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Adhesive Manufacturing Processes

Chapter 1: Introduction

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm


Department for Cutting and Joining Manufacturing Processes (tff)
University of Kassel, Germany

Quelle: Wikipedia
Agenda

 Short overview of the `Department for Cutting and Joining


Manufacturing Processes´

 General information regarding the lectures

 Bonding technology

 History of adhesive bonding

 Areas of application for adhesive bonding

 Advantages and disadvantages of adhesive bonding

2
Agenda

 Short Overview of the `Department for Cutting and Joining


Manufacturing Processes´

 General Information Regarding the Lectures

 Bonding Technology

 History of Adhesive Bonding

 Areas of Application for Adhesive Bonding

 Advantages and Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

3
Short Overview of the Department for Cutting and Joining
Manufacturing Processes at the University of Kassel

4
Institute of Production Technology and Logistics (IPL)

Trennende und Fügende


Fertigungsverfahren (tff)
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm

Umweltgerechte Produkt- und


Prozessoptimierung (upp)
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jens Hesselbach

Produktionsorganisation und
Fabrikplanung (pfp)
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sigrid Wenzel

Umformtechnik (metform)
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Kurt Steinhoff

Gießereitechnik (GTK)
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Fehlbier
5
Short overview of the Department for Cutting and Joining
Manufacturing Processes at the University of Kassel, Germany

Key figures of the Department for Joining and Cutting


Manufacturing Processes:
1988 Founded as the `Department for
Production Technology´ 15 Research assistants
5 Technical employees
1999 Takeover of the Department for
20 Student assistants
Cutting Technology

2010 Appointment of Prof. Böhm, 1000 m² Laboratory space


Renaming of the departement into
„Department for Joining and Cutting
Manufacturing Processes“ Turnover: about 1 Mio.€ p. a.

6
The team of the Department for Cutting and Joining
Manufacturing Processes

7
Fields of Activity and Research

Adhesive
Technology

Research
Services
Teaching

Welding Technology Cutting Technology

8
Fields of Activity and Research
Adhesive Welding Cutting Teaching
Technology Technology Technology Student Projects,
 Information and Sawing Seminar Papers,Diploma
 Laser and electro beam
assistance as regards Theses, Bachelor and
welding
the selection of Drilling Master Theses
adhesives Arc Welding Turning Manufacturing
Design and Technology
Magnetic Pulse Welding Erosion
constructions suitable for
Production Technology
adhesive bonding Friction Stir Welding Milling
Adhesive Technology
Realisation of adhesive Threading
Resistance Spot
bonding Beam Technology
Welding
Thread Cutting
 Destructive and non- Bonding Technology
destructive testing of Hybrid Processes Thread Mill Drilling
constructional elements Machining Tools for
Destructive and non- Flow Punch Forming Cutting Processes
Analysis,modification destructive testing of
and formulation of constructional elements EIPA
adhesives
9
Choice of Current Activities and Research Projects in the
Field of Adhesive Technologies

 HAMMER – Integration of wooden elements in a multi-material design of car


bodies
 ProStaR – Production technology for a flexible and serial production of stator
and rotor packages for electrical drives
 Steinbiss – Implementation of adhesive technologies for the production of
saw bands for efficient and resource-friendly cutting of mineral materials
 X-Bond – Separating of bonds using exothermic reactions
 Crash2FRP – Crash proof adhesive bonding of fibre compound plastik
materials using 2c-adhesives for the production of car bodies

10
40th Anniversary of the University of Kassel

11
12
Use of ply wood parts in the body of white shop

Development, design
and manufacturing
of automotive oparts
Development of
Design of concepts joining technologies
for repairing and Use of ply wood parts for ply woods parts
recycling in the body of white
As alternative, innovative and
shop
Sustainable hybrid material for structural
automotive parts

Determination of
Creating of material
material and
models for
manufactured parts
simulation
properties

13
Adhesive bonding of cutting elements
Advantages of adhesive boning in comparison to brazing or welding:
 Heat reduced joining method
 Not destruction of the PCD elements
 No heat affected distortion
 no reworking necessary
 Fast production of a sawing band
 Resource efficient
 Possibility of repairing
Aims of the projects:
 Development of an adhesive bonding technology for the joining of PCD elements
 Modification of adhesives for the temperature resistance
 Design of the joints

