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Adhesive Manufacturing Processes

Chapter 9: Process Technology

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm


Department for Cutting and Joining Manufacturing Processes (tff)
University of Kassel, Germany

Quelle: Wikipedia
Agenda

 Introduction

 Storing, Conveying

 Mixing

 Dosing, Application

 Joining, Fixation

 Curing, Handling

2
Introduction

 Process technology for handling of adhesive primarily dependent on:


● Production technology, state on delivery (e.g. viscosity)
● Batch size (small-, medium- oder big batch production)
● Possibility of automation of adhesive process
● Circumstances in area of use (tools available, environmental conditions etc.)
● Ecological factors (containing solvent)

3
Einleitung
Stress Adhesion Environment
• mechanical • On adherend • Solvent containing
• tension • On pre-treated surface adhesives
• Compression • Degreaser (FKW, CKW)
• peeling
• Pre-treatment dipping
• crash
• chemical
• Climate
• thermal (changing) Curing
• Ambient Temperature
• Oven
• IR-Emitter
Application • UV-Emitter
• filling, coating • Electron Beam
• Spray-coating, airless • Induction
• 1C-, 2C- batching • Microwaves
devices Curing Time • Initiator
• Dip-Coating Optics • Pot Life • 2. Component
• Mesh-printing • functional • Gelation Time • Anaerobic conditions
• Stamp-printing • decorative • Complete Curing
Time
4
Introduction
 Process Flow for adhesive bonding
Stocking Up /
Storing
Conveying

Mixing

Conveying

Application

Joining

Fixation

Curing

Handling
5
Agenda

 Introduction

 Storing, Conveying

 Mixing

 Dosing, Application

 Joining, Fixation

 Curing, Handling

6
Storing & Conveying
 Storing & Converying of adhesives mostly dependend on components,
curing conditions & production
e.g. limited shelf life or special specifications for
storing temperature
 Differentiation between three
states of adhesives:
1. liquid

2. Paste-like

3. solid
7
Storing & Conveying
1. Liquid

● Possibility of separation or thickening due


to long or leaky storing conditions (phase
transitions)
 Homogenisation by mixing
– Manual Agitator

– Air Pressure powered agitator

– Electrical powered agitator

● Some conditions may require constant


agiation (e.g. when solid components like
Siliciumcarbide-powder tend to sink)

Quelle: Endlich 8
Storing & Conveying
1. Liquid
● Different storing possibilites:

Open falling Pre-pressurised Pre-pressurised


container Container with riser Container with
bottom pipe

Conveying of Adhesive:
Container equipped
with valve 
Pre-pressurised Mechanical plunger
lower/excess pressure
Container with pump required.
Quelle: Endlich
plunger 9
Storing & Conveying
2. Paste-like

● Adhesives with high viscosity


● Hardly any separation of components
● Problem: Conveying
 viscous input of heat necessary
● Most commom stored in heatable barrels
(see figure)

Heated hose and barrel

Quelle: Endlich und http://www.elkume.at/new-page/fassheizungen.html 10


Storing & Conveying
3. Solid

● Available types of hot melt adhesives:


– Granulate

– Filament

– Zylindric cartridge (see figure)

– Cartridge filling

 Usage depends on the form of supplay


and user tool
Hotmelt application
device, adhesive is
inserted as a ‚stick‘
Quelle: Endlich und http://www.kreativ-depot.de/Werkzeug-Kleber/Klebstoffe/Heissklebepistolen-Klebesticks/Heissklebepistolen/Heissklebepistole-Mini-Klebepistole-110-240-V-20-
W.html#!prettyPhoto 11
Storing & Conveying
3. Solid Gear

● Barrel melting facilities mostly for series


manufacturing
Heated hose
● Melting of solid adhesive
● Pressure sensitive adhesives usually Actuator
come on rolls (see left figure)
Heated
plate

Original
container
Barrel press with
heated plate

Quelle: Endlich und http://www.jk-tesa-shop.de/tesa-Easy-Cut-57421 12


Storing & Conveying
 Small batch series manufacturing

● Advantage:
 Low investments
● Disadvantages:
 Manuell filling of stocking container
 Risk of air entrapment
 No processing of air-sensitive or high
viscous adhesives

