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Joining Technologies

-
Welding processes and equipment

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm


Fachgebiet Trennende und Fügende Fertigungsverfahren (tff)
Universität Kassel
Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3
34125 Kassel
Tel.: +49 561-804-3141
Fax: +49 561-804-2045
s.boehm@uni-kassel.de
http://www.tff-kassel.de 1
Agenda

 Introduction

 Welding processes and welding equipment

 Materials and their weldability

 Manufacturing and Testing

 Soldering processes

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Basic terms and definitions
 metal welding  welding with pressure
● operation which unifies metal(s) by ● welding in which sufficient external
means of heat or pressure, or both, force is applied to cause a greater
in such a way that there is or lesser degree of plastic
continuity in the nature of the deformation of both the faying
metal(s) which has (have) been surfaces, generally without the
joined addition of filler metal
 fusion welding
● welding without application of
external force in which the faying
surface(s) has (have) to be molten;
usually, but not necessarily, molten
filler metal is added

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Welding Processes and Equipment by energy carrier,
according to (EN 14610:2004) – content of lecture
 Fusion welding, energy carrier:  Welding with pressure, energy
carrier:

● Solid body ● Solid body

● Liquid ● Liquid

● Gas ● Gas

● Electric discharge ● Electric discharge

● Radiation ● Radiation

● Movement of a mass ● Movement of mass

● Electric current ● Electric current

● unspecified ● unspecified

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Fusion welding

5
Energy carrier liquid

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier liquid

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 aluminothermic welding is mainly Length ca. 2min animation
used for:
● Railway welding
● Welding big cast steel parts

 Reactions
● Fe2O3 + 2Al  Al2O3 + 2Fe + 783 kJ or
● 3Fe3O4 + 8Al  4Al2O3 + 9Fe + 3012 kJ
8

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier gas

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Variants of gas welding:
● oxy-acetylene welding
– gas welding where the fuel gas is acetylene

● oxy-propane welding
– gas welding where the fuel gas is propane

● oxy-hydrogen welding
– gas welding where the fuel gas is hydrogen

10

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Autogenous technology
 Autogenic means to treat or heat a workpiece with a flame. The terminology
Autogenous technology incorporates different processes:
● Flame straightening
● Flame heating
● Flame hardening
● Flame cleaning
● Thermal cutting of concrete
● Gas welding
● Soldering and brazing
● Flame cutting
● Flame gouging
11

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
gases

hydrogen
acetylen

nitrogen
oxygen
propan

argon
domestic
Air

 Density of different gases


12

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
gases

Flame Ignition Flame


temperature temperature Burning velocity power

640

2770

8,5
330

methane methane methane methane

13

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Acetylene

 Indicator
 Safety installations
 Pressure regulator
 Closure
 Fill
● Porous fill to store acetylene

14

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Acetylene
carbide water

Lime slurry acetylene heat

carbide water acetylene Lime slurry heat

15

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Acetylene

 Special properties, that are


important for the application
● At higher pressure and
temperatures above 300 C
acetylene degrades under excess
amount of heat. Thus operating
pressure is limited to 1,5 bar
● Copper alloys (copper > 70%) form
an explosive bond with acetylene,
hence heating copper with
acetylene is limited

16

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Explosion boarders different flame gases

oxygen

hydrogen

oxygen hydrogen

oxygen

oxygen

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Flame
Flame core Flame cone Working zone Spread flame

Specimen orientation

Flame temperature

Flame direction 18

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Flame

aluminum
Cast iron
material

Copper

brass

steel
Acetylene Normal Oxygen
excess (neutral) excess
flame flame flame

+ - - + -

o + - o +

- - + - -
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
blowpipe
 Injector-type blowpipe
● Oxygen is blown through the
injector with a high velocity
● Oxygen flow causes a
unterpressure which suck in the
burnable gas
● Mixing of both gases
● Burning outside of the blowpipe

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
blowpipe

oxygen oxygen

Burning gas Burning gas

 Pressure Blowpipe:
● Feeding the blowpipe with similar pressures of both gases
– Mixing chamber

– Outer mixing 21

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
blowpipe

injector Oxygen valve


Oxygen
Mixing jet Pressure jet handle connection
Mixing tube

Union nut
connector
Welding nozzle Burning gas
Burning gas connection
Blowpipe insert valve