14
Debond (separating) of adhesive bonded parts
 Development of a pyrotechnic adhesive bond, which allows to debond adhesively
bonded with high efficiency and forceless
 Safety handling with low pyrotechnic hazard classification
 Design of suitable application technologies and description of possible productions
scenarios
 Debond on command, fast and residue-free and without influencing the life time of the
bonded parts

Reasons for debonding:


 Repairing and Exchange of damaged parts
 Correction of adhesive bonds during the production process
 Mono-material recycling of composites and reuse of parts
15
Durability of adhesive bonds
 Research of the ageing behaviour of adhesive bonds
 Determination of ageing effects (e.q. corrosion)
 Development of more simple forcast
 Determination of the influence of the production parameters (curing, mix ratio, layer
thickness, application technology)

16
ProStaR – Production technology for the production
of stator and rotor packets of electrical engines

Reduction of manufacturing costs


1 Increase the efficiency of electric 2 of electric motors for electric
motors for electric vehicles
vehicles
Reducing the eddy Improvement of Mass-grade Increase the
current losses in the stacking factor cutting and quantity and
stators and rotors Packaging variant flexibility
technologies

17
Adhesive Integrated Damage Detection
 Formulation of adhesives with encapsulated fragrance or coloring
 Breaking open the capsules and release of the additives at the bonded joint injury
 Detection of the color and fragrance

18
NDT of bonded joints and mechanical
joining processes
Prinzipskizze Prinzipskizze

IR-Kamera
IR-Kamera

(Blitz-) Lampe

Optische Welle
Defekt bzw. Impuls
Thermische Welle

Bauteil Am Defekt reflektierte


Induzierter thermische Welle
Defekt
Wirbelstrom 
Induktor Bauteil
Quelle: edevis GmbH Quelle: edevis GmbH

Prinzipskizze

IR-Kamera

Thermische US-Konverter Quelle: isi-sys GmbH


Welle Defekt

Bauteil Elastische Welle


Quelle: edevis GmbH
19
20
Reduction of hot cracks by Compressive
stresses induced by thermal fields
 Implementation: induction coils for the introduction of temperature fields during the
welding process for defined temperature conditions

Induction coils

Heat fields

Laser beam

joint

Quelle: fluxtrol

21
Reduction of hot cracks by multilayer systems
 Use of high-alloyed filler metals coated with sheets

→ simpler to use, because the additional material is already applied to the base material
→ Particularly suitable for remote welding possible
→ little understanding of the process required by the user

Verfahren von Fa. Novelis


22
EMPT – Electromagnetic Pulsetechnology
Working principle:

concentrator:

source: pstProducts 23
EMPT-tube welding

Aluminum

Steel

source: pstProducts
24
EMPT- sheet welding

properties
 20μs process time
 No heat affected zone
 No thermal distortion
 Smallest intermetallic phase
 atomic bond
 Contact Free
 Inert gas free Multi layer welding
 nearly "contactless"

25
Friction stir welding

26
Zircular FSW

27
Zircular FSW

Friction stir weld without


deflection of the tool

Friction stir weld with 1.0 mm


deflection of the tool

28
Use of multi-pin tools for FSW
Experimental material: AlMgSi1 (EN AW 6082)
Material thickness: 1.5 mm
joint length: 100 mm

vf=400 mm/min,
n=800 min-1,
gap: 1 mm
(66,7%)

vf=400 mm/min,
n=800 min-1,
gap: 3 mm
(200%)
24 mm

29
orbital friction welding

F orbital friction welding

• Circular movement relative to one another


• uniform relative velocity
< • Less force / better heat
• Relative velocity> 2 m / s
• High frequencies (> 160 Hz)
• currently controlled force
F
30
ZfP of resistance spot welded joints

Induction stimulation

31
NDT of laser welded joints

Lockin-Thermography

Probe 2
DP 600 ; 2 X 1.5 mm + gap
32
NDT of FSW joints

X-Ray
Macroscopic view

Ultrasonic activated Thermography

33
34
Stone cutting
 Evaluation of cutting elements for the cutting of stones
 Investigation of different cutting geometries
 Determination of force development
 Wear tests of cutting elements