Quelle: Endlich 13
Storing & Conveying
 Big batch size manufacturing

● Advantages:
 High amount of adhesives necessary
(higher level of automation)
 Processing of almost all types of
adhesives possible
● Disadvantages:
 High cleaning expenses when changing
adhesive
 High investment

Quelle: Endlich 14
Agenda

 Introduction

 Storing, Conveying

 Mixing

 Dosing, Application

 Joining, Fixation

 Curing, Handling

15
Mixing
 Mixing of adhesives most frequently necessary for multicomponent
adhesives
 As soon as the chemical counterparts get together the chemical curing
process is initiatied
 It is important to meet the pot time (the time from mixing the components
till the end of processability)
 Pot time can be extended by cooling

 Three major types of mixing:


1. Batchwise mixing
2. Static mixing
3. Dynamic mixing
Quelle: Endlich 16
Mixing
1. Batchwise mixing

● Mostly for manual processing with small batch size because:


– Usage is rare

– Necessary amount is small (e.g. SMD-bondings)

– Mobile mixing solutions are required (e.g. at construction sites)

● Mixing in single-use cups (see figure)

Quelle: Endlich 17
Mixing
1. Batchwise mixing

● Correct mixing ratio is essential (otherwise, final


strenght of bond cannot be reached)
 Components of adhesives are supplied in cartridges
(see figure)
● Mixed in air can be a problem  Solution: Vacuum
batch mixer (see figure)
● Disadvantages:
– Manpower requirements

– Personal protection due to possibility of dangerous


materials
– Possibility of human failure (Wrong mixing ratio)
Quelle: Endlich 18
Mixing
2. Static Mixing

● Fixed (static) mixing elements (usually mixer nozzles)


● Laminar liquid flows are pressurised and twisted
● Prinicple: Every mixing element splits the liquid stream  contrarian parallel
or radial rotation induces mixing
„Layer “-formula: s=2n (s: Number of layers; n: number of mixing elements)
Example : n=3  s=23=8 (see figure)

Mixing nozzle with


parallel splitting of
streams

Quelle: Endlich 19
Mixing
2. Static Mixing

● Static mixing nozzles create a drop in pressure


 Compensation with conveying pump necessary
● Calculation: (fs: Mixing factor; : Viscosity;
v: Volume flow; D: inside diameter of mixing nozzle; n: number of mixing
elements)

One-time mixing
nozzle
• Mostly for 2C-
Adhesives

Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 20


Mixing
2. Static Mixing

● Usually cartridges for manual use


● Shutoff valve enables working breaks
● Easy loading / change of cartridge of application pistole
● Disposal in industrial waste, as adhesive is completely cured after pot time

Cartridges
(upper: pneumatic
pistole; middle: cartridge
with shutoff valve; lower:
application pistol)

Quelle: Endlich 21
Mixing
2. Static mixing

● Conclusion – Use static mixer when:


– Volume streams are high

– Mixing ratios are close to 1:1

– Possibility of abrasive fillers

– Pot time is long

– Cheap price is required

● Advantages of static mixers:


– Low investments

– No maintenance (except for cleaning)  low costs of operation

– Defined mixing ratio and wide area of use


Quelle: Endlich 22
Mixing
3. Dynamic Mixing

Rührermotor
● Motor-driven mixing element (pneumatisch o. elektrisch)
● Batching and conveying with pressure
Komponente A
● Production of dynamic mixing devices Komponente B
requires a lot of experience Steuerluft
zur Dosierung
● Agitator geometry and speed influence pot
time and mixable amount Dosierventile
● Outlet valve for controlled application
Abgestimmte
Rührgeometrie

Produktauslass
Quelle: Endlich 23
Mixing
3. Dynamic Mixing

● Advantages:
– Defined mixing ration (even for small
amounts)
– Ideal for automated facilities

– Ideal for high and constant usage of


adhesive
● Disadvantages:
– Process is time sensibel

– High investment

– Low to medium operating costs

Quelle: Endlich 24
Mixing
Comparison of mixing options
● Manual mixing:
– Low investment[+]
– High manpower required[-]
– Risk of air entrapment[-]
– No precise mixing ration possible[-]
– Only for ‚small‘ amounts of adhesives [-]
● Automated mixing:
– Low labour costs [+]