 Model of an injection blowpipe


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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 electro technology
 The Arc
 Power sources
 Burner
 Welding processes

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Arc, Voltage, Resistance
 Ohm’s law
 Parallel circuit and connection in
series
 Capacity and capacitor
 Inductivity and inductor
 Magnetism
 Transformator
 Diode and flow straightener

Voltage reduction cause by power supply line


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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Connection in series

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Parallel circuit

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Electric work

Electric heating

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Capacitor

● Charging with ac
charging
● Time shift of current and voltage
discharging
● Current leads voltage

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Inductivity, Coil

Current ● Time shift of current and voltage


switch on Current ● Voltage leads current
switch off

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Transformation law

 U1: primary voltage [V]


 U2: secondary voltage [V]
 N1: primary winding
 N2: secondary winding
 I1: primary current
 I2: secondary current

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Universal induction law

 U2: induced current


 Δϕ: magnetic flux alteration
 ΔT: time
 N2: seconday winding

 ONLY for AC! You need a


change in magnetic flux 31

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Rectifier
 Diode  AC rectifier
● Just allow’s the current flow in one ● Smoothes all parts of the current
direction
● Build by several diodes
● Smoothes the current

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
AC Current source
Current transformer Welding current

Welding Voltage

Inductor with changeable inductivity

Current transformer Welding current

Welding Voltage

Inductor with changeable inductivity

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
AC current source principle

34

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Welding and soldering processes
Covered electrode
Core
Shielding gas
Droplet transfer
of metal and slag
arc

35

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
The Arc
Arc formation Ionization and dissociation
 Air is a bad conductor, hence
normally no current flows between
electric poles if they are separated
by air
 Is the distance between the poles
short, an electric discharge and
hence formation of an arc happens
Under welding circumstances
 This results in dissociation of
molecules and ionization of metals
 At high temperatures thermal
emission of electrons takes place
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
The Arc
 Due to the free ions and electrodes
a current between the electric poles
flow.
anode cathode  Due to the current flow a plasma
occurs
 Plasma is a aggregate state where:
● atoms
● molecules
● ions
● electrons
appear simultaneously
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Ignition of the arc

 Contact ignition  High frequency ignition


● High current and melting at contact ● Formation of a spark gaps
● Formation of metal vapor, which is ● Pre ionization of the air
easy to ionize
● Contactless arc formation
● Formation of thermodynamically
equilibrium
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Kind of current and polarity
AC DC
 Change of polarity with the  Continuous burning arc (except
frequency of the current short circuits)

 Re-Ignition of the arc twice as  Polarity depends on the welding


much as the frequency tasks and may change for different
processes

 Polarity has no influence, hence it


is changing  Possibility of arc blow

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Arc current-voltage curve

Voltage [V]  Temperatures


Ayrtonic area ● Metal arc: 6.000 °C

Ohmic area
● Plasma: 30.000 °C

Long arc  Ayrtonic area is not used for


welding

Short arc
 Ohmic area shows a gain in
Working point
voltage at higher currents

Current [A]

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Arc length

Cathode (-) Anode (+)

Arc column or
plasma
Anode spot
Cathode spot
Cathode fall Arc column or plasma

Arc plasma

Anode fall

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Droplet transfer

 Droplet transfer is caused by


physical and electromagnetic
forces, mainly
● Expanding gases (e.g. CO2 at
covered electrodes
● Reducing surface tension due to
lowering the viscosity by
temperature increase
● Transfer with the short circuit
● Pinch-effect (next slide)

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Magnetic forces
 Lorentz forces constrict the
electrode (pinch force)
 Reducing the area increases
current density
 Instant droplet transfer
● Results in spray arc with fine
droplets

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Current source characteristics and arc
characteristics

45
arc characteristics
 Arc characteristics shows the
relation between arc voltage and
Voltage [V]
arc current
 The appearance is influenced by
Ayrtonic area
● Welding current
Ohmic area
● Arc length (~ to arc voltage)
Long arc
● Shape, material and surface of
cathode and anode
Short arc
● Ionization of arc column
Working point

Current [A]

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
arc characteristics
 Welding normally takes place in the
ohmic area above 50 A welding
current
Voltage [V]
 In the ohmic area the arc nearly
Ayrtonic area behaves like an ohmic resistance
Ohmic area  Arc voltage decreases linear inside
Long arc
the plasma
● Long arc has higher arc voltage