35
Stone Cutting
Tool holder Specimen holder
tool

extraction

cooling

3-component Experimental
Dynamometer material

Linear engine;
vmax ca. 9 m/s

36
Metal cutting- single tooth test setup
• Set up: • Wear documentation:

37
Agenda

 Short Overview of the Department for Cutting and Joinig


Manufacturing Processes (tff)

 General Information Regarding the Lectures

 Bonding Technology

 History of Adhesive Bonding

 Areas of Application for Adhesive Bonding

 Advantages and Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

38
Contents of the Lectures
 Introduction
● Bonding technologies in general

● Areas of application for adhesive bonding

● Advantages and disadvantages of adhesive bonding

● Definitions and terminology

● Adhesion in comparison to traditional bonding technologies

 Classification of adhesives
● Polymer Chemistry

● Options for the classification of adhesives

● Reaction mechanisms

● Chemically reacting adhesives

● Physically bonding adhesives


39
Contents of the Lectures
 Adhesive properties of the workpiece elements characteristics
● Surface properties

● Wetting properties

● The adhesive properties of different workpiece materials

 Treatment of the surface


● Preparation of the surface

● Pre-treatment of the surface

● After-treatment of the surface

 Testing of adhesively joined bonds


● Static testing methods

● Dynamic testing methods

● Ageing process

● Non-destructive testing 40
Contents of the Lectures
 Hybrid joining
● Possible combinations with other joining techniques

● Advantages and Disadvantages

 Constuctions suitable for adhesive bonding


● load types and stress distribution

● Rules of construction

 Processing technology
● Application technology

● Process of forming the adhesive bond

41
Agenda

 Short Overview over the „Department for Cutting and Joining


Manufacturing Processes“ (t)ff

 General Information Regarding the Lectures

 Bonding Technology

 History of Adhesive Bonding

 Areas of Application for Adhesive Bonding

 Advantages and Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

42
Joining Technology
 Manufacturing methods are determined in DIN 8580:

Manufacturing
method according to
DIN 8580

6 Changing
1 Casting 2 Shaping 3 Separating 4 Joining 5 Coating of Material
Properties

43
Joining Technology
Manufacturing
processes
according to DIN
8580

6 Changing
1 Casting 2 Shaping 3 Separating 5 Coating of material
4 Joining properties

 Definition of Joining:
Joining means to connect two or more workpieces that are geometrically
stable with a formless material. Hereby, the connection is formed locally and
then spreads out.
(DIN 1910-100)

44
Joining Technology
 Introduction to the Joining technology: Adhesive bonding
Production
technologies
Due to DIN 8580

6 Changing of
3
1 Casting 2 Shaping
Separating
4 Joining 5 Coating
material
characteristic
s
DIN 8593

4.3 4.4 Joining 4.5 Joining 4.6 Joining 4.7 Joining


4.1 4.8 Adhesive
4.2 Filling Pressing in through through through through
Assembling bonding
and against casting shaping welding soldering
DIN 8593-8
45
Joining Technology: Overview
Type of fixation

Material
closure
Cohesion

Adhesion
Forced closure Form closure

prevented Formation of
movement elemental pairs

Normal force

prevented
movement Static Friction
friction

46
Joining Technology: Overview
Type of fixation is caused by

Material
closure

material
Cohesion inherent

Joining
Adhesion external
Forced closure Form closure

after
prevented Formation of plastically
movement elemental pairs

Deforming
during

Joining
before
Normal force
elastically
during

prevented
plastically
movement Static Friction
friction
after
elasticallys
47
Joint detachable +
Limited detachment
possible o
Joining Technology: Overview No detachment possible

Type of joining
Type of fixation is caused by
technique
Welding –

Material
closure

material
Cohesion inherent

Joining
Melting –
Soldering o–
Adhesion external Adhesive bonding o–
Luting o–
Riveting o
Forced closure Form closure
Flanging o
Beading o
after Folding o
prevented Formation of plastically Curling o
movement elemental pairs Setting o–

