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18th Amendment – Prohibition of 1919. Passed by Congress, December 18, 1917. Ratified, January 16, 1919.

Repealed by 21 st Amendment
The Scopes Trial – March 1925, Tennessee passed the nation’s first law that made it a crime to teach evolution. John T. Scopes, a biology teacher in Dayton,
challenged the law with the help of American Civil Liberties Union. The trial opened on July 10, 1925. Scopes was found guilty and was fined $100. The law
remained in effect.
Flappers – free-thinking young women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the 1920s.
Harlem Renaissance – A flowering of African-American artistic creativity during the 1920s, centered in the Harlem community of New York City.
Charles Lindbergh – A pilot who made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. Lindbergh decided to go after a $25,000 prize offered for the first nonstop
transatlantic flight. On May 20, 1927 he flew from New York to Paris.
Gertrude Ederle – The first woman to swim the English Channel. She swam in 1926 at the age of 19.
Bonus Army – In 1932, an incident further damaged Hoover’s image. That spring, between 10,000 and 20,000 WWI Veterans and their families arrived in
Washington DC, from various parts of the country. They called themselves the Bonus Expeditionary Force, or the Bonus Army.
Black Tuesday – On October 29, 1929, the bottom fell out of the market and the nation’s confidence. Shareholders frantically tried to sell before prices plunged even
lower. Some shareholders were stuck with huge debts, and some, lost their life savings.
Where was the Dust Bowl? The region that was the hardest hit, including parts of Kansas, Oklahoma,
Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado, came to be known as the Dust Bowl of 1930.
Hoover’s Philosophy of Government - Hoover believed that one of government’s chief functions was to foster cooperation between competing groups and interests
in society. If business and labor were in a conflict, for example, government should step in and help them find a solution that served their mutual interests. This
cooperation must be voluntary rather than forced. Government’s role was to encourage and facilitate cooperation, not to control it.
Goals/Programs of the New Deal – The New Deal created programs to help with Employment Projects, Business Assistance and Reform, Farm Relief and Rural
Development, Housing, Labor Relations, and Retirement.
Factors That Contributed to the Great Depression – Some factors include: Industries in Trouble, Stock Market Crash of 1929, Bank Failures, and Reduction in
Purchasing across the Board.
Faces of Totalitarianism – Benito Mussolini, Fascist Italy. Adolf Hitler, Nazi Germany. Joseph Stalin, Communist Soviet Union.
Wolf Packs (WWII) - Providing lend-lease aid was one thing, but to ensure the safe delivery of goods to Britain and to the Soviet Union, supply lines had to be kept
open across the Atlantic Ocean. To prevent delivery of lend-lease shipments, Hitler deployed hundreds of German submarines—U-boats—to attack supply ships.
Wolf packs were successful in sinking as much as 350,000 tons of shipments in a single month.
Lend-Lease Act - By late 1940, however, Britain had no more cash to spend in the arsenal of democracy. Roosevelt tried to help by suggesting a new plan that he
called a lend-lease policy. Under this plan, the president would lend or lease arms and other supplies to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States.”
Most Americans favored it, and Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act in March 1941.
Royal Air Force/1941 Bombing of London - In the summer of 1940, the Germans began to assemble an invasion fleet along the French coast. Because its naval
power could not compete with that of Britain, Germany also launched an air war at the same time. Its goal was to gain total control of the skies by destroying
Britain’s Royal Air Force (RAF). Hitler had 2,600 planes at his disposal. On a single day—August 15—approximately 2,000 German planes ranged over Britain.
Every night for two solid months, bombers pounded London.
Hitler’s Justification of Holocaust - Hitler felt that the Germany was in the mess it was after World War One because the past Government let the Jews take over,
that they were corrupted with Jewish money.
Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941, a Japanese dive-bomber swooped low over Pearl Harbor—the largest U.S. naval base in the Pacific. There were a total of 2,335
military personnel killed. Added to this were 68 civilians, making the total 2403 people dead. All eight U.S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk.
Eventually, all but three of the ships sunk or damaged at Pearl Harbor were repaired: the USS Arizona, the USS Oklahoma, and the USS Utah.
Auschwitz -When prisoners arrived at Auschwitz, the largest of the death camps, they had to parade by several SS doctors. With a wave of the hand, the doctors
separated those strong enough to work from those who would die that day.
GI Bill of Rights - In 1944, to help ease the transition of returning servicemen to civilian life, Congress passed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, better known as
the GI Bill of Rights. This bill provided education and training for veterans, paid for by the federal government.
Yalta Conference Outcome - In February 1945, as the Allies pushed toward victory in Europe, an ailing Roosevelt had met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black
Sea resort city of Yalta in the Soviet Union. The historic meeting at Yalta produced a series of compromises. To pacify Stalin, Roosevelt convinced Churchill to
agree to a temporary division of Germany into four zones, one each for the Americans, the British, the Soviets, and the French.
Manhattan Project - the OSRD set up an intensive program in 1942 to develop a bomb as quickly as possible. Because much of the early research was performed at
Columbia University in Manhattan, the Manhattan Project became the code name for research work that extended across the country.