Short arc ● Short arc has lower arc voltage


Working point

Current [A]

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Current source characteristics
 Constant current characteristic
● Hard descending characteristic
Welding Voltage [V]
● Keep welding energy constant
Constant current characteristic (U*I*t)
● High voltage changes

 Used for:
● Electrode, WIG, Plasma and
submerged arc welding (thick
Welding current [A] wires)

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Constant voltage characteristic
Welding Voltage [V] ● Soft descending characteristic
Constant voltage characteristic ● To keep voltage constant
● High current changes

 Used for:
● MSG, electro slag, submerged arc
Welding current [A] welding (thin wires)

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Working point and arc length
 Working point (0) is determined by
Welding Voltage [V] ● Current source characteristic
● Arc characteristic

Current source characteristic


 Along the arc characteristic the arc
length can change to
● Short (2)
● Long (1)

 Compensation of the arc length by


Arc characteristic
correction of the arc (e.g. changing
Welding current [A]
distance to weld pool)

50

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Adjust the arc length at constant voltage characteristic
 Increase of Voltage does not
increase the melting performance a
Welding Voltage [V]
lot (1)
 Increase of the current increases
Current source characteristic the melting performance (2)
● E.g. by adjusting the feed of the
filler wire
 Alternative: new characteristic with
new feeding parameters (3)
Arc characteristic

Welding current [A]


 Melting Performance: W=U*I*t

51

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Adjust the arc length Constant current characteristic
 Adjustment of the arc length by
changing the feed of the filler wire
Welding Voltage [V]

Current source characteristic ● Reduction of feed leads to a longer


arc (0 to 1)
● Increase of current by adjustment
of the characteristic (0 to 2)
● Reduction of arc length by
adjusting the feed (3)

Arc characteristic

Welding current [A]

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Performance range for arc

Rotational arc
Spray arc

Impulse arc
Long arc

Short arc

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Application areas for different arcs
 Short arc  Magnetic force on a drop depends
● Thin plates, joint penetration
on the shielding gas
groove welds for thick plates
 Transitional electric arc
● Unpredictable, rarely used – only
for PA and PB at medium sized
plates
 Spray arc and long arc Argon Carbon dioxide

● High melting volume for medium


and thick sized plates for filler
beads and final pass

54

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 Arc welding
● Fusion welding process using an electric arc

 Metal-arc welding
● Arc welding processes using a consumable electrode

 Metal-arc welding without gas protection


● Metal-arc welding processes in which no external shielding gas is used

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 Manual metal-arc welding

● Manually operated metal-arc


welding using a covered electrode

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 Gravity welding with covered electrode


● Metal-arc welding using a covered electrode supported by a mechanism which
allows the electrode to descend under gravity 57

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Electrode holder Covered electrode (core and wrapping)

Arc (Ignition by short circuit)

Work piece

58

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Tasks of electrode cover
 Improvement of the conductibility of the arc
Size and current for covered electrodes
column (examples)
● Easier ignition
Diameter Length current rule of thumb
d l I for current
● Improved welding properties
[A]
 Formation of slag, which
● Influence the droplet size

● Protect the melted metal

● The formation of the bead

● Enhanced the cooling time

 Formation of shielding gas


● From organic substances
● From carbonates (e.g. CaCo3)

 Deoxidize and probably alloy up 59

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Acid coated
● High amount of iron oxide
symbol type ● Fine droplet transfer
Acid coated
● Flat and smooth seams
Basic coated

Cellulostic type coated  Basic coated


Rutil coated
● High amount of earth alkali
Rutil acid coated carbonates
Rutil basic coated
● Sensitive to humidity
Rutil cellulostic type coated

Thick Rutil coated ● Adsorbed energy in welds is higher


● Crack susceptibility is lower

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Cellulosic coated
● High amount of organic substances
symbol type ● Intensive arc allows welding in PD
Acid coated position
Basic coated
 Rutil coated
Cellulostic type coated

Rutil coated ● Thick droplet transfer


Rutil acid coated ● Good for welding thin plates
Rutil basic coated

Rutil cellulostic type coated


 Thick Rutil coated
Thick Rutil coated ● Good reigniting of arc
● Smooth weld surface