– Precise mixing ratio [+]

– High investment [-]

– Problem when usage is discontinous (pot time!) [-]


Quelle: Endlich 25
Mixing
Usage of fillers for the mixing process

● Adding of fillers to influence characteristics of adhesive

● As a means to:
1. Adapt to area of use
2. Reduce usage of adhesive itself

● Fillers are solid, not echalable, not dissolving, and not adhesive components
that are added to the adhesive

Quelle: Endlich 26
Mixing
● Goals of the use of fillers:
– Increase of viscosity
– Reduced cracking (Minimize residual stress during curing)
– Increase durability against weather, water, liquids, and temperature
– Change in the thermal and electrical behaviour
Silica-
Graphit-powder Aluminium-oxide-powder
powder

Quelle: Endlich S. 83 ff und www.engineersparadise.com/de/ipar/18284 und www.spiralex.de/anwendungen/anwend_qm_d.htm und


http://de.khcrystal.cn/products_detail/&productId=98e1945b-322d-44ef-a980-46151c91350b.html 27
Agenda

 Introduction

 Storing, Conveying

 Mixing

 Dosing, Application

 Joining, Fixation

 Curing, Handling

28
Dosing, Application
 Mixing, Dosing, and Application usually in one process
 Hard to differ between these different steps
 Dosing:
Control of all physical / mechanical parameters until the material departs the
system. The amount to be dosed can be controlled directly via volume or indirectly
via time-pressure-control.
 Application:
Control of all physical / mechanical parameters of the application system that leads
to predetermined geometrical distribution of the material on the surface to be
coated. Additionally, the application unit or the surface can be moved.

Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 29


Dosing, Application
Dosing

● For 1-C-Adhesives:
– „Insufficient“ dosing leads to incomplete gap filling

– Dosing „too much“ leads to loss of possibly expensive material and extrusion of
excess material from the gap

● For 2-C-Adhesives:
– Imprecise dosing means „under- or overlinking“

 Both situations are disadvantageous!  correct dosing essential

Quelle: Endlich 30
Dosing, Application
Dosing

● 2 distinct types of dosing exist:


1. Gravimetric dosing:
– By weight
2. Volumetric Dosing:
– By Volume

● Choice of dosing type dependent on characteristics of adhesive and


facilities available
● Dosing can be done manually or by the help of a device/machine
Quelle: Endlich 31
Dosing, Application
Dosing
● Types of manual dosing:
1K 2K
1K 2K

Only when filling with


premixed components is
possible

Visual Air pressure


judgement e.g. 1:2 mixing - controlled
proportion

Uncommen for 2-C


Systems
Torque
Coaxial limitation
Volume Parallel
limitation cartrigde cartridge

Quelle: Endlich 32
Dosing, Application
Dosing
● Manual Dosing:
● Insertion of 1-C- or 2-C-Adhesives cartridges in dosing system (Application
pistol)
● Mechanical unit or air pressure realise feed motion and release
● Static mixing nozzle realises exact mixing proportion of components
Feeding
device

Static Component A
mixing
nozzle

Application Pistol
for 2-C-Adhesives
Component B
Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 33
Dosing, Application
Dosing Container Ventialtion filter
(Air drying)

● Dosing by facility: Communicating


tube
– Dosing usually starts at
container (makes refilling Level
control
obsolete)
– When materials supply is
constant, refilling cannot be
Container supply
avoided completely
– Dosing valves ensure
Low Gear pump
dosed release of material pressure
side

High
To dosing pressure
valve side

Quelle: Endlich 34
Dosing, Application
Dosing (functional units) Opens by
electromagnet
● Most commonly used types of dosing
Compression
valves: spring
Pressured
pipe for Exit
material

● Squeezing valbe:
– For adhesives with low to medium Squeezing
viscousity (<3bar)
Valve
Opening Pressured pipe for
– Repeat accuracy low air material
pressure
● Seated valve: Exit

– Low to high viscousity (<50bar)

– Repeat accuracy high

– compact Seated
Valve
Quelle: Endlich seat valve 35
Dosing, Application
Opening air
Dosing (functional units) pressure
Pressured
pipe for
● Most commonly used types of dosing material
valves:

● Needle valve:
needle Needle
– Most commonly used for adhesives
exit valve
with high viscousity (<200bar)
Pressured pipe for
material
– High precision

● Piston valve:
– For high viscous and ropy adhesives
 Dosing difficult
– Dosing control importantg Opens by air Exit
pressured cylinder
Piston valve
Quelle: Endlich 36
Dosing, Application
Dosing (functional units)
● Volumetric dosing pumps (most commonly used):
● Hose pump:
– Simple & without valve (<5bar)

– Low dosing precision (low to medium viscous adhesives only)

– Dosing volume depends on diameter of hose

● Gear pump:
– Creates the pressure for valves and pumpes

– Also for high viscous adhesives (<20bar)

● Excentric screw pump:


– Like gear pump (up to 80bar)

– Hardly any noises


Quelle: Endlich 37
Dosing, Application
Dosing (functional units)
● Volumetric dosing punps (most commonly used):

● Membrane pump:
– Hydraulic, machanical, or electrical gear possibleglich

– Up to 700bar possible

● Piston pump:
– Applicable for highly viscous adhesives and long distances

– Good control of volume flow

– Up to 700bar possible

Quelle: Endlich 38
Dosing, Application
Application

● Factors that determine the application process:


– Type of adhesive (1-C or 2-C, pot time, mixing ratio, viscousity, temperature, fillers,
humidity etc.)
– Open waiting time, temperature at surface (mainly for hot melt adhesives)

– Temperature of adhesive during application

– Thickness of layer and amount of adhesive, gap connectivity

– Desired degree of automation and application speed

– Geometry of surface

– Accuracy and reproducibility of material to be dosed


Quelle: Endlich und www.nordson.com 39
Dosing, Application
Type of application

● Three main groups of application:


1. Dotted application
2. Line application
3. Plane application

● Specialised sensor systems (Distance control by laser, heat emission


measurement etc) can be used for moistening control
 Quality control already during application process

Quelle: Endlich 40
Dosing, Application
Dotted application
Drops to be stripped
Free falling drops of of 0,03g require
of 0,03…0,06g pull-back mechanism Drainproof
Dot-Casting
materials as dots
process
with pull-back
controlled only
Exit mechanism

Fixed
distance Variable
distance

Dotted application with very low


amounts to be dispensed
Quelle: Endlich 41
Impuls Movement

Dosing, Application Short none

Line application

long none

 Usually derived from dot application with


longer dosing impuls
 Application as bead or string depends on short
clock
wise
viscousity of adhesive
 Part and/or nozzle can be moved at the
same time long
clock
wise

Conti-
long
nously

Quelle: Endlich 42
Dosing, Application
Plane application
Plane materials in

Parts type Endless type

can

Specific areas completely

and

Without contact By contact

Be moisturised
Quelle: Endlich 43
Dosing, Application
Moisturisation of surface Spray
application

Pad printing
Casting application
method
(flat die)
Moisturisation of
areas only
Screen
Process Roll application
Moisturisation
of complete
Rill contour surface
method Parallel multiple
bead application

Quelle: Endlich 44
Dosing, Application
Moisturisation of surfaces

 „simple“ Moisturisation methods

● Brushing
Easy applicable processes
● Filling but bad control over layer
● Coating thickness

● Application of adhesive foil

Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht http://www.screeneasy.de/sieb-bespannen.html und http://www.klebefolien-news.com/tag/klebefolie/


45
Dosing, Application
More common types of application

 Automated application

 Controlled manual application unit

 Application with ultrasonic-support

 Micro dosing

 Labelling

Quelle: Habenicht 46
Dosing, Application
Automated application

 Use of application robots common in automotive


industry
 Usually 6-axis robotic systems
 Application speed of up to 800mm/s
 Automatic adjustment of amout to be dosed
 Joint control via optical systems (cameras)

Quelle: Habenicht und ivg-roboter.com/engin.htm 47


Dosing, Application
Controlled manual application unit

 Integrated acceleration sensors allow for a speed


proportional manual application
 Application unit is connected to processor to monitor
speed of movement and adjust amount of adhesive
accordingly
 Result: optimized joint that cannot be reached
manually
 Deviations from specified application value can be
documented  constant quality control
 Reproducibility high