Oppenheimer’s Objection to Dropping the Atom Bomb - Oppenheimer was perhaps the most troubled by the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On August 17
he wrote Henry Stimson, the secretary of war: 'The safety of this nation, as opposed to its ability to inflict damage on an enemy power-cannot lie wholly or entirely in
its scientific or technical prowess. It can only be based on making future wars impossible.
War Production - As war production increased, there were fewer consumer products available for purchase. Much factory production was earmarked for the war.
With demand increasing and supplies dropping, prices seemed likely to shoot upwards
D Day - Eisenhower planned to attack Normandy in northern France. D-Day—June 6, 1944, the first day of the invasion
Midway -Japan’s next thrust was toward Midway, a strategic island which lies northwest of Hawaii. The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the Pacific War.
Soon the Allies began “island hopping.” Island by island they won territory back from the Japanese. With each island, Allied forces moved closer to Japan.
Iwo Jima - On February 19, 1945, the war in Europe was nearing its end, but in the Pacific one of the fiercest battles of World War II was about to erupt. On that
day, 70,000 marines converged on the tiny, Japanese-controlled island of Iwo Jima. It was also perhaps the most heavily defended spot on earth, with 20,700
Japanese troops entrenched in tunnels and caves. More than 6,000 marines died taking this desolate island, the greatest number in any battle in the Pacific to that
point. Only 200 Japanese survived.
McCarthyism - Taking advantage of people’s concerns about communism, McCarthy made one unsupported accusation after another. These attacks on suspected
Communists in the early 1950s became known as McCarthyism. Finally, in 1954, McCarthy made accusations against the U.S. Army, which resulted in a nationally
televised Senate investigation. McCarthy’s bullying of witnesses alienated the audience and cost him public support.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - In 1949, there were 12 founding members of the Alliance: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Marshall Plan - In June 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that the United States provide aid to all European nations that needed it, saying that this
move was directed “not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” The Marshall Plan revived European hopes. Over the
next four years, 16 countries received some $13 billion in aid. By 1952, Western Europe was flourishing, and the Communist party had lost much of its appeal to
Berlin Airlift - In June 1948, Stalin closed all highway and rail routes into West Berlin. As a result, no food or fuel could reach that part of the city. The 2.1 million
residents of the city had only enough food to last for approximately five weeks. In an attempt to break the blockade, American and British officials started the Berlin
airlift to fly food and supplies into West Berlin. For 327 days, planes took off and landed every few minutes, around the clock. In 277,000 flights, they brought in 2.3
million tons of supplies—everything from food, fuel, and medicine to Christmas presents that the planes’ crews bought with their own money.
WWII Prices Rose - r World War II, the United States converted from a wartime to a peacetime economy. The U.S. government immediately canceled war contracts
totaling $35 billion. Within ten days of Japan’s surrender, more than a million defense workers were laid off. Unemployment increased as veterans joined laid-off
defense workers in the search for jobs. At the peak of postwar unemployment, in March 1946, nearly 3 million people were seeking work.
Warsaw Pact - In spite of the growing tension between the superpowers, The Soviets recognized West Germany and concluded peace treaties with Austria and
Japan. However, in 1955, when West Germany was allowed to rearm and join NATO, the Soviet Union grew fearful. It formed its own military alliance, known as
the Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact linked the Soviet Union with seven Eastern European countries. The Warsaw Pact, so named because the treaty was signed in
Warsaw, included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria as members.
The National Housing Act of 1949 - The National Housing Act of 1949 was passed to provide “a decent home and a suitable living environment for every
American family.” This act called for tearing down rundown neighborhoods and constructing low-income housing.
Huge Push for Highways - In the 1950s Americans loved their cars—big, powerful, and flashy. Some car owners spent their leisure time maintaining their
automobiles for the daily commute to work or for the annual family vacation on any one of the nation’s 22 new interstate highways.
Containment - In February 1946, George F. Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, proposed a policy of containment. By containment he meant taking
measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries. This policy began to guide the Truman administration’s foreign policy. The policy of
containment had led the United States into battle to halt communist expansion. In this conflict, however, the enemy was not the Soviet Union, but North Korea and
Anti-Lynching Laws - Truman asked Congress for several measures including a federal anti-lynching law, a ban on the poll tax as a voting requirement, and a
permanent civil rights commission.
Conglomerate - A conglomerate is a major corporation that includes a number of smaller companies in unrelated industries.
Dixiecrats - To protest Truman’s emphasis on civil rights, a number of Southern Democrats—who became known as Dixiecrats—formed the States’ Rights
Democratic Party, and nominated their own presidential candidate, Governor J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina.
Bay of Pigs - In March 1960, President Eisenhower gave the CIA permission to secretly train Cuban exiles for an invasion of Cuba. The CIA and the exiles hoped it
would trigger a mass uprising that would overthrow Castro. Kennedy learned of the plan only nine days after his election. Although he had doubts, he approved it.
On the night of April 17, 1961, some 1,300 to 1,500 Cuban exiles supported by the U.S. military landed on the island’s southern coast at Bahia de Cochinos, the Bay
of Pigs. Nothing went as planned. An air strike had failed to knock out the Cuban air force, although the CIA reported that it had succeeded.