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 RA
● Similar to A
symbol type ● Useable for all positions, except PD
Acid coated
 Rb
Basic coated

Cellulostic type coated ● Similar to B


Rutil coated
● Useable for all positions, except PD
Rutil acid coated

Rutil basic coated


 RC
Rutil cellulostic type coated ● Useable for all positions, especially
Thick Rutil coated PD

62

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Melting
performance

High
performance
electrodes

Basic
coated Thick coated

Medium coated

A and R electrodes

Welding current
Performance of electrodes
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Rel. humidity

Days at humid air [days] Period of storage (days)

 Hydrogen inside of the cover reduces the weldability a lot (cold cracks)
 If temperature drops, the humidify increases a lot, hence temperature drops
needs to be avoided
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 tubular cored arc welding without shielding gas


● metal-arc welding using a tubular-cored electrode without external shielding gas

65

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 submerged arc welding


● metal-arc welding in which one or more wire electrode(s) or strip electrode(s) are
sed, the arc(s) being completely enveloped by molten slag which fuses from the
granular flux that is deposited loosely
66

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)
 Variants of submerged arc welding
● Submerged arc welding with one wire electrode
– submerged arc welding using a single wire electrode

● submerged arc welding with strip electrode


– submerged arc welding using a bare or cored strip electrode

● submerged arc welding with multiple wire electrode


– submerged arc welding using more than one wire electrode

● Submerged arc welding with metallic powder addition


– submerged arc welding using one or more wire electrodes with the addition of metallic
powder
● submerged arc welding with tubular-cored electrodes
– submerged arc welding using one or more tubular electrodes
67

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 gas-shielded metal-arc welding


● metal-arc welding using a wire electrode in which the arc and the weld pool are
shielded from the atmosphere by a shroud of gas supplied from an external
source
68

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)
 Variants of gas-shielded metal-arc welding
● metal inert gas welding, MIG welding
– gas-shielded metal-arc welding in which the shielding is provided by an inert gas, e. g.
argon or helium
● metal active gas welding, MAG welding
– gas-shielded metal-arc welding in which the shielding is provided by a chemically active
gas
● tubular (flux)-cored metal-arc welding with active gas shield
– metal-arc active gas welding using a tubular (flux)-cored electrode

● tubular (flux)-cored metal-arc welding with inert gas shield


– metal-arc inert gas welding using a tubular (flux)-cored electrode

● plasma MIG welding


– combination of MIG welding and plasma arc welding 69

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 MSG Equipment:
● Power source
● Wire feeder
● Shielding gas
● Burner
● Arc length regulation
● Adjustment of the power source

70

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Burner and
cable
Shielding assembly
gas
Filler wire

Current
source

71

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Conventional current source Analogue transistorize source

Secondary clocked current source Primary clocked current source 72

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Wire feeding unit parts:
Pressure roll:

Wire guide nozzle:

Wire guide nozzle:


Wire straightener:
Spool with break Wire feeder:

Screw to adjust
pressure: Pressure roll: Wire guide nozzle:

Wire guide nozzle: Screw to adjust pressure:

Wire guide nozzle:


Wire feeder:

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Gas quantity adjustment by floated  Gas adjustment by manometer
element ● Pressure tube measures flow rate
● Measurement by height of floated
element

Measuring tube with floated element Bottle manometer Gas flow manometer

Bottle manometer

Regulating valve
Regulating valve

74

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Burner components

Tube package Torch neck


Burner handle

Burner head

 Components of a burner

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Burner head components

Gas Feeding
Filler wire
nozzle spirale

Contact Current
Gas Liquid
tube isolation contact
supply coolant
mount tube
76

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Arc length regulation
 Regulation of the acr length bei
inner regulation
 Melting work: P =U*I*t
 Longer arc – less melting (2)
 Shorter arc – more melting (3)
 Regulation by ΔI

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Classification of shielding gas
Properties of gas components Main groups
 I: Inert gases and inert mixed
gases
 M1, M2, M3: Oxidizing mixed gases with
Chemical Density
Relative Boiling point
Reaction
oxygen and carbon dioxide
gas density at 0,101 Mpa
sign Kg/m³ behaviour
to air °C
 C Hard oxidizing mixed gases
 R Reducing gases
Carbon dioxide oxidizing
oxygen oxidizing
 N Gases and mixed gases
nitrogen Sluggish in reaction
hydrogen reducing
which are sluggish in
reaction
 O oxygen
 Z Mixed gases with other
gases
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Heat conductivity Welding voltage Arc length

temperature Welding current


79

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Welding and soldering processes
Gas consumption wire feed

