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Adhesive Bonding Technologies

Chapter 2: Polymer Chemistry and


Bonding Mechanism‘s

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm

Source: Wikipedia
Agenda

 Basic Concepts of Chemistry

 Introduction to Polymers

 Classifications of Plastics

 Formation Reactions

 Adhesion and Cohesion

2
Basic Concepts in Chemistry & Bonding Forces
 All known materials, whether hard, fluid or gaseous, are made of atoms.
 An atom is the smallest piece in the material that can be presented as a
purely chemical element.
 Subdivision: Atomic nucleus (Nucleus) and electron shell

Particles Where? Charge


Electron, e Shell -1
Proton, p Nucleus +1
Neutron, n Nucleus 0

3
Atomic Structure
 The number of protons and electrons within an atom is always the same
 The electrons are on orbits or shells that are positioned around the
nucleus

or

Orbits Shells
4
Atomic Structure
 Criteria for the structure

The 1st orbit only has room for 2 electrons !!

The others offer


Hydrogen Helium Lithium
room for 8 e !!!

Sodium

Lithium Beryllium Neon

5
Classification of Atoms – The Periodic Table
Hauptgruppe
Periode

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Number of order 92 2
1 2,1 H - He
Wasserstoff
Electro negativity 1,4 U Symbol
Helium
Uran Name
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 1,0 Li 1,5 Be 2,0 B 2,5 C 3,0 N 3,5 O 4,0 F - Ne
Lithium Beryllium Bor Kohlenstoff Stickstoff Sauerstoff Fluor Neon
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
3 0,9 Na 1,2 Mg 1,5 Al 1,8 Si 2,1 P 2,5 S 3,0 Cl - Ar
Natrium Magnesium Aluminium Silizium Phosphor Schwefel Chlor Argon
19 20 31 32 33 34 35 36
4 0,8 K 1,0 Ca 1,6 Ga 1,8 Ge 2,0 As 2,4 Se 2,8 Br - Kr
Kalium Calcium Gallium Germanium Arsen Selen Brom Krypton
37 38 49 50 51 52 53 54
5 0,8 Rb 1,0 Sr 1,7 In 1,8 Sn 1,9 Sb 2,1 Te 2,5 I - Xe
Rubidium Strontium Indium Zinn Antimon Tellur Iod Xenon
55 56 81 82 83 84 85 86
6 0,7 Cs 0,9 Ba 1,8 Tl 1,8 Pb 1,9 Bi - Po - At - Rn
Caesium Barium Thallium Blei Bismut Polonium Astat Radon

6
Types of Bonds – Chemical bonds

 When using adhesive bonding, three types of chemical bonds mainly occur.

Chemical Bonds
Primary Valence Bonds
Covalent Bond
Homopolar Bond

Ionic Bond
Heteropolar Bond

Metallic Bond

7
Covalent Bonds
 All atoms strive to fill their outer orbits/shell with electrons
 Therefor, only the outer electrons (valence electrones) are important when
forming bonds

Carbon Phosphorus

8
Covalent Bonds
 An atom shares an electron with its bonding partner so that both profit from
the other

H-Atom H-Atom

H-Molecule
H2
9
Covalente Bonds
 Also called homopolar bond because the bonding electrons equally
belong to both bonding partners
 Bond occurs between non-metals
– Range of the bonding force: 0.1 – 0.2 nm

– Bonding energy: 60 – 1100 kJ/mol


Bonding energy: 413 kJ/mol
Bonding length: 0,108 nm

Bonding energy: 614 kJ/mol Bonding energy: 811 kJ/mol


Bonding length: 0,134nm Bonding length: 0,12 nm

10
Ionic Bonds
 Often between metals and non-metals
 Example: Sodium and Chlorine

Sodium-Atom Chlorine-Atom Sodium-Ion, Na+ Chlorine-Ion, Cl-


1 Valence-Electron 7 Valence-Electrons 8 Valence-Electrons 8 Valence-Electronen

11
Ionic Bonds
 Electrostatic interaction leads to a three dimensional formation of a
cristal lattice, ions are organised evenly