Baby Boom - As soldiers returned from World War II and settled into family life, they contributed to an unprecedented population explosion known as the baby
Cuban Missile Crisis - Castro had a powerful ally in Moscow: Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, who promised to defend Cuba with Soviet arms. During the
summer of 1962, the flow to Cuba of Soviet weapons—including nuclear missiles—increased greatly. President Kennedy responded with a warning that America
would not tolerate offensive nuclear weapons in Cuba. Then, on October 14, photographs taken by American planes revealed Soviet missile bases in Cuba—and
some contained missiles ready to launch. They could reach U.S. cities in minutes.
24th Amendment - Twenty-Fourth Amendment abolished the poll tax in federal elections. The Twenty-fourth Amendment gave the vote to millions who had been
disqualified because of poverty.
The Great Society Programs - Poverty, Cities, Education, Discrimination, Environment, Consumer Advocacy.
Warren Commission Conclusion - In 1963, the Warren Commission investigated and concluded that Oswald had shot the president while acting on his own. Later,
in 1979, a reinvestigation concluded that Oswald was part of a conspiracy. Investigators also said that two persons may have fired at the president. Numerous other
people have made investigations.
Malcolm X - Malcolm X went to jail at age 20 for burglary. While in prison, he studied the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, the head of the Nation of Islam, or the
Black Muslims. After his release from prison in 1952, became an Islamic minister. As he gained a following, the brilliant thinker and engaging speaker openly
preached Elijah Muhammad’s views that whites were the cause of the black condition and that blacks should separate from white society. Malcolm’s message
appealed to many African Americans and their growing racial pride. At a New York press conference in March 1964, he also advocated armed self-defense.
Voting Rights 1965 - Voting Rights Act ended the practice of requiring voters to pass literacy tests and permitted the federal government to monitor voter
Civil Rights Act of 1964 - On July 2, 1964, Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin,
and gender. It gave all citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters, and other public accommodations.
Southern Leader Conference - Marshall’s most stunning victory came on May 17, 1954, in the case known as Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. In this
case, the father of eight-year-old Linda Brown had charged the board of education of Topeka, Kansas, with violating Linda’s rights by denying her admission to an
all-white elementary school four blocks from her house. The nearest all-black elementary school was 21 blocks away.
Ho Chi Minh Trail - Ho Chi Minh supported the group, and in 1959 began supplying arms to the Vietcong via a network of paths along the borders of Vietnam,
Laos, and Cambodia that became known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
Geneva Accords - The Geneva Accords temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel. The Communists and their leader, Ho Chi Minh, controlled North
Vietnam from the capital of Hanoi. The anticommunist nationalists controlled South Vietnam from the capital and southern port city of Saigon. An election to unify
the country was called for in 1956.
Montgomery Bus Boycott - On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a seamstress and an NAACP officer, took a seat in the front row of the “colored” section of a
Montgomery bus. As the bus filled up, the driver ordered Parks and three other African-American passengers to empty the row they were occupying so that a white
man could sit down without having to sit next to any African Americans.News of Parks’s arrest spread rapidly. Jo Ann Robinson and NAACP leader E. D. Nixon
suggested a bus boycott. The leaders of the African-American community, including many ministers, formed the Montgomery Improvement Association to organize
the boycott. They elected the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, 26-year-old Martin Luther King, Jr., to lead the group.
Vietcong - By 1957, a Communist opposition group in the South, known as the Vietcong, had begun attacks on the Diem government, assassinating thousands of
South Vietnamese government officials. Although the political arm of the group would later be called the National Liberation Front (NLF), the United States
continued to refer to the fighters as the Vietcong.
Tet Offensive - The year 1968 began with a daring surprise attack by the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese army on numerous cities. The simultaneous strikes,
while ending in military defeat for the Communist guerrillas, stunned the American public. Many people with moderate views began to turn against the war.In a
matter of weeks, the Tet offensive changed millions of minds about the war. Despite the years of antiwar protest, a poll taken just before Tet showed that only 28
percent of Americans called themselves doves, while 56 percent claimed to be hawks.
New Left Movement - The growing youth movement of the 1960s became known as the New Left. The movement was “new” in relation to the “old left” of the
1930s, which had generally tried to move the nation toward socialism, and, in some cases, communism. While the New Left movement did not preach socialism, its
followers demanded sweeping changes in American society.
Free Speech Movement - In 1964, the Free Speech Movement (FSM) gained prominence at the University of California at Berkeley. The FSM grew out of a clash
between students and administrators over free speech on campus. Led by Mario Savio, a philosophy student, the FSM focused its criticism on what it called the
American “machine,” the nation’s faceless and powerful business and government institutions.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution - On August 2, 1964, a North Vietnamese patrol boat fired a torpedo at an American destroyer, the USS Maddox, which was patrolling in
the Gulf of Tonkin off the North Vietnamese coast. The torpedo missed its target, but the Maddox returned fire and inflicted heavy damage on the patrol boat.