Rate of deposition
Filler wire diameter
Needed gas flow
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Welding and soldering processes
Shielding gas
Sluggish in
oxidizing inert reducing reaction

reactiveness

81

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Welding and soldering processes
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Gases for WIG-Welding

Short term Materials

I1 High and low alloy steel, aluminum-alloys, nonferrus metals

High alloy steel (fully mechanized with hydrogen content over 5% in


R1
Argon), nickel based alloys

I2 Negative pole welding of aluminium (fully mechanized)

I3 Aluminum, Copper, Nickel based alloys, AC welding of Aluminum

I1 Gas sensitive alloys (e.g. titanium, tantalum, niobium)

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Gases for MIG welding Gases for MAG welding
Short Short
materials materials
term term
Aluminum and its alloys, High alloyed steels, partly low
I1, I2 M1
Magnesium, Titanium and unalloyed steels
I3 Copper and its alloys Low and unalloyed steels, fine
M2, M3 grained steel, creep resistant
steels, low temperature steels
C1 Low and unalloyed steels

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Solid wire electrode  Flux cored electrode
● Unalloyed, low alloyed and ● Rutil, basic and acid fill or
microalloyed steels
● Metal powder fill (for alloying)
● Stainless steels
● All alloys
● Heat resistant steels

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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 Electrogas welding
● gas-shielded metal-arc welding using a wire electrode to deposit metal into the
weld pool, which is retained in the joint by cooled shoes which move progressively
upwards as the weld is made
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Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)
 Gas-shielded welding with non-consumable electrode
● Tungsten Inert Gas welding
● Tungsten active gas welding
● Plasma arc welding
– Plasma arc welding with transferred arc

– Plasma arc welding with non transferred arc

– Plasma arc welding with semi-transferred arc

– Powder plasma arc welding

87

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 tungsten inert gas welding, TIG welding


● gas-shielded arc welding using a non-consumable, pure or activated tungsten
electrode in which the arc and the weld pool are protected by a shroud of inert gas
– Fillermaterial optional
88

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 plasma arc welding with transferred arc


● plasma arc welding in which the electrical power supply is connected between
electrode and workpiece

89

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 plasma arc welding with non-transferred arc


● plasma arc welding in which the electrical power supply is connected between
electrode and nozzle thus producing a plasma jet

90

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 plasma arc welding with semi-transferred arc


● plasma arc welding where the arc switches between transferred and non-
transferred

91

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge (especially electric arc)

 powder plasma arc welding


● plasma-arc welding with transferred arc and metallic powder feeding

92

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Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: radiation

93
 laser welding
● fusion welding using a coherent beam of monochromatic light

94

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Variants of laser welding
● Solid state laser welding
– laser welding in which the lasing medium is a solid state crystal

● Gas laser welding


– laser welding in which the lasing medium is a gas

95

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Adsorption depending on the light wave length
Degree of adsorption

wavelength
96

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Intensities and deep welding effect
Hardening Heat-conduction welding Deep welding

Laser beam
Metal vapor
melt
melt

3 dimensional 3 dimensional 3 dim.

Solid state Solid and liquid Solid, liquid and


state gaseous state

Remelting
Hardening Drilling cutting
alloying
normalizing deep welding
Heat-conduction welding
tempering alloying

97

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Laser beam

Metal vapor

melt
Weld depth

Multiple
Heat-conduction Deep welding reflection
welding
Vapor capillary

intensity

98

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 electron beam welding
● fusion welding using a focused beam of electrons

99

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 Variants of electron beam welding

● electron beam welding performed in vacuum

● electron beam welding performed in atmosphere

100

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Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: current

101
 electroslag welding
● fusion welding using the combined effects of current and electrical resistance in a
consumable electrode, or electrodes, and a conducting bath of molten slag
through which the electrode passes into the molten pool, both the pool and the
slag bath being retained in the joint by cooled shoes which move progressively
102
upwards
Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier umspecified
 Hybrid welding
● Welding in which two or more welding processes are used together in the weld
area
● Example:
– Laser-MSG-hybrid welding