12
Ionic Bonds
 Also called heteropolar bonds as bonding elements are not distributed
evenly.
 Based on electrostatic attraction between negatively and positively charged
ions
● Range of the forces: 0.1 – 0.2 nm
● Bonding energy: 600 – 4000 kJ/mol
● Plays a tangential role as regards the
bonding forces

13
Metallic Bonds
 Based on the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged
metal ions and electrons (negatively charged)
 The valence-electrons can move freely within the lattice of the positively
charged metal ions

Lithium Lithium-Ion Electron


Li+ e-

14
Types of bonds – Intermolecular Forces
 The intermolecular bonds that occur when bonding can be classified as
follows:

Intermolecular Bonds
Hydrogen Bond
Secondary Valence Bond

Van-der-Waals-Bonds

Dipole Forces

Induction forces

Dispersion forces

15
Electronegativity
 Electronegativity EN measures how strongly the electrons of a bond are
attracted to one of the atoms
 The higher the EN is, the more the atom attracts the electrons of the
bond
Hauptgruppe
Periode

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Number of Order 92 2
1 2,1 H - He
Wasserstoff
Electronegativity 1,4 U Symbol
Helium
Uran Name
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 1,0 Li 1,5 Be 2,0 B 2,5 C 3,0 N 3,5 O 4,0 F - Ne
Lithium Beryllium Bor Kohlenstoff Stickstoff Sauerstoff Fluor Neon
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
3 0,9 Na 1,2 Mg 1,5 Al 1,8 Si 2,1 P 2,5 S 3,0 Cl - Ar
Natrium Magnesium Aluminium Silizium Phosphor Schwefel Chlor Argon

16
Electronegativity & Polar Bonds
 EN-Difference (DEN)

DEN Type of Bond


0 to 0,5 Covalent Bond
> 1,7 Ionic Bond
0,5 to 1,7 polar covalent Bond
(dipole-molecule)

3,5

2,1 2,1

17
Visualisation of the EN-Difference
 Electron density distribution: the different colours in the „Shell“ where
the electron density is high and where it is low within the molecule

O
H H O O
H
H 3C O H 3C CH3
18
Types of Bonds – Intermolecular Bonds

Intermolecular Bonds
Hydrogen Bonds
Secondary Valenz Bonds

Van der Waals Bonds

Dipole Forces

Induction Forces

Dispersion Forces

19
Types of Bonds – Intermolecular Bonds
 Hydrogen Bonds
 Especially for bonds with OH-groups or NH-groups
 Is based on the strong polar character of the bonding molecules
 Bonding energy up to 50 kJ/mol
 Is based on electrostatic attraction

20
Types of Bonds – Hydrogen Bonds
 Hydrogen functions as a bridge between O, N etc.

polar covalent
bond

3-dimensional
lattice
21
Types of Bonds – Intermolecular Bond

Intermolecular Bond
Hydrogen Bond
Secondary Valence Bond

Van-der-Waals-Bonds

Dipole Forces

Induction Forces

Dispersion Forces

22
Types of Bonds – Van-der-Waals-Forces
 Dipole-Dipole-Forces

 Principle similar to that of the Hydrogen Bonds


 Occur between polar molecules
 Polar groups within the adhesive and in the interface of the bonding elements
can interact
● Range of bonding forces: 0.3 – 0.5 nm
● Bonding energy: bis 40 kJ/mol

23
Types of Bonds – Dipole-Dipole-Forces
 Attraction is based on electrostatic interaction
 Hydrogen Bond is a special case of a dipole-dipole-interaction

d- O
O H-Bond
H
d+ O O CH3
H 3C CH3
H
d- H 3C O
O
O
d+
H
H 3C CH3 H 3C O

24
Types of Bonds – Van-der-Waals-Forces
 Induction forces
 Similar to dipole forces.
 A dipole moment is induced in a non-polar molecule by a (strongly) polar
molecule.
 Range of bonding forces: 0.3 – 0.5 nm
 Bonding energy: 2 – 10 kJ/mol

Induzierte Pole
Induktion
- + - + - +

Non-polar Polar
molecule molecule
25
Types of Bonds – Van-der-Waals-Forces
 Dispersion Forces
 Non-polar molecules are turned polar for a moment, caused by the
movement of the electrons
● Range of the bonding forces: 0.3 – 0.5 nm
● Bonding energy: 5 – 10 kJ/mol

Fluctuating density of Induction force Induced poles


electrons
+ - - +

Non-polar molecules Momentarily polar molecules

26
Conclusion – Primary and Secondary Valence Bonds

 Primary Valence Bonds


● High bonding energy: 100 – 1000 kJ/mol
● The bonding partners have to react chemically with each other.

