist of three basic parts
(phases)
● Pure elements
● Solid solutions
● Intermetallic compounds

 Phase by its own is homogeneous


 Mixed phases can be seen after
etching 39

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Draw a fully solutable two phase system from the following given cooling
curves.
temperature temperature
constantan

compounding

40

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Draw stationary iron carbonate diagram for steel until 2,06 % carbonite

41

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Order the grain structures by ascending cooling rate: Martensite, Iamellar
perlite, grained perlite

42

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What is the name of the cooling rate, at which martensite appears first?

At lower critical cooling rate martensite appears at


the first time in the microstructure

43

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Draw a typical cct diagram with the different microscopie structures

44

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Show the t8/5 time from the given cct diagram and for the marked curve.
(picture added)

45

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Why bainite microstructure does not appear in a welding process?

By isothem heat treatment fully bainite


microstructure can be formed, which is not possible
with continious cooling

46

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Draw the upper and lower critical cooling rate in the ttt diagram

47

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What is the difference between conventional ttt and welding ttt?

The differ from conventional TTT-diagrams by:


Higher austenite formation temperature
Higher cooling rates
Strictly they only apply for the HAZ, not for the
weld

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What is the impact of C, Cr, Ni to the fusion welding ability?

properties Alloying elements

Tensile strength
For normal
hardness
conditions
Yield point

elongation

Impact toughness

Cold forming

Deep drawing capability

forge ability

Pressure welding ability

Fusion welding ability

Slightly increasing properties Slightly decreasing properties


Increasing properties Decreasing properties
Highly increasing properties Highly decreasing properties
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Empty fields: no influence or not clear
Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Draw an i-Butt weld with the heat affected zone, name the different zones in
the weld seam and allocate them in the iron carbonate diagram
Impact of weld heat on the base material in the heat
affected zone (HEZ)

Weld bead
Incomplete melt

Over heating

normalizing

Incomplete recrystallization

recrystallization

Heat annealing
affected zone
zone 50

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Why preheating for weld seams is used?

Due to rapid cooling carbon rich alloys tend to


produce problems
in the red area a hard alloy can occur
Due to hardness and shrinking forces hot
cracks can occure
Solution: reduce temperature gradient by pre heating

51

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 Calculate the carbon equivalent for the given steel.

52

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What is the transition heat thickness? Define it with the given diagram:

Transition thickness

Equalization of both equitation give the transition Three dimensional


sheet thickness for 2D heat flow to 3D heat flow
Three dimensional

Two dimensional
Two dimensional

Heat input

53

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 In which part of a weld do solidification cracks, in which part liquiditation
cracks occur?

liquidation cracks
Thermal Weld
distortion deposid • Grain boundaries with low
Fusion line melting point can melt
and disperse on the
Solidification surface of grains
direction
Heat
affected
zone

Sodification cracks:
Model for the formation of solidification cracks • Tensile stress and low melting eutectic phases at
Grain boundaries
Black lines represent low melting phases the dendrite boundariesmelting cause a material
Model for liquidation crack formation in the base
segregation 54
material

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
3. Materials and their welding behaviour
 What are the impact factors on hot crack formation?

• Separation in
• Common metallurgical factors
• Metallurgical influences at welding high alloy
steel and austenitic steel
• Technological factors

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 What is the difference between destructive and non destructive testing

Measures for quality assurance in welding processes

Destructive testing Non destructive testing


+ Destruction free testing
+ 100% control possible
+ Process control + In process control
+ Experienced data + Direct correction of the process possible
+ high potential for cost reduction

− Unit costs (test waste) − Less experienced data and results from
− Destruction of the weld specimen series production process
− Time-consuming test for complex parts − Test system costs are high
− No direct access to the joining process − Physically complex processes
possible − Partly: bad automation
− Party: long testing times 56

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 Explain the non proportional elongation in a tensile test

tension

Non proportional
elongation elongation

Breaking elongation

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 Which parameters can be observed in a tensile test?

Yield + tensile Strength. Ultimate strain

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 What kind of body is used for the brinell hardness test?

Hardened steel ball

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 Why the RockweIl hardness test can be used for harder materials than the
brinell hardness test?

Advantages over Brinell:


Very hard body, hence very hard materials can
be tested
Small indentations enable the test of small
specimen, e.g. thin sheets
Higher accuracy due to clearness of display of
the diameters

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 Calculate the Vickers hardness from the given picture of the indentatiori and
name the value in full length. Given Parameters: Load = 30 kgf; time =15 s

61

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 What can be indentified with an technological fracture test?