Quelle: Habenicht und http://www.lkt-aachen.de/handauftrag.php 48


Dosing, Application
Application with ultrasonic support

 Ultrasonic sound can be used for cleaning surfaces


 Adhesives with oil accomodation ability can be
stimulated by ultrasonic sound
 Sonotrode ensures input of ultrasonic sound during
application and after joining
 Adhesive used to clean and bond at the same time

different
sonotrodes

Quelle: Habenicht und www.swiss-sonic.ch/deutsch/sonotroden.html 49


Dosing, Application
Micro dosing
Forming process of
 Liquids can be applied in picto-litres (10-12 Liter)
MicroDrop (Drop size:
0,000045 m)
 Role model was Inkjet-printer  piezo element emmits small
amount of liquid after being electrically stimulated 
minimized application amount with up to 100.000 g
acceleration
 1 – 500 Pico-litres application possible(high dosing
accuracy)
 Adhesives with high viscousity only with additional
temperature control
 2-C systems possible with seperate application to surface
where they first get into contact and start the reaction
Quelle: Habenicht und www.preeflow.com/index.php?url=de/infocenter/aktuelles-36 50
Dosing, Application
Labelling
 Adhesive chosen according to materials
combination
 Reusable systems require solvability of joint
 Possible adhesives are cold- or hot-curing
systems
 Often, an overlapping of label is used
 Consideration of deformation of polymer bottles 
internal stress and cracks possible Filmlabeling
(Labeling)

Quelle: Habenicht und xerion-overseas.de/herstellung-verarbeitung.html 51


Agenda

 Introduction

 Storing, Conveying

 Mixing

 Dosing, Application

 Joining, Fixation

 Curing, Handling

52
Joining, Fixation
„Uniting of materials“

 „Uniting of materials“ is the result of a „joining technology“ according to DIN


8593

 Joining (DIN 8593):


● Joining is the process of connecting two or more components of solid
geometric form with a formless material
 Fixation (Duden):
● = Immobilise, fastening

Fixation in adhesives technology describes the positioning and holding of


the components (usually under pressure) until the adhesive is cured
Quelle: Endlich und DIN 8593 53
Joining, Fixation
„Uniting of materials“

 Methods of Fixation:
● Manual
● mechanical (automatble)
● Pneumatic (automatable)
● Hydraulic (automatable)
● Employing „additional joining
technologies“
manuelles Fixieren/Klemmen
 („additional joining technologies“ see
einer Holzverklebung
next slides)
(Modellbau)

Quelle: Endlich und www2.westfalia-versand.at/shops/werkzeug/modellbau/modellbau_werkzeug/werkstueck_werkzeughalter/43071-63mm_micro_klemmen_set_10tlg.htm 54


Joining, Fixation
Additional joining technologies (See DIN 8593)

 Combining

 Filling

 Force fitting

 Joining by master forming

 Joining by forming

Quelle: Endlich 55
Joining, Fixation
Combining DIN 8593 Round joint Flat joint

Bearing on
 = describes all kinds of putting material
together
 Curing while fixation is realised by Stacking

● gravity

● Force closure or form fit


Inlaying
 Fixation also used to define the gap

Telescoping

Quelle: Endlich 56
Joining, Fixation
Evacuation of
Filling container and parts

 Adhesives used as sealant Blow hole Lowering parts into


sealant
 Usually, most parts get coated
completely in low viscous
sealant (usually in vacuum, see Ventilation of
Linear container
illustration) porosity and
 Porous or crack-containing cast cracks
Recycling of
parts can be sealed excess material
 Tight gaps of already mounted Ending
parts can be filled porosities
and cracks Curing

Quelle: Endlich 57
Joining, Fixation wrong right
Force fitting

EXAMPLES
 Different types of connection:
● Screws (and bolt lock in particular)
● clamping
Pressu
● cramping re

● Press fit 
● Shrink fit

 Examples see figures Pressure


Vacuum
Vacuum

Different types of
Quelle: Endlich pressure application 58
Joining, Fixation
Joining by master forming

 Three possible processes:


● Grounting  Sealing by elastic
adhesives
● Encapsulation fastening and sealing
of parts
● Casting  subsequent grounting of Grounting
gaps