 Secondary Valence Bonds


● Low bonding energy < 50 kJ/mol
● Opposing poles attract each other, i.e. polar molecules, independent of their
individual chemical structure, can form a bond

27
Conclusion – Primary and Secondary Valence Bonds

 This leads to the conclusion that primary valence bonds are generally more
desirable due to their high bonding forces.
● The difficulty lies in bringing the adhesive monomere, or polymere, to react
chemically with the bonding material at the bonding surface, as this leads to the
formation of primary valence bonds.

 This means that the secondary valence bonds are mostly available for
adhesion.

28
Agenda

 Basic Concepts of Chemistry

 Introduction to Polymers

● Classes of Material

● Significance if the Synthetic Materials

● Definition of the Synthetic Materials

 Classification of Synthetic Materials

 Formation Reactions

 Adhesion and Cohesion


29
Different Classes of Materials

Natural

Precious Metals Wood


Alumina Wool
Composites
Inorganic

Organic
Reinsforced
concrete

fieber-reinforced
synthetics
Glass Synthetik
Ceramics Materials
Metals Varnishes
Synthetic
30
Significance of the Synthetic Materials
 Synthetic materials can be used nearly everywhere
 Material characteristics can be changed specifically
 Cheap material

31
Leight Weight Constructions

 Synthetic materials consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen


 Hydrogen has the lowest mass number Synthetic materials weigh little

Share of the packaging weight out of the total weight of a


joghurt pot

Source: Die
Kunststoffchemie für
Ingenieure 2007 (Chemistry
of Synthetics for Ingeniers
2007)
32
Energy Requirement
Energy requirement for the production of work materials,
measured in kg, the equivilant of petroleum with regard to
1dm³ of the material volume

Source: Die Kunststoffchemie für Ingenieure 2007 33


(The Chemistry of Synthetics for Ingeniers, 2007)
Synthetics are in demand

World
Production 2001

World: 181.000 kt
Western Europe: 49.100 kt
Germany: 15.800 kt

Western
Europe

Germany

Source: BASF AG
34
Usage of Synthetics in Germany Divided into Fields of
Application

Source: Habenicht
35
Usage of Synthetics Worldwide in 2006

Quelle: PlasticsEurope
36
Definition of Sythetics

„Synthetics (Polymers)are macromolecular


compounds (,giant molecules‘) that are made of
low-molecular basic moduls (monomers).“

Source: Peter Kurzweil, Chemie

37
Further Definitions

 Monomer
„Starting point in which the molecules are available singularly and can form a
polymer through chemical reaction, as they have at least two functioning (able
to react) groups“

z.B. Ethylene

H H
C C
H H
Source: Habenicht, Kleben
38
Further Definitions
 Polymer:
„Organic material that is composed of many basic molecules (monomers)“

z.B. Polyethylene
H H H H H H H H
C C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H H Source: Habenicht, Kleben
39
Basic Structure of Polymers
Definition:
Polymers are formed through the linkage (chemical reaction) of many small monomers.
This chemical reaction is also called polymerisation.

Many little basic elements Big macromolecule that is composed of many


little molecules (monomers).