Deforming
during Embedding –

Joining
before Widening +o
normal force
elastically
during Press-in

plastically Grouting, squeezing o–


prevented
movement Stacic Friction Wedging +
friction
after Screwing +
elasticallys Clamping +
Setting,coiling +o 48
Joining Technology

 Definition of adhesive bonding:

Adhesive bonding joins two workpieces, either of the same or of different


materials.Mostly, the bond cannot be detached again. The bond is created with
the help of an adhesive, which is either applied to both workpiece elements or
brought between the to materials.
(nach DIN 16920)

49
Bonding Technology

 Definition of Adhesive:

An adhesive is a non-metallic work material , which can connect worpieces


through adhesion and cohesion without considerably changing the structure of
the workpiece.

(nach DIN EN 923)

50
Without joining and adhesive technology…
Agenda

 Short Overview over the „department for Joining and Cutting


Manufacturing Processes“ (tff)

 General Information Regarding the Lectures

 Bonding Technology

 History of Adhesive Bonding

 Areas of Application for Adhesive Bonding

 Advantages and Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

52
History
 For about 3 billion years unicellar organismens and primitive sea species
have already used self-produced adhesives

River mussel clings


to a stone using
adhesion

Source: Endlich 53
History
 Some examples from flora and fauna

swallows´ nests

Honey combs

adhesive traps
used by
carnivorous plants
(„sundew“)

Source: Endlich 54
History
 35000 B. C. First cave paintings
 5000 B.C. Building of weapons

Cave paintings in
Spain ( the bonding
agent of the colour
is protein  taken
from animal blood)

Speer and arrow


heads that have
been adhesivel
reinforced using
tree resin
Quelle: Endlich 55
History
 4000 B.C.Ship constructions were revolutionised

Sealing with the Rubber flask as


help of an adhesive used by Amazonas-
made out of mineral Indios
pitch, resins and
oils

1500 India rubber is


introduced in
Europe
Source: Endlich 56
History
 1700 first glue factory in Holland
 1754 first patented adhesive
 1783 first flight with a hot-air balloon

Paper is adhesively
bonded to the
inside

Source: Endlich 57
History
 1890 Plywood industry uses adhesives
● used in aeroplane constructions and for furniture

 Turn of the Century: chemical Industry


developes very quickly
● first artificial resins are developed

 1905 Bakelite® (phenolic resin) can introduced onto


the market
Adverticement for
industrial adhesive
Quelle: Endlich 58
History
 Founder of todays chemistry of plastics and adhesives:
Nobel prize winner Prof. Hermann Staudinger (1881-1965)

 1909 Patent on the hardening of phenolic resin

 1921 natural occuring polymers (z.B. cellulose, rubber)


are investigated

Source: Endlich 59
History
 1931 Carboxymethyl and methyl
cellulose (painter´s glue and wall paper
paste) introduced onto the market
 1932 first adhesive for „everything“
 1934 first adhesive (sticky) tape
 1937 Polyurethane is patented by Bayer
 1960 first instant gluee
 1969 first glue stickt
 Up until this day there have been many
new developments

Source: Endlich & www.klebstoffe.com & www.bayer.de 60


Agenda

 Short Overview over the „Department for Cutting and Joining


Manufacturing Processes“ (tff)

 General Information Regarding the Lectures

 Bonding Technology

 History of Adhesive Bonding

 Areas of Application of Adhesive Bonding

 Advantages and Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

61
Fields of Application for Adhesive Technologies
 Car Body Constructions

relining and flange-


folding using
adhesive bonding
of construction
elements of the
carbody

windscreen is glued
to the car body

Source: Habenicht & Endlich 62


Fields of application for adhesive technologies
 Aeroplane constructions

Joint of the wing


to the fuselage of
a F18 aeroplane

Source: Habenicht 63
Fields of Application for Adhesive Technologies
 Aeroplane Constructions

Honey comb
structure for the
fuselage, wings,
tail unit, etc.