Encapsulated
Quelle: Endlich
electronic parts 59
Application
Joining, Fixation of adhesive

Joining by forming Whole


Punching

Clinching
 Forming processes are supported by
adhesive connections Bonding

 Hybrid joining Whole


punching
 Forming of:
Niet-Kleb-Vorgang zur
● Sheets
Clinching Festigkeitssteigerung
● Pipes
Insertion of
● Sections adhesive

● Additional elements

Whole punching
Quelle: Endlich
Chliching 60
Agenda

 Introduction

 Storing, Conveying

 Mixing

 Dosing, Application

 Joining, Fixation

 Curing, Handling

61
Curing, Handling
Curing

 Curing highly important for strength of bond


 Complete hardening is unevitable

 Differentiation by process of hardening:


● Physically bonding adhesives
● Chemically bonding adhesives

 See basic module: „Types of adhesives and characteristics“

Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 62


Curing, Handling
Curing

 Most hardening processes are based on heat input, increase of


evaporation speed and/or reaction speed
 Dominant processes:
● Heated air (e.g. oven)
● Contact heat (e.g. hotplate)
● Resistance heating  requires conductability of adhesive (otherwise, metal
meshes can be inserted into adhesive)
● Heating with infrared radiation

Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 63


Curing, Handling
Curing

 Dominant processes:
● Curing with radiation
– UV-Curing
UV-Härtung
– Electric beam curing

– Laser curing

● Heating with microwaves


– Between high frequency and infrared radiation (0,3-300GHz)

– Frequently used process for bonding poymers (No conductive material required)

Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht und uvschwarzlicht.de/uv-haertung-equipment.html 64


Curing, Handling
Curing

 weitere vorwiegende Verfahren:


● Induction heating
– Eddy currents in conductive materials and the
parts themselves (for conductive adhesive
also in there)
– Alternating current in inductor creates
alternating magnetic field Kapazitive
Erwärmung
– High frequency electrical field (27,14MHz)
generates heat directly in the gap
– Adhesive in gap builds up dielectric fluid
between to metal plates
Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 65
Druck
Curing, Handling
Curing

 Physical Bonding:

● Pressure sensitive adhesive 


● Haftklebstoffe  strong adhesion (visco-
plastic and –elastic yielding)
● Solvent containing materials Evaporation,
diffusion of solvent or water leads to curing
● Hot melt adhesives 
● Schmelzklebstoffe  Dilution and curing
through heat input and output Stepwise diffusion of solvent
Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 66
Curing, Handling
Curing
PVC-Plastisol

 Physical bonding:

● Pressure sensitive adhesives 


Pre curing of adhesive and
subsequent joining of parts with
short period pressure to be
applied
PVC-Plastisol
● Gelling adhesives  PVC-
plastisoles for car bodies
Processing of pressure
Protection and Sealing by
sensitive adhesive (from
plastisol
application, pre drying to
Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht joining under pressure 67
Curing, Handling
Curing

 Chemical bonding:
● Humidity curable adhesives  condensation of water on the parts or
diffusion of air humidity into adhesive (e.g. cyanacrylates, PU-adhesives)
● Anaeorobic curing adhesives  presence of metal ions and exclusion from
oxigen makes the adhesive cure
● Radiation curing adhesives  microwaves, laser-, UV-, and electron beam
radiation possible (similar to physical bonding)
● Heat curing adhesive  Heat or infrared radiation (similar to physical
bonding)

Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 68


Curing, Handling
Connection between curing and handling

 Addition of fillers reduces curing time


● E.g.: heat curing adhesives: Addition of slow crystallising polymers
●  faster straining (handling) of joined parts possible

 Fast straining possible due to ‚Tack‘ (stickiness of adhesive on surface)


●  depending on the ‚Tack‘ the pressure distance can be reduced (in general,
posr processing is possible earlier)

Tack for shearing load


(Stickiness of surface)
Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 69
Curing, Handling
Handling

 Tack depends on:


● Chemical composition of adhesive
● Thickness of adhesive layer
● Temperature of adhesive and parts

 Highly important for post provessing: Handling strenght!


 There are no norms for the handling strenght
 Required strength after joining depends on type and amount of strain
during post processing
 Consequently, pressure or longer fixation times are required
Quelle: Endlich und Habenicht 70