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ASSIGNMENT 1 – LGB 40503 INTRODUCTION TO MARINE MACHINERIES

SEMESTER JANUARY 2018

ISSUED DATE: 1 FEBRUARY 2018 SUBMISSION DATE: 2 MARCH 2018

Special instruction:
1) Answers are to be hand written and sketches are to be hand drawn
2) Plagiarism or copying directly from other sources is strictly prohibited
3) Any fact, data, caption or diagram taken from other sources (such as books,
journals, internets and etc.) are to be acknowledged with proper references

1. Sketch a sectional view of a typical engine block (for any one cylinder) of a
marine diesel engine and show the following main components:
i) Cylinder head
ii) Piston
iii) Connecting rod
iv) Crankshaft
v) Intake valve
vi) Exhaust valve
vii) Fuel injector
viii) Fuel injector pump
ix) Oil sump or pan
x) Combustion chamber
(10 marks)

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2. Describe briefly 5 parameters or features each of a control and safety systems
found in a marine diesel engine.
(15 marks)
Control Monitoring Safety

Engine RPM Engine RPM Engine overspeed trip

Gearbox engagement and Engagement blockage at low hydraulic oil pressure


Gearbox engagement and disengagement
disengagement and shaft in locked condition
Automatic reduction of pitch/loading when
Pitch/loading for CPP Pitch/loading for CPP
engine/propeller overloaded
Engine ON/OFF Engine ON/OFF Starting blockage at low fuel temperature
Closing and opening of important valves and Close and open status of
Engine starting blockage as important valves and air
air intake flaps important valves and flaps
intake flaps in close condition
of ancilliary support systems of ancilliary support systems
ON/OFF standby pumps of ancilliary support Engine automatic shut off at low lub oil pressure
Lub oil pressure
systems and starting blockage
Engine automatic shut off at high lub oil
Propeller shaft lock Lub oil temperature
temperature
Ahead and astern control on propeller pitch Cooling water temperature Engine shut off at high cooling water temperature
Selection of propulsion systems for hybrid Engine shut off at low cooling water pressure and
Cooling water pressure
propulsion system starting blockage
Take over control of propulsion system (bridge,
Exhaust gas temperature Audible and visual alarms of critical conditions
MCR, local and other control stations)
Rights/access of control on propulsion system Engine shut off at engine block high temperetaure,
Air intake temperature
operation etc.

Emergency stopping of engines Engine blocks temperature

Emergency disengagement of gearbox Fuel pressure


Modes of control (fully
Selection/option of modes of control automatic, semi-automatic,
manual)
Closing and opening of air intake flaps, etc. Air intake flap – open/close, etc.

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3. Sketch a typical schematic diagram of a marine diesel engine jacket fresh water
and sea water cooling water systems and describe the working principle.
(15 marks)

Engine Jacket Water Cooling System


 FW cooling is circulated in the engine block water jacket to cool the engine
block
 If the temperature of the jacket water is high above the maximum design limit, it
will then lead automatically to a heat exchanger /cooler for cooling.
 The heat exchanger makes use of SW to cooled the FW jacket water
 The SW cooling is taken in from sea chest underndeath the ship hull and sucked
by a SW cooling pump and led to the heat exchanger.
 The SW in the heat exchanger is then discharged overboard
 The cooled jacket water flows back into the engine water jacket from the heat
exchanger
 The process is continuous as long as the engine is in operation

4. Sketch a schematic or block diagram of a steam marine propulsion system either


a nuclear reactor type or a conventional type and show the main components of the
system. Describe the working principle of the type of the steam marine propulsion
system you have chosen.
(15 marks)

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Conventional Marine Steam Propulsion Plant

Marine Nuclear Steam Turbine – Electrical + Hybrid Propulsion System

Working principles:
 Two types of marine steam propulsion system; nuclear reactor type and the
conventional type.
 Water is heated/boil by a fuel-fed burner at the boiler tank to produce steam
 In case of a nuclear reactor type, heating water is heated by the nuclear reactor and
used to boil the water in the steam generator tank.
 Steam or superheated steam controlled by steam throttle or controller is fed to the
HP turbine and LP turbine. The thermal energy of the superheated steam turns the
turbines that provide the mechanical energy to the propeller shaft through the
gearbox.
 The returning steam is passed through the condenser to condense back to water.
 The water is then transferred back to the boiler by an extraction pump passing
through an aerator, a feed pump and feed water heater.
 The process continues and sustainable.

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5. Sketch the P – V and T – s diagrams for diesel and steam cycles showing the
performance characterisation. Describe the processes between the points shown in the
diagrams.
(15 marks)

The image above shows a p-V diagram for the ideal Diesel cycle; where p is pressure
and V the volume or v the specific volume if the process is placed on a unit mass
basis. The ideal Diesel cycle follows the following four distinct processes:
• Process 1 to 2 is isentropic compression of the fluid (blue)
• Process 2 to 3 is reversible constant pressure heating (red)
• Process 3 to 4 is isentropic expansion (yellow)
• Process 4 to 1 is reversible constant volume cooling (green)

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There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. These states are identified by numbers
in the T-s diagram.
• Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the
fluid is a liquid at this stage, the pump requires little input energy.
• Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at
constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapour. The
input energy required can be easily calculated graphically, using an enthalpy-
entropy chart (aka h-s chart or Mollier diagram), or numerically, using steam
tables.
• Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapour expands through a turbine, generating
power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapour, and some
condensation may occur. The output in this process can be easily calculated using
the chart or tables noted above.
• Process 4-1: The wet vapour then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a
constant pressure to become a saturated liquid.

6. In a diesel cycle operation, fresh air is taken in from the ambient at T1 = 30o C,
air fuel mixer is injected to the combustion chamber at T2 = 300o C, the temperature at
the peak lof the combustion T3 = 1000o C and the exhaust gas temperature at the
exhaust pipe outlet is T4 = 800o C. The specific heat ratio at Cp/Cv = ℽ = 2.05.
Calculate the thermal efficiency ηt of the diesel cycle.
(10 marks)

Thermal efficiency ηt of the diesel cycle = 1 - (1/ℽ)(T4 – T1)/(T3 – T2)


= 1 - (1/2.05)(1073 – 303)/(1273 – 573)
= 1 - (1/2.05)(770/700) = 0.4634
= 46.34%

7. In a steam cycle, the boiler and the condenser of a marine steam propulsion
system steam plant operating at 270oC and 70oC respectively. Calculate the efficiency
of the steam cycle. The data of the saturated steam is given in Table 1.
(20 marks)
Table 1

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h1 = hf + xhfg at condenser condition 70o C; h1 = hf = 292.765 kJ/kg
h2 = h1 + vf(P2 – P1) = 292.765 + 001023(5503.82 – 31.156) = 298.36 kJ/kg

h3 = hf + xhfg = 1184.52 + 1(1609.23) = 2793.75 kJ/kg


h4 = hf + xhfg
s3 = sg = 5.9282kJ/kgK ................................(i)
s4 = sf + xsfg = 0.9539 + 6.802x ...................(ii)
Equating (i) and (ii)
x = (5.9282 – 0.9539)/6.802 = 0.731
h4 = 292.765 + 0.731(2334.18) = 1999.05 kJ/kg
ηth = 1 – (h4 – h1)/(h3 – h2) = 1 – (1999.05 – 292.765)/( 2793.75 – 298.36)
= 1 – (1706.285/2495.39) = 0.3162 = 31.62 %