Monomers Polymer

Example:

Ethylene Polyethylene
Source: Habenicht, Kleben
40
Further Definitions
 Functional Group:
Atoms or groups of atoms in one organic molecule. They define the reactivity of
the entire molecule. Chemical reactions happen with them.
Name Formula
Examples of functional Hydroxyl-Group -OH
groups Carbonyl-Group -C=O
Carboxyl-Group -COOH
Amino-Group -NH2
Isocyanate -N=C=O
Epoxy -HC – CH2
O
41
Further Definitions
 Prepolymer:
Polymer that has already reacted and consists of a limited number of
monomers and reactive groups
 Primary bonds:
These include ionic, molecular and metal bonds
 Secondary Bonds:
These include hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole-bonds, Van-der-Waals-bonds
 Glass Transition Temperature (Tg):
Below this temperature, the polymers are hard/brittle (amorph), above this temperature
they are rubbery (elastic)

42
Agenda

 Basic Concepts of Chemistry

 Introduction to Polymers

 Classifications of Synthetic Materials

 Formation Reactions

 Adhesion and Cohesion

43
Structure of Polymers
 Linear Macromolekules
● Are formed out of monomers that hace only two outstanding reactive groups. The
composed basic elements can be linked to two neighbouring basic elements.

Source: Habenicht, Kleben,


Makromolekulare Chemie
44
Structure of Polymers
 Branched Macromolecules
● The basic elements have three, four or more neighbouring elements at the same time, so that
some basic elements form branches. These are the starting point of side chains.

Source: Habenicht, Kleben,


Makromolekulare Chemie 45
Structure of Polymers
 Branched Macromolecules
● Singular chain molecules of a polymer form crossbridges and link themselves to one „giant
macromolecule“. Thus, a grid can be gained that has bifunctional, trifunctional and higher
functional monomers.

Source: Habenicht, Kleben;


Makromolekulare Chemie 46
Classification of Synthetic Materials

Synthetics

Thermoplastics Duromeres/
Elastomers
Thermosetting

semi-
amorphous
crystalline
47
Synthetics

Thermo Duromere/
Elasto-meres
plastics thermosetting
Thermoplastics
amor-
semi-crystalline
phous

 Not interlinked, long chains of polymers, that lie beside each other
 Weak attraction forces exist between the chains
 Within a certain temperature field, they can be formed and reformed
many times (thermo-plastic)
 When heat is added, they first turn soft and then turn fluid the more
the heat rises
 Swellable and partly soluble in solvents
 Molecules can have an amorphous or semi-crystalline structure

Source: Kunststoffe, Springer Verlag


48
Synthetics

Thermo Duromere/
Elasto-meres
plastics thermosetting
Thermoplastics
amor-
semi-crystalline
phous

 Semi-Crystalline Structure:
 Amorphous Structure:
● Parts of the polymer chains are parallel to
● Polymer chains are disorganised and
each other
interwoven with each other
● Regular arrangement is called crystalline

● Crystalline areas interchange with


amorphous areas  semi-crystalline

Examples:
PS, PVC, PC, PMMA , ABS

Examples: Source:
PE, PP, POM, PA Werkstoffe und ihre Verarbeitung, Thieme Verlag
49
Synthetics

Thermo Duromere/
Elasto-meres
plastics thermosetting
Elastomeres
amor-
semi-crystalline
phous
 Weakly linked chain molecules
 Chains are linked throug chemical bonds
 At room temperature they show
rubbery/elastic behaviour
 Reversibly reformable
 Cannot be melted
 Swellable in solvents

Bsp.: Natural rubber,


Butadiene-rubber

Source:
Werkstoffe und ihre Verarbeitung, Thieme Verlag
50
Synthetics

Thermo Duromere/
Elasto-meres
plastics thermosetting
Duroplastes/Duromeres
amor-
semi-crystalline
phous

 Strongly cross-linked chain


molecules
 After hardening (cross-linking
reaction) they are mostly very hard
and brittle
 Cannot be melted
 Non-soluble in solvents
 Have mechanical characteristics Examples:
Epoxy resins, Phenolic
 Heating does not lead to plastic resins
formability, it leads to decomposition
Source:
Werkstoffe und ihre Verarbeitung, Thieme Verlag
51
Summary of the Classification of Synthetics

Thermoplastics: Elastomeres:
- non-linked polymer chains - weakly cross-linked
- semi-crystalline or amorphous macromolecules
- become softer when heated - rubbery/elastic
- formable - not soluble but swellable
- more or less good solubility