– Laser-WIG-Hybrid

103

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Laser-WIG-Hybrid welding

Laser beam
 Enlargement of the weld volume

electrode
 Deep weld effect
 Adjustable process

Laser induced  Filler wire possible


Metal vapor
arc
 Low heat input
 High efficiency
Vaporarc
capillary

Melting zone
104

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Welding with pressure

105
Welding Processes and Equipment by energy carrier,
according to (EN 14610:2004)
 Fusion welding, energy carrier:  Welding with pressure, energy
carrier:

● Solid body ● Solid body

● Liquid ● Liquid

● Gas ● Gas

● Electric discharge ● Electric discharge

● Radiation ● Radiation

● Movement of a mass ● Movement of mass

● Electric current ● Electric current

● unspecified ● unspecified

106

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: solid body
 heated element welding
● welding with pressure processes where the workpieces are heated by the heating
tool in the area of the joint to be made
 heated wedge welding
 heated nozzle welding
 nail head welding

107

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 heated wedge welding
● Heated element welding by means of a heated wedge

108

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 heated nozzle welding
● heated element welding by means of a heated nozzle

109

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 nail head welding
● a variant of heated nozzle welding in which the end of one or two wires which has
been fed through the nozzle and heated by a flame or electric discharge, forms a
small globule, which under the effect of the applied force is flattened into the
shape of a nail head 110

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: liquid

 flow welding with pressure


● Welding with pressure where the joint assembly is in a mould and molten metal is
poured over the surfaces to be welded until the joint is made

111

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: gas

 oxy-fuel gas welding with pressure


● Welding with pressure in which the workpieces are heated at the faying surfaces
by an oxy-fuel gas flame and the weld is made by applying a force without
addition of filler metal. The assembly may be of the open or closed type
112

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge

 magnetically impelled arc butt welding


● arc welding with pressure in which an arc, impelled by a magnetic field, moves
along the joint, heating the faying surfaces which are then brought together by a
force and welded
 percussion welding
● welding with pressure employing the heat from an arc produced by a rapid
discharge of electrical energy. Pressure is applied percussively during or
immediately following the electrical discharge.

113

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge

 drawn-arc stud welding with ceramic ferrule or shielding gas


● percussion welding of a stud the tip of which is initially in contact with the
workpiece; the discharge is ignited by lifting the tip and is shielded by a ceramic
ferrule or gas
114

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge

 capacitor discharge drawn-arc stud welding


● arc stud welding of a pin-shaped element (stud) where an arc, generated by a
high-current discharge from a capacitor, burns between stud and workpiece

115

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric discharge

 capacitor discharge stud welding with tip ignition


● percussion welding of a stud where the arc is ignited by the melting and
vaporisation through high intensity current, of a specially shaped tip of the stud

116

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Definitions
 Cold welding  Friction welding
● welding with pressure in which ● welding with pressure in which the
continuous pressure alone is used, interfaces are heated by friction
producing considerable plastic normally by rotating one or both
deformation workpieces in contact with each
other or by means of a separate
 Shock welding rotating friction element; the weld is
● welding with pressure in which the completed by an upset force,
workpieces are welded by the generally after rotation has ceased
application of a striking force. The
heat generated by the sudden
collision contributes to the welding

117

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass
 cold welding with pressure  friction welding
● cold upset welding ● continuous drive friction welding
● cold pressure extrusion welding ● inertia friction welding

 shock welding ● orbital friction welding

● explosive welding ● radial friction welding

● magnetic impulse welding ● forge welding


● ultrasonic welding
● ultrasonic hot welding
● friction stir welding

118

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 cold upset welding


● Cold welding with pressure in which dies are used as jaws to provide the required
deformation and flow

119

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 cold pressure extrusion welding


● cold welding with pressure using a special extrusion die

120

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 explosive welding
● shock welding in which the workpieces are welded when impacted together by the
detonation of an explosive charge
●  could be used to clad tubes as well 121

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 magnetic impulse welding


● shock welding in which a high current impulse passing through a coil surrounding
the workpieces produces a magnetic field which exerts the welding force

122

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 continuous drive friction welding


● friction welding using constant speed rotation

123

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass
 inertia friction welding
● friction welding where the rotational
energy is stored in a fly wheel; thus
the rotational speed decreases
continuously