Source: Habenicht 64
Fields of Application for Adhesive Technologies
 Construction of Railroad Vehicles
● Some examples were adhesion is
used:
– Locomotive of the ICE

– Discs

– Sides, roof, coverings

– Anti-graffiti foil as protection


against vandalism
– Hinges, lamps, panels

Source: Brockmann 65
Fields of Application for Adhesive Technologies
 Leight-Weight Constructions of Car Bodies
Adhesive bonding of
different workpiece
materials such as
aluminium alloys and
synthetic material

Strutting of the
hood

Dampings and
seals (e.g. filler
cap)

Source: www.colour-europe.de/Anwenden-kleben 66
Fields of Application for Adhesive Technologies
 Further uses in car constructions
● Structural foam absorbs the energy in case of crash
● Sandwich construction for isolation, covering layer made out of stainless steel
(optics), floor elements made out of waterproof plywood
● Adhesives that are suitable for crashes
 semi-tough behaviour

 picture A & B: Engine mount carrier

 A = modified
B
 B = non-modified epoxy resin adhesive (BMW AG)

● Noise reduction of the engine and wheels

Quelle: Habenicht
A 67
Fields of Application for Adhesive Technologies
 Car constructions

Production of
upholstery by spraying

Source: Endlich 68
Fields of Application for Adhesive Technologies
 Mechanical engineering

Mounting of
bearing inner
ring

Adhesive bonding
of feather key on
shaft

Source: Endlich 69
Fields of Application for Adhesive Technologies
 Mechanical Engineering

Securing of screw with


adhesive that reacts
anaerobically

Quelle: Onusseit 70
Fields of Application for Adhesive Technologies
 Electronics Adhesive bonding
of microelectronic
Casting of inductive
components onto a
proximity switches
circuit board to
with 2 c epoxy resins
conduct electricity

Source: Endlich & Onusseit 71


Fields of Application for Adhesive Bonding Technologies
 Electronics

Fixation of coils
using UV-
acrylates

Source: www.ulbrich-group.com/klebstoffe.php 72
Fields of Application for Bonding Technologies
 Labeling

Different labellings
for plastic bottles

Source: Endlich & Onusseit 73


Fields of Application for Adhesive Bonding Technologies
 Hygiene and beauty products
Napies & sanitary towels Glued fake
(with hotmelt adhesives) eyelashes

Source: Onusseit 74
Fields of Application for Bonding Technologies
 Packaging industry
● Corrugated board
● Bags, carrier bags etc.
● Cardboard packaging
● TetrapackTM

with the help of


hotmelt adhesives
Source: Brockmann & Onusseit 75
Fields of Application for Adhesive Bonding Technologies
 Bandaging material

with pressure-
sensitive adhesive

Source: Onusseit 76
Fields of Application for Adhesive Bonding Technologies
 Medical attendance

special cyanacrylate
adhesive (fast-setting
adhesive)
 EPIGLU®

Source: www1.catgut.de/Catgut/phocadownload/Prospekte/hautkleber.pdf 77
Fields of Application for Adesive Technologies
 Book binding and envelopes

Book cover is
joined by spraying
the adhesive on

Source: Brockmann & www.readcwbooks.com & www.toner-dumping.de/toner 78


Agenda

 Short Overview over the „Department for Joinig and Cutting


Manufacturing Processes“ (tff)

 General Information Regarding the Lectures

 Bonding Technology

 History of Adhesive Bonding

 Areas of Application for Adhesive Bonding

 Advantages and Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

79
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Different work piece materials can be joined

Glass plate is
bonded to a
stainless steel
frame

Source: www.weicon.com/pages/de/download/prospekte/WEICON%20Elastische%20Klebstoffe.pdf 80
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 New ways of constructing ar emade possiblen  e.g. Hybrid joining

Riveting AND
adhesive bonding
allows an optimal
load distribution

Source: Habenicht S. 613 81


Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Even distribution of stresses and loads over the entire joint surface

Adhesive
Screwing
Bonding

Source: www.henkel.de/innovation/news-38208_20110722-auswahl-entscheidet-optimale-klebung-fuer-
industrielle-38978.htm 82
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Two-dimensional distribution of loads leads to an optimised utilisation of the


materials nearly the entire dimensions of the material are used to distribute
the loads