Duropmeres:
- strongly cross-linked macromolecule
- resistant, chemically and thermally
- not soluble
- not formable

52
Agenda

 Basic Concepts of Chemistry

 Introduction to Polymers

 Classifications of Synthetic Materials

 Formation Reactions

● Polymerisation

● Polyaddition

● Polycondensation

 Adhesion und Cohesion


53
Types of Reaction in the Formation of Polymers

Types of Reaction

Addition polymerisation: Condensation polymerisation:


reaction partners are added without the Reaction partners are linked and
separation of byproducts reaction products are separated

Polyaddition
Polymerisation Polycondensation
(reaction is step-
(chain reaction) (reaction is step-
wise)
wise)

54
Types of Reaction

Addition Condensation
polymerisation: polymerisation:
Addition Polymerisation
Polymerisation Polyaddition
Polykonden-
(Chain Reaction) (Reaction is
Polymerisation step-wise)
sation

Many similar monomers are linked to each other in a chain reaction


without the separation of a byproduct
 Reaction of monomer, whereby a double bond to a polymer molecule chain is opened
 Chain reaction: Monomers are joined in sequence to the growing polymer
 The number of basic elements are stated in the degree of polymerisation

Monomer + Monomer + Monomer + Monomer

Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer


P o l y m e r
55
Types of Reations

Addition Condensation
polymerisation: polymerisation:
Polymerisation
Polymerisation Polyaddition
Polyconden-
(chain reaction) (Reaction is
sation
step-wise)

 Beginning Reaction I I  I* + I*

● Initiator forms a so called active center

● Initiator has to be splitted into two radicals using energy (i.g. heat or light)

● Radical disconnects the multiple bonds  growable primary radical

56
Types of Reations

Addition Condensation
polymerisation:: polymerisation:
Polymerisation
Polymerisation Polyaddition
Polyconden-
(Kettenreaktion) (Reaction is
sation
step-wise)

 Growth reaction:

● Repetitive agglomeration of a monomer to a molecule chain

● Radical reacts with monomer, takes one electron from the double bond

● Chain growth

57
Types of Reaction

Addition Condensation
polymerisation: polymerisation:
Polymerisation
Polymerisation Polyaddition
Polyconden-
(chain reaction) (Reaction is
sation
step-wise)

 Termination reaction: growth of polymer chain is disrupted

● Reaction of two radical ends of polymer chains


● Reaction of a radical endpiece of a polymer chain with the radical of the initiator
● Hydrogen-atom is transferred from one macroradical to the other
● A hydrogen-atom that is capable of linkage is taken away

58
Type of Reaction

Addition Condensation
polymerisation: polymerisation:
Polymerisation - Overview
Polymerisation Polyaddition
Polyconden-
(chain reaction) (Reaction is
sation
step-wise)

Start reaction Initiator  2 I*

Growth reaction I* + M  I-M*


*+M M*

Termination
* + I*  I
reaction
*+ *

* Aktive end
I* Radical of the initiator
M Monomer
Monomer chain
59
Types of Reaction

Addition Condensation
polymerisation: polymerisation:
Addition Polymerisation
Polymerisation Polyaddition
Polyconden-
(chain reaction) (Reaction is
Polyaddition step-wise)
sation

 Monomers have two different, reactive groups at the monomer ends


 Different monomers can be linked to both ends
 Step-wise growth reaction: In each case two randomly long molecules react with each other
 No separation of byproduct

60
Types of Reaction

Additions Condensation
polymerisation: polymerisation:
Polyaddition
Polymerisation Polyaddition
Polyconden-
(chain reaction) (Reaction is
sation
step-wise)

 Example: Polyurethane from a disocyanate and a dialcohol

61
Types of Reaction

Addition Condensation
polymerisation: polymerisation:

Condensation Polymerisation Polymerisation Polyaddition


(chain reaction) (Reaction is Polycondensation
step-wise)
Polycondensation
Monomer B
Monomer A Monomer A
+ Monomer B
Monomer A Monomer B

Monomer A Monomer B Monomer A Monomer B


P o l y m e r

+
Elimination Product

62
Types of Reaction

Addition Condensation
polymerisation: polymerisation:

Condensation Polymerisation Polymerisation Polyaddition


(chain reaction) (Reaction is Polycondensation
step-wise)

 Polycondensation

Different or similar monomers with reactive ends are linked

 Step-wise growth reaction:In each case two randomly long monomers react with each other

 Linkage of monomers with the formation of an elimination product (i.e.. water, alcohol)

63
Types of Reaction

Reaction Mechanism - Addition Condensation


polymerisation: polymerisation:
Polycondensation
Polymerisation Polyaddition
(chain reaction) (Reaction is Polycondensation
step-wise)
Reaction with a dicarboxylic acid and a dialcohol

Source: http://www.jagemann-net.de/makromolekuele/makromolekuele.php 64
Agenda

 Basic Concepts of Chemistry

 Introduction to Polymers

 Classifications of Synthetic Materials

 Formation Reactions

 Adhesion and Cohesion


● Structure of an adhesive bond
● Wetting
● Cohesion
● Mechanical Adhesion
● Specific Adhesion
65
Structure of an Adhesive Bond
 Transmission of forces is made possible through the forces between the
bonding elements and the adhesive layer
 Force transmission can happen in many ways

Bonding
Element 1

Adhesive
Layer

Bonding Element 2

66
Structure of an Adhesive Layer
 Differentiation of Boundary Layer, Adhesive Layer und Boding Elements

Bonding Element 1
Boundary Layer 1

Adhesive Layer

Boundary Layer 2

Bonding Element 2

67
Necessity of the Boundary Layer
 Molecules in or at the boundary to another medium are exposed to different
stresses than the molecules within the layer itself

68
Definition of Adhesion and Cohesion
 In adhesive bonding, two basic concepts of bonding forces are
distinguished
● Adhesion Forces (lat. adhaerere = „adhere“)
– These forces occur in the boundary layer between the bonding element and the
adhesive layer

● Cohesion Forces (lat. cohaerere = „cohere“)


– These forces occur only in the adhesive layer

Adhesion (Boundary Layer)


Cohesion (Adhesive Layer)
Adhesion (Boundary Layer)

69
Structure of the Adhesive Layer

 The cohesion forces and adhesion forces are based on many bonding
forms
● The main interactions happen on the atomar and molecular level.

Molecules

Bonding Forces

(Intermolecular Linkage - schematic)

70
Cohesion

 Cohesion describes how an element sticks together


● Also called „internal strength“

 The bonding forces depend on the element


● Primary and secondary valence bonds occur

 Typical bonding energies lie between about 290 kJ/mol – 415 kJ/mol

71
Adhesion
 A theory that describes all adhesive processes does not (yet) exist.

● The following examples aim to show different theoretical parts, they can explain
individual phenomena, but cannot describe the entire complexity of adhesion D
● The following description aim to give an overview over the momentary state of art
as regards adhesion research
● Several adhesive processes always occur at the same time

72
Wetting
 A good wetting is the basic prerequisite for an optimal adhesion.
 Wetting is the approach of the adhesive to the surface of the bonding element
 Prerequisite for a good wetting is
● a sufficient and low viscosity of the fluid adhesive

● the difference between the surface tension of the (fluid) adhesive and the surface
energy/tension of the bonding element material

The surface energy of the bonding element material must be bigger


than the surface tension of the applied adhesive, as the wetting is
otherwise not sufficient !

73
Wetting
 Selected surface energies/ tensions

Material Surface Energy [mN/m]

Iron 2550
Typical adhesives have a surface energy
Titan 2050
of at least 35 mN/m
Copper 1850
Gold 1550
Silver 1250
PA 49-47
Epoxy Resin 47
PVC 40
PMMA 33-44
PS 33-35
PE 31
PP 29
PTFE (Teflon) 19

Quelle: Bond it, S.25

74
Wetting
 Tensiometer – Measurement of the Surface Energy of a Fluid
● Here, a test object (mostly a thin Platinum wire) is brought so close to the
examined surface that wetting of the wire occurs.
● Then the force that is necessary to extract the test object from the fluid is
measured.