124

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 orbital friction welding


● friction welding in which an orbital motion is produced at the weld interface by
rotating both the workpieces at the same speed in the same direction but
displacing the axis of rotation of one workpiece slightly with respect to the other
125

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 radial friction welding


● friction welding in which a shaped ring is rotated and radially compressed onto
two circular hollow sections in such a manner that a joint is formed a)

126

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 forge welding
● welding with pressure in which the workpieces are heated in air in a forge and the
weld is made by applying blows or some other impulsive force sufficient to cause
permanent deformation at the interfaces
127

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 ultrasonic welding
● welding with pressure in which mechanical vibrations of high frequencies and of
low amplitude, superimposed on a static force, make a weld between the two
workpieces to be joined at a temperature well below the melting point of the
material 128

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 ultrasonic hot welding


● ultrasonic welding in which the anvil is heated separately during the welding
operation

129

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: movement of a mass

 friction stir welding


● viscoplastic phase butt welding with pressure, using heat generated by friction
between a rotating non-consumable tool and the workpieces

130

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: electric current
 resistance welding  Processes
● welding with pressure in which the – seam welding with strip
heat necessary for welding is – foil butt-seam welding
produced by resistance to an
electrical current flowing through ● projection welding
the welding zone ● resistance butt welding
 Processes: ● flash welding
● spot welding ● HF resistance welding (high
frequency resistance welding)
● seam welding
– lap seam welding
● induction welding

– mash seam welding ● resistance stud welding

131

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 spot welding
● resistance welding in which the weld is produced at a spot in the workpieces
between spot welding electrodes, the weld being of approximately the same area
as the electrode tips
132

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
specimen specimen

electrode electrode

pressure pressure

Electric heating

R1<R2>R3
Needed contact resistance conditions
Current heating is highest at highest resistance

 Principal of resistance spot welding:


● Heating at the position with the highest Ohmic resistance 133

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 (Resistance) spot welding
● resistance welding in which the weld is produced at a spot in the workpieces
between spot welding electrodes, the weld being of approximately the same area
as the electrode tips
134

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 seam welding
● resistance welding in which force is applied continuously and current continuously
or intermittently to produce a linear weld, the work pieces being placed between
two electrode wheels or an electrode wheel and an electrode bar
135

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 lap seam welding
● seam welding to produce an overlap joint

136

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 mash seam welding
● seam welding of two workpieces of similar thickness, where the overlap
determines the width of the weld so that the ultimate thickness of the workpiece at
the weld approximates to that of one component
137

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 seam welding with strip
● lap seam welding using a contact strip on one side or both sides of the lapping
workpieces

138

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 foil butt-seam welding
● seam welding of two close square butted work pieces with metal tape placed or
fed centrally to bridge both sides of the joint

139

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 projection welding
● resistance welding in which the force and current are localized by the use of a
projection or projections raised on or formed from one or more of the faying
surfaces, the projections collapsing during welding
140

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 resistance butt welding
● resistance welding in which the components are butted together under pressure
before heating is started. Pressure is maintained and current is allowed to flow
until the welding temperature is reached at which point upset metal is produced
141

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 flash welding
● resistance welding during which heating is obtained when the workpieces are
progressively and repeatedly advanced towards each other, causing the current to
flow through localized points, thus creating flashing and expulsion of molten metal
142

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 HF resistance welding (high frequency resistance welding)
● resistance welding in which alternating current of at least 10 kHz is fed through
mechanical contacts or induced by an inductor in the workpiece to provide the
heat for welding
143

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 induction welding
● welding with pressure in which the heat is obtained from the resistance of the
workpieces to induced electric current

144

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 resistance stud welding
● stud welding using projection welding

145

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Energy carrier: unspecified

 diffusion welding
● welding with pressure whereby the workpieces are kept in contact under specified
continual pressure and are heated either on their faying surfaces, or in their
entirety at a defined temperature over a controlled time
146

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 roll welding
● welding with pressure in which a force is progressively applied by mechanically
operated rolls after heating by different means

147

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
 roll cladding
● welding with pressure in which the union between a parent and cladding material
is obtained after heating the workpieces and by the subsequent application of
mechanically operated rolls
148

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes
Thank you for your attention!

149

Joining Technologies
Welding and soldering processes