Source: www.henkel.de/innovation/news-38208_20110722-auswahl-entscheidet-optimale-klebung-fuer-industrielle-38978.htm 83
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 The supporting cross-section is not weakened


 e.g. when screwing, the cross-section is reduced by the hole

Source: www.henkel.de/innovation/news-38208_20110722-auswahl-entscheidet-optimale-klebung-fuer-
industrielle-38978.htm 84
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Sealing of the joint area

Sealing of an
engine case

Source: www.weicon.com/pages/de/download/prospekte/WEICON%20Elastische%20Klebstoffe.pdf 85
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 The materails that are to be joined are not changed and keep their specific
characteristics

Adhesive

Joining Element

86
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Work-piece elements are not stressed thermically (as in welding, for example)

Source: www.hurnaus.de/schweissen.htm 87
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Fluid and gas proof joints can be produced

Sealing of a
container wall

Quelle: saba.nl/5/business-unit-bc/aktivitaeten/umweltschutz/tanks-und-silos.html 88
Advantages of Bonding Technology

 The dynamic load of structural building elements can be increased

Dynamic load behaviour- comparison

Source: Brockmann 89
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Improvements of the accoustics in the area of car constructions

Vibration
damping of
different elements
(here: Volvo)

Source: www.monstersandcritics.de/artikel/200941/article_157170.php 90
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Optical characteristics

Glass plate
connected to table
leg (here: UV-
curable adhesive)

91
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Corrosion resistance of the adhesive joint

Source: www.directindustry.de/prod/master-bond/epoxid-klebstoffe-fur-die-elektronik-17407-398327.html 92
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Less environmental pollution than when using welding technologies

Hardly or no gases
or suspended solids
in the working
environment

Source: www.hurnaus.de/schweissen.htm 93
Advantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Weight savings

Interior Seat
constructions s

Electronics

Fixing
Monitors
elements

Source: Delo 94
Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 The necessary reaction time of the adhesive delays the production

To continue the
production
process, the
adhesive needs
to cure partly or
completly

Source: www.welt.de/wissenschaft/article5620311.html 95
Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 The Surfaces in the joint area need to be pre-treated

very often, the


joint surface
needs to be
cleaned prior to
bonding (e.g.
degreasing,
phosphating,
lasering, using
mordants, etc.)

Source: www.tis.bz.it, www.viskoseschwamm.de, www.jumbo-coat.de 96


Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Limited thermal resistance of the adhesive bond within the building element

Limits of different
basic materials for
adhesives

Source: Habenicht 97
Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Limited ageing resistance


● Ageing not dependent on conditions of use
– Quality of the surface pre-treatment

– Type of usage

– UV-light

– Effects caused by dampness

– Solvents or softeners evaporate

– etc.

 Adhesive become brittle and are not suitable for fixation!

98
Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Adhesively joined bonds are only resistant to peeling to a certain degree

Peeling stress
on a joint should
always be
avoided!

Source: www.henkel.de/innovation/news-38208_20110722-auswahl-entscheidet-optimale-klebung-fuer-
industrielle-38978.htm 99
Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Adhesively bonded joints have a


tendency to creep
● creep describes the temporally
delayed, viscoelastic deformation

 Although not being put under stress, an adhesive layer undergoes


deformations in dependence to time  leads to break

Source: Habenicht 100


Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Quite often the adhesively bonded joint cannot be repared

Either no repare or
only a very limited Problem: the surfaces
repare possible are not suitable for
(here: cohesion and adhesion any more
adhesion fracture)

Quelle: www.klebstoffe.com 101


Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 It is not possible to give an exact estimation of a bond´s resistance yet

Estimation is roughly
and theoretically
possible
 but tests offer
more results
(here: resistance in
dependence to the
thickness of the
adhesive layer)

102
Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Low resistance compared to welded or soldered


seams
● Welding and soldering only need small joining areas
(welding seam)
 very solid in comparison

● Adhesive bond needs more space (bigger joining area)


 low hardness in comparison

103
Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding

 Initial strength low


● Definition: „Initial strength is the strength that an adhesive developes shortly after
being aplie and fixated  this is an important characteristic for further usage“

● Shortly after applying the adhesive  low strength  further work on bonding
element only possible in a certain state of hardness (takes time)

Quelle: Habenicht 104


Adhesion – a daily problem

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Thank you for your attention!

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