Platin-Iridium-Ring eines Du Nouy Tensiometers.


Author(Bild): Tibor Dubniczky, Department of Chemistry, University of Miskolc, Hungary.

75
Wetting
 Test Ink – The Examination of the Surface Energy of a Solid Material
● The test ink, whose surface energy has been defined, is used to define the surface
energy of a solid object (either bigger or smaller than the test ink).
● The ink is painted onto the surface which is to be examined and then the period in
which the wetting continues is measured.
● If the wetting stays for more than 2-3 seconds, then the surface energy of the
solid object is higher than that of the ink.

Good Wetting Bad Wetting

http://www.plasmatreat.de/
76
Wetting
 Contact Angle Measurement – Definition of the surface energy of a solid
material
● By measuring the contact angle α, the quality of the wetting can be described
● By using Young‘s Equation, the surface energy can also be described.

σFG = Surface energy of the bonding element


G σKG Adhesive σKG = Surface tension of the adhesive
α σKF = Tension within the boundary layer of the bonding
σFG σKF element/adhesive

Bonding Element α = Wetting angle


G = Air (i.e. gas atmosphere of the environment)
77
Wetting
Good Wetting

G α
σKG Adhesive
α Bonding Element
σFG σKF
Bonding Element Wetting Surface

Bad Wetting
σFG = Surface energy of the bonding element
σKG = Surface tension of the adhesive α
σKF = Tension in the boundary layer of bonding element/adhesive
α = Wetting angle Bonding Element
G = Air (i.e. gas atmosphere of the environment)

Wetting Surface
78
Specific Adhesion
 Basic prerequisites for an optimal adhesion is that the surface of the bonding
element has „docking locations“, so as to enable an atomar or molecular
interaction which then produces the adhesion forces.

79
Specific Adhesion
 The operating principle of specific adhesion is based on the following
adhesion processes:
● Molecular Physical Bonding
– Secondary Valence Bonds (Van-der-Waals-Forces)

● Chemical Bonds
– Primary Valence Bonds

– Mainly homopolar bonds

● Diffusion Processes
● Wetting Forces

80
Specific Adhesion
 Secondary Valence Bonds
● Hydrogen Bonds
● Van-der-Waals-Bonds
● Forces have a range of Kräfte 0,1 – 1 nm

Adhesive Molecule
Bond
Molecule of the Bonding Element
Schematic depiction of a boundary layer

81
Specific Adhesion
 Chemical Bonds
● The existence of chemical bonds was shown in Aluminium bonds.
● These results should be tranferable to adhesive bonding of metals in general.
● Prerequisite for the bond is a reaction which is started by the application of the
adhesive which, in turn, leads to the formation of metal oxides or metal hydroxides
on the bonding surface. These can then enter into a complex compound with the
adhesive molecules.

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Mechanical Adhesion
 The fluid adhesive enters the pores and undercuts and after hardening this
results in a fixture.
 The hardness that is achieved through mechanical adhesion is only of
importance for porous materials (i.e. wood, paper).

Force When bonding metals or other materials whose


surfaceses are not strongly roughened, mechanical
adhesion can be neglected!

Adhesive

Bonding Element

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Autohesion
 Autohesion occurs when two layers of the same elastomer are brought into
contact.
 This bond is caused by the diffusion of mobile molecule chain ends as they
inter-link with each other.
 Autohesion occurs mainly with elastomers.

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Conclusion
 Adhesion and Cohesion are the result of inter-molecular interactions
● Primary and secondary valence bonds

 To achieve an optimal adhesion hardness, these interactions should be


supported
● Activation of the surface to create reactive areas

 The cohesion hardness depends on the adhesive that is used


● Thermoplastic adhesives: low hardness, highly elastic
● Duroplastic adhesives: highly hard, low elastic characteristics

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Conclusion

 An adhesive bond is only as strong as its weakest link!

 As a result, to achieve an optimal adhesive bond, the hardness of the


adhesion and cohesion need to balanced reasonably.
● Strong adhesion with a weak cohesion only leads to a displacement of the break in
the cohesion area.

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