 Used to determine the mechnical-technological properties of


welded components
 Enables the test of the deformability of weld joints

 Process
● Specimen mounted on rolls
● Mandrel pushes specimen

● Result: Angle of deformation until the first crack appears


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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 Name the general used methods for non destructive testing

Thermic processes

Processes with mechanical vibration

Processes with penetration radiation

63

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 Name three thermic non destructive testing methods

Impulse-Video-
Thermography

Reflextion
impulse
Thermografphy

Induction
thermography

Eddy current
thermography

Lock-In-
Thermography

US-Burst-Phase
Thermography

Imageing
vibrometriy

Strass analysis

64

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 When non destructive testing is used?

Non destructive testing is normally used:

• In safety related parts and components (aviation industrie)


• For expensive processes/ semi finished parts
• If welding is in the beginning of a long process chain
• For high quality requirements

65

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 Which radiation is used by thermography?

Infrared

66

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 Which principal is used for ultrasonic testing

• Probe is sending ultrasonic waves


• Probe is switched to reception to detect failures
• Run time of sound waves is proportional to the
distance in cm
• Calibration of cm possible, enables exact
measurement results

67

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 What is the difference of the reflection and the transmission process for
ultrasonic testing

One or two sides

68

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 How x-ray radiation is produced? What is the side effect?

1 – Kathode
2 – Glühwendel
3 – RichtungszylinderCathode
4 – Vakuumgefäß
5 – Führungszylinder Vacuum body
6 – Anode
Anode
7 – Wolframtarget Tugsten target
8 – Fenster window

99 % heat, 1 % x-ray radiation


69

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
4. Testing of weld seams
 How is 3D X-Ray inspection is called? "

3D CT

70

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 What are the influencing factors of the soldering process?

temperature Brazing fit

Soldering
process

wetting flux

71

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 Which physical principals are used for soldering

Solid specimen surfaces Liquid solder •diffusion


•alloying
•cooling

72

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 What are the surface conditions, so that no wetting takes place?

q = 180°
No wetting
EO >> E A
EA : adhesion energy

73

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 What is the purpose of flux

• Dissolution of the adsorption layer (gas, water)


• Remove oxides, sulfides and other reaction
products
• Dissolving of specimen substrate molecules and
start of the intermetallic joint building
• Protection for oxidization
• Assistance of the wetting

74

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 Which distance of solder gap is needed for braze welding?

75

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 How do you can classify soldering processes?
soldering
brazing
(high temperature brazing)
Working
temperatur
Applied solder
Soldering Insert solder
Solder
and brazing
feeding Dip soldering
processes and brazing

Energy carrier for solid


heating gas
liquid
radiation
Electrical current 76

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 Name the difference between soldering and brazing

77

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 What is the difference between direct and indirect resistance soldering?
indirect direct

electrode
(carrier)
specimen specimen
(e.g. Hard metal) Solder, fluxl Formed

Current source
electrode tip
(coal)
Solder, flux

Electrode
Current source tip
specimen (coal, thungsten)
Copper electrode
(e.g. steel)
Second
electrode 78
(carrier)
Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 Compare the following brazing processes (gas brazing, laser beam brazing)
for their difference in machine cost, productivity and achievable quality
Gas Current
Energy source: Laser oven induction (Resistanc
flame
)
Machine costs
portability
Energy density
Soldering time
flexibility
Process
factors
handling
quality

Braze ability of large parts


Sheet part
Massive part

Profitability of small / big massive parts


Job shop
Mass
production
Profitability of small / big massive parts
Job shop
Mass
production
Very high high medium Low Very low
79

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 What brazeability does depend on?

Joint materials
brazeability Solder materials
flux

80

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 What you have to look for, when you design a brazing fit?

 Design of the brazing fit


● Normally parallel for a constant gap thickness
● Keep maximum and minimum width
● Brazing fit shall not grow in solder flux direction (avoid
capillary flow break)
● Maximum brazing fit length 15 mm (to have sufficient
capillary pressure)
● Tool marks in solder flow direction

81

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 What is the main disadvantage of soldering

 Soldering has a low strength


 Pretreatment of specimen needs to be done with care
 Strength decrease at high temperatures
 Risk of corrosion at solder joints
 Flux inclusions
 Intensive post treatment of joint areas necessary

82

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 What failures do you know for solder joints

• Huge soldering areas increases


defects, like pores, gas- and flux
inclusions, and unheated areas

83

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 How the used area affects a solder connection?

More area more strength

84

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 Why braze welding is normally the more expensive process?

• Higher temperature higher cost

85

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 Why joint strength can be stronger than the solder strength?

Alloys are often higher strenght than solder

86

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
5. Soldering processes
 Advantages of the solder process?

• Combination of different materials (especially


metals)
• Low heat input
• Low distortion at soldering and brazing
• Good electric conductivity
• Jointing of parts with different thicknesses
• Easily automatable

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Thank you for your attention!

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes

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